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Sample records for aft field joint

  1. Solid rocket motor aft field joint flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, Jayant S.; Gibeling, Edward J.; Mcdonald, Henry

    1987-01-01

    An efficient Navier-Stokes analysis was successfully applied to simulate the complex flow field in the vicinity of a slot in a solid rocket motor with segment joints. The capability of the computer code to resolve the flow near solid surfaces without using a wall function assumption was demonstrated. In view of the complex nature of the flow field in the vicinity of the slot, this approach is considered essential. The results obtained from these calculations provide valuable design information, which would otherwise be extremely difficult to obtain. The results of the axisymmetric calculations indicate the presence of a region of reversed axial flow at the aft-edge of the slot and show the over-pressure in the slot to be only about 10 psi. The results of the asymmetric calculations indicate that a pressure asymmetry more than two diameters downstream of the slot has no noticeable effect on the flow field in the slot. They also indicate that the circumferential pressure differential caused in the slot due to failure of a 15 deg section of the castable inhibitor will be approximately 1 psi.

  2. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  3. Navier-Stokes analysis of two- and three-dimensional flow field in solid rocket motors with segment joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, J. S.; Gibeling, H. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1987-01-01

    A multidimensional implicit Navier-Stokes analysis which uses numerical solution of ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in a nonorthogonal bodyfitted cylindrical-polar coordinate system has been applied to simulation of the internal flow field in solid-propellant rocket motor chambers with segment joints. The calculation procedure incorporates a two-equation (k-epsilon) turbulence model and utilizes a consistently split, linearized block-implicit algorithm for numerical solution of the governing equations. Computations performed to simulate the axisymmetric flow field in the vicinity of the aft field joint in the Space Shuttle SRB using 14,725 grid points show the presence of a region of reversed axial flow near the downstream edge of the slot. Calculations were also performed for two cases involving asymmetric three-dimensional flow in the vicinity of the aft field joint in the SRB using 721,525 grid points to estimate circumferential velocities and pressure gradients at the joint.

  4. Cryopumping Field Joint Can Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.; Meneghelli, Barry E.

    2011-01-01

    For long installations, vacuum jacketed piping often comes in 40 foot sections that are butt welded together in the field. A short can is then welded over the bare pipe connection to allow for insulation to be protected from the environment. Traditionally, the field joint is insulated with multilayer insulation and a vacuum is pulled on the can to minimize heat leak through the bare section and prevent frost from forming on the pipe section. The vacuum jacketed lines for the Ares I mobile launch platform were to be a combined 2000 feet long, with 60+ pipe sections and field joint cans. Historically, Kennedy Space Center has drilled a hole in the long sections to create a common vacuum with the field joint can to minimize maintenance on the vacuum jacketed piping. However, this effort looked at ways to use a passive system that didn't require a vacuum, but may cryopump to create its own vacuum. Various forms of aerogel, multilayer insulations, and combinations thereof were tested to determine the best method of insulating the field joint while minimizing maintenance and thermal losses.

  5. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  6. 80. STARBOARD CATAPULT FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. STARBOARD CATAPULT - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, RAILS, RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN OVERHEAD, VARIOUS HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH SHOCK BENDS AND EXPANSION JOINT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. QM-8 field joint protection system, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Elgie

    1989-01-01

    The pre-launch functioning data of the Field Joint Protection System (JPS) used on QM-8 are presented. Also included is the post fire condition of the JPS components following the test firing of the motor. The JPS components are: field joint heaters; field joint sensors; field joint moisture seal; moisture seal kevlar retaining straps; field joint external extruded cork insulation; vent valve; power cables; and igniter heater.

  8. Resolving the chronology of the South African landscape through joint inverse modelling of AFT and apatite (U-Th)/He data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Beucher, Romain; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    Application of Low temperature thermochronometry (LTT) is a powerful method of constraining thermal history information on samples as they pass through isotherms in the upper crust. Inverse modelling of LTT data generates thermal history information which can then be correlated with independent datasets to infer geological processes that are responsible for producing the observed thermal history held in the thermochronometry record. A critical consideration when choosing which LTT method to use are the closure temperatures associated with each system. In order to generate more complete and robust thermal histories a single sample can be analysed using multiple low temperature thermochronometers that are sensitive over different but complimentary temperature ranges. The main focus of LTT work in South Africa has been on apatite fission track (AFT) analysis which is a world renowned method of constraining thermal history information between c. 60 and 110±10°C. The general conclusions that have been drawn from the South African AFT dataset is that the present day regional topography represents an eroded remnant of an elevated interior that experienced a significant uplift event with km-scale erosion in the Cretaceous following the break-up of Gondwana [1]. The exact nature of Cretaceous uplift and erosion varies both spatially and temporally, especially in south western Africa where at least two distinct denudation events are recorded at c. 130Ma and 90 Ma [2]. There are, however, alternative views suggesting significant epeirogenic-style uplift and subsequent erosion throughout the Cenozoic [3]. A key aspect of this debate which is yet to be fully resolved is the influence of mantle dynamics on the evolution of the overlying topography. To further investigate the timing and amount of Cenozoic uplift and erosion and to what degree this can be ascribed to dynamic topography, efforts have been made to complement the existing AFT record with Apatite (U-Th)/He analysis

  9. General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated together in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center and being prepared for mounting onto the Mobile Launch Platform and mating with the other Solid Rocket Booster segments. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  11. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Flight Set 360L006 STS-34 field joint protection system, thermal protection system, and systems tunnel components, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of Flight Set 360L006, are documented, as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flights. Sixteen aft edge hits were noted on the ground environment instrumentation thermal protection system. Each hit left a clean substrate, indicating that the damage was caused by nozzle severance debris and/or water impact. No National Space and Transporation System debris criteria for missing thermal protection system were violated. One 5.0 by 1.0 in. unbond was observed on the left hand center field joint K5NA closeout and was elevated to an in-flight anomaly (STS-34-M-4) by the NASA Ice/Debris team. Aft edge damage to the K5NA and an associated black streak indicate that burning debris from the nozzle severance system was the likely cause of the damage. Minor divots caused by debris were seen on previous flights, but this is the first occurrence of a K5NA unbond. Since the unbond occurred after booster separation there is no impact on flight safety and no corrective actions was taken. The right hand center field joint primary heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test after joint closeout. The heater was then disabled by opening the circuit breaker, and the redundant heater was used. The redundant heater performed nominally during the launch countdown. A similar condition occurred on Flight 4 when a secondary joint heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test.

  13. Portion of left hand SRB aft segment containing ET attach ring for 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two photographs show a portion of the left hand solid rocket booster (SRB) aft segment which contains the external tank (ET) attach ring for the 51-L mission resting on the ocean bottom in 210 feet of water approximately 23 miles east of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The photographs were take by the Deep Drone, a remotely controlled, unmanned U.S. Navy submersible. Photo 1 shows small fish below and to the left of the booster segment (10145); Photo two shows the opposite end of the segment. Visible from left are the clevis portion of the field joint and the external tank attach ring (10146).

  14. Ultrasonic Probing Of Complexly Shaped Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1993-01-01

    Technique developed involves use of ultrasonics to inspect first bond surfaces of solid-rocket-motor joints. By fitting pieces of insulating materials to mate exactly with complicated shapes of affected parts of insulation, complicated shapes redefined into simpler ones probed more easily. When technique used to insonify from insulation side, one readily detects difference between disbond and good bond. Same technique applied to field tang joints, field clevis joints, and aft-dome-to-fixed-nozzle-housing attachment points. Although developed for inspecting joints in solid rocket motors, also applicable to nondestructive evaluation of other complicated joints.

  15. Portable power tool machines weld joints in field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Portable routing machine for cutting precise weld joints required by nonstandard pipe sections used in the field for transfer of cryogenic fluids. This tool is adaptable for various sizes of pipes and has a selection of router bits for different joint configurations.

  16. Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.

  17. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  18. SOFIA Optical Design for the Aft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1994-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a planned NASA facility consisting of an infrared telescope of 2.5 meter system aperture flying in a modified Boeing 747. It will have an image diameter of 1.5 arc seconds, an operating wavelength range from visible through 1 millimeter, an 8 arc minute field of view, and a chopping secondary. the configuration is a Cassegrian with a diagonal tertiary to direct the beam to a Nasmyth focus. The new choice of a location aft of the wings allows the primary mirror to have about an f/1.4 focal ratio, which is preferable to f/1.1 previously planned for the forward location.

  19. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  20. A robotic apparatus that dictates torque fields around joints without affecting inherent joint dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oytam, Yalchin; Lloyd, David; Reid, Campbell S; de Rugy, Aymar; Carson, Richard G

    2010-10-01

    This manuscript describes how motor behaviour researchers who are not at the same time expert roboticists may implement an experimental apparatus, which has the ability to dictate torque fields around a single joint on one limb or single joints on multiple limbs without otherwise interfering with the inherent dynamics of those joints. Such an apparatus expands the exploratory potential of the researcher wherever experimental distinction of factors may necessitate independent control of torque fields around multiple limbs, or the shaping of torque fields of a given joint independently of its plane of motion, or its directional phase within that plane. The apparatus utilizes torque motors. The challenge with torque motors is that they impose added inertia on limbs and thus attenuate joint dynamics. We eliminated this attenuation by establishing an accurate mathematical model of the robotic device using the Box-Jenkins method, and cancelling out its dynamics by employing the inverse of the model as a compensating controller. A direct measure of the remnant inertial torque as experienced by the hand during a 50 s period of wrist oscillations that increased gradually in frequency from 1.0 to 3.8 Hz confirmed that the removal of the inertial effect of the motor was effectively complete.

  1. Field joint environmental protection system vibration/pressurization qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used and results obtained from vibration testing the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joint environmental protection system (FJEPS), hereafter referred to as the joint protection system (JPS) are documented. The major purposes were to certify that the flight-designed JPS will withstand the dynamic environmental conditions of the redesigned solid rocket booster, and to certify that the cartridge check valve (vent valve) will relieve pressure build-up under the JPS during the initial 120 sec of flight. Also, an evaluation of the extruded cork insulation bonding was performed after the vibration testing.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter AFT heat shield seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkover, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the orbiter aft heat shield seal (AHSS) design, which involved advancing mechanical seal technology in severe thermal environment is discussed. The baseline design, various improvements for engine access, and technical problem solution are presented. It is a structure and mechanism at the three main propulsion system (MPS) engine interfaces to the aft compartment structure. Access to each MPS engine requires disassembly and removal of the AHSS. Each AHSS accommodates the engine movement, is exposed to an extremely high temperature environment, and is part of the venting control of the aft compartment.

  3. Stress-field translation in the healthy human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Gallo, L M; Nickel, J C; Iwasaki, L R; Palla, S

    2000-10-01

    Movement over the surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc produces tractional forces. These forces potentially increase the magnitude of shear stresses and contribute to wear and fatigue of the disc. Theoretically, tractional forces in all synovial joints are the result of frictional forces, due to rubbing of the cartilage surfaces, and plowing forces, due to translation of the stress-field through the cartilage matrix as the joint surface congruency changes during motion. For plowing forces to occur in the TMJ, there must be mediolateral translation of the stress-field as the condyle moves dorsoventrally during jaw function. To test whether mediolateral stress-field translation occurs in the intact TMJ, we measured stress-field position and translation velocities in ten normal individuals during rhythmic jaw opening and closing. Magnetic resonance imaging and jaw tracking were combined to animate the three-dimensional position of the stress-field between the articulating surfaces. This allowed for mediolateral translation velocity measurements of the centroid of the stress-field. The results showed that during jaw opening and closing at 0.5 Hz, the average peak mediolateral translation velocity was 35 +/- 17 mm/sec. When opening and closing increased to 1.0 Hz, the average peak velocity was 40 +/- 19 mm/sec. Theoretical model estimates of the work done during such translation ranged from 6 to 709 mJ between the individual joints studied. The potential clinical importance of this measure is that long-term exposure of the TMJ disc to high work may result in fatigue failure of the TMJ disc.

  4. NATO TG-25 joint field experiment in distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Brian; Vu, Hao; Srour, Nino

    2003-09-01

    NATO's Task Group (TG-25) on acoustic and seismic sensing is responsible for assessing the potential technologies that can be cooperatively developed and shared within NATO's countries to provide effective, robust and low-cost battlefield sensor systems. The primary applications will be detection and/or classification of ground troops, ground vehicles, airborne vehicles, artillery and sniper. TG-25 has 3 main objectives: (1) to establish acoustic and seismic standards and data exchange procedures, (2) to compare, analyze, exchange, and develop analytical techniques, computational models and signal processing algorithms, and (3) to plan and conduct joint field experiments. In this paper, we discuss participation in the joint NATO field experiment conducted in France in October 2002. The experiment's goal is to demonstrate interoperability of unattended ground sensors from various participating nations. Results of the experiments will be briefed and discussed. Keywords: TG-25, unattended ground sensor, vehicle tracking

  5. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  6. Fore–aft translation aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A general theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus makes it seem more neutral such that perception of subsequent stimuli is shifted in the opposite direction. The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is an extensively studied example of this. Although similar effects have been described in other sensory systems, it has not previously been described in the vestibular system. Velocity storage has been extensively studied in the vestibular system and suggests a persistence of perception in the direction of the initial movement. The current study sought to determine how motion perception is influenced by prior movement in darkness. Thirteen human subjects (mean age 41, range 21–68) underwent whole-body fore–aft translation. The threshold of vestibular motion discrimination perception was measured using a single interval (1I) of motion lasting 0.5 s in which subjects identified their direction of motion as forward or backward using an adaptive staircase. The translation aftereffect (TAE) was measured in 2-interval (2I) experiments: The adapting stimulus moved 15 cm in 1.5 s (peak velocity 20 cm/s, peak acceleration 42 cm/s2). After a fixed inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 3 s, a second stimulus lasting 0.5 s was delivered and the subject identified the perceived direction of the second test stimulus. The test stimulus was determined using an adaptive staircase. The ISI was constant within the block, but adapting stimuli directions were randomly interleaved. During the 1I condition, the response bias was near zero in all subjects. With a 2I stimulus, 8 of 13 subjects demonstrated a significant bias. At an ISI of 0.5 s, a minority of subjects demonstrated a bias in the same direction as the adapter. When the ISI was 1, 1.5, or 3 s, all subjects who demonstrated a significant TAE had one in the opposite direction of the adapter, similar to that seen for MAE. When averaged across subjects, the TAE was significant with ISIs of 1.0 s and

  7. KlAft, the Kluyveromyces lactis Ortholog of Aft1 and Aft2, Mediates Activation of Iron-Responsive Transcription Through the PuCACCC Aft-Type Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Conde e Silva, Natalia; Gonçalves, Isabelle R.; Lemaire, Marc; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Camadro, Jean Michel; Blaiseau, Pierre Louis

    2009-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in fungi is regulated at the transcriptional level by two different mechanisms. It is mediated by a conserved GATA-type repressor in most fungi except in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it is controlled by the transcription activators Aft1 and Aft2. These activators are encoded by the paralogous genes AFT1 and AFT2, which result from the whole-genome duplication. Here, we explore regulation of iron homeostasis in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that diverged from S. cerevisiae before this event. We identify an ortholog of AFT1/AFT2, designated KlAFT, whose deletion leads to the inability to grow under iron limitation. We show with quantitative real-time PCR analysis that KlAft activates the transcription of all homologs of the Aft1-target genes involved in the iron transport at the cell surface in response to iron limitation. However, homologs of Aft2-specific target genes encoding intracellular iron transporters are regulated neither by KlAft nor by iron. Both bioinformatic and DNA binding and transcription analyses demonstrate that KlAft activates iron-responsive gene expression through the PuCACCC Aft-type sequence. Thus, K. lactis is the first documented species with a positive iron-transcriptional control mediated by only one copy of the Aft-type regulator. This indicates that this function was acquired before the whole-genome duplication and was then diversified into two regulators in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19581449

  8. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  9. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  10. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  11. Tension Builds over AFT Reform Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Can a teachers' union successfully be both a hardball-playing defender of its rights and a collaborative force for the common good? It is both a question of philosophy and, increasingly, one of policy direction for the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), whose biennial convention in Detroit showed delegates grappling with the tension between…

  12. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  13. In Pennsylvania Primary, AFT Hits the Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, 14 retired teachers and other school employees arrive at the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers' headquarters and go to work for Hillary Rodham Clinton. The retirees--working with volunteers and union staff members from as far away as Alaska--are working to inform teachers' union members why the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)…

  14. Geostatistical joint inversion of seismic and potential field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipour, Pejman; Chouteau, Michel; Giroux, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation of geophysical data needs to integrate different types of information to make the proposed model geologically realistic. Multiple data sets can reduce uncertainty and non-uniqueness present in separate geophysical data inversions. Seismic data can play an important role in mineral exploration, however processing and interpretation of seismic data is difficult due to complexity of hard-rock geology. On the other hand, the recovered model from potential field methods is affected by inherent non uniqueness caused by the nature of the physics and by underdetermination of the problem. Joint inversion of seismic and potential field data can mitigate weakness of separate inversion of these methods. A stochastic joint inversion method based on geostatistical techniques is applied to estimate density and velocity distributions from gravity and travel time data. The method fully integrates the physical relations between density-gravity, on one hand, and slowness-travel time, on the other hand. As a consequence, when the data are considered noise-free, the responses from the inverted slowness and density data exactly reproduce the observed data. The required density and velocity auto- and cross-covariance are assumed to follow a linear model of coregionalization (LCM). The recent development of nonlinear model of coregionalization could also be applied if needed. The kernel function for the gravity method is obtained by the closed form formulation. For ray tracing, we use the shortest-path methods (SPM) to calculate the operation matrix. The jointed inversion is performed on structured grid; however, it is possible to extend it to use unstructured grid. The method is tested on two synthetic models: a model consisting of two objects buried in a homogeneous background and a model with stochastic distribution of parameters. The results illustrate the capability of the method to improve the inverted model compared to the separate inverted models with either gravity

  15. 37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. CFD SIMULATIONS OF JOINT URBAN ATMOSPHERE DISPERSION FIELD STUDY 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R L; Humphreys, T D; Chan, S T

    2004-03-31

    In the Spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City. These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Allwine, et. al, 2002) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multi-stories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF{sub 6} releases in the form of puffs or continuous sources were disseminated over 6 daytime and 4 nighttime episodes. Many wind and concentration sensors were used to provide wind and SF{sub 6} data over both long and short time-averaging periods. In addition to the usual near surface measurements, data depicting vertical profiles of wind and concentrations adjacent to the outside walls several building were also taken. Also of interest were observations of the trajectory of balloons that were released closed to the tracer release area. Many of the balloons released exhibit extremely quick ascents up from ground level to the top of buildings, thus implying highly convective

  17. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  18. Axisymmetric shell analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Anderson, Melvin S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Challenger (STS 51-L) accident led to an intense investigation of the structural behavior of the solid rocket booster (SRB) tang and clevis field joints. Results are presented of axisymmetric shell analyses that parametrically assess the structural behavior of SRB field joints subjected to quasi-steady-state internal pressure loading for both the original joint flown on mission STS 51-L and the redesigned joint flown for the first time after the STS 51-L accident on the Space Shuttle Discovery. Discussion of axisymmetric shell modeling issues and details is presented and a generic method for simulating contact between adjacent shells of revolution is described. Results are presented that identify the performance trends of the joints for a wide range of joint parameters. An important finding is that the redesigned joint exhibits significantly smaller O-ring gap changes and much less sensitivity to joint clearances than the original joint. For a wide range of joint parameters, the result presented indicate that the redesigned joint provides a much better pressure seal than the original joint.

  19. Use of photostress to analyze behavior of an aft skirt test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, S. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Strains at twenty-one selected points in the critical lower weld region of a aft skirt of a solid rocket booster of the shuttle were measured using photoelastic coatings and stress separator gages. Data were taken at loads of 5, 14, 20, 28, 42, 56, and 70 percent of the design limit load. Results indicate that general yielding occurred in the weld metal and for a short distance outside the fusion boundaries on either side of the weld metal. The fusion boundaries did not yield at the 70 percent load. Slight non-linearity in the load strain curves were observed at several points above the 20 percent load level. Maximum measured strains occurred at points in the forged metal of the holddown post along a line 0.50 inches from the centerline of the weld. Maximum shearing strains within the area covered by the photoelastic coating occurred at points approximately 0.33 inches to the right of the weld centerline near points 6 and 7 and lying along a yellow vertical line extending from just below point 6 to point 11. Photoelastic coatings were shown to be an excellent method to provide the whole field strain distribution in the region of the critical weld and to enhance the overall understanding of the behavior of the welded joint.

  20. Binocular coordination in fore/aft motion.

    PubMed

    Ramat, Stefano; Zee, David S

    2005-04-01

    Stabilization of images on the fovea during either fore/aft translation of a subject or fore/aft movement of a visual target in front of a stationary observer imposes complex geometrical requirements that depend upon the eccentricity of the object of interest with respect to the eyes. Each eye needs to be rotated independently with varying proportions of conjugate (version) and disconjugate (vergence) eye movements to maintain fixation of the target. Here, we describe binocular coordination in the early response to translational movements of normal subjects along their naso-occipital axis. We recorded the responses evoked by small (about 4 cm), abrupt (about 0.7 g), fore/aft translations in four normal subjects while they viewed a near target. In the forward and backward starting positions the target was 15 or 10.5 cm away, respectively. Each subject was tested with the target centered between the eyes, aligned on the right eye, and placed to the right of the right eye by approximately 3 cm. The three conditions differed only in the lateral eccentricity of the target, yet the geometrical requirements for image stabilization are very different: pure vergence, one eye still, or mostly version. We found that the eye-movement responses closely matched what was needed for visual stabilization of the target, though responses to stimuli calling for divergence were less accurate than those for convergence. The latency of these responses ranged from 40 to 65 ms and achieved about 80% of the ideal response by 90 to 100 ms after the onset of the stimulus. Next, we asked whether these eye movements were generated by the vestibular system or by high-level strategies for image stabilization, such as pursuit. Thus, in a second set of experiments we used the mean profile of fore\\aft body motion computed for each subject to drive a small visual target across the same distances and in the same eccentricities used during body translations. We found that visually driven responses had

  1. Space Shuttle production verification motor 1 (PV-1) field joint protection system, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the field joint protection system (FJPS) of the Space Shuttle Production Verification Motor 1 (PV-1), as evaluated by postfire hardware inspection. Compliance with the specifications is shown for the FJPS assembly and components. The simplified FJPS and field joint heaters performed nominally, maintaining all joint seal temperatures within the required range. One anomally was noted on the igniter-to-case joint heater during postfire inspection. The heater buckled off the surface in two areas, resulting in two hot spots on the heater and darkened heater insulation. The condition did not affect heater performance during ignition countdown and all igniter seals were maintained within required temperature limits.

  2. Intractable sacroiliac joint pain treated with peripheral nerve field stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabortty, Shushovan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Deepak; Rudraraju, Sruthi

    2016-01-01

    As many as 62% low back pain patients can have sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. There is limited (to poor) evidence in regards to long-term pain relief with therapeutic intra-articular injections and/or conventional (heat or pulsed) radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) for SIJ pain. We report our pain-clinic experience with peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS) for two patients of intractable SIJ pain. They had reported absence of long-term pain relief (pain relief >50% for at least 2 weeks postinjection and at least 3 months post-RFA) with SIJ injections and SIJ RFAs. Two parallel permanent 8-contact subcutaneous stimulating leads were implanted under the skin overlying their painful SIJ. Adequate stimulation in the entire painful area was confirmed. For implantable pulse generator placement, a separate subcutaneous pocket was made in the upper buttock below the iliac crest level ipsilaterally. During the pain-clinic follow-up period, the patients had reduced their pain medications requirements by half with an additional report of more than 50% improvement in their functional status. The first patient passed away 2 years after the PNFS procedure due to medical causes unrelated to his chronic pain. The second patient has been comfortable with PNFS-induced analgesic regimen during her pain-clinic follow-up during last 5 years. In summary, PNFS can be an effective last resort option for SIJ pain wherein conventional interventional pain techniques have failed, and analgesic medication requirements are escalating or causing unwarranted side-effects. PMID:27625495

  3. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  4. Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

  6. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... if approved by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an aft peak bulkhead: (1) Each vessel 100 gross tons or more...

  9. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... if approved by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an aft peak bulkhead: (1) Each vessel 100 gross tons or more...

  10. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the space shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Chang, K. J.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the shuttle solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in. diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in. diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonliner displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in. diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  11. AFT-QuEST Consortium Yearbook. Proceedings of the AFT-QuEST Consortium (April 22-26, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document is a report on the proceedings of the 1973 American Federation of Teachers-Quality Educational Standards in Teaching (AFT-QuEST) consortium sponsored by the AFT. Included in this document are the texts of speeches and outlines of workshops and iscussions. The document is divided into the following sections: goals, major proposals,…

  12. Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center with a lifting frame attached to the aft attach points of the orbiter. In this view, the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod is in place. Also note the darker-colored trapezoidal aft fuselage access door and the T-0 umbilical panel to its right in the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Field Observation of Joint Structures in Various Types of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Shingo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2006-05-01

    In this study, field observations of natural fracture network systems in some intrusive and extrusive rocks were undertaken, to clarify the fracturing mechanism in the rocks. Shallow intrusives, whose depth of emplacement was less than several hundred metres, include the Momo-iwa Dacite dome on Rebun Island (Hokkaido), and Jodogahama Rhyolite in Iwate prefecture. Extrusive complexes studied include the Tojinbo Andesite and Ojima Rhyodacite in Fukui prefecture. Rocks of `granitic' composition were collected from the Takidani (Japan Alps) and Hijiori (Yamagata prefecture) plutons. The joint structure in Hijiori Granite was evaluated by analysis of core samples extracted from the HDR-3 geothermal production well. Based on detailed field observation, joint structures related to thermal contraction of a rock mass could be classified according to their inferred depth of formation. Joints from a near surface setting, such as shallow intrusive rocks and extrusives, tend to form pentagonal — hexagonal columnar structures (for a variety of rock types), whilst granitic rocks (from a deeper setting) typically exhibit a parallelepiped structure. The apparent differences in joint form are inferred to be dependent on the confining pressure, which acts on joint generation and propagation. In cases of non-confining pressure, such as the near-surface (shallow intrusive/extrusive) setting, joint networks typically form a columnar structure. On the contrary, confining pressure is considerably greater for deeper rock masses, and these form a parallelepiped joint structure.

  14. Automatic control of positioning along the joint during EBW in conditions of action of magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhinina, A. A.; Laptenok, V. D.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenok, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positioning along the joint during the electron beam welding is a difficult scientific and technical problem to achieve the high quality of welds. The final solution of this problem is not found. This is caused by weak interference protection of sensors of the joint position directly in the welding process. Frequently during the electron beam welding magnetic fields deflect the electron beam from the optical axis of the electron beam gun. The collimated X-ray sensor is used to monitor the beam deflection caused by the action of magnetic fields. Signal of X-ray sensor is processed by the method of synchronous detection. Analysis of spectral characteristics of the X-ray sensor showed that the displacement of the joint from the optical axis of the gun affects on the output signal of sensor. The authors propose dual-circuit system for automatic positioning of the electron beam on the joint during the electron beam welding in conditions of action of magnetic interference. This system includes a contour of joint tracking and contour of compensation of magnetic fields. The proposed system is stable. Calculation of dynamic error of system showed that error of positioning does not exceed permissible deviation of the electron beam from the joint plane.

  15. 90. STARBOARD CATAPULT AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. STARBOARD CATAPULT - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, RAM CYLINDER, RAM (ON DECK) AND RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN THE OVERHEAD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  17. 116. #2 FIREROOM LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. #2 FIREROOM - LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING #4 BOILER FRONT WITH SIX (6) BURNERS, FUEL OIL PIPING, VALVES AND OPEN ACCESS TO FIREBOX. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING WOOD WORKTABLE AND HEAVY DUTY SINGER SEWING MACHINE SERIAL #4329. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. 97. #2 LAUNDRY AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING LARGE CAPACITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. #2 LAUNDRY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING LARGE CAPACITY WASHER, WASHING MACHINE AND TWO (2) LARGE CAPACITY DRYERS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT STERN Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  4. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  5. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Crewmembers photographing the Earth from the aft flight deck windows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Mike Baker and Mission Specialist Tamara Jernigan looking out the aft flight deck overhead windows and photographing the Earth below. Jernigan is looking out the window while Baker is photographing with a Hasselblad 70mm camera.

  8. 31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH CATERPILLAR DIESELS AND ONE GENERATOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  9. General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated with the Aft Skirt Assembly and External Tank Attach Ring in the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center and awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This detail is showing the four Aft Booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Numerical study on the drag coefficient for an ellipsoidal bubble with fore-aft asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Shu; Saito, Takayuki

    2008-11-01

    We evaluate the drag coefficient for ellipsoidal clean bubbles rising steadily at high Re. Flow fields and bubble shapes are obtained using a numerical simulation. The method is based on a finite-difference solution of the equation s of motion on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system [Takagi et al., Phys. Fluids (1994), Ryskin & Leal, J. Fluid Mech. (1984)]. The degree of fore-aft asymmetric bubble shape is quantitatively evaluated using Legendre polynomials. The numerically obtained drag coefficients are compared with those of experimental results. In addition, by comparing the drag coefficients with those for symmetric ellipsoidal bubble obtained analytically by Moore [J. Fluid Mech. (1965)], and via numerical simulation by Blanco & Magnaudet [Phys. Fluids (1995)], the effect of fore-aft asymmetry on a drag coefficient is evaluated. Furthermore the formation of the standing eddy at the rear of deformable bubbles is discussed.

  14. Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y...T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4195 Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field...Material Transport and Dispersion Prediction Models .” The objective of this effort was to conduct analyses and special studies associated with the

  15. The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Yoshihiro; Shoji, Norio; Namioka, Toshiyuki; Komura, Minoru

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

  16. Joint and angle-covariant spin measurements with a quadrupole magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

    1994-01-01

    We study a Stern-Gerlach type setup, with a quadrupole magnetic field, for neutral particles of arbitrary spin. The Hamiltonian is of a form proposed for joint measurements of the incompatible observables. The measurement results are discussed, showing the limitation of such Hamiltonians. Some remarks are made on the relevance of covariance as a criterion for measurement schemes.

  17. Test Data of Flow Field of Shuttle SRM Nozzle Joint with Bond Defects, Using Unheated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, Leroy M.; McAnally, James V.; Hengel, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The nozzle-to-case joint on the Shuttle SRM (as redesigned after the Challenger accident) features an adhesive sealant filling and bonding the joint, with a wiper O-ring to prevent the adhesive from reaching and disabling the closure O-ring. Flawless implementation of that joint design would ensure that hot, corrosive propellant combustion gases never reach the closure O-ring. However, understanding the flow field related to bonding defects is prudent. A comprehensive test program was conducted to quantify such flow fields and associated heating environments. A two-dimensional, full-scale model represented 65 inches of the nozzle joint, using unheated air as the test medium, in a blowdown mode. Geometry variations modeled RSRM assembly tolerances, and two types of bonding defects: pullaways and blowholes. A range of the magnitude of each type defect was tested. Also a range of operational parameters was tested, representative of the RSRM flow environment, including duplication of RSRM Mach and Reynolds numbers. Extensive instrumentation was provided to quantify pressures, heat rates, and velocities. The resulting data established that larger geometric defects cause larger pressure and larger heating, at the closure O-ring region. Velocity trends were not so straight-forward. Variations in assembly tolerances did not generally affect flow fields or heating. Operational parameters affected flow fields and heating as might be expected, increasing density or velocity increased heating. Complete details of this test effort are presented.

  18. Acoustic Barrier Facilitates Inlet Noise Measurements for Aft-Dominated Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Noise levels for modern high-bypass-ratio subsonic turbofans tend to be aft dominated. That is, the highest flyover noise levels radiate from the fan exit. Measuring fan inlet sound radiation without aft radiation contamination requires selective suppression of the aft noise. In NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel, an acoustic barrier was used to effectively isolate the inlet noise field for a model of an advanced turbofan. This proof-of-concept test was performed on a model turbofan manufactured for NASA Lewis by the Allison Engine Company as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology program. The 8-cm-thick acoustic barrier was constructed in sections that were joined upon installation. These sections, which were composed of a wood frame with typically 0.64-cm tempered fiberboard skins, extended from the tunnel's floor to its ceiling and had an axial length of 61 cm. On the fan side of the barrier just downstream of the leading edge, the upstream section had an acoustic treatment--a bulk absorber with a perforated metal skin. It had a nominal full height and an axial length of 46 cm. In addition, an elliptical leading edge was faired into the upstream barrier section. The barrier was mounted on tracks on the tunnel floor and ceiling at a sideline distance of 15 cm from the fan nacelle. Tests were made with the barrier leading edge at the fan inlet highlight plane and 15 cm further aft. The barrier extended downstream essentially to the end of the treated tunnel test section.

  19. [Impact of a magnetic field on blood separation kinetics in patients with joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Cherniakova, Iu M; Pinchuk, L S; Titov, L P

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives the results of experiments on phase separation of blood in the constant magnetic field that allows the structure of blood to be regulated, without changing its cellular and chemical composition. Blood deposition kinetic relationships were obtained for patients with joint diseases of various etiology (osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans, endoprosthesis instability, contusions, and joint wounds). They correlate with the severity of an inflammatory process in the joint and its adjacent tissues, with a patient's resistance to the development of pathology, and with red blood cell mobility in the biophysical field of a living organism. Analysis of relationships gives information on concentrations in plasma and hence synovial fluid (the basis of which is blood dialysate) in the liquid-crystalline phospholipid and cholesterol phase that determines the lubricity of synovial fluid and a low friction in the joints. The method may be used for the primary evaluation of efficacy of drugs for joint treatment, which is made in vitro on the blood taken from the patients rather than on the latter.

  20. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  1. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  2. NATO TG-53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.

  3. The joint use of the tangential electric field and surface Laplacian in EEG classification.

    PubMed

    Carvalhaes, C G; de Barros, J Acacio; Perreau-Guimaraes, M; Suppes, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the joint use of the tangential electric field (EF) and the surface Laplacian (SL) derivation as a method to improve the classification of EEG signals. We considered five classification tasks to test the validity of such approach. In all five tasks, the joint use of the components of the EF and the SL outperformed the scalar potential. The smallest effect occurred in the classification of a mental task, wherein the average classification rate was improved by 0.5 standard deviations. The largest effect was obtained in the classification of visual stimuli and corresponded to an improvement of 2.1 standard deviations.

  4. Modeling and analysis of magnetic field distribution of square pane permanent magnet for intelligent ball joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang; Hu, Penghao; Yang, Wenguo; Dang, Xueming; Zhang, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    The reasonable permanent magnetic field distribution has an important influence on improving the measuring accuracy in intelligent ball joint. In view of the defects on the ring permanent magnet in the previous experiment scheme, a new method on Square Pane Permanent Magnet (SPPM) is put forward. It possesses distinct advantages on orientation identification and model simplification. This paper proposes an optimized theory model of the magnetic field distribution of SPPM and gives the magnetic field theoretical expressions. The experiments have shown that the experimental data basically agreed with the theory value which is less than 4.3% error in full scale. This result verified the correctness of the analytic work and paves the way for improving the measurement accuracy in intelligent ball joint.

  5. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods removed. The openings for the SSMEs have been covered with a flexible barrier to create a positive pressure envelope inside of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center with the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems Pod removed and exposing the insulating foil used to protect the orbiter structure from the heat generated by the maneuvering and reaction control engines. Also note in the view that the aft fuselage access door has bee removed and also note the ground support equipment attached to the T-0 umbilical plate in the lower left of the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the four Aft Booster Separation Motors on the left side of the skirt in this view. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin; Dong, Liang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming the main structural materials of next generation of aircraft because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, and excellent designability. As key components of large composite structures, joints play important roles to ensure the integrity of the composite structures. However, it is very difficult to analyze the strength and failure modes of composite joints due to their complex nonlinear coupling factors. Therefore, there is a need to monitor, diagnose, evaluate and predict the structure state of composite joints. This paper proposes a multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joints. Major work of this paper includes: 1) The concept of multifunctional sensor layer integrated with eddy current sensors, Rogowski coil and arrayed piezoelectric sensors; 2) Development of the process for integrating the eddy current sensor foil, Rogowski coil and piezoelectric sensor array in multifunctional sensor layer; 3) A new concept of smart composite joint with multifunctional sensing capability. The challenges for building such a structural state sensing system and some solutions to address the challenges are also discussed in the study.

  12. A field evaluation method for assessing whole body biomechanical joint stress in manual lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiuhsiang J; Wang, Shun J; Chen, Hung J

    2006-10-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal injuries are often associated with overexertion of the body at work. The manual materials handling activity of lifting is a major source of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Biomechanical evaluation offers useful information about the physical stress imposed on the worker's body joints; however, biomechanical analysis is usually tedious and complex. For evaluation purpose, the biomechanical method needs to be easy to apply in a field environment. Manual lifting occurs as one of the most common manual materials handling tasks in the workplace. A biomechanical evaluation method was developed based on the ratio of joint moment to joint capacity. The method was applied to evaluate the physical stress of manual lifting in truck loading jobs using a nine-link whole body joint model. Thirty eight industrial tasks were evaluated using the developed joint moment ratio. The moment ratio was compared with subjectively rated body discomfort, overall workload, and the NIOSH lifting index. The moment ratio was found to have a high correlation with the NIOSH lifting index. The biomechanical method can be used with relatively simple equipment and procedure which may be suitable for on-site ergonomic evaluation.

  13. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  14. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  15. Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos Basin, west part of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos Basin. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the basin are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE

  16. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  17. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  18. 100. COBBLER SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD VISIBLE ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. COBBLER SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - VISIBLE ARE THE FINISHING MACHINE, DAVIS STITCHING MACHINE, SINGER SEWING MACHINE FROM TAILOR SHOP, STORAGE SHELVES, WORK BENCH AND SHOE TREE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. 34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE SHOWING FLIGHT DECK LIGHTING BOARD, ARRESTING GEAR CONTROL CONSOLE AND FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. 92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, LOOKING FORWARD TOWARD THE STACK AND BOW SECTIONS - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND STERNPOST KNEE (ON WHICH STICK RULE IS LYING). FRESH WATER TANKS APPEAR TO EITHER SIDE OF STERNPOST; SMALL TANK SUSPENDED FROM DECK IN CENTER OF VIEW IS AN AIR RESERVOIR FOR ENGINES' PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  6. 12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  7. 18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S CABIN. THE AFTER BULKHEAD OF THE ENGINE ROOM WAS REMOVED WHEN THE ENGINE WAS SALVAGED. ENGINE BED AND GEARBOX ARE REMNANTS OF THE ENGINE INSTALLATION. CABLES AND CHAINS ARE IN PLACE TO HELP STABILIZE THE HULL AND TRANSOM. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  8. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  9. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette on right of photograph, original wood ladder to main deck, heating system radiator on left and officer's stateroom doors. (088) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 108. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD SHOWING #1 REDUCTION GEAR BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SERIAL # 1-A-9638-13 WITH A REDUCTION OF HIGH PRESSURE 20,908 AND LOW PRESSURE 16,226. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 109. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SHAFT HORSEPOWER 19,800, RPM 4301, STEAM PRESSURE 371/2 LB.G., SERIAL #I-A-9636-14. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 25. HANGAR BAY #3 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HANGAR BAY #3 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFTER BROW, ELEVATOR DOORS, FOG FOAM STATION #7, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFE JACKET BIN #16, PARTS STOREROOM, HATCH AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. 96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the mizzenmast. Cans in foreground store Fluid Film, used to protect structural steel below waterline from oxidation. Sails stored on shelving in background have since been moved to Museum Storage. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. General view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. 23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE FIRE AND BILGE PUMP (LEFT BACKGROUND), BALLAST PUMP, AND CARGO OIL PUMP. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste water overflow pipe appears at left, behind which is bilge pump. At base of hot well on either side are reciprocating boiler feedwater pumps driven from hot well crosshead. (Labels were applied by HAER recording team and are not original to equipment.) - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  20. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  1. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ELEVATOR, HIGH PRESSURE AIR REDUCING STATION, SCUTTLEBUTT, TORPEDO AFTERBODY WORKSHOP, OVERHEAD CHAIN MOIST AND RAIL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD SPRINKLER SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. US Army Research Laboratory Joint Interagency Field Experimentation 15-2 Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    US Army Research Laboratory Joint Interagency Field Experimentation 15-2 Final Report by Elizabeth K Bowman Computational and Information ...distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this

  4. MFE/Magnolia - A joint CNES/NASA mission for the earth magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, Josette; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1988-01-01

    The joint phase B study in the CNES/NASA MFE/Magnolia mission to study the earth's magnetic field are reported. The scientific objectives are summarized and the respective responsibilities of NASA and CNES are outlined. The MFE/Magnolia structure and power systems, mass and power budgets, attitude control system, instrument platform and boom, tape recorders, rf system, propellant system, and scientific instruments are described.

  5. Comparison of High-field and Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stifle Joint Disorders in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Przeworski, A; Adamiak, Z; Głodek, J

    2016-09-01

    The most common cause of hindlimb lameness in dogs is cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In 48-77.3% of the population this trauma leads to secondary damage of the meniscus. Depending on the magnetic strength of the used device, different diagnostic accuracy can be achieved. The examination sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging is affected by many factors which are independent of diagnostic strength, such as correct positioning of the patient, size of the stifle joint examined, or selection of the right protocol of sequences. Sensitivity of meniscus damage detection was 100% and 90%, respectively, in high- and low-field magnetic resonance. The best results were reported during examination of the stifle in dogs above 10 kg b.w. at a flexion angle of 145°, and in sagittal and dorsal planes. Regardless of the magnetic strength applied, imaging of the whole cranial cruciate ligament is difficult. Moreover, MRI allows the detection of the first signs of osteoarthritis, which were observed 4 and 6 weeks after rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament using high and low-field MRI. This also applies to lesions in the subchondral bone or a bone marrow which occurred in association with insufficiency of the stifle joint, and were mainly localized in the epiphysis of the femur and tibia. The present article provides a comparison of different examination protocols and images of damaged stifle structures, such as menisci, ligaments and bones of the stifle joint visualized with low-field and high-field magnetic resonance. Magnetic resonance arthrography is also discussed.

  6. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft... proposed actions are intended to prevent failure of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear,...

  7. A computer program to perform flow and thermal analysis during pressurization of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie; Colbert, R. F.; Ghaffarian, B.; Majumdar, Alok

    1991-01-01

    A computational technique for prediction of the flow and thermal environment in the SRM field joint cavities is described. The SRM field joint hardware was tested with a defect in the insulation, and due to this defect, the O-ring gland cavities are pressurized during the early part of the ignition. A computer model is developed to predict the thermal environment and flow through the simulated flaw, during the pressurization of the field joint. The transient mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations in the flow passage together with the thermodynamic equation of state are solved by a fully implicit iterative numerical procedure.

  8. Thiokol/Wasatch installation evaluation of the redesigned field joint protection system (concepts 1 and 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Redesigned Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) Installation Evaluation are documented. The purpose of the evaluation was to demonstrate and develop the procedures required to install two different concepts (referred to as Concepts 1 and 3) of the redesigned FJPS. The processing capability of each configuration was then evaluated and compared. The FJPS is installed on redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM) to protect the field joints from rain intrusion and to maintain the joint temperature sensor measurement between 85 and 122 F while the boosters are on the launch pad. The FJPS is being redesigned to reduce installation timelines at KSC and to simplify or eliminate installation processing problems related to the present design of an EPDM moisture seal/extruded cork combination. Several installation techniques were evaluated, and a preferred method of application was developed for each concept. The installations were performed with the test article in the vertical (flight) position. Comparative timelines between the two concepts were also developed. An additional evaluation of the Concept 3 configuration was performed with the test article in the horizontal position, to simulate an overhead installation on a technical evaluation motor (TEM).

  9. The random energy model in a magnetic field and joint source channel coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhav, Neri

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate that there is an intimate relationship between the magnetic properties of Derrida’s random energy model (REM) of spin glasses and the problem of joint source-channel coding in Information Theory. In particular, typical patterns of erroneously decoded messages in the coding problem have “magnetization” properties that are analogous to those of the REM in certain phases, where the non-uniformity of the distribution of the source in the coding problem plays the role of an external magnetic field applied to the REM. We also relate the ensemble performance (random coding exponents) of joint source-channel codes to the free energy of the REM in its different phases.

  10. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models. II: Main field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.; Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the 1995 main-field revision of the World Magnetic Model (WMM-95). It is based on Project MAGNET high-level (??? 15,000 ft.) vector aeromagnetic survey data collected between 1988 and 1994 and on scalar total intensity data collected by the Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Survey (POGS) satellite during the period 1991 through 1993. The spherical harmonic model produced from these data describes that portion of the Earth's magnetic field generated internal to the Earth's surface at the 1995.0 Epoch. When combined with the spherical harmonic model of the Earth's secular variation described in paper I, the Earth's main magnetic field is fully characterized between the years 1995 and 2000. Regional magnetic field models for the conterminous United States, Alaska and, Hawaii were generated as by-products of the global modeling process.

  11. Closeup view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being tested and prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view is showing the SRB Thrust Vector Control (TVC) System which includes independent auxiliary power units for each actuator to pressurize their respective hydraulic systems. When the Nozzle is mated with the Aft Skirt the two actuators, located on the left and right side of the TVC System in this view, can swivel it up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Closeup view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note the vertical stabilizer protruding slightly from beyond the clear sheeting used to keep positive pressure in the mid-fuselage and payload bay area during servicing. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Measurement of 2∕1 intrinsic error field of Joint TEXT tokamak.

    PubMed

    Rao, B; Ding, Y H; Yu, K X; Jin, W; Hu, Q M; Yi, B; Nan, J Y; Wang, N C; Zhang, M; Zhuang, G

    2013-04-01

    The amplitude and spatial phase of the intrinsic error field of Joint TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak were measured by scanning the spatial phase of an externally exerted resonant magnetic perturbation and fitting the mode locking thresholds. For a typical plasma with current of 180 kA, the amplitude of the 2∕1 component of the error field at the plasma edge is measured to be 0.31 G, which is about 1.8 × 10(-5) relative to the base toroidal field. The measured spatial phase is about 317° in the specified coordinate system (r, θ, ϕ) of J-TEXT tokamak. An analytical model based on the dynamics of rotating island is developed to verify the measured phase.

  14. Measurement of 2/1 intrinsic error field of Joint TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B.; Ding, Y. H.; Yu, K. X.; Jin, W.; Hu, Q. M.; Yi, B.; Nan, J. Y.; Wang, N. C.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.

    2013-04-01

    The amplitude and spatial phase of the intrinsic error field of Joint TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak were measured by scanning the spatial phase of an externally exerted resonant magnetic perturbation and fitting the mode locking thresholds. For a typical plasma with current of 180 kA, the amplitude of the 2/1 component of the error field at the plasma edge is measured to be 0.31 G, which is about 1.8 × 10-5 relative to the base toroidal field. The measured spatial phase is about 317° in the specified coordinate system (r, θ, φ) of J-TEXT tokamak. An analytical model based on the dynamics of rotating island is developed to verify the measured phase.

  15. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the mid fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view has a close-up view of the remote sensor boom and its retention mechanisms at its attach points to the starboard longeron. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery showing the network of supply, distribution and feed lines to deliver fuel, oxidizer and other vital gasses and fluids to the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward showing Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) installed in positions one and three and an SSME on the process of being installed in position two. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  19. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  20. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the six Thrust Vector Control System access ports, three per hydraulic actuator. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  2. Astronaut Susan Helms on aft flight deck with RMS controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck, astronaut Susan J. Helms handles controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The robot arm operated by Helms, who remained inside the cabin, was used to support task such as the release and retrieval of the free-flying Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) - 201, a six-hour space walk and the Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX).

  3. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft fuselage bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. This image has a detailed portions of the Remote Manipulator System and the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System Pods. This photograph wa taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note that the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods and the Shuttle Main Engines are removed in this image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave pose in aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two of Endeavour's busy team of astronauts share a rare moment of leisure in the aft flight deck captured by an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman, left, and F. Story Musgrave also are sharing three of the mission's five planned sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA). Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  6. View looking aft along the starboard side of the midfuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking aft along the starboard side of the mid-fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the wing profile as it intersects with the fuselage. Also note in the foreground the panels protecting the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon leading edge of the wing. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft crew compartment bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. Showing the airlock, the beam-truss attach structure supporting it and its attach points to the payload bay sill longerons. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  9. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  10. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  11. Circulation from a joint gravity field solution determination of the general ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Nerem, R. S.; Shum, C. K.; Ries, J. C.; Yuan, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    With the development of satellite altimetry, it is possible to infer the geostrophic velocity of the surface ocean currents, if the geoid and the position of the satellite are known accurately. Errors in current geoid models and orbit computations, both due primarily to errors in the earth's gravity field model, have limited the use of altimeter data for this purpose. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate that altimeter data can be used in a joint solution to simultaneously estimate the quasi-stationary sea surface topography, zeta, and the model for the gravity field. Satellite tracking data from twelve satellites were used along with Seasat altimeter data for the solution. The estimated model of zeta compares well at long wavelengths with the hydrographic model of zeta. Covariance analysis indicates that the geoid is separable from zeta up to degree 9, at which point geoid error is comparable to the signal of zeta.

  12. Scales of columnar jointing in igneous rocks: field measurements and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Taisne, Benoît; Garel, Fanny; Médard, Étienne; Bosshard, Sonja; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2012-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a common feature of solidified lavas, sills and dikes, but the factors controlling the characteristic stoutness of columns remain debated, and quantitative field observations are few in number. In this paper, we provide quantitative measurements on sizing of columnar joint sets and our assessment of the principal factors controlling it. We focus on (1) chemistry, as it is the major determinant of the physical (mechanical and thermal) properties of the lava, and (2) geology, as it influences the style of emplacement and lava geometry, setting boundary conditions for the cooling process and the rate of heat loss. In our analysis, we cover lavas with a broad range of chemical compositions (from basanite to phonolite, for six of which we provide new geochemical analyses) and of geological settings. Our field measurements cover 50 columnar jointing sites in three countries. We provide reliable, manually digitized data on the size of individual columns and focus the mathematical analysis on their geometry (23,889 data on side length, of which 17,312 are from full column sections and 3,033 data on cross-sectional area and order of polygonality). The geometrical observations show that the variation in characteristic size of columns between different sites exceeds one order of magnitude (side length ranging from 8 to 338 cm) and that the column-bounding polygons' average order is less than 6. The network of fractures is found to be longer than required by a minimum-energy hexagonal configuration, indicating a non-equilibrium, geologically quick process. In terms of the development and characteristic sizing of columnar joint sets, our observations suggest that columns are the result of an interplay between the geological setting of emplacement and magma chemistry. When the geological setting constrains the geometry of the emplaced body, it exerts a stronger control on characteristic column stoutness. At unconstrained geometries (e.g. unconfined lava

  13. Reverse Kinematic Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis of the Space Shuttle AFT Propulsion System (APS) POD Lifting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The space shuttle Aft Propulsion System (APS) pod requires precision alignment to be installed onto the orbiter deck. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) used to perform this task cannot be manipulated along a single Cartesian axis without causing motion along the other Cartesian axes. As a result, manipulations required to achieve a desired motion are not intuitive. My study calculated the joint angles required to align the APS pod, using reverse kinematic analysis techniques. Knowledge of these joint angles will allow the ground support team to align the APS pod more safely and efficiently. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to estimate the accuracy associated with this approach and to determine whether any inexpensive modifications can be made to further improve accuracy.

  14. Closeup view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the approximate centerline of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the expansion nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and the Orbiter Maneuvering System. Also in the view is the orbiter's body flap with a protective covering over the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles on the surface facing the SSMEs. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. 27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. NOTE MAIN HOISTING DRUM IS A STEP DRUM, WITH TWO DIAMETERS ON DRUM. WHEN BUCKET IS IN WATER THE CABLE IS ON THE SMALLER STEP, AS PICTURED, GIVING MORE POWER TO THE LINE. THE CABLE STEPS TO LARGER DIAMETER WHEN BUCKET IS OUT OF WATER, WHERE SPEED IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN POWER. SMALLER BACKING DRUM IN BACKGROUND. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery on the starboard side looking forward. This view is of the attach surface for the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System (OMS/RCS) Pod. The OMS/RCS pods are removed for processing and reconditioning at another facility. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the Orbiter Discovery from an elevated platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the removed Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pod from the base of the vertical stabilizer the strongback ground-support equipment attached to the payload bay door. This view is also a good view of the leading edge and top surface of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. 13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  19. General view looking aft along the port side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the port side of the Orbiter Discovery into its payload bay. Note the Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm, in the foreground mounted on the port side longeron. The Remote Sensor Arm is mounted on the opposite, starboard, longeron. Also note the airlock and the protective covering over the docking mechanism. This image was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery where the forward section meets the mid-fuselage. Note the head of the jack stand and its mechanism to connect to the one of the forward hoist attach points of the orbiter. Also note the support structure of the service platforms. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the large plugged and capped orifices. Note the handwritten references on the thrust plate in proximity to the actuators that read E3 Pitch and E3 Yaw. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Joint actions of environmental nonionizing electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion.

    PubMed

    Adey, W R

    1990-06-01

    Studies of environmental electromagnetic (EM) field interactions in tissues have contributed to a new understanding of both normal growth and the biology of cancer in cell growth. From cancer research comes a floodtide of new knowledge about the disruption of communication by cancer-promoting chemicals with an onset of unregulated growth. Bioelectromagnetic research reveals clear evidence of joint actions at cell membranes of chemical cancer promoters and environmental electromagnetic fields. The union of these two disciplines has resulted in the first major new approach to tumor formation in 75 years, directing attention to dysfunctions in inward and outward streams of signals at cell membranes, rather than to damage DNA in cell nuclei, and to synergic actions of chemical pollutants and environmental electromagnetic fields. We are witnesses and, in great measure, participants in one of the great revolutions in the history of biology. In little more than a century, we have moved from organs, to tissues, to cells, and finally to the molecules that are the elegant fabric of living tissues. Today, we stand at a new frontier. It may be more difficult to comprehend, but it is far more significant; for it is at the atomic level, rather than the molecular, that physical, rather than chemical, processes appear to shape the flow of signals that are at the essence of living matter. To pursue these problems in the environment and in the laboratory, our needs for further research with appropriate budgets are great.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  4. Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) Program: Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements - Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    compositions of material- are currently used for scaling portland cement concrete (PCC) joints . These materials vary widely in chemi- cal complexity...PRODUCTIVITY ADVANCEMENT RESEARCH (CPAR) PROGRAM Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements...Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements-Field Evaluation by Larry N. Lynch, Dewey W. White Accesion

  5. Convergent Regulation of Candida albicans Aft2 and Czf1 in Invasive and Opaque Filamentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Yi-Jie; Yu, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Meng; Jia, Chang; Chen, Yu-Lu; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Lai-Jun; Li, Ming-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of mucosal infections and invasive diseases in immuno-compromised humans. The abilities of yeast-hyphal growth and white-opaque switching affect C. albicans physiology and virulence. Here, we showed that C. albicans Aft2 regulator was required for embedded filamentous growth and opaque cell-type formation. Under low-temperature matrix embedded conditions, Aft2 functioned downstream of Czf1-mediated pathway and was required for invasive filamentation. Moreover, deletion of AFT2 significantly reduced opaque cell-type formation under N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) inducing conditions. Ectopic expression of CZF1 slightly increased the white-opaque switching frequency in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, but did not completely restore to wild-type levels, suggesting that Czf1 at least partially bypassed the essential requirement for Aft2 in response to opaque-inducing cues. In addition, multiple environmental cues altered AFT2 mRNA and protein levels, such as low temperature, physical environment and GlcNAc. Although the absence of Czf1 or Efg1 also increased the expression level of AFT2 gene, deletion of CZF1 remarkably reduced the stability of Aft2 protein. Furthermore, C. albicans Aft2 physically interacted with Czf1 under all tested conditions, whereas the interaction between Aft2 and Efg1 was barely detectable under embedded conditions, supporting the hypothesis that Aft2, together with Czf1, contributed to activate filamentous growth by antagonizing Efg1-mediated repression under matrix-embedded conditions.

  6. Flight control augmentation for AFT CG launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was only the first step in achieving routine access to space. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been studying a whole spectrum of new launch vehicles (L/V's) for space transportation. Some of these could transport components of the Space Station to orbit, and some could take us to Mars and beyond to boldly expand our frontiers of knowledge. In all our future launch vehicle (L/V) designs, decreasing the structural weight will always be of great concern. This is tantamount to increased payload capability, which in turn means reduced cost-per-pound to orbit. One very significant increase in payload capability has been defined. In a L/V recently studied at MSFC it has been shown that a sizable weight savings can be realized by a rearrangement of the internal propellant tanks. Studies have been conducted both at MSFC and at Martin Marietta Corporation, maker of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) which show that a very substantial weight can be saved by inverting the relative positions of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks in a particular L/V studied. As the vehicle sits on the launch pad, in the conventional configuration the heavier LOX tank is located on top of the lighter LH2. This requires a heavy structural member between the two tanks to prevent the lighter LH2 tank from being crushed. This configuration also requires large, long, and even drag producing LOX feed lines running the length of the vehicle on the exterior fuselage. If the relative position of the propellant tanks is inverted, both the heavy structural separation member and the long LOX feed lines could be deleted. While the structures community at MSFC was elated with this finding, the LOX tank aft configuration gave the vehicle an aft center-of-gravity (cg) location which surfaced controllability concerns. In the conventional configuration the L/V is controlled in the ascent trajectory by the gimballing of its rocket

  7. View forward to aft of compartment A126, port side fore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment A-126, port side fore to aft showing scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) in background, deck fittings, coal bunker manhole cover at lower left. (043) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... recurring visual, dimensional, and fluorescent penetrant inspections of each aft crosstube, and replacing... recurring visual, dimensional, and fluorescent penetrant inspections of each aft crosstube. If there is a... for a visual inspection; \\1/2\\ hour to do the repetitive visual inspections, assuming 14...

  9. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Springer uses camera on OV-104 aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, holding HASSELBLAD camera, positions himself under aft flight deck overhead window W7 before recording the Earth's surface below. Behind Springer are Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, onorbit station and aft flight deck viewing windows.

  10. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 esc view --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is photographed prior to recording still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A camera lens is temporarily stowed nearby on the aft wall. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  11. 4. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD DOWN CENTERLINE WITH OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AFT PORT QUARTER AND ACROSS PIER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the right side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the left side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. General view of the middeck looking aft and port. In ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the mid-deck looking aft and port. In this view you can clearly see the crew access hatch and the airlock hatch. The hose and ladder in the image are pieces of ground support equipment. The hose is part of the climate control apparatus used while orbiters are being processed. The ladder is used to access the inter-deck passage, leading to the flight deck, while the orbiter is in 1g (earth's gravity). A careful observer will notice a void in the wall near the base of the access ladder, this is the Waste Management Compartment with the Waste Management System, i.e. Space Potty, removed. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. 30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  16. Conjugate (solid/fluid) computational fluid dynamics analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle/case and case field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, D.; Keeton, L. W.; Dionne, P. J.; Singhal, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional, conjugate (solid/fluid) heat transfer analyses of new designs of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle/case and case field joints are described. The main focus was to predict the consequences of multiple rips (or debonds) in the ambient cure adhesive packed between the nozzle/case joint surfaces and the bond line between the mating field joint surfaces. The models calculate the transient temperature responses of the various materials neighboring postulated flow/leakpaths into, past, and out from the nozzle/case primary O-ring cavity and case field capture O-ring cavity. These results were used to assess if the design was failsafe (i.e., no potential O-ring erosion) and reusable (i.e., no excessive steel temperatures). The models are adaptions and extensions of the general purpose PHOENICS fluid dynamics code. A non-orthogonal coordinate system was employed and 11,592 control cells for the nozzle/case and 20,088 for the case field joints are used with non-uniform distribution. Physical properties of both fluid and solids are temperature dependent. A number of parametric studies were run for both joints with results showing temperature limits for reuse for the steel case on the nozzle joint being exceeded while the steel case temperatures for the field joint were not. O-ring temperatures for the nozzle joint predicted erosion while for the field joint they did not.

  17. Small field of view cone beam CT temporomandibular joint imaging dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lukat, T D; Wong, J C M; Lam, E W N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam CT (CBCT) is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for visualisation of the osseous structures of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose of a protocol for CBCT TMJ imaging using a large field of view Hitachi CB MercuRay™ unit (Hitachi Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) with an alternative approach that utilizes two CBCT acquisitions of the right and left TMJs using the Kodak 9000® 3D system (Carestream, Rochester, NY). Methods: 25 optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters were placed in various locations of an anthropomorphic RANDO® Man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories, Stanford, CT). Dosimetric measurements were performed for each technique, and effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection tissue weighting factor recommendations for all protocols. Results: The radiation effective dose for the CB MercuRay technique was 223.6 ± 1.1 μSv compared with 9.7 ± 0.1 μSv (child), 13.5 ± 0.9 μSv (adolescent/small adult) and 20.5 ± 1.3 μSv (adult) for the bilateral Kodak acquisitions. Conclusions: Acquisitions of individual right and left TMJ volumes using the Kodak 9000 3D CBCT imaging system resulted in a more than ten-fold reduction in the effective dose compared with the larger single field acquisition with the Hitachi CB MercuRay. This decrease is made even more significant when lower tube potential and tube current settings are used. PMID:24048693

  18. Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) by imidazolinone-resistant wheat hybridization under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene flow between jointed goatgrass and winter wheat is a concern because transfer of herbicide resistance genes from imidazolinone-resistant (IR) winter wheat cultivars to jointed goatgrass could restrict weed management options for this serious weed of winter wheat cropping systems. The objective...

  19. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  20. The 2000 revision of the joint UK/US geomagnetic field models and an IGRF 2000 candidate model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Quinn, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The method of derivation of the joint UK/US spherical harmonic geomagnetic main-field and secular-variation models is presented. Early versions of these models, with the main field truncated at degree 10, are the UK/US candidates for the IGRF 2000 model. The main-field model describes the Earth's magnetic field at the 2000.0 epoch, while the secular-variation model predicts the evolution of this field between 2000.0 and 2005.0. A revised 1995.0 main-field model was also generated. Regional models for the continental US, Alaska and Hawaii were also produced as a by-product of the UK/US global modelling effort. Copy right?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.

  1. Space Shuttle with rail system and aft thrust structure securing solid rocket boosters to external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The configuration and relationship of the external propellant tank and solid rocket boosters of space transportation systems such as the space shuttle are described. The space shuttle system with the improved propellant tank is shown. The external tank has a forward pressure vessel for liquid hydrogen and an aft pressure vessel for liquid oxygen. The solid rocket boosters are joined together by a thrust frame which extends across and behind the external tank. The thrust of the orbiter's main rocket engines are transmitted to the aft portion of the external tank and the thrust of the solid rocket boosters are transmitted to the aft end of the external tank.

  2. Thermal Analysis of the X-38 Aft Fin During Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the details of the thermal analysis of the X-38 aft fin during re-entry. This analysis was performed in order to calculate temperature response of the aft fin components. This would be provided as input to a structural analysis and would also define the operating environment for the electromechanical actuator (EMA). The calculated structural temperature response would verify the performance of the thermal protection system (TPS). The geometric representation of the aft fin was derived from an I-DEAS finite element model that was used for structural analysis. The thermal mass network model was derived from the geometric representation.

  3. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  4. Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

  5. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  6. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the thrust structure that supports the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). In this view, SSME number two position is on the left and SSME number three position is on the right. The thrust structure transfers the forces produce by the engines into and through the airframe of the orbiter. The thrust structure includes the SSMEs load reaction truss structure, engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the plugged and capped orifices within the engine bays. Note that SSME position two is rotated ninety degrees from position three and one. This was needed to enable enough clearance for the engines to fit and gimbal. Note in engine bay three is a clear view of the actuators that control the gambling of that engine. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Semi-coupled flow and thermal analysis of the field joint during rapid pressurization of the redesigned solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Benny; Majumdar, Alok K.; Colbert, Robert; Clayton, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A transient, semi-coupled, multi-dimensional thermal and flow analysis methodology was developed to predict the thermal/gas dynamic conditions in the field joint region of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Transient temperature response, pressure history, and combustion gas flow rate (within the field joint region), were of principle interest, in the course of this study. The thermal environment in the field joint was modeled using SINDA, a finite difference based thermal network analyzer. The combustion gas flow boundary condition was generated using the FLAP code; this code performs a transient, lumped-parameter, control volume analysis to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The FLAP computer code was modified to account for erosion of the NBR insulation material, following ignition. An independent grid sensitivity study was conducted to determine an appropriate grid distribution near the wall. The predicted results, obtained using an optimum grid distribution and computer generated flow boundary condition, were compared with subscale test data.

  8. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    ESA Director General Antonio Rodotà and Luan Enjie, Administrator of the CNSA, signed an official agreement that will enable European experiments to be flown on Chinese satellites for the first time. "This agreement marks a significant advance for international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space," said Mr. Rodotà. "It is one of the most important landmarks in scientific collaboration since ESA and the People's Republic of China first agreed to exchange scientific information more than 20 years ago." "The Double Star programme will be just the first step in substantial cooperation between the Chinese National Space Administration and ESA" said Mr Luan Enjie. "The signing of today's agreement paves the way not only for reciprocal cooperation between scientists, but for the establishment of comprehensive cooperation between the two agencies". Double Star will follow in the footsteps of ESA's groundbreaking Cluster mission by studying the effects of the Sun on the Earth's environment. Conducting joint studies with Cluster and Double Star should increase the overall scientific return from both missions. A key aspect of ESA's participation in the Double Star project is the inclusion of 10 instruments that are identical to those currently flying on the four Cluster spacecraft. A further eight experiments will be provided by Chinese institutes. "We hope it will be possible to make coordinated measurements with both Cluster and Double Star." said Cluster Project Scientist Philippe Escoubet. "For example, we would hope to carry out a joint exploration of the magnetotail, a region where storms of high energy particles are generated. When these particles reach Earth, they can cause power cuts, damage satellites and disrupt communications." Six of the eleven Cluster principal investigators have agreed to provide flight spares or duplicates of the experiments that are currently revolutionising our understanding of near-Earth space. This reuse of

  9. Blade-to-Blade Variations in Shocks Upstream of Both a Forward-Swept and an Aft-Swept Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Krupar, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) flow field measurements were made upstream of two fans, one forward-swept and one aft-swept, in order to learn more about the shocks which propagate upstream of these rotors when they are operated at supersonic tip speeds. The blade-to-blade variations in the flows associated with these shocks are thought to be responsible for generating Multiple Pure Tone (MPT) noise. The measured blade-to-blade variations are documented in this report through a series of slideshows which show relative Mach number contours computed from the velocity measurements. Data are presented for the forward-swept fan operating at three speeds (corresponding to tip relative Mach numbers of 0.817, 1.074, and 1.189), and for the aft-swept fan operating at two (tip relative Mach numbers of 1.074 and 1.189). These LDV data illustrate how the perturbations in the upstream flow field created by the rotating blades vary with axial position, radial position and rotor speed. As expected, at the highest tested speed the forward-swept fan swallowed the shocks which occur in the tip region, whereas the aftswept fan did not. This resulted in a much smaller flow disturbance just upstream of the tip of the forward-swept fan. Nevertheless, further upstream the two fan flows were much more similar.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 1: Aft Skirt analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, David M.; Stansberry, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Using the ANSYS finite element program, a global model of the aft skirt and a detailed nonlinear model of the failure region was made. The analysis confirmed the area of failure in both STA-2B and STA-3 tests as the forging heat affected zone (HAZ) at the aft ring centerline. The highest hoop strain in the HAZ occurs in this area. However, the analysis does not predict failure as defined by ultimate elongation of the material equal to 3.5 percent total strain. The analysis correlates well with the strain gage data from both the Wyle influence test of the original design aft sjirt and the STA-3 test of the redesigned aft skirt. it is suggested that the sensitivity of the failure area material strength and stress/strain state to material properties and therefore to small manufacturing or processing variables is the most likely cause of failure below the expected material ultimate properties.

  11. STS-33 MS Carter operates translation hand control (THC) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr operates translation hand control (THC) at the aft flight deck onorbit station while peering out overhead window W7. Carter's communications kit assembly headset microphone extends across his face.

  12. Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  13. 5. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AND IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Jemison conducts AFTE in SLJ module on OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, wearing autogenic feedback training system 2 suit, conducts the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) in Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. AFTE's objective is to teach astronauts to use biofeedback rather than drugs to combat nausea and other effects of space motion sickness. Jemison's physical responses are monitored by sensors attached to the suit.

  15. STS-46 MS-PLC Hoffman monitors EURECA deploy from OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing polarized goggles (sunglasses), monitors the European Retrievable Carrier 1L (EURECA-1L) satellite deploy from the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The remote manipulator system arm's 'Canada' insignia is visible in aft flight deck viewing window W10. Hoffman's left hand is positioned at overhead window W8.

  16. STS-35 MS Hoffman changes a roll of film on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman changes a roll of film in a 70mm ROLLEIFLEX camera while on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Though the mission was dedicated largely to the discipline of astrophysics, the blue and white Earth, partially seen here through OV-102's overhead window W7 and aft flight deck viewing window W9, was also observed and photographed by the crewmembers during the nine-day flight.

  17. STS-26 Commander Hauck looks out window W8 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck looks up at overhead window W8 while on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck rests his right arm between Onorbit Station control panel A7U and aft viewing window W10. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  18. Sensorimotor Results from the Joint NASA and Russian Pilot Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not previously been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (<24 hours) recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented testing at the Soyuz landing site. This research effort has been identified as the Field Test (FT). For operational reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The PFT has now been completed with the landing of the crew of International Space Station Increment 42/43 (Soyuz expedition 41S). RESEARCH: The primary goal of this research was to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hours) with an additional two follow-up measurement sessions within 24 hours after landing. This study goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. The PFT represented a initial evaluation of the feasibility of testing in the field and was comprised of a jointly agreed upon subset of tests drawn from the full FT and relied heavily on Russia's Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Department for content and implementation. Data from the PFT was collected following several ISS missions. Testing on the U.S. side has included: (1) a sit-to-stand test, (2) recovery from a fall stand test where the crewmember begins in the prone position on the ground and then stands for 3.5 minutes while cardiovascular performance and postural ataxia data are acquired, and (3) a tandem heel-to-toe walk test to determine changes in the central locomotor program. Video, cardiovascular parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), data from body

  19. Developing and utilizing an Euler computational method for predicting the airframe/propulsion effects for an aft-mounted turboprop transport. Volume 2: User guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. C.; Neback, H. E.; Kao, T. J.; Yu, N. Y.; Kusunose, K.

    1991-01-01

    This manual explains how to use an Euler based computational method for predicting the airframe/propulsion integration effects for an aft-mounted turboprop transport. The propeller power effects are simulated by the actuator disk concept. This method consists of global flow field analysis and the embedded flow solution for predicting the detailed flow characteristics in the local vicinity of an aft-mounted propfan engine. The computational procedure includes the use of several computer programs performing four main functions: grid generation, Euler solution, grid embedding, and streamline tracing. This user's guide provides information for these programs, including input data preparations with sample input decks, output descriptions, and sample Unix scripts for program execution in the UNICOS environment.

  20. Pressures measured in flight on the aft fuselage and external nozzle of a twin-jet fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Plant, T. J.; Davis, R. A.; Taillon, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Fuselage, boundary layer, and nozzle pressures were measured in flight for a twin jet fighter over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 2.00 at test altitudes of 6100, 10,700, and 13,700 meters for angles of attack ranging from 0 deg to 7 deg. Test data were analyzed to find the effects of the propulsion system geometry. The flight variables, and flow interference. The aft fuselage flow field was complex and showed the influence of the vertical tail, nacelle contour, and the wing. Changes in the boattail angle of either engine affected upper fuselage and lower fuselage pressure coefficients upstream of the nozzle. Boundary layer profiles at the forward and aft locations on the upper nacelles were relatively insensitive to Mach number and altitude. Boundary layer thickness decreased at both stations as angle of attack increased above 4 deg. Nozzle pressure coefficient was influenced by the vertical tail, horizontal tail boom, and nozzle interfairing; the last two tended to separate flow over the top of the nozzle from flow over the bottom of the nozzle. The left nozzle axial force coefficient was most affected by Mach number and left nozzle boattail angle. At Mach 0.90, the nozzle axial force coefficient was 0.0013.

  1. Pilot Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian/U.S. Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hours) with an additional two follow-up measurements sessions on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessing hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovering from a fall (standing from a prone position), coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement, and determining postural ataxia while standing. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation includes measuring blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during the other functional tasks. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data for the full FT, postflight data is being acquired twice more within the 24 hours after landing and will continue over the subsequent weeks until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a initial evaluation of the feasibility of testing in the field, and is comprised of a jointly agreed upon subset of tests from the full FT and relies heavily on Russia's Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories for content and implementation. The PFT has been collected on several ISS missions. Testing on the U.S. side has included: (1) a sit-to-stand test, (2) recovery from a fall where the crewmember began in the prone position on the ground and then stood for 3 minutes while

  2. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  3. Fires, A Joint Professional Bulletin for US Field & Air Defense Artillerymen. July-August 07

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Doctrine• Tactics• Techniques• MTT/DET• ITP• POI• CAD Mgmt• Unit TSP • LP• SOW• IMI• ASAT• ACCP• VTT for CR • XXI DL Plan• Reach Back • Mechanisms LLI• SOW...Mission Training Plan = Mobile Training Team Legend: MTTP NET OMS OTRS PME POI SOW SRS STRAC STRAP STP TADSS TD TDA TD2 TSP TSR TTSP...process and display ACMs from the airspace control order ( ACO ). • Link to joint airspace manage- ment processes at the battlefield coordination

  4. Fires, A Joint Professonal Bulletin for US Field and Air Defense Artillerymen, May-June 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Ground- Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system and various sensors throughout the world to provide a multilayered defense against ballistic missile...Transportable Radar GMD = Ground- Based Midcourse Defense System IBCS = Integrated Battle Command System JLENS = Joint Land-Attack-Cruise- Missile-Defense...missile defense and home- land air defense. ARNG ADA Soldiers crew ground- based midcourse interceptors in Alaska and California and, on a rota

  5. Tribological behavior of artificial hip joint under the effects of magnetic field in dry and lubricated sliding.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M; Aljinaidi, A; Hamed, M

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing utilization and demand to use magnetic fields in bioengineering applications due to its beneficial effects. Although in the last decade more attention has been given by tribologists to the electromagnetic processes taking place between sliding surfaces, which influence the tribological behaviors, but no attention has been concern with the sliding surfaces of the artificial implant joints. Therefore, the present work aims to elucidate the tribological behavior of an artificial joint implant under the effect of magnetic fields. Experimental investigation was carried out on a specially designed and constructed hip simulator on which the variations in the coefficients of friction and wear rates of the sliding surfaces were evaluated under the influence of a medium strength magnetic field suitable to apply in the human body. A realistic Ti-alloy implanted stem was used with an inserted head made from surgical grade stainless steel. This head was allowed to rub against UHMWPE sockets. The utilized type of prosthesis was "The JRI Modular Muller Standard-Total Hip Design". The performed experimental tests were conducted under both dry and lubricated sliding conditions using physiological saline solution. The designed simulator allows the coefficients of friction and the wear rates to be evaluated under realistic physiological loading and motion cycles encountered during normal walking of the human body. Comparative results are presented between the artificial joint performance in the presence and absence of the applied magnetic field. The experimental results have indicated that the presence of a medium strength magnetic field of 270 Gauss strength between rubbing surfaces resulted in high beneficial reductions in friction and wear rate of UHMWPE sliding on stainless steel either under dry or saline lubricating conditions. Therefore recommendation was forward to subject artificial implants made of stainless steel/UHMWPE combination

  6. Low speed test of the aft inlet designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, W. W.; Ybarra, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An approximately .25 scale model of a Tandem Fan nacelle designed for a Type A V/STOL aircraft configuration was tested in a 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. A 12 inch, tip driven, turbofan simulator was used to provide the suction source for the aft fan inlet. The front fan inlet was faired over for this test entry. Model variables consisted of a long aft inlet cowl, a short aft inlet cowl, a shaft simulator, blow-in door passages and diffuser vortex generators. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, inlet angle of attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocities from 0 to 240 knots, angles of attack from -10 to 40 degrees and inlet flow rates representative of throat Mach numbers of 0.1 to 0.6. High inlet performance and stable operation was verified at all design forward speed and angle of attack conditions. The short aft inlet configuration provided exceptionally high pressure recovery except at the highest combination of angle of attack and forward speed. The flow quality at the fan face was somewhat degraded by the addition of blow-in door passages to the long aft inlet configuration due to the pressure disturbances generated by the flow entering the diffuser through the auxiliary air passages.

  7. Aft Body Closure: Predicted Strut Effects at M=2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Garritz, Javier A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the predicted M = 2.4 strut-interference effects on a closed aftbody with empennage for the TCA baseline model. The strut mounting technique was needed in order to assess the impact of aft-end shaping, i.e. open for a sting or closed to better represent a flight vehicle. However,this technique can potentially lead to unanticipated effects that are measured on the aft body. Therefore, a set of computations were performed in order to examine the closed aft body with and without strut present, at both zero and non-zero angles of sideslip (AOS). The work was divided into a computational task performed by Javier A. Garriz, using an inviscid (Euler) solver, and a monitoring/reporting task done by John E. Lamar. All this work was performed during FY98 at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  8. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  9. Fires, A Joint Professional Bulletin for US Field & Air Defense Artillerymen. May-June 08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Smotherman, all FA 36 Czech Army Field Artillery—Developing the Future Automated C2 System By Lieutenant Colonel Josef Vondrák and Colonel Ladislav...set is more complex and requires an even greater degree of integration across the battle- field operating systems . In a functional context, we already...support countries as they acquire new weapons systems and field them into their armies. As a new system is acquired, TSC seminars, subject mat- ter

  10. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model in the presence of a random field with a joint Gaussian probability density function for the exchange interactions and random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiagapiou, Ioannis A.

    2014-03-01

    The magnetic systems with disorder form an important class of systems, which are under intensive studies, since they reflect real systems. Such a class of systems is the spin glass one, which combines randomness and frustration. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glass with random couplings in the presence of a random magnetic field is investigated in detail within the framework of the replica method. The two random variables (exchange integral interaction and random magnetic field) are drawn from a joint Gaussian probability density function characterized by a correlation coefficient ρ. The thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are studied with respect to the natural parameters of both random components of the system contained in the probability density. The de Almeida-Thouless line is explored as a function of temperature, ρ and other system parameters. The entropy for zero temperature as well as for non zero temperatures is partly negative or positive, acquiring positive branches as h0 increases.

  11. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  12. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  13. STS-30 crewmembers pose for onboard portrait on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During STS-30 aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers pose for portrait. In front of aft flight deck onorbit station are (right to left) Mission Specialist (MS) Norman E. Thagard, Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, MS Mary L. Cleave, Commander David M. Walker, and MS Mark C. Lee. Crewmembers are wearing red, white, and blue mission polo shirts and light blue flight coveralls. Overhead windows W7 and W8 and aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 are visible in view.

  14. Prediction of airplane aft-cabin noise using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Andrew K.; Davis, Evan B.

    2005-09-01

    Statistical energy analysis (SEA) predictions of turbulent boundary layer and engine exhaust noise in the aft cabin of an airplane have been made and compared to flight data. Measurements of engine shock-cell sound pressure levels, characterized by relatively long correlation lengths and circumferential and axial variation along the fuselage surface, were extrapolated and used as source inputs to an SEA model of a widebody airplane fuselage. Turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations, characterized by relatively short circumferential correlation lengths and uniformity over the aft fuselage, were represented using Efimtsov empirical correlation functions. Model variance was predicted using the Langley method and combined with estimates of measurement uncertainty to verify the prediction process.

  15. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the SRB Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, J.; Ayala, S.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the PSAM Project is an example) to develop Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element design tool, known as NESSUS, is used to determine the reliability of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt critical weld. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process.

  16. STS-35 MS Hoffman operates ASTRO-1 MPC on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing headset and monitoring closed circuit television (CCTV) display screen, operates the Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) manual pointing controller (MPC) on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. MPC is used to position the instrument pointing system (IPS) and its three ultraviolet telescopes in OV-102's payload bay (PLB). Hoffman and other crewmembers were able to command the IPS to record astronomical data using the MPC. At Hoffman's left are the onorbit station control panels and the two aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10.

  17. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, Jeff; Ayala, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods Project is an example) to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element software code, known as Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress, is used to determine the reliability of a critical weld of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster aft skirt. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process. Also, analysis findings are compared with measured Space Shuttle flight data.

  18. Automated bone segmentation from large field of view 3D MR images of the hip joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ying; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S.; Schwarz, Raphael; Engstrom, Craig; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Accurate bone segmentation in the hip joint region from magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide quantitative data for examining pathoanatomical conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement through to varying stages of osteoarthritis to monitor bone and associated cartilage morphometry. We evaluate two state-of-the-art methods (multi-atlas and active shape model (ASM) approaches) on bilateral MR images for automatic 3D bone segmentation in the hip region (proximal femur and innominate bone). Bilateral MR images of the hip joints were acquired at 3T from 30 volunteers. Image sequences included water-excitation dual echo stead state (FOV 38.6 × 24.1 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.61 mm) in all subjects and multi-echo data image combination (FOV 37.6 × 23.5 cm, matrix 576 × 360, thickness 0.70 mm) for a subset of eight subjects. Following manual segmentation of femoral (head-neck, proximal-shaft) and innominate (ilium+ischium+pubis) bone, automated bone segmentation proceeded via two approaches: (1) multi-atlas segmentation incorporating non-rigid registration and (2) an advanced ASM-based scheme. Mean inter- and intra-rater reliability Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC) for manual segmentation of femoral and innominate bone were (0.970, 0.963) and (0.971, 0.965). Compared with manual data, mean DSC values for femoral and innominate bone volumes using automated multi-atlas and ASM-based methods were (0.950, 0.922) and (0.946, 0.917), respectively. Both approaches delivered accurate (high DSC values) segmentation results; notably, ASM data were generated in substantially less computational time (12 min versus 10 h). Both automated algorithms provided accurate 3D bone volumetric descriptions for MR-based measures in the hip region. The highly computational efficient ASM-based approach is more likely suitable for future clinical applications such as extracting bone-cartilage interfaces for potential cartilage segmentation.

  19. Filling-in by joint interpolation of vector fields and gray levels.

    PubMed

    Ballester, C; Bertalmio, M; Caselles, V; Sapiro, G; Verdera, J

    2001-01-01

    A variational approach for filling-in regions of missing data in digital images is introduced. The approach is based on joint interpolation of the image gray levels and gradient/isophotes directions, smoothly extending in an automatic fashion the isophote lines into the holes of missing data. This interpolation is computed by solving the variational problem via its gradient descent flow, which leads to a set of coupled second order partial differential equations, one for the gray-levels and one for the gradient orientations. The process underlying this approach can be considered as an interpretation of the Gestaltist's principle of good continuation. No limitations are imposed on the topology of the holes, and all regions of missing data can be simultaneously processed, even if they are surrounded by completely different structures. Applications of this technique include the restoration of old photographs and removal of superimposed text like dates, subtitles, or publicity. Examples of these applications are given. We conclude the paper with a number of theoretical results on the proposed variational approach and its corresponding gradient descent flow.

  20. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models - I. Secular variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.; Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the methods used to derive mathematical models of global secular variation of the main geomagnetic field for the period 1985 to 2000. These secular-variation models are used in the construction of the candidate US/UK models for the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field at 1990, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1995 to 2000, and the World Magnetic Model for 1995 to 2000 (see paper II, Quinn et al., 1997). The main sources of data for the secular-variation models are geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations. Over the areas devoid of these data secular-variation information is extracted from aeromagnetic and satellite data. We describe how secular variation is predicted up to the year 2000 at the observatories and repeat stations, how the aeromagnetic and satellite data are used, and how all the data are combined to produce the required models.

  1. Effect of timing of joint application of hydroquinone and dicyandiamide on nitrous oxide emission from irrigated lowland rice paddy field.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglan; Zhang, Guangbin; Xu, Hua; Cai, Zucong; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2009-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of timing of joint application of urease inhibitor hydroquinone (HQ) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on N(2)O emission from irrigated lowland rice paddy field. Four treatments including Treatment CK (the control with urea alone), HQ/DCD-1 (application of HQ and DCD together with fertilizer before transplanting), HQ/DCD-2 (HQ and DCD with fertilizer at tillering stage) and HQ/DCD-3 (HQ and DCD with fertilizer at panicle initiation stage) were designed and implemented separately during rice growth period. Seasonal peaks of N(2)O flux occurred during midseason drainage and significant negative correlation between N(2)O flux and water layer depth was observed (r=-0.69 to -0.75, P<0.01). Mean N(2)O flux was the highest in the control with urea alone, while joint addition of HQ and DCD with urea lowered mean N(2)O flux considerably (P<0.05). Total N(2)O emission during rice growth season in Treatment CK, HQ/DCD-1, HQ/DCD-2 and HQ/DCD-3 was 3.90, 2.98, 1.73 and 3.23kgN(2)O-N ha(-1), respectively. Application of HQ and DCD together with basal fertilizer, tillering fertilizer and panicle initiation fertilizer decreased the total N(2)O emission by 24%, 56% and 17%, respectively, while increased grain yield by 10%, 18% and 6%, respectively. Effect of application of inhibitors on N(2)O emission during the continuous period from incorporation of HQ and DCD to rice harvest was also studied, where results indicating that the highest inhibiting efficiency of inhibitors on N(2)O emission was recorded when HQ and DCD applied with fertilizer at tillering stage.

  2. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ..., Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO 64106..., retractable gear, carbon composite, airplane with one turbofan engine mounted partially in the upper aft.... Issued in Kansas City, Missouri on June 5, 2013. Earl Lawrence, Small Airplane Directorate,...

  3. Looking Back, Looking Ahead: A Reflection on Paraprofessionals and the AFT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    In this article, secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Lorretta Johnson reflects on her early work as a paraprofessional at Liberty Elementary School (Baltimore, Maryland) and what sparked her union activism nearly 50 years ago in 1966. It was that year that she and her colleagues joined the Baltimore Teachers Union…

  4. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein celebrates birthday on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, wearing eye glasses, holds inflated plastic birthday cake during a celebration on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Two of the candles on the cake have collapsed as Brandenstein smiles and wonders whether to blow down the rest.

  5. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. STS-27 Pilot Gardner works with cameras on aft flight deck at window W8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Pilot Guy S. Gardner holds ARRIFLEX 16mm motion picture camera in his right hand and a 70mm still camera in his left hand as another 70mm camera and a 35mm camera float around him. Gardner tries to position the cameras at aft flight deck overhead window W8.

  7. Enabling a Better Aft Heat Shield Solution for Future Mars Science Laboratory Class Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary K.; Covington, Melmoth A.; Goldstein, Howard E.; Arnold, James O.; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    System studies are described that compare masses and estimated manufacturing costs of options for the as-flown Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aft body Thermal Light Weight Ablator (SLA) 561-V and its thickness was not optimized using the standard TPS Sizer Tool widely used for heat shield design. Use of the TPS sizing tool suggests that optimization of the SLA thickness could reduce the aft heat shield mass by 40 percent. Analysis of the predicted aft-shell aerothermodynamics suggests that the bulk of MSL class entry vehicle heat shields could incorporate Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI). AFRSI has a wellestablished record of relatively inexpensive manufacturing and flight certification based on its use on the lee side of the Space Shuttle. Runs with the TPS Sizer show that the AFRSI solution would be 60 percent lighter than the as-flown SLA. The issue of Reaction Control System (RCS) heating on the aft shell could be addressed by locally impregnating the AFRSI with silicone to enhance its robustness to short bursts ofheating. Stagnation point arcjet testing has shown that silicone impregnated AFRSI performs well at heat rates of 115 W/cm2 and 0.1 atmospheres for a duration of 40 seconds, far beyond conditions that are expected for MSL class vehicles. The paper concludes with a discussion of manufacturing processes for AFRSI, impregnation approaches and relative cost comparisons to the SLA solution.

  8. Astronauts Walz and Newman in STS-51 Discovery's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman are pictured on Discovery's aft flight deck near two experiments. Positioned in the window above Walz's head is the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B), while the High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy (HRSGS-A) experiment is deployed in the other window.

  9. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  11. The Bargaining Table and Beyond: How the AFT Came to Support Labor-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When he first came to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in 1973, reports Phil Kugler, there was no such thing as labor-management collaboration. It was a term he had never heard of, and no one used it. Back then, the focus was on supporting local unions in their struggles to win collective bargaining rights. At the time, teachers were…

  12. View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 3. EXUSS HORNET CVS12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, EX-USS ORISKANY CV-34 RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO, EX-USS JERSEY BB-62 AND OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ACROSS PIER FROM HORNET. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  15. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  16. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, payload bay aft firewall and thermal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, payload bay (PLB) aft firewall is documented to show a loose piece of thermal insulation. The crew discovered the loose blanket soon after opening the PLB doors on 06-05-91. The vertical tail and the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are visible above the bulkhead.

  17. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  18. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  19. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  20. Research of Arc Chamber Optimization Techniques Based on Flow Field and Arc Joint Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianying; Guo, Yujing; Zhang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    The preliminary design of an arc chamber in the 550 kV SF6 circuit breaker was proposed in accordance with the technical requirements and design experience. The structural optimization was carried out according to the no-load flow field simulation results and verified by no-load pressure measurement. Based on load simulation results such as temperature field variation at the arc area and the tendency of post arc current under different recovery voltage, the second optimal design was completed and its correctness was certificated by a breaking test. Results demonstrate that the interrupting capacity of an arc chamber can be evaluated by the comparison of the gas medium recovery speed and post arc current growth rate.

  1. Joint Offshore Wind Field Monitoring with Spaceborne SAR and Platform-Based Doppler LIDAR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S.; Lehner, S.; Hieronimus, J.; Schneemann, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2015-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy resources has promoted the construction of offshore wind farms e.g. in the North Sea. While the wind farm layout consists of an array of large turbines, the interrelation of wind turbine wakes with the remaining array is of substantial interest. The downstream spatial evolution of turbulent wind turbine wakes is very complex and depends on manifold parameters such as wind speed, wind direction and ambient atmospheric stability conditions. To complement and validate existing numerical models, corresponding observations are needed. While in-situ measurements with e.g. anemometers provide a time-series at the given location, the merits of ground-based and space- or airborne remote sensing techniques are indisputable in terms of spatial coverage. Active microwave devices, such as Scatterometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), have proven their capabilities of providing sea surface wind measurements and particularly SAR images reveal wind variations at a high spatial resolution while retaining the large coverage area. Platform-based Doppler LiDAR can resolve wind fields with a high spatial coverage and repetition rates of seconds to minutes. In order to study the capabilities of both methods for the investigation of small scale wind field structures, we present a direct comparison of observations obtained by high resolution TerraSAR-X (TS-X) X-band SAR data and platform-based LiDAR devices at the North Sea wind farm alpha ventus. We furthermore compare the results with meteorological data from the COSMO-DE model run by the German Weather Service DWD. Our study indicates that the overall agreement between SAR and LiDAR wind fields is good and that under appropriate conditions small scale wind field variations compare significantly well.

  2. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  3. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration.

  4. A joint geophysical analysis of the Coso geothermal field, south-eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamalwa, Antony M.; Mickus, Kevin L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Doser, Diane I.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional density models derived from gravity data and two-dimensional resistivity models derived from magnetotelluric data collected in the vicinity of the Coso geothermal field are analyzed in order to determine the source region of the geothermal field. The derived models show zones of both low resistivity and low density at and below 6 km depth in the Devils Kitchen and the Coso Hot Springs areas. These zones agree with seismic reflection and tomography results which found a high amplitude reflector at 5 km and low velocities zones below 5 km. We interpret the density and resistivity zones to indicate the presence of cooling magmatic material that provides the heat for the shallower geothermal system in these regions. A zone marked by high resistivity and low density was found to lie directly above the interpreted partially melted region extending to within 1 km depth below the surface in the reservoir region where it is capped by a low resistivity clay zone. In addition, the density models indicate that the high density bodies occurring under volcanic outcrops may be mafic intrusions.

  5. The connective tissue and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint: a review and investigation using ultra-high field 16.4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Slattery, D; Aland, C; Durbridge, G; Cowin, G

    2014-05-01

    This study reviews the literature on the anatomy of the connective tissues surrounding the distal interphalangeal joint and further characterizes the three-dimensional relationships of these structures with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging. Ten cadaver fingers, fixed in a solution of 5% agar and 4% formalin, were imaged utilising an ultrashield 16.4 Tesla ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging, yielding a total of 4000 images. Images were analysed using Osirix™ (version 5.5.1 32 bit edition) for three-dimensional reconstruction. We found numerous conflicting descriptions of the connective tissue structures around the distal interphalangeal joint. Based upon our literature review and imaging studies we have defined precisely Cleland's ligaments, the oblique proximal septum, Grayson's ligaments, the dorsal plate, and the interosseous ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint.

  6. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  7. THE APOKASC CATALOG: AN ASTEROSEISMIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC JOINT SURVEY OF TARGETS IN THE KEPLER FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Chaplin, William J.; Hekker, Saskia; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stello, Dennis; Mészáros, Sz.; García, Rafael A.; Beck, Paul; Mathur, Savita; García Pérez, Ana; Girardi, Léo; Basu, Sarbani; Shetrone, Matthew; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the first APOKASC catalog of spectroscopic and asteroseismic properties of 1916 red giants observed in the Kepler fields. The spectroscopic parameters provided from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment project are complemented with asteroseismic surface gravities, masses, radii, and mean densities determined by members of the Kepler Asteroseismology Science Consortium. We assess both random and systematic sources of error and include a discussion of sample selection for giants in the Kepler fields. Total uncertainties in the main catalog properties are of the order of 80 K in T {sub eff}, 0.06 dex in [M/H], 0.014 dex in log g, and 12% and 5% in mass and radius, respectively; these reflect a combination of systematic and random errors. Asteroseismic surface gravities are substantially more precise and accurate than spectroscopic ones, and we find good agreement between their mean values and the calibrated spectroscopic surface gravities. There are, however, systematic underlying trends with T {sub eff} and log g. Our effective temperature scale is between 0 and 200 K cooler than that expected from the infrared flux method, depending on the adopted extinction map, which provides evidence for a lower value on average than that inferred for the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We find a reasonable correspondence between the photometric KIC and spectroscopic APOKASC metallicity scales, with increased dispersion in KIC metallicities as the absolute metal abundance decreases, and offsets in T {sub eff} and log g consistent with those derived in the literature. We present mean fitting relations between APOKASC and KIC observables and discuss future prospects, strengths, and limitations of the catalog data.

  8. Invariant joint distribution of a stationary random field and its derivatives: Euler characteristic and critical point counts in 2 and 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitry; Gay, Christophe; Pichon, Christophe

    2009-10-15

    The full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian are presented in 2 and 3D. It allows for explicit expression for the Euler characteristic in ND and computation of extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold and the spectral parameter, as illustrated on model examples.

  9. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  10. STS-65 Japanese Payload Specialist Mukai on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai freefloats on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck in front of overhead windows W7 and W8 while holding a cassette case with bean sprouts in her left hand. Mukai, a physician, represented Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) on the two week mission in support of the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2).

  11. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Propellant grain dynamics in aft attach ring of shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for implementing simultaneously the temperature, dynamic strain, real modulus, and frequency properties of solid propellant in an unsymmetrical vibrating ring mode is presented. All dynamic parameters and sources are defined for a free vibrating ring-grain structure with initial displacement and related to a forced vibrating system to determine the change in real modulus. Propellant test data application is discussed. The technique was developed to determine the aft attach ring stiffness of the shuttle booster at lift-off.

  13. STS-46 Commander Shriver eats candy (M and Ms) on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Commander Loren J. Shriver, wearing a communications kit assembly headset and with his mouth open, pursues several floating chocolate-covered peanut candies (M and Ms) on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Shriver is positioned in front of overhead window W7. Outside the window the cloud-covered surface of the Earth and the Earth's limb are visible.

  14. STS-30 Pilot Grabe uses 35mm camera on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-30 Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, positioned at aft flight deck overhead window W7, holds 35mm camera before photographing Earth observation scene visible outside window. Appearing around Grabe are a pair of binoculars (freefloating in overhead window), overhead light fixture, onorbit station control panels, and a communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) velcroed to onorbit station panel. Grabe is wearing mission polo shirt and light blue flight coverall pants.

  15. Compartment A123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial at left center appears to be a timer for controlling washing machine at lower right. Low, round machine to the left of the washer is a centrifuge used for spin drying laundry. Laundry was not part of original equipment but was added in the refurbishment of 1899. (024) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (six female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2 s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus, the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT, responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition, the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT, there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence.

  17. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (6 female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence. PMID:25160866

  18. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist, grabs a hand-held 70mm camera and prepares to take still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A pair of windows just out of frame above Runco's head provide the crew members with a prime operating perspective of Earth observation targets. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  19. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  20. STS-27 MS Mullane on aft flight deck with camera equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane is surrounded by cameras and Earth observation equipment on the aft flight deck. In the frame are the ARRIFLEX 16mm motion picture camera, a 70mm still camera, a 35mm still camera, a pair of glasses, and a pair of binoculars. Clouds over an ocean can be seen out overhead window W8 above Mullane. Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screens are visible behind Mullane.

  1. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  2. STS-26 Pilot Covey looks up at window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, leaning on Onorbit Station control panel, looks up at overhead window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey's left hand is positioned on Onorbit Station control panel A7U remote manipulator system (RMS) rotation hand control (RHC). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  3. Using probabilistic analysis to assess the reliability of predicted SRB aft-skirt stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic failure analysis is a tool to predict the reliability of a part or system. Probabalistic techniques were used to predict critical stresses which occur in the solid rocket booster aft-skirt during main engine buildup, immediately prior to lift-off. More than any other hold down post (HDP) load component, the Z loads are sensitive to variations in strains and calibration constants. Also, predicted aft-skirt stresses are strongly affected by HDP load variations. Therefore, the instrumented HDP are not effective load transducers for Z loads, and, when used with aft skirt stress indicator equations, yield estimates with large uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation proved to be a straight forward way of studying the overlapping effects of multiple parameters on predicted equipment performance. An advantage of probabilistic analysis is the degree of uncertainty of each parameter as stated explicitly by its probability distribution. It was noted, however, that the choice of parameter distribution had a large effect on the simulation results. Many times these distributions must be assumed. The engineer who is designing the part should be responsible for the choice of parameter distribution.

  4. Modeling of space shuttle SRB aft ends for inherent aerodynamic bias determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, David R.; Stapf, Sean P.; Gebhard, Thomas J.

    2007-04-01

    The Air Force's 45th Space Wing is in charge of operating the Range Safety System (RSS) for all launches that take place on the Eastern Range. If initiated, the RSS currently implemented on the Space Transportation System after launch would provide for the partial destruction of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to terminate thrust. The majority of the risk from the large explosive debris created comes from the aft ends of the SRBs, which fall largely intact along with the remaining propellant. Historically, no impact data on such a scenario has been available and in support of the Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight schedule, aerodynamic and trajectory analyses were performed to characterize any pitch angle biases associated with the aft end's descent after initiating the linear shaped charges (LSCs) on the SRBs. Results show the aft end has a bias towards impacting at +/-5, 70, or 175 degrees and takes an average of 10 seconds to stabilize into any one of these orientations after being separated from the SRB forward body.

  5. Adaptive Aft Signature Shaping of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft Using Off-Body Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The design and optimization of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using the state-of-the- art o -body aerodynamics and sonic boom analysis has long been a challenging problem. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate an e ective geometry parameterization scheme and a numerical optimization approach for the aft shaping of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using o -body pressure calculations. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm that models the objective and constraints as response surface equations is used to drive the aft ground signature toward a ramp shape. The design objective is the minimization of the variation between the ground signature and the target signature subject to several geometric and signature constraints. The target signature is computed by using a least-squares regression of the aft portion of the ground signature. The parameterization and the deformation of the geometry is performed with a NASA in- house shaping tool. The optimization algorithm uses the shaping tool to drive the geometric deformation of a horizontal tail with a parameterization scheme that consists of seven camber design variables and an additional design variable that describes the spanwise location of the midspan section. The demonstration cases show that numerical optimization using the state-of-the-art o -body aerodynamic calculations is not only feasible and repeatable but also allows the exploration of complex design spaces for which a knowledge-based design method becomes less effective.

  6. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  7. Non-Invasive Detection of CH-46 AFT Gearbox Faults Using Digital Pattern Recognition and Classification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 266 NON-INVASIVE DETECTION OF CH-46 AFT GEARBOX FAULTS USING DIGITAL PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION...NUMBERS Non-invasive detection of CH-46 AFT gearbox faults using digital pattern recognition and classification techniques 6. AUTHOR(S) Rex, Bryan D...helicopter gearboxes in order to d~iagnose end correct possible fault condi.itons (incipient faults ) which could eventually lead to gearbox failure. This

  8. Time-resolved schlieren POD and aft deck pressure correlations on a rectangular supersonic nozzle and sonic wall jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark

    2016-11-01

    A multi-stream single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) with aft deck, based on three-stream engine concepts, is currently undergoing experimental tests at Syracuse University's Skytop Turbulence Laboratory. In the context of this study, we view this as an idealized representation consisting of two canonical flows; a supersonic convergent-divergent (CD) nozzle and a sonic wall jet (representing the 3rd stream). The jet operates at a bulk flow of Mj , 1 = 1 . 6 and wall jet Mj , 3 = 1 . 0 . Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is then performed on the schlieren images and the time-dependent coefficients are related to the near-field deck pressure. Structures within the flow field are correlated to particular flow events and help track the downstream evolution of the jet. A multitude of scales are seen within the flow corresponding to a wide range of coherent structures. High fidelity LES is also performed on the same nozzle geometry and relations are made back to the experiments. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.

  9. X-38: Plywood Mockup of Aft End Used for Flight Termination System Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a plywood mockup of the X-38's aft end, minus vertical stabilizers, mounted on a truck for an economical test of the X-38's Flight Termination System (FTS) on December 19, 1996, at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The FTS seven-foot diameter parachute was launched safely away from the mockup by a pyrotechnic firing system. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be

  10. X-38: Plywood Mockup of Aft End Used for Flight Termination System Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a plywood mockup of the X-38's aft end, minus vertical stabilizers, mounted on a truck for an economical test of the X-38's Flight Termination System (FTS) on December 19, 1996, at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The FTS seven-foot diameter parachute was launched safely away from the mockup by a pyrotechnic firing system. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be

  11. Aft2, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Required for Iron Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, Surface Adhesion and Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Cheng, Xinxin; Yu, Qilin; Qian, Kefan; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Ruming; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transition and iron metabolism are closely relevant to Candida albicans pathogenicity and virulence. In our previous study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Aft2 plays an important role in ferric reductase activity and virulence. Here, we further explored the roles of C. albicans Aft2 in numerous cellular processes. We found that C. albicans Aft2 exhibited an important role in iron metabolism through bi-directional regulation effects on iron-regulon expression. Deletion of AFT2 reduced cellular iron accumulation under iron-deficient conditions. Furthermore, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were remarkably increased in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, which were thought to be responsible for the defective responses to oxidative stress. However, we found that over-expression of C. albicans AFT2 under the regulation of the strong PGK1 promoter could not effectively rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae aft1Δ mutant defects in some cellular processes, such as cell-wall assembly, ion homeostasis and alkaline resistance, suggesting a possibility that C. albicans Aft2 weakened its functional role of regulating some cellular metabolism during the evolutionary process. Interestingly, deletion of AFT2 in C. albicans increased cell surface hydrophobicity, cell flocculation and the ability of adhesion to polystyrene surfaces. In addition, our results also revealed that C. albicans Aft2 played a dual role in regulating hypha-specific genes under solid and liquid hyphal inducing conditions. Deletion of AFT2 caused an impaired invasive growth in solid medium, but an increased filamentous aggregation and growth in liquid conditions. Moreover, iron deficiency and environmental cues induced nuclear import of Aft2, providing additional evidence for the roles of Aft2 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:23626810

  12. Combustion Synthesis of TiB2-TiC/42CrMo4 Composites with Gradient Joint Prepared in Different High-Gravity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuegang; Huang, Jie; Zhao, Zhongmin; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Long; Wu, Junyan

    2015-12-01

    The novel TiB2-TiC/42CrMo4-laminated composite materials were successfully fabricated by combustion synthesis in different high-gravity fields. This ceramic/metal composite material possesses continuously graded composition, and multilevel gradient microstructure, which is composed of TiB2-TiC ceramic substrate, ceramic-based intermediate layer, metal-based intermediate layer, and 42CrMo4 substrate. The ceramic-based intermediate layer is the main gradient transition region in the joint which shows that the TiB2 and TiC grains decrease gradually in size and volume fraction from the ceramic substrate to metal substrate. The experiment reveals that the increased high-gravity field not only leads to the higher combustion temperature and the remarkable thermal explosion mode, but also attributes to the enhanced interdiffusion and convection between the molten steel surface and liquid TiB2-based ceramic. So, the reliable fusion bonding of TiB2-TiC/42CrMo4 composite materials is achieved. Moreover, the phase separation and forced filling effect of high-gravity field is the key to improve the densification and bond performance of the joint. The ceramic/metal joint in the continuous gradient composition and microstructure represents not only the transitional change of Vickers hardness, but also the high shear bond strength of 420 ± 25 MPa.

  13. Enhanced crosslimb transfer of force-field learning for dynamics that are identical in extrinsic and joint-based coordinates for both limbs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; de Rugy, Aymar; Howard, Ian S; Ingram, James N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Humans are able to adapt their motor commands to make accurate movements in novel sensorimotor environments, such as when wielding tools that alter limb dynamics. However, it is unclear to what extent sensorimotor representations, obtained through experience with one limb, are available to the opposite, untrained limb and in which form they are available. Here, we compared crosslimb transfer of force-field compensation after participants adapted to a velocity-dependent curl field, oriented either in the sagittal or the transverse plane. Due to the mirror symmetry of the limbs, the force field had identical effects for both limbs in joint and extrinsic coordinates in the sagittal plane but conflicting joint-based effects in the transverse plane. The degree of force-field compensation exhibited by the opposite arm in probe trials immediately after initial learning was significantly greater after sagittal (26 ± 5%) than transverse plane adaptation (9 ± 4%; P < 0.001), irrespective of whether participants learned initially with the left or the right arm or via abrupt or gradual exposure to the force field. Thus transfer was impaired when the orientation of imposed dynamics conflicted in intrinsic coordinates for the two limbs. The data reveal that neural representations of novel dynamics are only partially available to the opposite limb, since transfer is incomplete even when force-field perturbation is spatially compatible for the two limbs, according to both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

  14. Enhanced crosslimb transfer of force-field learning for dynamics that are identical in extrinsic and joint-based coordinates for both limbs

    PubMed Central

    de Rugy, Aymar; Howard, Ian S.; Ingram, James N.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are able to adapt their motor commands to make accurate movements in novel sensorimotor environments, such as when wielding tools that alter limb dynamics. However, it is unclear to what extent sensorimotor representations, obtained through experience with one limb, are available to the opposite, untrained limb and in which form they are available. Here, we compared crosslimb transfer of force-field compensation after participants adapted to a velocity-dependent curl field, oriented either in the sagittal or the transverse plane. Due to the mirror symmetry of the limbs, the force field had identical effects for both limbs in joint and extrinsic coordinates in the sagittal plane but conflicting joint-based effects in the transverse plane. The degree of force-field compensation exhibited by the opposite arm in probe trials immediately after initial learning was significantly greater after sagittal (26 ± 5%) than transverse plane adaptation (9 ± 4%; P < 0.001), irrespective of whether participants learned initially with the left or the right arm or via abrupt or gradual exposure to the force field. Thus transfer was impaired when the orientation of imposed dynamics conflicted in intrinsic coordinates for the two limbs. The data reveal that neural representations of novel dynamics are only partially available to the opposite limb, since transfer is incomplete even when force-field perturbation is spatially compatible for the two limbs, according to both intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates. PMID:26581867

  15. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. -K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. -W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  16. STS-65 Pilot Halsell cleans window on the aft flight deck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr cleans off overhead window W8. Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz looks on (photo's edge). A plastic toy dinosaur, velcroed in front of W9, also appears to be watching the housekeeping activity. A variety of onboard equipment including procedural checklists, a spotmeter, a handheld microphone, and charts are seen in the view. The two shared over fourteen days in Earth orbit with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  17. STS-35 Columbia, OV-102, aft fuselage LRU hydrogen recirculation pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Closeup view shows the aft fuselage line replaceable unit (LRU) hydrogen recirculation pump from Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The pump is being tested at JSC's Thermochemical Test Area (TTA) Support Laboratory Bldg 350. JSC technicians ran the pump package through the battery of leak tests. Preliminary indications showed only minor, acceptable leakage from the package and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technicians have replaced a crushed seal on the prevalve of the main propulsion system they believe may have caused the STS-35 hydrogen leak.

  18. STS-45 MS and PLC Sullivan explains camera usage on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan, holding communications kit assembly unit and 70mm HASSELBLAD camera, explains camera usage and Earth observation procedures during a television downlink to the ground. Sullivan is on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Behind Sullivan are the onorbit station control panels with the payload station control panels at her left. The STS-45 crew put together a brief video 'tour' program to explain some of their inflight operations.

  19. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  20. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  1. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford (top), with the Aft Engine shop, along with another worker, removes a heat shield on one of Columbia's engines. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  2. STS-26 MS Nelson operates controls for PVTOS-2 experiment on aft middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson operates generic electronics module for the Physical Vapor Transport of Organic Solids 2 (PVTOS-2) experiment on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft middeck. PVTOS-2 consists of nine independent experimental cells about 12 inches long and 3 inches in diameter. They are mounted in a circular base plate inside the drum-like experimental apparatus container (EAC). PVTOS-2 is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and is being conducted by 3M's Space Research and Applications Laboratory.

  3. Crystal structures of Boro-AFm and sBoro-AFt phases

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Cau Dit Coumes, Celine; Leroux, Fabrice; Mercier, Cyrille; Revel, Bertrand; Damidot, Denis

    2012-10-15

    Crystal structures of boron-containing AFm (B-AFm) and AFt (B-AFt) phases have been solved ab-initio and refined from X-ray powder diffraction. {sup 11}B NMR and Raman spectroscopies confirm the boron local environment in both compounds: three-fold coordinated in B-AFm corresponding to HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} species, and four-fold coordinated in B-AFt corresponding to B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} species. B-AFm crystallizes in the rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaHBO{sub 3}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O (4CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}1/2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}12.5H{sub 2}O, C{sub 4}AB{sub 1/2}H{sub 12.5}) general formulae with planar trigonal HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions weakly bonded at the centre of the interlayer region. One HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion is statistically distributed with two weakly bonded water molecules on the same crystallographic site. B-AFt crystallizes in the trigonal P3cl space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}Ca(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}2Ca(B (OH){sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O (6CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}33H{sub 2}O, C{sub 6}AB{sub 2}H{sub 33}) general formulae with tetrahedral B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} anions located in the channel region of the structure. All tetrahedral anions are oriented in a unique direction, leading to a hexagonal c lattice parameter about half that of ettringite.

  4. Disruption of Mycobacterial AftB Results in Complete Loss of Terminal β(1 → 2) Arabinofuranose Residues of Lipoarabinomannan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and arabinogalactan (AG) are the two major mycobacterial cell wall (lipo)polysaccharides, which contain a structurally similar arabinan domain that is highly branched and assembled in a stepwise fashion by variety of arabinofuranosyltransferases (ArafT). In addition to playing an essential role in mycobacterial physiology, LAM and its biochemical precursor lipomannan possess potent immunomodulatory activities that affect the host immune response. In the search of additional mycobacterial ArafTs that participate in the synthesis of the arabinan segment of LAM, we disrupted aftB (MSMEG_6400) in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The deletion of chromosomal aftB locus could only be achieved in the presence of a rescue plasmid carrying a functional copy of aftB, strongly suggesting that it is essential for the viability of M. smegmatis. Isolation and detailed structural characterization of a LAM molecule derived from the conditional mutant deficient in AftB revealed the absence of terminal β(1 → 2)-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that truncated LAM displays proinflammatory activity, which is due to its ability to activate Toll-like receptor 2. All together, our results indicate that AftB is an essential mycobacterial ArafT that plays a role in the synthesis of the arabinan domain of LAM. PMID:28033704

  5. Feeding of swimming Paramecium with fore-aft asymmetry in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jana, Saikat; Giarra, Matthew; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-11-01

    Swimming behaviours and feeding efficiencies of Paramecium Multimicronucleatum with fore-aft asymmetric body shapes are studied experimentally and numerically. Among various possible swimming ways, ciliates typically exhibit only one preferred swimming directions in favorable conditions. Ciliates, like Paramecia, with fore-aft asymmetric shapes preferably swim towards the slender anterior while feeding fluid to the oral groove located at the center of the body. Since both feeding and swimming efficiencies are influenced by fluid motions around the body, it is important to reveal the fluid mechanics around a moving object. Experimentally, μ-PIV methods are employed to characterize the source-dipole streamline patterns and fluid motions around Paramecium. Numerical simulations by boundary element methods are also used to evaluate surface stresses and velocities, which give insights into the efficiencies of swimming and feeding depending on body asymmetry. It is concluded that a slender anterior and fat posterior increases the combined efficiency of swimming and feeding, which matches well with actual shapes of Paramecium. Discrepancies between experiments and simulations are also discussed.

  6. Aerodynamic Impact of an Aft-Facing Slat-Step on High Re Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Geoffrey; Petrin, Chris; Jacob, Jamey; Elbing, Brian; Ireland, Peter; Black, Buddy

    2016-11-01

    Typically, the initial aerodynamic design and subsequent testing and simulation of an aircraft wing assumes an ideal wing surface without imperfections. In reality, however the surface of an in-service aircraft wing rarely matches the surface characteristics of the test wings used during the conceptual design phase and certification process. This disconnect is usually deemed negligible or overlooked entirely. Specifically, many aircraft incorporate a leading edge slat; however, the mating between the slat and the top surface of the wing is not perfectly flush and creates a small aft-facing step behind the slat. In some cases, the slat can create a step as large as one millimeter tall, which is entirely submerged within the boundary layer. This abrupt change in geometry creates a span-wise vortex behind the step and in transonic flow causes a shock to form near the leading edge. This study investigates both experimentally and computationally the implications of an aft-facing slat-step on an aircraft wing and is compared to the ideal wing surface for subsonic and transonic flow conditions. The results of this study are useful for design of flow control modifications for aircraft currently in service and important for improving the next generation of aircraft wings.

  7. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  8. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-eulerian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  9. STS-43 TDRS-E / IUS in OV-104's PLB ASE aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During STS-43 the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite E (TDRS-E) atop the inertial upper stage (IUS) and positioned in the airborne support equipment (ASE) aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table with the forward frame ASE latch actuator released and umbilical cables separated is raised by the aft frame ASE electromechanical tilt actuator to a 58-degree deployment position. The scene is highlighted against the Earth's limb. In the foreground on the port side and mounted on a getaway special (GAS) adapter beam are (forward to aft) the two Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) GAS canisters (one with motorized door assembly (MDA)) and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) GAS canister. Along the starboard sill longeron is the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II).

  10. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  11. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian/U.S. Pilot Field Test in Preparation for the Full Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Cerisano, J. M..; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short-duration (Space Shuttle) and long-duration (Mir and International Space Station [ISS]) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long-duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (<24 hours) recovery process nor is it possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented testing at the landing site. By joint agreement, this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long-duration space-flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hours) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessing hand/eye coordination, egressing from a seated position, walking normally without falling, measuring of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovering from a fall, coordinated walking

  12. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  13. Early jointing in coal and black shale: Evidence for an Appalachian-wide stress field as a prelude to the Alleghanian orogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, T.; Whitaker, A.

    2006-07-15

    Early ENE-striking joints (present coordinates) within both Pennsylvanian coal and Devonian black shale of the Central and Southern Appalachians reflect an approximately rectilinear stress field with a dimension > 1500 km. This Appalachian-wide stress field (AWSF) dates from the time of joint propagation, when both the coal and shale were buried to the oil window during the 10-15 m.y. period straddling the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary. The AWSF was generated during the final assembly of Pangea as a consequence of plate-boundary tractions arising from late-stage oblique convergence, where maximum horizontal stress, S-H, of the AWSF was parallel to the direction of closure between Gondwana and Laurentia. After closure, the AWSF persisted during dextral slip of peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, when SH appears to have crosscut plate-scale trans-current faults at around 30{sup o}. Following > 10 m.y. of dextral slip during tightening of Gondwana against Laurentia, the AWSF was disrupted by local stress fields associated with thrusting on master basement decollements to produce the local orocline-shaped Alleghanian map pattern seen today.

  14. View of compartment A102 bread room from forward to AFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment A-102 bread room from forward to AFT. Wood slat decking and ceiling helps to provide adequate air circulation to aid in preservation of flour and baking supplies. Enclosed structure at right of photograph is a portion of the port side coffer dam. The coffer dam ia a partial inner hull to prevent flooding if the outer hull was breached. Originally the coffer dam was filled with water-resistant cellulose mad from corncobs. This material would swell with incoming water if the hull was breached and seal off the hole. Ordinary leakage kept the material wet and created ideal conditions for rot. The material was removed from the coffer dam. Ducts at right provide fresh air to the bread room. (09) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Technicians test OV-102's aft fuselage LRU hydrogen recirculation pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Donald C. Buckner, a Lockheed mechanical lead technician, installs an aft fuselage line replaceable unit (LRU) liquid hydrogen recirculation pump from Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102 into JSC's Thermochemical Test Area (TTA) Support Laboratory Bldg 350 test stand. Technicians ran the pump package through the battery of leak tests. Preliminary indications showed only minor, acceptable leakage from the package and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technicians have replaced a crushed seal on the prevalve of the main propulsion system they believe may have caused the STS-35 hydrogen leak. In addition to Buckner, (left to right) Larry Kilbourn, a Rockwell Service Center lead mechanical technician from Cape Canaveral, and John Dickerson, a quality inspector with EBASCO Services, also monitored the test at JSC. Photo taken by JSC photographer Benny Benavides.

  16. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock operates RMS THC on OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock operates the remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control (THC) while observing extravehicular activity (EVA) outside viewing window W10 on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Positioned at the onorbit station, Sherlock moved EVA astronauts in the payload bay (PLB). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low with his feet anchored to a special restraint device on the end of the RMS arm held MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff during the RMS maneuvers. The activity represented an evaluation of techniques which might be used on planned future missions -- a 1993 servicing visit to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and later space station work -- which will require astronauts to frequently lift objects of similar sized bulk. Note: Just below Sherlock's left hand a 'GUMBY' toy watches the actvity.

  17. STS-55 Pilot Henricks uses CTE equipment mounted on SL-D2 aft end cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned in front of an adjustable workstation mounted on the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aft end cone, conducts Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE). The STS-55 crew portrait (STS055(S)002) appears on the screen of the Macintosh portable computer. CTE will demonstrate real-time communication between the shuttle crew and the ground via a computer-based multimedia documentation file that includes text, graphics, and photos. CTE is expected to improve the effectiveness of on-orbit payload operations, returns from scientific investigations, crew interaction with the ground, and contingency maintenance tasks for systems and payloads. Also in the view and attached to the end cone are a fire extinguisher, a checklist, and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  18. Aft-End Flow of a Large-Scale Lifting Body During Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fisher, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting body. Free-flight tests of the X-38 configuration were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California from 1997 to 2001.

  19. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  20. STS-56 Commander Cameron uses SAREX on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing headset and headband equipped with penlight flashlight, uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Cameron, positioned just behind the pilots seat, talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of the pilots seat. The SAREX scan converter (a white box) is seen just above Cameron's head attached to overhead panel O9. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the JSC Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques. As on several previous missions, SAREX was used on this flight as an educational opportunity

  1. Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal force data were collected before and after a moderate lameness was induced. Peak, mean and summed braking and propulsive forces as well as the duration each force was exerted and the time to reach maximum force were evaluated for both the sound and the lame condition. Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, dogs maximize their double support phases when walking. Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. PMID:23300614

  2. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. II. Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHenry, M. Q.; Angelaki, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain binocular fixation on near targets during fore-aft translational disturbances, largely disjunctive eye movements are elicited the amplitude and direction of which should be tuned to the horizontal and vertical eccentricities of the target. The eye movements generated during this task have been investigated here as trained rhesus monkeys fixated isovergence targets at different horizontal and vertical eccentricities during 10 Hz fore-aft oscillations. The elicited eye movements complied with the geometric requirements for binocular fixation, although not ideally. First, the corresponding vergence angle for which the movement of each eye would be compensatory was consistently less than that dictated by the actual fixation parameters. Second, the eye position with zero sensitivity to translation was not straight ahead, as geometrically required, but rather exhibited a systematic dependence on viewing distance and vergence angle. Third, responses were asymmetric, with gains being larger for abducting and downward compared with adducting and upward gaze directions, respectively. As frequency was varied between 4 and 12 Hz, responses exhibited high-pass filter properties with significant differences between abduction and adduction responses. As a result of these differences, vergence sensitivity increased as a function of frequency with a steeper slope than that of version. Despite largely undercompensatory version responses, vergence sensitivity was closer to ideal. Moreover, the observed dependence of vergence sensitivity on vergence angle, which was varied between 2.5 and 10 MA, was largely linear rather than quadratic (as geometrically predicted). We conclude that the spatial tuning of eye velocity sensitivity as a function of gaze and viewing distance follows the general geometric dependencies required for the maintenance of foveal visual acuity. However, systematic deviations from ideal behavior exist that might reflect asymmetric processing of

  3. Water impact test of aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of water impact loads tests using aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are examined. Dynamic structural response data is developed and an evaluation of the model in various configurations is presented. Impact velocities are determined for the SRB with the larger main chute system. Various failure modes are also investigated.

  4. Qualification of the RSRM field joint CF case-to-insulation bondline inspection using the Thiokol Corporation ultrasonic RSRM bondline inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Qualification testing of Combustion Engineering's AMDATA Intraspect/98 Data Acquisition and Imaging System that applies to the redesigned solid rocket motor field joint capture feature case-to-insulation bondline inspection was performed. Testing was performed at M-111, the Thiokol Corp. Inert Parts Preparation Building. The purpose of the inspection was to verify the integrity of the capture feature area case-to-insulation bondline. The capture feature scanner was calibrated over an intentional 1.0 to 1.0 in. case-to-insulation unbond. The capture feature scanner was then used to scan 60 deg of a capture feature field joint. Calibration of the capture feature scanner was then rechecked over the intentional unbond to ensure that the calibration settings did not change during the case scan. This procedure was successfully performed five times to qualify the unbond detection capability of the capture feature scanner. The capture feature scanner qualified in this test contains many points of mechanical instability that can affect the overall ultrasonic signal response. A new generation scanner, designated the sigma scanner, should be implemented to replace the current configuration scanner. The sigma scanner eliminates the unstable connection points of the current scanner and has additional inspection capabilities.

  5. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done include: CBC or blood differential C-reactive protein Joint x-ray Sedimentation rate ... chap 256. Schaible H-G. Joint pain: basic mechanisms. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk ...

  6. Joint Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-09

    Purpose This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the...governmental and nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the...exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs), and prescribes joint doctrine for operations and training. It

  7. STS-38 Mission Specialist Gemar climbs into T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, smiling, pauses before climbing into T-38A aft cockpit at Ellington Field. The crewmembers are preparing for their departure to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  8. Two-Dimensional Strain Fields on the Cross-Section of the Human Patellofemoral Joint under Physiological Loading

    PubMed Central

    Guterl, Clare Canal; Gardner, Thomas R.; Rajan, Vikram; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a detailed experimental assessment of the two-dimensional cartilage strain distribution on the cross-section of the human patellofemoral joint (PFJ) subjected to physiological load magnitudes and rates. The medial side of six human PFJs sectioned along their mid-sagittal plane was loaded up to the equivalent of two body weights on a whole joint, and strain measurements obtained from digital image correlation are reported at 0.5s. Normal strains tangential to the articular surface and shear strains in the plane of the cross-section showed consistent patterns among all specimens, whereas normal strains perpendicular to the articular surface exhibited some variability that may be attributed to subject-specific variations in material properties through the depth of the articular layers. Elevated tensile and compressive principal normal strains were observed near the articular surface, around the center of the contact region, with additional locations of elevated compressive strains occurring at the bone-cartilage interface. Under an average contact stress of ∼3.3 MPa, the peak compressive principal normal strains for the patella and femur averaged -0.158 ± 0.072 and -0.118 ± 0.051 respectively, magnitudes that are significantly greater than the relative changes in cartilage thickness, -0.090 ± 0.030 and -0.072 ± 0.038 (p < 0.005). These experimental results provide a detailed description of the manner by which human PFJ articular layers deform in situ under physiological load conditions. PMID:19433326

  9. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  10. Joint analysis of the wind and wave-field variability in the Indian Ocean area for 1998-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogarskii, F.; Polnikov, V.; Sannasiraj, S. A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis of the wind and wave fields in the Indian Ocean (IO) for the period of 1998-2009 was performed based on using the wind fields taken from the site of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NCEP/NOAA) [1] and on the numerical wind-wave model WAM [2] modified with the source function proposed in [3]. The primary analysis of the fields includes mapping the wind and wave fields, as well as their energy fields, calculated with different scales of space-time averaging; the subsequent zoning of the IO area; and assessing the seasonal interannual variability of all the fields and their 12-years trends. Further analysis is carried out taking into account the zoning. This analysis includes a construction of the time series obtained with different scales of space-time averaging for all the fields, a spectral analysis of these series, finding and analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of extrema of the wind and wave fields (accounting for the their sharing in the zones), and making histograms of the wind and wave fields and calculating their first four statistical moments (in the zones and in the ocean as a whole). The results allow us to evaluate a large set of statistical characteristics of the wind and wave fields in the IO area, scales of their variability, their long-term trends, and the features of distribution for these statistical characteristics in the ocean area as well.

  11. Joint inversion of marine seismic AVA and CSEM data using statistical rock-physics models and Markov random fields: Stochastic inversion of AVA and CSEM data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2011-09-15

    Joint inversion of seismic AVA and CSEM data requires rock-physics relationships to link seismic attributes to electrical properties. Ideally, we can connect them through reservoir parameters (e.g., porosity and water saturation) by developing physical-based models, such as Gassmann’s equations and Archie’s law, using nearby borehole logs. This could be difficult in the exploration stage because information available is typically insufficient for choosing suitable rock-physics models and for subsequently obtaining reliable estimates of the associated parameters. The use of improper rock-physics models and the inaccuracy of the estimates of model parameters may cause misleading inversion results. Conversely, it is easy to derive statistical relationships among seismic and electrical attributes and reservoir parameters from distant borehole logs. In this study, we develop a Bayesian model to jointly invert seismic AVA and CSEM data for reservoir parameter estimation using statistical rock-physics models; the spatial dependence of geophysical and reservoir parameters are carried out by lithotypes through Markov random fields. We apply the developed model to a synthetic case, which simulates a CO{sub 2} monitoring application. We derive statistical rock-physics relations from borehole logs at one location and estimate seismic P- and S-wave velocity ratio, acoustic impedance, density, electrical resistivity, lithotypes, porosity, and water saturation at three different locations by conditioning to seismic AVA and CSEM data. Comparison of the inversion results with their corresponding true values shows that the correlation-based statistical rock-physics models provide significant information for improving the joint inversion results.

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Extended Depth-of-Field F/1.2 Visible High Definition Camera with Jointly Optimized Phase Mask and Real-Time Digital Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcklen, M.-A.; Diaz, F.; Lepretre, F.; Rollin, J.; Delboulbé, A.; Lee, M.-S. L.; Loiseaux, B.; Koudoli, A.; Denel, S.; Millet, P.; Duhem, F.; Lemonnier, F.; Sauer, H.; Goudail, F.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the depth of field (DOF) of compact visible high resolution cameras while maintaining high imaging performance in the DOF range is crucial for such applications as night vision goggles or industrial inspection. In this paper, we present the end-to-end design and experimental validation of an extended depth-of-field visible High Definition camera with a very small f-number, combining a six-ring pyramidal phase mask in the aperture stop of the lens with a digital deconvolution. The phase mask and the deconvolution algorithm are jointly optimized during the design step so as to maximize the quality of the deconvolved image over the DOF range. The deconvolution processing is implemented in real-time on a Field-Programmable Gate Array and we show that it requires very low power consumption. By mean of MTF measurements and imaging experiments we experimentally characterize the performance of both cameras with and without phase mask and thereby demonstrate a significant increase in depth of field of a factor 2.5, as it was expected in the design step.

  13. Effect of external applied steady magnetic field on the morphology of laser welding joint of 4-mm 2024 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Junjie; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    Additional external steady magnetic fields were applied to investigate the influence of a steady magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the welding direction during laser beam welding of 2024 aluminum alloy. The flow pattern in the molten pool and the weld seam geometry were significantly changed by the induced Lorentz force distribution in the liquid metal. It revealed that the application of a steady magnetic field to laser beam welding was helpful to the suppression of the characteristic wineglass-shape and the depth-to-width ratio because of the Marangoni convection. The microstructures and component distributions at various laser power and magnetic field intensity were analyzed too. It was indicated that the suppression of the Marangoni convection by Lorentz force was beneficial to accumulation of component and grain coarsening near the fusion line.

  14. Joint inversion of 9C 3D seismic data for reservoir characterization in the Bakken Formation, Banner Field, Mountrail County, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreeprasertkul, Kritti

    Joint PP and SS seismic inversion is a geophysical analysis method that uses the variation in reflectivity of PP and SS seismic data to derive elastic properties of the subsurface and specifically reservoir properties. The major objective of this research is to characterize the elastic properties of the Bakken petroleum system at Banner Field, Mountrail County, North Dakota using joint PP and SS seismic inversion. The combination of PP and SS data into the inversion process helped improve the accuracy of inversion results by increasing the correlation coefficient by 10 percent on both P- and S- impedance. Results from this analysis show a variation in elastic properties from the western part to the eastern portion of the study area. The western part is interpreted to be higher in shale volume, porosity and maturity. Additionally, the natural fracture network is an integral part of a tight oil reservoir. The existence and delineation of natural fractures coincides with faults that have been delineated within the reservoir interval. The elastic parameters and structural detailing from this study has been used to delineate a potential exploration opportunity in the Three Forks Formation on the west side of the survey.

  15. Effects of fore-aft body mass distribution on acceleration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M; Carrier, David R

    2011-05-15

    The ability of a quadruped to apply propulsive ground reaction forces (GRF) during rapid acceleration may be limited by muscle power, foot traction or the ability to counteract the nose-up pitching moment due to acceleration. Because the biomechanics of acceleration change, both throughout the stride cycle and over subsequent strides as velocity increases, the factors limiting propulsive force production may also change. Depending on which factors are limiting during each step, alterations in fore-aft body mass distribution may either increase or decrease the maximum propulsive GRF produced. We analyzed the effects of experimental alterations in the fore-aft body mass distribution of dogs as they performed rapid accelerations. We measured the changes in trunk kinematics and GRF as dogs accelerated while carrying 10% body mass in saddlebags positioned just in front of the shoulder girdle or directly over the pelvic girdle. We found that dogs applied greater propulsive forces in the initial hindlimb push-off and first step by the lead forelimb in both weighted conditions. During these steps dogs appear to have been limited by foot traction. For the trailing forelimb, propulsive forces and impulses were reduced when dogs wore caudally placed weights and increased when dogs wore cranially placed weights. This is consistent with nose-up pitching or avoidance thereof having limited propulsive force production by the trailing forelimb. By the second stride, the hindlimbs appear to have been limited by muscle power in their ability to apply propulsive force. Adding weights decreased the propulsive force they applied most in the beginning of stance, when limb retractor muscles were active in supporting body weight. These results suggest that all three factors: foot traction, pitching of the body, and muscle power play roles in limiting quadrupedal acceleration. Digging in to the substrate with claws or hooves appears to be necessary for maximizing propulsion in the initial

  16. Joint torques in a freely walking insect reveal distinct functions of leg joints in propulsion and posture control.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Chris J; Dürr, Volker; Schmitz, Josef

    2016-01-27

    Determining the mechanical output of limb joints is critical for understanding the control of complex motor behaviours such as walking. In the case of insect walking, the neural infrastructure for single-joint control is well described. However, a detailed description of the motor output in form of time-varying joint torques is lacking. Here, we determine joint torques in the stick insect to identify leg joint function in the control of body height and propulsion. Torques were determined by measuring whole-body kinematics and ground reaction forces in freely walking animals. We demonstrate that despite strong differences in morphology and posture, stick insects show a functional division of joints similar to other insect model systems. Propulsion was generated by strong depression torques about the coxa-trochanter joint, not by retraction or flexion/extension torques. Torques about the respective thorax-coxa and femur-tibia joints were often directed opposite to fore-aft forces and joint movements. This suggests a posture-dependent mechanism that counteracts collapse of the leg under body load and directs the resultant force vector such that strong depression torques can control both body height and propulsion. Our findings parallel propulsive mechanisms described in other walking, jumping and flying insects, and challenge current control models of insect walking.

  17. Joint torques in a freely walking insect reveal distinct functions of leg joints in propulsion and posture control

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Determining the mechanical output of limb joints is critical for understanding the control of complex motor behaviours such as walking. In the case of insect walking, the neural infrastructure for single-joint control is well described. However, a detailed description of the motor output in form of time-varying joint torques is lacking. Here, we determine joint torques in the stick insect to identify leg joint function in the control of body height and propulsion. Torques were determined by measuring whole-body kinematics and ground reaction forces in freely walking animals. We demonstrate that despite strong differences in morphology and posture, stick insects show a functional division of joints similar to other insect model systems. Propulsion was generated by strong depression torques about the coxa–trochanter joint, not by retraction or flexion/extension torques. Torques about the respective thorax–coxa and femur–tibia joints were often directed opposite to fore–aft forces and joint movements. This suggests a posture-dependent mechanism that counteracts collapse of the leg under body load and directs the resultant force vector such that strong depression torques can control both body height and propulsion. Our findings parallel propulsive mechanisms described in other walking, jumping and flying insects, and challenge current control models of insect walking. PMID:26791608

  18. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located aft of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    A 12-foot long Boeing 707 aft fuselage section with a tapering cross section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crash laods and to provide data for nonlinear finite element modeling. This was the final test in a series of three different transport fuselage sections tested under identical conditions. The test parameters at impact were: 20 ft/s velocity, and zero pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the test was an operational shock test of the data acquisition system used for the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a remotely piloted Boeing 720 that was crash tested at NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility on December 1, 1984. Post-test measurements of the crush showed that the front of the section (with larger diameter) crushed vertically approximately 14 inches while the rear crushed 18 inches. Analysis of the data traces indicate the maximum peak normal (vertical) accelerations at the bottom of the frames were approximately 109 G at body station 1040 and 64 G at body station 1120. The peak floor acceleration varied from 14 G near the wall to 25 G near the center where high frequency oscillations of the floor were evident. The peak anthropomorphic dummy pelvis normal (vertical) acceleration was 19 G's.

  19. Masking of thresholds for the perception of fore-and-aft vibration of seat backrests.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The detection of a vibration may be reduced by the presence of another vibration: a phenomenon known as 'masking'. This study investigated how the detection of one frequency of vibration is influenced by vibration at another frequency. With nine subjects, thresholds for detecting fore-and-aft backrest vibration were determined (for 4, 8, 16, and 31.5-Hz sinusoidal vibration) in the presence of a masker vibration (4-Hz random vibration, 1/3-octave bandwidth at six intensities). The masker vibration increased thresholds for perceiving vibration at each frequency by an amount that reduced with increasing difference between the frequency of the sinusoidal vibration and the frequency of the masker vibration. The 4-Hz random vibration almost completely masked 4-Hz sinusoidal vibration, partially masked 8- and 16-Hz vibration, and only slightly masked 31.5-Hz vibration. The findings might be explained by the involvement of different sensory systems and different body locations in the detection of different frequencies of vibration.

  20. Aircraft system aft telescope cavity configuration study for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The SOFIA Aircraft System (AS) Phase 1 Study was a broad-based study which addressed itself to satisfying technical and programmatic requirements by drawing from existing technology and applying cost-efficient commercial approaches to the aircraft modification. In this SOFIA AS Phase 2 Study, five critical areas of the aircraft were selected for more detailed investigation: forward pressure bulkhead, aft bulkhead, 'free' shell to bulkhead interface, shell cut-out to bulkhead interface, and flooring. The in-depth investigation of these areas upon a finite element model (FEM), with a fine grid model in areas of particular interest, is discussed. The FEM code used is called 'STRAP' and was developed by the engineering firm, Rasmussen and Associates. STRAP is NASTRAN compatible to within 1%. The loads applied to the model were approximated from known 747 envelope conditions. The areas of investigation, and a section through the fuselage is shown. The thrust of this investigation was to develop the design concepts conceived under phase 1 to the point where detailed design could be undertaken with a high level of confidence.

  1. Analysis of pressure blips in aft-finocyl solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacinto, M.; Favini, B.; Cavallini, E.

    2016-07-01

    Ballistic anomalies have frequently occurred during the firing of several solid rocket motors (SRMs) (Inertial Upper Stage, Space Shuttle Redesigned SRM (RSRM) and Titan IV SRM Upgrade (SRMU)), producing even relevant and unexpected variations of the SRM pressure trace from its nominal profile. This paper has the purpose to provide a numerical analysis of the following possible causes of ballistic anomalies in SRMs: an inert object discharge, a slag ejection, and an unexpected increase in the propellant burning rate or in the combustion surface. The SRM configuration under investigation is an aft-finocyl SRM with a first-stage/small booster design. The numerical simulations are performed with a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) unsteady model of the SRM internal ballistics, properly tailored to model each possible cause of the ballistic anomalies. The results have shown that a classification based on the head-end pressure (HEP) signature, relating each other the HEP shape and the ballistic anomaly cause, can be made. For each cause of ballistic anomalies, a deepened discussion of the parameters driving the HEP signatures is provided, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments of the resultant pressure signals.

  2. Investigation of the transmission of fore and aft vibration through the human body.

    PubMed

    Demić, Miroslav; Lukić, Jovanka

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the behavior of human body under the influence of vibration is of great importance for the optimal motor vehicle system design. Therefore, great efforts are being done in order to discover as many information about the influence of vibration on human body as possible. So far the references show that the major scientific attention has been paid to vertical vibration, although intensive research has been performed lately on the other sorts of excitation. In this paper, the results of the investigation of behavior of human body, in seated position, under the influence of random fore and aft vibration are shown. The investigation is performed by the use of an electro-hydraulic simulator, on a group of 30 healthy male occupants. Experiments are performed in order to give results to improve human body modeling in driving conditions. Excitation amplitudes (1.75 and 2.25 m/s(2) rms) and seat backrest conditions (with and without inclination) were varied. Data results are analyzed by partial coherence and transfer functions. Analyses have been performed and results are given in detail. The results obtained have shown that the human body under the influence of random excitations behaves as a non-linear system and its response depends on spatial position. Obtained results give necessary data to define structure and parameters of human biodynamic model with respect to different excitation and seat backrest position.

  3. STS-99 workers move new Master Events Controller into aft compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, workers move the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) into Shuttle Endeavour's aft compartment in the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  4. Low-speed stability and control characteristics of a transport model with aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A limited experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to explore the effects of aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprop installations on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a representative transport aircraft in a landing configuration. In general, the experimental results indicate that the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics for the aft-fuselage-mounted single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation pusher propeller configurations tested during this investigation are acceptable aerodynamically. For the single-rotation tractor configuration, the propeller-induced aerodynamics are significantly influenced by the interaction of the propeller slipstream with the pylon and nacelle. The stability characteristics for the counter-rotation pusher configuration are strongly influenced by propeller normal forces. The longitudinal and directional control effectiveness, engine-out characteristics, and ground effects are also presented. In addition, a tabulated presentation of all aerodynamic data presented in this report is included as an appendix.

  5. Working toward benchmarks in orthopedic OR efficiency for joint replacement surgery in an academic centre

    PubMed Central

    Beaulé, Paule E.; Frombach, Aaron A.; Ryu, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background The introduction of 4-joint operating rooms (ORs) to meet provincial wait time targets represented a major change in practice, providing an opportunity to optimize patient care within an OR time allotment of 8 hours. We reviewed our success rate completing 4 joint replacements within 8 hours and defined benchmarks for successful completion. Methods We reviewed the surgeries performed in the 4-joint ORs between May and October 2012. Using prospectively collected data from the Surgical Information Management System, each surgery time was divided into the following components: anesthesia preparation time (APT), surgical preparation time (SPT), procedure duration, anesthesia finishing time (AFT) and turnover time. We defined success as 4 joint replacements being completed within the allotted time. Results We reviewed 49 4-joint OR days for a total of 196 joint surgeries. Of the 49 days, 24 (49%) were successful. Only 2 surgeons had a success rate greater than 50%. Significant predictors of success were APT (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.16), procedure duration (odds ratio 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.05) and AFT (odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34). We calculated probabilities for each component and derived benchmark times corresponding to the probability of 0.60. These benchmarks were APT of 9 min, SPT of 14 min, procedure duration of 68 min, AFT of 4 min and turnover of 15 min. Conclusion We established benchmark times for the successful completion of 4 primary joint replacements within an 8-hour shift. Targeted interventions could maximize OR efficiency and enhance multidisciplinary care delivery. PMID:26574833

  6. A case study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model applied to the Joint Urban 2003 tracer field experiment. Part 2: Gas tracer dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2016-07-28

    Here, the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) atmospheric transport, and dispersion modelling, system was evaluated against the Joint Urban 2003 tracer-gas measurements. This was done using the wind and turbulence fields computed by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We compare the simulated and observed plume transport when using WRF-model-simulated wind fields, and local on-site wind measurements. Degradation of the WRF-model-based plume simulations was cased by errors in the simulated wind direction, and limitations in reproducing the small-scale wind-field variability. We explore two methods for importing turbulence from the WRF model simulations into the QUIC system. The first method uses parametrized turbulence profiles computed from WRF-model-computed boundary-layer similarity parameters; and the second method directly imports turbulent kinetic energy from the WRF model. Using the WRF model’s Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary-layer scheme, the parametrized turbulence profiles and the direct import of turbulent kinetic energy were found to overpredict and underpredict the observed turbulence quantities, respectively. Near-source building effects were found to propagate several km downwind. These building effects and the temporal/spatial variations in the observed wind field were often found to have a stronger influence over the lateral and vertical plume spread than the intensity of turbulence. Correcting the WRF model wind directions using a single observational location improved the performance of the WRF-model-based simulations, but using the spatially-varying flow fields generated from multiple observation profiles generally provided the best performance.

  7. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 1. Wind and Turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; ...

    2015-09-25

    We found that numerical-weather-prediction models are often used to supply the mean wind and turbulence fields for atmospheric transport and dispersion plume models as they provide dense horizontally- and vertically-resolved geographic coverage in comparison to typically sparse monitoring networks. Here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run over the month-long period of the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign conducted in Oklahoma City and the simulated fields important to transport and dispersion models were compared to measurements from a number of sodars, tower-based sonic anemometers, and balloon soundings located in the greater metropolitan area. Time histories of computed windmore » speed, wind direction, turbulent kinetic energy (e), friction velocity (u* ), and reciprocal Obukhov length (1 / L) were compared to measurements over the 1-month field campaign. Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature (θ ), and e were compared during short intensive operating periods. The WRF model was typically able to replicate the measured diurnal variation of the wind fields, but with an average absolute wind direction and speed difference of 35° and 1.9 m s-1 , respectively. Then, using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) surface-layer scheme, the WRF model was found to generally underpredict surface-layer TKE but overpredict u* that was observed above a suburban region of Oklahoma City. The TKE-threshold method used by the WRF model’s MYJ surface-layer scheme to compute the boundary-layer height (h) consistently overestimated h derived from a θ gradient method whether using observed or modelled θ profiles.« less

  8. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 1. Wind and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2015-09-25

    We found that numerical-weather-prediction models are often used to supply the mean wind and turbulence fields for atmospheric transport and dispersion plume models as they provide dense horizontally- and vertically-resolved geographic coverage in comparison to typically sparse monitoring networks. Here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run over the month-long period of the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign conducted in Oklahoma City and the simulated fields important to transport and dispersion models were compared to measurements from a number of sodars, tower-based sonic anemometers, and balloon soundings located in the greater metropolitan area. Time histories of computed wind speed, wind direction, turbulent kinetic energy (e), friction velocity (u* ), and reciprocal Obukhov length (1 / L) were compared to measurements over the 1-month field campaign. Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature (θ ), and e were compared during short intensive operating periods. The WRF model was typically able to replicate the measured diurnal variation of the wind fields, but with an average absolute wind direction and speed difference of 35° and 1.9 m s-1 , respectively. Then, using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) surface-layer scheme, the WRF model was found to generally underpredict surface-layer TKE but overpredict u* that was observed above a suburban region of Oklahoma City. The TKE-threshold method used by the WRF model’s MYJ surface-layer scheme to compute the boundary-layer height (h) consistently overestimated h derived from a θ gradient method whether using observed or modelled θ profiles.

  9. A case study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model applied to the Joint Urban 2003 tracer field experiment. Part 2: Gas tracer dispersion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; ...

    2016-07-28

    Here, the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) atmospheric transport, and dispersion modelling, system was evaluated against the Joint Urban 2003 tracer-gas measurements. This was done using the wind and turbulence fields computed by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We compare the simulated and observed plume transport when using WRF-model-simulated wind fields, and local on-site wind measurements. Degradation of the WRF-model-based plume simulations was cased by errors in the simulated wind direction, and limitations in reproducing the small-scale wind-field variability. We explore two methods for importing turbulence from the WRF model simulations into the QUIC system. The firstmore » method uses parametrized turbulence profiles computed from WRF-model-computed boundary-layer similarity parameters; and the second method directly imports turbulent kinetic energy from the WRF model. Using the WRF model’s Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary-layer scheme, the parametrized turbulence profiles and the direct import of turbulent kinetic energy were found to overpredict and underpredict the observed turbulence quantities, respectively. Near-source building effects were found to propagate several km downwind. These building effects and the temporal/spatial variations in the observed wind field were often found to have a stronger influence over the lateral and vertical plume spread than the intensity of turbulence. Correcting the WRF model wind directions using a single observational location improved the performance of the WRF-model-based simulations, but using the spatially-varying flow fields generated from multiple observation profiles generally provided the best performance.« less

  10. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 2: Gas Tracer Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2016-12-01

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) atmospheric transport, and dispersion modelling, system was evaluated against the Joint Urban 2003 tracer-gas measurements. This was done using the wind and turbulence fields computed by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We compare the simulated and observed plume transport when using WRF-model-simulated wind fields, and local on-site wind measurements. Degradation of the WRF-model-based plume simulations was cased by errors in the simulated wind direction, and limitations in reproducing the small-scale wind-field variability. We explore two methods for importing turbulence from the WRF model simulations into the QUIC system. The first method uses parametrized turbulence profiles computed from WRF-model-computed boundary-layer similarity parameters; and the second method directly imports turbulent kinetic energy from the WRF model. Using the WRF model's Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary-layer scheme, the parametrized turbulence profiles and the direct import of turbulent kinetic energy were found to overpredict and underpredict the observed turbulence quantities, respectively. Near-source building effects were found to propagate several km downwind. These building effects and the temporal/spatial variations in the observed wind field were often found to have a stronger influence over the lateral and vertical plume spread than the intensity of turbulence. Correcting the WRF model wind directions using a single observational location improved the performance of the WRF-model-based simulations, but using the spatially-varying flow fields generated from multiple observation profiles generally provided the best performance.

  11. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 1: Wind and Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Numerical-weather-prediction models are often used to supply the mean wind and turbulence fields for atmospheric transport and dispersion plume models as they provide dense horizontally- and vertically-resolved geographic coverage in comparison to typically sparse monitoring networks. Here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run over the month-long period of the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign conducted in Oklahoma City and the simulated fields important to transport and dispersion models were compared to measurements from a number of sodars, tower-based sonic anemometers, and balloon soundings located in the greater metropolitan area. Time histories of computed wind speed, wind direction, turbulent kinetic energy ( e), friction velocity (u_*), and reciprocal Obukhov length (1 / L) were compared to measurements over the 1-month field campaign. Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature (θ ), and e were compared during short intensive operating periods. The WRF model was typically able to replicate the measured diurnal variation of the wind fields, but with an average absolute wind direction and speed difference of 35°c and 1.9 m s^{-1}, respectively. Using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) surface-layer scheme, the WRF model was found to generally underpredict surface-layer TKE but overpredict u_* that was observed above a suburban region of Oklahoma City. The TKE-threshold method used by the WRF model's MYJ surface-layer scheme to compute the boundary-layer height ( h) consistently overestimated h derived from a θ gradient method whether using observed or modelled θ profiles.

  12. Explicit Finite Element Techniques Used to Characterize Splashdown of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics Branch has years of expertise in using explicit finite element methods to predict the outcome of ballistic impact events. Shuttle engineers from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Kennedy Space Flight Center required assistance in assessing the structural loads that a newly proposed thrust vector control system for the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) aft skirt would expect to see during its recovery splashdown.

  13. Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

  14. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Mcfalls, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a 20 inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. These techniques included source noise reduction features of selection of vane-blade ratio to reduce second harmonic noise, spacing effects, and lowering the Mach number through a vane row. Aft suppression features investigated included porosity effects, variable depth treatment, and treatment regenerated flow noise. Initial results and selected comparisons are presented.

  15. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  16. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  17. Surface NO2 fields derived from joint use of OMI and GOME-2A observations with EMEP model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Svendby, Tove; Stebel, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Emitted primarily by transport and industry, NO2 has a major impact on health and economy. In contrast to the very sparse network of air quality monitoring stations, satellite data of NO2 is ubiquitous and allows for quantifying the NO2 levels worldwide. However, one drawback of satellite-derived NO2 products is that they provide solely an estimate of the entire tropospheric column, whereas what is generally needed for air quality applications are the concentrations of NO2 near the surface. Here we derive surface NO2 concentration fields from OMI and GOME-2A tropospheric column products using the EMEP chemical transport model as auxiliary information. The model is used for providing information of the boundary layer contribution to the total tropospheric column. For preparation of deriving the surface product, a comprehensive model-based analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of the NO2 surface-to-column ratio in Europe was carried out for the year 2011. The results from this analysis indicate that the spatial patterns of the surface-to-column ratio vary only slightly. While the highest ratio values can be found in some shipping lanes, the spatial variability of the ratio in some of the most polluted areas of Europe is not very high. Some but not all urban agglomeration shows high ratio values. Focusing on the temporal behavior, the analysis showed that the European-wide average ratio varies throughout the year. The surface-to-column ratio increases from January all the way through April when it reaches its maximum, then decreases relatively rapidly to average levels and then stays mostly constant throughout the summer. The minimum ratio is observed in December. The knowledge gained from analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of the surface-to-column ratio was then used to produce surface NO2 products from the daily NO2 data for OMI and GOME-2A. This was carried out using two methods

  18. Results from IAG's Joint Study Group JSG0.3 on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Gerlach, Christian; Bentel, Katrin; Dettmering, Denise; Eicker, Annette; Herceg, Matija; Kusche, Jürgen; Lieb, Verena; Schall, Judith; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2014-05-01

    For the period 2011-2015, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established under the roof of its Inter-Commission Committee on Theory (ICCT) a Joint Study Group (JSG0.3) on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling. The main objectives of JSG0.3 are (1) to collect information of available methodologies and strategies for regional modelling, (2) to analyze the collected information in order to find specific properties of the different approaches and to find, why certain strategies have been chosen, (3) to create a benchmark data set for comparative numerical studies, (4) to carry out numerical comparisons between different solution strategies for estimating the model parameters and to validate the results with other approaches, and (5) to quantify and interpret the differences of the comparisons with a focus on detection, explanation and treatment of inconsistencies and possible instabilities of the different approaches. Meanwhile the group has provided a set of synthetic gravity field observations representing data from terrestrial, airborne and satellite sensors. This benchmark data set is publicly available (http://jsg03.dgfi.badw.de) and free to all interested researchers to test and validate their modelling procedures. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze and compare results from different methodologies employing local basis functions of wavelet and spline type as well as reduced point mass modeling and the classical collocation approach following the above mentioned objectives of JSG0.3.

  19. The 3rd Joint Solar Dynamics Project data summary: Solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 18 March 1988 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; Garcia, C. J.; Lundin, W. E.; Yasukawa, E. A.; Mickey, D. L.; Labonte, B.

    1988-11-01

    The general goal of the HAO/University of Hawaii Joint Solar Dynamics Project is to establish the relationships that exist between the solar magnetic field which is detected in the photosphere and the structure and evolution of the corona. The SOLDYN programs of 1982 and 1983 demonstrated the ability to use existing instruments to gather data of value in the pursuit of that goal. The goals for the observations in 1988 are as follows: (1) Document the state of the sun, from the photosphere up through the chromosphere and out into the corona for the approximately four-week interval around the total solar eclipse of 18 March 1988, and (2) Identify the relationship between the photospheric magnetic fields and the temperature and density structure of the corona. The reduced observations made during this SOLDYN 3 period necessary to achieve these goals are provided. The observations are presented both in the form of daily photographic and photo-electric measurements, and in synoptic format for the period.

  20. SAYANI'91 - A joint United States/Commonwealth of Independent States field campaign to investigate forest decline damage in the Krasnoyarsk region of southcentral Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Zhirin, V. M.; Rock, B. N.; Ranson, K. J.; Wessman, C. A.; Curtiss, B.

    1992-01-01

    The field experiment described took place in the Sayani Mountains of Siberia. The purpose of the joint field campaign was to observe and exchange methodologies with Russian scientists with regard to the development of remote sensing techniques for the early detection and assessment of forest decline damage believed to be associated with atmospheric deposition and/or insect and disease infestations. Several types of passive and active remote sensing measurements were made in conjunction with biophysical measurements on vegetative samples collected from four study sites representing a strong elevational gradient. Relatively cloud-free SPOT data were also acquired over the study area. Moderate canopy damage was recorded at the mid-elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The lowest levels of damage were recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m.) At all sites, east versus west flagging of the canopy was noted (i.e., full canopy on the west-facing side of the canopy, significantly less foliage on the east-facing side).

  1. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  2. A model of the general ocean circulation determined from a joint solution for the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.

    1989-01-01

    If the geoid and the satellite position are known accurately, satellite altimetry can be used to determine the geostrophic velocity of the surface ocean currents. The purpose of this investigation is to simultaneously estimate the sea surface topography, zeta, the model for the gravity field, and the satellite orbit. Satellite tracking data from fourteen satellites were used; along with Seasat and Geosat altimeter data as well as surface gravity data for the solution. The estimated model of zeta compares well at long wavelengths with the hydrographic model of zeta. Covariance studies show that the geoid is separable from zeta up to degree 9, at which point geoid error becomes comparable to the signal of zeta.

  3. Evaluation of 7XXX-series aluminum alloys for the W87 aft support ring

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    The study showed that the tensile properties of both 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 decreased significantly after holding the alloys for any length of time at temperatures greater than 500/sup 0/F. After a 2-min hold at 575/sup 0/F, the yield strengths of 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 were 217 MPa (31.5 ksi) and 245 MPa (35.6 ksi), respectively. There did not appear to be a significant difference in the mechanical properties between 7075-T6 and 7050-T6. Time at temperature appeared to be a critical parameter. Cycling the microstructure to 575/sup 0/F or above with no hold at temperature caused considerably less degradation in mechanical properties than a 2-min hold at temperature in all cases. Above 650/sup 0/F, both the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength of the alloys reached a minimum of around 310 MPa (45 ksi) and 138 MPa (20 ksi), respectively. Evidence of a continuous grain boundary film of eta phase precipitates was found in the 7075-T6 alloy after a typical 575/sup 0/F thermal cycle. The presence of this grain boundary precipitate indicated a potential sensitivity of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking. Although the general environment for the aft support ring is controlled, the ring is expected to be under tension after assembly and exposure to small amounts of water vapor will probably occur. The conditions of stress, moisture, and susceptible microstructure increase the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking.

  4. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Cam Lever Stop Strain Guage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up of the S-IV-B aft swing arm cam lever stop strain guage.

  5. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  6. A joint Russian-American field test at the Chelyabinsk-65 (Mayak) Site: Test description and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.; Tsang, C.F.; Frangos, W.

    1995-05-01

    In September 1994, a Russian-American team conducted hydrogeological, geochemical, geophysical, and radiometric measurements in the territory of the Mayak Production Association. The primary purpose of these operations was to examine the groundwater plume moving from Lake Karachai toward the river. Activities encompassed isolation of hydrologic intervals in two wells and production of water from these intervals, to compare isolated versus open-well sampling methods; surface and soil-water sampling, accompanying radiometric measurements and subsequent chemical analyses; and electrical resistivity profiling in areas of expected contrasting resistivity. Preliminary results indicate that (1) {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are present in small concentrations in water of the Mishelyak River, (2) analyses of water samples collected by a downhole sampler and of water produced from packed-off intervals agree within limits of laboratory accuracy, attesting to the efficacy of the sampling methods presently used by the Russian workers; and (3) strong contrasts occur between the electrical resistivities of soil and bedrock. Further collaborative work is strongly recommended, and should include more detailed isolation of intervals in wells by multi-packer installations, to better determine the geochemical and hydrological characteristics of the Karachai-Mishelyak system; deployment of a broader soil-water and soil sampling array; a more detailed examination of the distribution and concentration of radionuclides by high-resolution field gamma spectrometry; and a detailing of the area`s electrical resistivity setting, using a mobile electromagnetic measurement system.

  7. The galaxy-halo connection from a joint lensing, clustering and abundance analysis in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, J.; Arnouts, S.; van Waerbeke, L.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; van Uitert, E.; Erben, T.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kilbinger, M.; Kitching, T.; Mellier, Y.; Miller, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Bonnett, C.; Branchini, E.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Fu, L.; Hudelot, P.; Hudson, M. J.; Kuijken, K.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Velander, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present new constraints on the relationship between galaxies and their host dark matter haloes, measured from the location of the peak of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), up to the most massive galaxy clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.8 and over a volume of nearly 0.1 Gpc3. We use a unique combination of deep observations in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field from the near-UV to the near-IR, supplemented by ˜60 000 secure spectroscopic redshifts, analysing galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and the stellar mass function. We interpret our measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework, separating the contributions from central and satellite galaxies. We find that the SHMR for the central galaxies peaks at M_{h, peak} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1}× 10^{12} M_{⊙} with an amplitude of 0.025, which decreases to ˜0.001 for massive haloes ({{{M}_h}}> 10^{14} M_{⊙}). Compared to central galaxies only, the total SHMR (including satellites) is boosted by a factor of 10 in the high-mass regime (cluster-size haloes), a result consistent with cluster analyses from the literature based on fully independent methods. After properly accounting for differences in modelling, we have compared our results with a large number of results from the literature up to z = 1: we find good general agreement, independently of the method used, within the typical stellar-mass systematic errors at low to intermediate mass (M_{star}<10^{11} M_{⊙}) and the statistical errors above. We have also compared our SHMR results to semi-analytic simulations and found that the SHMR is tilted compared to our measurements in such a way that they over- (under-) predict star formation efficiency in central (satellite) galaxies.

  8. Scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of a slot-scan digital chest radiography system with electronic aft-collimation: a chest phantom study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinming; Shaw, Chris C; Lai, Chao-Jen; Altunbas, Mustafa C; Chen, Lingyun; Han, Tao; Wang, Tianpeng

    2008-06-01

    Anti-scatter grids have been widely used to reject scatter and increase the perceptibility of low-contrast object in chest radiography; however they also attenuate the primary x-rays, resulting in a substantial degradation of primary information. Compensation for this degradation requires the use of higher exposure technique hence higher dose to the patient. A more efficient approach to reject scatter is the slot-scan imaging technique which employs a narrow scanning x-ray fan beam in conjunction with a slit or slot shaped solid state detector or an area detector used with an aft-collimator. With this approach, scatter can be rejected effectively without the need to attenuate primary x-rays. This paper demonstrates an electronic aft-collimation method, referred to as the alternate line erasure and readout (ALER) technique, for implementing the slot-scan digital radiography with a modern flat-panel detector. With this technique, instead of first exposing the detector and then reading the image line by line, the image line on the leading edge of the scanning fan beam is reset to erase the scatter accumulated prior to the arrival of the fan beam x-rays, while the image line on the trailing edge of the scanning fan beam is read out to acquire the image signals following the fan-beam exposure. These reset and readout processes are alternated and repeated as the x-ray fan beam scans across the detector. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged to evaluate the scatter rejection ability and the low-contrast performance for the ALER technique and compare them with those for the anti-scatter grid method in full-field chest imaging. With a projected beam width of 16 mm, the slot-scan/ALER technique resulted in an average reduction of the scatter-to-primary ratios by 81%, 84%, 82%, and 86% versus 65%, 73%, 74%, and 73% with the anti-scatter grid method in the lungs, mediastinum, retrocardium, and subdiaphragm, respectively. The average CNR for the slot-scan/ALER technique

  9. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  10. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content The Joint Commission Log In | Request Guest Access Forgot password? | Log In Help Contact Us | Careers | JCR Web Store | Press Room Search Home Accreditation Accreditation Ambulatory Health ...

  11. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  12. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial

  13. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  14. Effect of location of aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program at Langley Research Center, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of locating flow-through mixed flow engine nacelles in several aft underwing positions on the longitudinal aerodynamics of a high wing transport airplane. D-shaped inlet nacelles were used in the test. Some configurations with antishock bodies and with nacelle toe-in were also tested. Data were obtained for a free stream Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.85 and a model angle-of-attack range from -2.5 to 4.0 degrees.

  15. Results of tests of the SRB aft skirt heat shield curtain in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    During the first two space shuttle flights the aft skirt heat shield curtain performed well during ascent but failed during reentry. This exposed the inside of the skirt and its subsystems to reentry heating. The resulting exposure damaged various expensive systems items and therefore a curtain reassessment is required. As a part of this reassessment, tests were conducted in the MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF). The purposes of these tests were to determine if the curtain would fail in a manner similar to that in flight and to demonstrate that meaningful tests of the curtain can be conducted in the HGF.

  16. MISR JOINT_AS Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-31

    ... daily (D), monthly (M), quarterly (Q), and yearly (Y) time scales and regional maps associated with field campaigns at daily and monthly time scales. The Joint Aerosol product provides a monthly global statistical ...

  17. Cisplatin upregulates Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in iron homeostasis through activation of the iron insufficiency-responsive transcription factor Aft1.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akiko; Ohashi, Kazuaki; Naganuma, Akira

    2007-02-01

    The response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cisplatin was investigated by examining variations in gene expression using cDNA microarrays and confirming the results by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mRNA levels of 14 proteins involved in iron homeostasis were shown to be increased by cisplatin. Interestingly, the expression of all 14 genes is known to be regulated by Aft1, a transcription factor activated in response to iron insufficiency. The promoter of one of these genes, FET3, has been relatively well studied, so we performed a reporter assay using the FET3 promoter and showed that an Aft1 binding site in the promoter region is indispensable for induction of transcription by cisplatin. The active domain of Aft1 necessary for activation of the FET3 promoter by cisplatin is identical to the one required for activation by bathophenanthroline sulfonate, an inhibitor of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, we found that cisplatin inhibits the uptake of (55)Fe(II) into yeast cells. These findings suggest that cisplatin activates Aft1 through the inhibition of iron uptake into the cells, after which the expression of Aft1 target genes involved in iron uptake might be induced.

  18. On the possible high +Gz tolerance increase by multimodal brain imaging controlled respiratory AFTE biofeedback training exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietanowski, Maciej; Achimowicz, Jerzy; Lorenc, Kamil; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Zalewska, Ewa; Truszczynski, Olaf

    The experimental data related to Valsalva manouvers and short term voluntary apnea, available in the literature, suggest that the cerebral blood flow increase and reduction of the peripheral one may be expected if the specific AFTE based respiratory training is performed. The authors had verified this hypothesis by studying the relations between EEG measured subject relaxation combined with voluntary apnea by multimodal brain imaging technique (EEG mapping, Neuroscan and fMRI) in a group of healthy volunteers. The SPM analysis of respiratory related changes in cortical and subcortical BOLD signal has partially confirmed the hypothesis. The mechanism of this effect is probably based on the simultaneous blood pressure increase and total peripheral resistance increase. However the question is still open for further experimental verification if AFTE can be treated as the tool which can increase pilot/astronaut situation awareness in the extreme environment typical for aerospace operations where highly variable accelerations due to liftoff, rapid maneuvers, and vibrations can be expected in the critical phases of the mission.

  19. The oxidative stress response in yeast cells involves changes in the stability of Aft1 regulon mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Castells-Roca, Laia; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Lill, Roland; Herrero, Enrique; Bellí, Gemma

    2011-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can import iron through a high-affinity system consisting of the Ftr1/Fet3-mediated reductive pathway and the siderophore-mediated non-reductive one. Expression of components of the high-affinity system is controlled by the Aft1 transcriptional factor. In this study we show that, upon oxidative stress, Aft1 is transitorily internalized into the nucleus, followed by transcription activation of components of its regulon. In these conditions, the mRNA levels of the genes of the non-reductive pathway become increased, while those of FTR1 and FET3 remain low because of destabilization of the mRNAs. Consequently, the respective protein levels also remain low. Such mRNA destabilization is mediated by the general 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway and is independent of the RNA binding protein Cth2. Yeast cells are hypersensitive to peroxides in growth conditions where only the high-affinity reductive pathway is functional for iron assimilation. On the contrary, peroxide does not affect growth when iron uptake occurs exclusively through the non-reductive pathway. This reinforces the idea that upon oxidative stress S. cerevisiae cells redirect iron assimilation through the non-reductive pathway to minimize oxidative damage by the ferrous ions, which are formed during iron import through the Ftr1/Fet3 complexes.

  20. Spacelab 3 flight experiment No. 3AFT23: Autogenic-feedback training as a preventive method for space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Sharp, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    Space adaptation syndrome is a motion sickness-like disorder which affects up to 50 percent of all people exposed to microgravity in space. This experiment tested a physiological conditioning procedure (Autogenic-Feedback Training, AFT) as an alternative to pharmacological management. Four astronauts participated as subjects in this experiment. Crewmembers A and B served as treatment subjects. Both received preflight training for control of heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral blood volume, and skin conductance. Crewmembers C and D served as controls (i.e., did not receive training). Crewmember A showed reliable control of his own physiological responses, and a significant increase in motion sickness tolerance after training. Crewmember B, however, demonstrated much less control and only a moderate increase in motion sickness tolerance was observed after training. The inflight symptom reports and physiological data recordings revealed that Crewmember A did not experience any severe symptom episodes during the mission, while Crewmember B reported one severe symptom episode. Both control group subjects, C and D (who took antimotion sickness medication), reported multiple symptom episodes on mission day 0. Both inflight data and crew reports indicate that AFT may be an effective countermeasure. Additional data must be obtained inflight (a total of eight treatment and eight control subjects) before final evaluation of this treatment can be made.

  1. Modelling the fore-and-aft apparent mass of the human body and the transmissibility of seat backrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-05-01

    A combined lumped-parameter and multi-body system dynamic model of the human body-seat system has been constructed with masses and moments of inertia and with linear translational and rotational springs and dampers. The model was developed in four steps by minimising the sum-of-least-squares error between laboratory measurements and model predictions of the fore-and-aft driving point apparent mass and the fore-and-aft transmissibility of a car backrest. Good agreement was achieved between model predictions and both the median measured driving-point apparent mass and the median measured backrest transmissibility with six subjects. The model was capable of representing the measured apparent masses and predicting the backrest transmissibility with the individual subjects. It was also capable of predicting the backrest transmissibilities of two different car seats. A sensitivity study was conducted and the effects of the model parameters on the peak moduli and corresponding frequencies of the apparent mass and the backrest transmissibility are presented.

  2. Collaborative Navigation as a Solution for PNT Applications in GNSS Challenged Environments - Report on Field Trials of a Joint FIG/IAG Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealy, Allison; Retscher, Guenther; Toth, Charles; Hasnur-Rabiain, Azmir; Gikas, Vassilis; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; Danezis, Chris; Moore, Terry

    2015-12-01

    PNT stands for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing. Space-based PNT refers to the capabilities enabled by GNSS, and enhanced by Ground and Space-based Augmentation Systems (GBAS and SBAS), which provide position, velocity, and timing information to an unlimited number of users around the world, allowing every user to operate in the same reference system and timing standard. Such information has become increasingly critical to the security, safety, prosperity, and overall qualityof-life of many citizens. As a result, space-based PNT is now widely recognized as an essential element of the global information infrastructure. This paper discusses the importance of the availability and continuity of PNT information, whose application, scope and significance have exploded in the past 10-15 years. A paradigm shift in the navigation solution has been observed in recent years. It has been manifested by an evolution from traditional single sensor-based solutions, to multiple sensor-based solutions and ultimately to collaborative navigation and layered sensing, using non-traditional sensors and techniques - so called signals of opportunity. A joint working group under the auspices of the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), entitled `Ubiquitous Positioning Systems' investigated the use of Collaborative Positioning (CP) through several field trials over the past four years. In this paper, the concept of CP is discussed in detail and selected results of these experiments are presented. It is demonstrated here, that CP is a viable solution if a `network' or `neighbourhood' of users is to be positioned / navigated together, as it increases the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity of the PNT information for all users.

  3. Collaborative Navigation as a Solution for PNT Applications in GNSS Challenged Environments - Report on Field Trials of a Joint FIG / IAG Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealy, Allison; Retscher, Guenther; Toth, Charles; Hasnur-Rabiain, Azmir; Gikas, Vassilis; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; Danezis, Chris; Moore, Terry

    2015-12-01

    PNT stands for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing. Space-based PNT refers to the capabilities enabled by GNSS, and enhanced by Ground and Space-based Augmentation Systems (GBAS and SBAS), which provide position, velocity, and timing information to an unlimited number of users around the world, allowing every user to operate in the same reference system and timing standard. Such information has become increasingly critical to the security, safety, prosperity, and overall qualityof-life of many citizens. As a result, space-based PNT is now widely recognized as an essential element of the global information infrastructure. This paper discusses the importance of the availability and continuity of PNT information, whose application, scope and significance have exploded in the past 10-15 years. A paradigm shift in the navigation solution has been observed in recent years. It has been manifested by an evolution from traditional single sensor-based solutions, to multiple sensor-based solutions and ultimately to collaborative navigation and layered sensing, using non-traditional sensors and techniques - so called signals of opportunity. A joint working group under the auspices of the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), entitled `Ubiquitous Positioning Systems' investigated the use of Collaborative Positioning (CP) through several field trials over the past four years. In this paper, the concept of CP is discussed in detail and selected results of these experiments are presented. It is demonstrated here, that CP is a viable solution if a `network' or `neighbourhood' of users is to be positioned / navigated together, as it increases the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity of the PNT information for all users.

  4. Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

  5. Assessing uncertainties in the Noah-MP ensemble simulations of a cropland site during the Tibet Joint International Cooperation program field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo; Chen, Fei; Gan, Yanjun

    2016-08-01

    Despite the widespread use of the latest community Noah with multiparameterization (Noah-MP) land surface model, it has not been rigorously evaluated over the complex Tibetan Plateau. This study assessed uncertainties in Noah-MP simulations of a cropland site using observations from the 2008 Joint International Cooperation program field campaign. Such an assessment was conducted in the context of performing a total number of 4608 Noah-MP physics ensemble simulations using two analysis methods: the natural selection approach and Tukey's test, where the impacts of uncertainties in atmospheric forcing conditions, vegetation parameters, and subprocesses on model simulations were identified. Uncertainty in precipitation data exerts greater influence on the general behavior of Noah-MP ensemble simulations than that in the leaf area index (LAI). However, using a more realistic seasonal LAI improves the seasonal variations of surface heat fluxes. Combining a better precipitation forcing data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly LAI significantly reduces the uncertainty range of the ensemble mean of surface heat fluxes. The uncertainty analysis results using the natural selection method are largely similar to that from Tukey's test but show some subtle differences. Both methods reveal greater uncertainties in the following subprocess schemes: canopy resistance, soil moisture threshold for evaporation, runoff and groundwater, and surface-layer parameterization for this cropland site. The uncertainty analysis identifies the parameterization schemes that demonstrably degrade model performance. The uncertainties in ensemble simulations were significantly reduced when those schemes were excluded, and it was possible to configure an optimal combination of parameterization schemes to obtain similar performance to the ensemble mean of the "best" ensemble experiment.

  6. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an ...

  7. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  8. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  9. Molecular and serological detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field.

    PubMed

    Romero-Salas, Dora; Mira, Anabela; Mosqueda, Juan; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Hidalgo-Ruiz, Mario; Vela, Noot Aditya Ortiz; de León, Adalberto Angel Perez; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-02-15

    Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. Under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. In addition to bovines, also water buffaloes are infected by both Babesia spp. commonly leading to a subclinical infection. The infection rate (by nPCR) and herd exposure (by IFAT) of bovines and water buffaloes reared under similar field conditions in an area of endemic stability were determined and compared. In order to optimize direct parasite detection, highly sensitive nPCR assays were developed and applied, allowing the detection of as little as 0.1 fg DNA of each Babesia pathogen. Significantly lower percentages (p<0.001) of seropositive water buffaloes compared to bovines were observed for B. bovis (71.4% vs. 98%) and B. bigemina (85% vs. 100%). Interestingly, in comparison, differences noticed between water buffaloes and bovines were considerably larger with direct parasite detection by nPCR (16.2% vs. 82.3% and 24% vs. 94.1% for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively). As expected, bovines subjected to monthly acaricide applications exhibited a significant lower infection rate as determined by nPCR than bovines not subjected to these measures (B. bovis 33.3% vs. 90.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 80% vs. 96.5%, p<0.001, for treated vs. untreated animals). Interestingly no differences between these groups were observed with respect to seropositivity, suggesting similar rates of parasite exposure (B. bovis 100% vs. 97.7%, p<0.001; B. bigemina 100% vs. 100%, p<0.001). Importantly, a significantly higher number of water buffaloes as determined by nPCR were infected when reared jointly with bovines not subjected

  10. Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandapuram, Santosh; Rakheja, Subhash; Marcotte, Pierre; Boileau, Paul-Émile

    2011-08-01

    The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft ( x), vertical ( z), and combined fore-aft and vertical ( x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals, denoted as H1 and Hv estimators, respectively. The experiments were performed to measure the biodynamic responses to single and uncorrelated dual-axis vibration, and to study the effects of hands support, back support and vibration magnitude on the body interactions with the seatpan and the backrest, characterized in terms of apparent masses and the vibration transmitted to the head. The data were acquired with 9 subjects exposed to two different magnitudes of vibration applied along the individual x- and z-axis (0.25 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms), and along both the axis (0.28 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms along each axis) in the 0.5-20 Hz frequency range. The two methods resulted in identical single-axis responses but considerably different dual-axis responses. The dual-axis responses derived from the Hv estimator revealed notable effects of dual-axis vibration, as they comprised both the direct and cross-axis responses observed under single axis vibration. Such effect, termed as the coupling effect, was not evident in the dual-axis responses derived using the commonly used H1 estimator. The results also revealed significant effects of hands and back support conditions on the coupling effects and the measured responses. The back support constrained the upper body movements and thus showed relatively weaker coupling compared to that observed in the responses without the back support. The effect of hand support was also pronounced under the fore-aft vibration. The results suggest that a better understanding of the seated human body responses to

  11. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  12. Joint Warrior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT The way we fight wars has been...evolving over thousands of years. Today, the U.S. Navy, finds itself in the post- modern area of war fighting . Joint warfare is the latest

  13. Effects of tail span and empennage arrangement on drag of a typical single-engine fighter aft end

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, J. R., II; Berrier, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of tail span and empennage arrangement on drag of a single engine nozzle/afterbody model. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 1.20, nozzle pressures frm 1.0 (jet off) to 8.0, and angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg, depending upon Mach numbers. Three empennage arrangements (aft, staggered, and forward) were investigated with several different tail spans. The results of the investigation indicate that tail span and position have a significant effect on the drag at transonic speeds. Unfavorable tail interference was largely due to the outer portion of the tail surfaces. The inner portion near the nozzle and afterbody did little to increase drag other than surface skin friction. Tail positions forward of the nozzle generally had lower tail interference.

  14. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  15. Factors influencing the stability of AFm and AFt in the Ca–Al–S–O–H system at 25 °C

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pan; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    The stabilities of Al2O3–Fe2O3-mono (AFm) and –tri (AFt) phases in the Ca–Al–S–O–H system at 25 °C are examined using Gibbs energy minimization as implemented by GEM-Selektor software coupled with the Nagra/PSI thermodynamic database. Equilibrium phase diagrams are constructed and compared to those reported in previous studies. The sensitivity of the calculations to the assumed solid solubility products, highlighted by the example of hydrogarnet, is likely the reason why some studies, including this one, predict a stable SO4-rich AFm phase while others do not. The majority of the effort is given to calculating the influences on AFm and AFt stability of alkali and carbonate components, both of which are typically present in cementitious binders. Higher alkali content shifts the equilibria of both AFt and AFm to lower Ca but higher Al and S concentrations in solution. More importantly, higher alkali content significantly expands the range of solution compositions in equilibrium with AFm relative to AFt phases. The introduction of carbonates alters not only the stable AFm solid solution compositions, as expected, but also influences the range of solution pH over which SO4-rich and OH-rich AFm phases are dominant. Some experimental tests are suggested that could provide validation of these calculations, which are all the more important because of the implications for resistance of portland cement binders to external sulfate attack. PMID:27335503

  16. Factors influencing the stability of AFm and AFt in the Ca-Al-S-O-H system at 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pan; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The stabilities of Al2O3-Fe2O3-mono (AFm) and -tri (AFt) phases in the Ca-Al-S-O-H system at 25 °C are examined using Gibbs energy minimization as implemented by GEM-Selektor software coupled with the Nagra/PSI thermodynamic database. Equilibrium phase diagrams are constructed and compared to those reported in previous studies. The sensitivity of the calculations to the assumed solid solubility products, highlighted by the example of hydrogarnet, is likely the reason why some studies, including this one, predict a stable SO4-rich AFm phase while others do not. The majority of the effort is given to calculating the influences on AFm and AFt stability of alkali and carbonate components, both of which are typically present in cementitious binders. Higher alkali content shifts the equilibria of both AFt and AFm to lower Ca but higher Al and S concentrations in solution. More importantly, higher alkali content significantly expands the range of solution compositions in equilibrium with AFm relative to AFt phases. The introduction of carbonates alters not only the stable AFm solid solution compositions, as expected, but also influences the range of solution pH over which SO4-rich and OH-rich AFm phases are dominant. Some experimental tests are suggested that could provide validation of these calculations, which are all the more important because of the implications for resistance of portland cement binders to external sulfate attack.

  17. Demonstration of short haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a twenty inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. The 1/3 octave band sound data are presented for all the configurations tested. The model data are presented on 17 foot arc and extrapolated to 200 foot sideline.

  18. Preliminary Results from the Joint Russian and US Field Test: Measurement of Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Responses Immediately Following Landing of the Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Fieveson, A. H.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short duration (Space Shuttle) and long duration (Mir and International Space Station) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest have do serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long duration flights does not begin until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (<24 hr) recovery process nor is it possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long duration flight. To overcome these limitations both the Russian and U.S. sides have implemented testing at the time of landing and before the flight crews have left the landing site. By joint agreement this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements including an evaluation of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment as compared with the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessment of hand/eye coordination, ability to egress from a seated position, walk normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, ability to discriminate different forces generated with both the

  19. Test and Evaluation of Field-Deployable Infectious Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System (JBAIDS): Malaria (Plasmodium/JBAIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-31

    Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER (JBAIDS): Malaria (Plasmodium...JBAIDS) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER James C. McAvin (Designated PI July 2011), Clinical Research Division/59th...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ESI 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Clinical Research Division, CSPG/SGVUL, 59th MDW, 2200 Bergquist Drive, REPORT NUMBER

  20. Thermal contact resistance measurement of conduction cooled binary current lead joint block in cryocooler based self field I-V characterization facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Agarwal, Anees Bano Pooja; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    In the present study thermal resistance of conduction cooled current lead joint block employing two different interfacial material namely AlN sheet and Kapton Film have been studied in the temperature range 5K-35K. In each case, the performance of different interlayer materials e.g. Indium foil for moderately pressurized contacts (contact pressure <1 MPa), and Apiezon N Grease, GE varnish for low pressurized contact (contact pressure <1 MPa) is studied. The performances of AlN joint with Indium foil and with Apeizon N Grease are studied and it is observed that the contact resistance reduces more with indium foil as compared to greased contact. The contact resistance measurements of Kapton film with Apiezon N grease and with GE varnish were also carried out in the same temperature range. A comparative study of AlN joint with Indium foil and Kapton with GE varnish as filler material is carried out to demonstrate better candidate material among Kapton and AlN for a particular filler material in the same temperature range.

  1. Joint service EOD robotics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Kurt; Brezina, Byron; DeBolt, Chris

    2006-05-01

    Within the military, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community has been an early adopter of robotic capabilities. The Joint Service EOD (JSEOD) Program is in the process of fielding its third generation of robotic systems to the EOD technicians. Robots have been an invaluable asset to the EOD technician, and they have been critical to operations in Iraq as we prosecute the IED problem. This paper provides a brief history of past EOD robotic systems, a description of currently fielded and supported systems, and the future of robotic programs within the Joint Service EOD community.

  2. Turbofan aft duct suppressor study. Contractor's data report of mode probe signal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, G. H.; Motsinger, R. E.; Syed, A. A.; Joshi, M. C.; Kraft, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic modal distributions were measured in a fan test model having an annular exhaust duct for comparison with theoretically predicted acoustic suppression values. This report contains the amplitude and phase data of the acoustic signals sensed by the transducers of the two mode probes employed in the measurement. Each mode probe consisted of an array of 12 transducers sensing the acoustic field at three axial positions and four radial positions.

  3. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; Feberwee, A

    2008-08-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was included as a control strain. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested quantitatively using the broth microdilution test. Based on initial and final minimum inhibitory concentration values, all tested isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin. Two isolates from the respiratory tract were resistant to enrofloxacin and showed intermediate resistance to difloxacin.

  4. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  5. Development and test of the ITER SC conductor joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gung, C. Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Michael, P.; Minervini, J.; Randall, A.

    1998-08-05

    Joints for the ITER superconducting Central Solenoid should perform in rapidly varying magnetic field with low losses and low DC resistance. This paper describes the design of the ITER joint and presents its assembly process. Two joints were built and tested at the PTF facility at MIT. Test results are presented; losses in transverse and parallel field and the DC performance are discussed. The developed joint demonstrates sufficient margin for baseline ITRR operating scenarios.

  6. NNWSI unit evaluation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site: Near field mechanical calculations using a continuum jointed rock moel in the JAC code

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.K.

    1987-05-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, managed by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work reported herein was done to support the selection, on a technical basis, of a single target repository horizon upon which to concentrate future activities. Presented in this report are the results of a comparative study between two candidate horizons: the devitrified Topopah Spring member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the nonwelded, zeolitized Tuffaceous Beds of Calico Hills. Performance of a repository sited in each candidate horizon was assessed by conducting structural calculations using a two-dimensional room-and-pillar geometry and average and limit material properties. The computer code JAC, with a constitutive model for jointed rock masses, was used to make the calculations. Based on analyses of the confining pressures in the pillar and the joint movement near the room, it is concluded that the Topopah Spring unit is more suitable than the Calico Hills unit for the placement of a nuclear waste repository. Finally, a comparison is made with a similar mine geometry sited in the Grouse Canyon Tuff, a horizon of known performance characteristics, using properties from G-Tunnel at NTS.

  7. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine general aviation configuration with aft-fuselage-mounted pusher propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Dana Morris; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Applin, Zachary T.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop aircraft model with aft-pylon-mounted pusher propellers. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of -8 to 28 degrees, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -20 to 20 degrees at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 0.55 to 2.14 x 10 to the 6th power based on mean aerodynamic chord. Test results show that for the unpowered configurations the maximum lift coefficients for the cruise, takeoff, and landing configurations are 1.45, 1.90, and 2.10, respectively. Nacelle installation results in a drag coefficient increase of 0.01. Increasing propeller thrust results in a significant increase in lift for angles of attack above stall and improves the longitudinal stability. The cruise configuration remains longitudinally stable to an angle of attack 5 degrees beyond the stall angle, the takeoff configuration is stable 4 degrees beyond stall angle, and the landing configuration is stable 3 degrees beyond stall angle. The predominant effect of symmetric thrust on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics is in the post-stall region, where additional rudder control is available with power on.

  8. An investigation of airflow over the aft portions of a variable sweep fighter configuration. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of air flow over the aft portions of a variable sweep fighter aircraft configuration was made. Tests conducted in the unitary plan wind tunnel at Mach number 2.16 included measurements of forces, moments, and local static pressures as well as visual recordings of the air flow. An aerodynamic analytical prediction method was evaluated when used in data comparison at angles of attack of 0, 5, and 15 degrees. The results indicate that in supersonic flow the typical outboard located twin vertical tail arrangement tends to provide a more positive increment in normal-force on the afterbody fuselage and the horizontal tail than a single center-mounted vertical tail of similar planform shape. In addition, the results indicate that a method for aerodynamic analysis of wing-body-tail configurations currently available can provide reasonable estimates of pressure coefficient distributions on configurations in regions of complex supersonic flow. At this time, however, the available analytical method cannot adequately replace experimental wind tunnel tests for determining the supersonic flow environment of a given configuration.

  9. Verification of RSRM Nozzle Thermal Models With ETM-3 Aft Exit Cone In-depth Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maw, Joel F.; Lui, Robbie C.; Totman, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the goals of the Engineering Test Motor (ETM-3) static test was to verify analytical models through the use of instrumentation that provide real-time transient temperature response of ablating phenolic liners. Accurate measurement of in-depth temperature is critical for validating the analytical models and assessing design safety margins for nozzle insulation materials. Recent developments of in-depth thermocouple plugs have been made to more accurately measure temperature response of nozzle Liners. Thermocouple plugs were installed at two axial stations (four plugs circumferentially at each station) near the end of the ETM-3 nozzle aft exit cone to gather temperature histories during and after motor operation. The thermocouple plugs were placed at depths that bounded the reusable solid rocket motor nominal measured char depth in order to portray the carbon phenolic temperature response during the charring process. The data were used to verify the analytical models during motor operation and to better define char penetration during heat soak after motor burn out.

  10. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  11. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  12. Results of tests of Insta-Foam Thermal Protection System (TPS) material for protection of equipment inside the SRB aft skirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of these tests was to determine whether Insta-Foam can be used successfully to protect items inside the solid rocket booster aft skirt during reentry. On some of the early Space Shuttle flights the aft skirt heat shield curtain failed during reentry. This allowed the hot gases to damage some of the equipment, etc., inside the skirt. For example, some of the propellant lines were overheated and ruptured and some of the NSI (nozzle severance) cables were damaged. It was suggested that the Insta-Foam thermal protection system be sprayed over these lines, etc., to protect them during future flights in case of a curtain failure. The tests presented were devised and run to check out the feasibility of this idea.

  13. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  14. Fore-and-aft stiffness and damping characteristics of 30 x 11.5-14.5, Type VIII, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Mercedes C.; Davis, Pamela A.; Yeaton, Robert B.; Vogler, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of footprint geometrical properties and fore and aft stiffness and damping characteristics were obtained on 30 x 11.5-14.5 bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires. Significant differences in stiffness and damping characteristics were found between the two design types. The results show that footprint aspect ratio effects may interfere with the improved hydroplaning potential associated with the radial-belted tire operating at higher inflation pressures.

  15. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian and U.S. Pilot Field Test with Planning for the Full Field Test Beginning with the Year Long Intenational Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short duration (Space Shuttle) and long duration (Mir and International Space Station) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (<24 hr) recovery process, nor is it possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. sides have implemented testing at landing site. By joint agreement, this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessment of hand/eye coordination, ability to egress from a seated position, walk normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, ability to discriminate different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovery from a fall, a coordinated walk

  16. A Study of Panel Loads and Centers of Pressure of Three Different Cruciform Aft-Tail Control Surfaces of a Wingless Missile from Mach 1.60 to 3.70

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, M.; Trescot, C. D., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was made of the forces and moments on the cruciform aft-tail control surfaces of a wingless missile model to determine the variation of panel load and center of pressure with angle of attack, tail deflection, model roll angle, and Mach number. Also, a limited force-moment and surface-pressure investigation was made on a noncircular aft end. These investigations were made in a unitary plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 2.36, and 3.70 and at a Reynolds number per meter of 6,600,000. The cruciform aft-tail results indicate very little variation in the center of pressure for the highly loaded windward tail. The noncircular aft-end test results indicate no significant effect of the fin unporting on the fin loads.

  17. SR-71A in Flight with Test Fixture Mounted Atop the Aft Section of the Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA 831 (B model), military serial 61-7956. From 1990 through 1994, Dryden also had another 'A' model, NASA 832, military serial 61-7971. This aircraft was returned to the USAF inventory and was the first aircraft reactivated for

  18. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  19. Application of frequency-domain linearized Euler solutions to the prediction of aft fan tones and comparison with experimental measurements on model scale turbofan exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özyörük, Y.; Tester, B. J.

    2011-08-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aircraft noise needs to be further reduced, there is an equally important, on-going requirement to accurately predict the strengths of all the different aircraft noise sources, not only to ensure that a new aircraft is certifiable and can meet the ever more stringent local airport noise rules but also to prioritize and apply appropriate noise source reduction technologies at the design stage. As the bypass ratio of aircraft engines is increased - in order to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and jet mixing noise - the fan noise that radiates from the bypass exhaust nozzle is becoming one of the loudest engine sources, despite the large areas of acoustically absorptive treatment in the bypass duct. This paper addresses this 'aft fan' noise source, in particular the prediction of the propagation of fan noise through the bypass exhaust nozzle/jet exhaust flow and radiation out to the far-field observer. The proposed prediction method is equally applicable to fan tone and fan broadband noise (and also turbine and core noise) but here the method is validated with measured test data using simulated fan tones. The measured data had been previously acquired on two model scale turbofan engine exhausts with bypass and heated core flows typical of those found in a modern high bypass engine, but under static conditions (i.e. no flight simulation). The prediction method is based on frequency-domain solutions of the linearized Euler equations in conjunction with perfectly matched layer equations at the inlet and far-field boundaries using high-order finite differences. The discrete system of equations is inverted by the parallel sparse solver MUMPS. Far-field predictions are carried out by integrating Kirchhoff's formula in frequency domain. In addition to the acoustic modes excited and radiated, some non-acoustic waves within the cold stream-ambient shear layer are also captured by the computations at some flow and excitation frequencies. By

  20. Joint interaction with embedded concretions: joint loading configurations inferred from propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, David T.; Engelder, Terry

    1999-11-01

    The interaction between propagating joints and embedded concretions in a Devonian black shale near Seneca Lake, NY, permits identification of the loading configurations responsible for two joint sets of different ages striking at nearly the same orientation. The earlier set consists of systematic joints cut by later Alleghanian joints of the Appalachian Plateau. The later set consists of non-systematic curving cross joints that abut these same Alleghanian joints. Field evidence shows that concretions functioned as stiff inclusions in a compliant black shale. As a consequence of this elastic contrast, local perturbations in the remote stress field persisted around the concretions during burial, tectonic deformation, and exhumation. These stress perturbations influenced joint propagation paths of both joint sets. Our conclusions about loading configurations are based on finite-element modeling of the effect of the local stress perturbation on concretion-modified joint propagation. Modeling shows that the local stress perturbation from a thermoelastic loading was responsible for deflecting cross joints away from concretions in a curved propagation path near the concretion. This load configuration also led to arrest of cross joints before they penetrated the shale-concretion interface. At greater distances from the concretion, the propagation path of cross joints was controlled by the contemporary tectonic stress field. The interface between concretions and the surrounding shale was strongly bonded, as indicated by the crossing of the interface by some of the systematic ENE joints. Higher compressive stress levels within the concretions relative to the shale suppressed joint development in the concretion, causing the arrest of those joints once they had driven across the interface and a short distance into the concretion. Numerical modeling shows that interface penetration by the systematic ENE joints is consistent with a fluid load, the same loading configuration

  1. Optimized Bolted Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.; Bunin, B. L.; Watts, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Computer technique aids joint optimization. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted composite joints computed by nonlinear-analysis computer program. Input to analysis was load-deflection data from 180 specimens tested as part of program to develop technology of structural joints for advanced transport aircraft. Bolt design optimization technique applicable to major joints in composite materials for primary and secondary structures and generally applicable for metal joints as well.

  2. Geodatabase of environmental information for Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Quigley, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the groundwater-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites (landfills and pits) and from manufacturing processes (U.S. Air Force, Aeronautical Systems Center, 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate (ASC/ENVR), developed a comprehensive database (or geodatabase) of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the geology, hydrology, and water quality at AFP4 and NAS-JRB. The database of this report provides information about the AFP4 and NAS-JRB study area including sample location names, identification numbers, locations, historical dates, and various measured hydrologic data. This database does not include every sample location at the site, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hardcopy data of the USAF, USGS, and various consultants who have previously or are currently working at the site.

  3. Thermal Fault Tolerance Analysis of Carbon Fiber Rope Barrier Systems for Use in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor ( RSRM) Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie; Phelps, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon Fiber Rope (CFR) thermal barrier systems are being considered for use in several RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) nozzle joints as a replacement for the current assembly gap close-out process/design. This study provides for development and test verification of analysis methods used for flow-thermal modeling of a CFR thermal barrier subject to fault conditions such as rope combustion gas blow-by and CFR splice failure. Global model development is based on a 1-D (one dimensional) transient volume filling approach where the flow conditions are calculated as a function of internal 'pipe' and porous media 'Darcy' flow correlations. Combustion gas flow rates are calculated for the CFR on a per-linear inch basis and solved simultaneously with a detailed thermal-gas dynamic model of a local region of gas blow by (or splice fault). Effects of gas compressibility, friction and heat transfer are accounted for the model. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solutions of the fault regions are used to characterize the local flow field, quantify the amount of free jet spreading and assist in the determination of impingement film coefficients on the nozzle housings. Gas to wall heat transfer is simulated by a large thermal finite element grid of the local structure. The employed numerical technique loosely couples the FE (Finite Element) solution with the gas dynamics solution of the faulted region. All free constants that appear in the governing equations are calibrated by hot fire sub-scale test. The calibrated model is used to make flight predictions using motor aft end environments and timelines. Model results indicate that CFR barrier systems provide a near 'vented joint' style of pressurization. Hypothetical fault conditions considered in this study (blow by, splice defect) are relatively benign in terms of overall heating to nozzle metal housing structures.

  4. First-order phase transition from an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric to a cycloidal multiferroic with weak ferromagnetism during the joint action of applied magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Lyubutin, I. S.

    2013-09-15

    The thermodynamics of the phase transition in a perovskite-like multiferroic, in which an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric transforms into a new magnetic state where a spiral spin structure and weak ferromagnetism can coexist in applied magnetic field H, is described. This state forms as a result of a first-order phase transition at a certain temperature (below Neel temperature T{sub N}), where a helicoidal magnetic structure appears due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya effect. In this case, the axes of electric polarization and the helicoid of magnetic moments are mutually perpendicular and lie in the ab plane, which is normal to principal axis c. Additional electric polarization p, which decreases the total polarization of the ferroelectric P, appears in the ab plane. The effect of applied magnetic and electric fields on the properties of a multiferroic with a helicoidal magnetic structure is described. An alternating electric field is shown to cause a field-linear change in magnetic moment m, whose sign is opposite to the sign of the change of electric field E. The detected hysteretic phenomena that determine the temperature ranges of overheating and supercooling of each phase are explained. A comparison with the experimental data is performed.

  5. An investigation into the accuracy of the albedo dosimeter DVGN-01 in measuring personnel irradiation doses in the fields of neutron radiation at nuclear power installations of the joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskrovnaya, L. G.; Goroshkova, E. A.; Mokrov, Yu. V.

    2010-05-01

    The calculated results of research into the accuracy of an individual albedo dosimeter DVGN-01 as it corresponds to the personal equivalent dose for neutrons H p (10) and to the effective dose for neutrons E eff in the neutron fields at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Nuclear Power Installations (JNPI) upon different geometries of irradiations are presented. It has been shown that correction coefficients are required for the specific estimation of doses by the dosimeter. These coefficients were calculated using the energy sensitivity curve of the dosimeter and the known neutron spectra at JNPI. By using the correction factors, the uncertainties of both doses will not exceed the limits given to the personnel according to the standards.

  6. Assessing The Role Of Integrated Learning In The BSc International Field Geosciences (IFG) Joint Degree Programme At University College Cork, the University of Montana and the University of Potsdam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meere, Patrick; Hendrix, Marc; Strecker, Manfred; Berger, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Geology at University College Cork (UCC), Ireland, in conjunction with the Universities of Montana (UM) and Potsdam (UP) launched a new BSc in International Field Geosciences in Autumn 2008. In this program superb natural field geoscience laboratories available in Europe and the western United States are utilized as learning environments forming the basis for a ‘Joint' Bachelor of Science undergraduate degree. This programme focuses on the documentation, interpretation, and synthesis of critical geological issues in the field. It rests upon a backbone of existing modules that are the foundation of current geology programs at three partner institutions complemented by an emphasis on the development of field-based learning in an intercultural setting. The core curriculum is identical to that required for the existing BSc Geology at UCC except the third Year is spent abroad at UM while additional courses are taken at the UP at the start the fourth year. The mobility component of the programme is funded as part of a joint EU/US ATLANTIS project. The motivation for the new programme was primarily driven by the growing international demand for geoscientists with integrated field skills. Over the last two decades existing geoscience programmes in Europe and the US have tended to progressively reduce their field based learning components. One of the major reasons for this neglect is the increasing cost associated with physically transporting students into the field and maintaining a safe outdoor working environment. Heath and safety considerations in an increasingly litigious society have led to increasingly limited choices for suitable field areas in the last few decades. Lastly, recent technological advances such as GIS and various other forms of remote sensing have led to new ways of analyzing geospatial data that, while certainly useful, divert the attention of the Geoscience community away from collecting ‘ground truth' data and making direct

  7. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  8. Joint solar dynamics project data summary (2nd): solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, D.G.; Fisher, R.R.; Garcia, C.J.; Najita, J.R.; Rock, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Also included are photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5, by the Mees observatory Stokes photo-polarimeter. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps have been constructed for this interval.

  9. 2nd Joint Solar Dynamics Project data summary: Solar magnetic field, chromospheric and coronal observations near the time of the 11 June 1983 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; Fisher, R. R.; Garcia, C.; Najita, J. R.; Rock, K. A.; Seagraves, P. H.; Yasukawa, E.; McCabe, M. K.; Mickey, D. L.

    1983-07-01

    A comprehensive set of observations of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona is presented for one week on either side of the 11 June 1983 total solar eclipse. These observations, made at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and at the University of Hawaii's Mees Solar Observatory on Haleakala, include H images of the disk and the limb, off-band H sunspot and Ca-II K-line images, together with observations of the white light corona. Photospheric longitudinal magnetic field estimates made from the Fe line at 6302.5 by the Mees observatory Stokes photopolarimeter are included. The data are presented as daily observations. In the case of the k-coronal observations and the magnetic field data, synoptic maps were constructed for this interval.

  10. Tectonic pattern of the Mendeleev Ridge and adjacent basins: results of joint analysis of potential fields and recent Russian seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, Andrey; Astafurova, Ekaterina; Korneva, Maria; Egorova, Alena; Redko, Anton; Glebovsky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The work was performed under Russian Federation State Geological mapping at a scale of 1:1 000 000 and UNCLOS programs. The study area is located between 76N-84N and 156E-168W and covers the Mendeleev Ridge, adjacent Podvodnikov, Mendeleev, Chukchi Basins and northern part of the East-Siberian Sea shelf. It is characterized by very poor magnetic and gravity data coverage. Majority of airborne magnetic and on-ice gravity surveys were carried out in the region about 40 years ago and have low spatial resolution and poor navigation. Seismic data collected earlier in the study area are presented by sparse lines of historical seismic reflection soundings and by results of deep seismic refraction and reflection observations along several geotransects. Hence, conclusions concerning tectonic structure and spatial relation of the Mendeleev Ridge with adjacent geological structures up to present day remain speculative. Joint analysis of recent seismic reflection and refraction data collected during Russian expeditions «Arctic-2011» and «Arctic-2012» with mentioned above geophysical information allowed to clarify the contours of geological structures in the study area and reveal some new peculiarities of their tectonic pattern. Particularly complex tectonic structure of the Mendeleev Ridge, changing from it's southern to the northern part and represented by two main systems of tectonic displacements is discovered. The first fault system comprises horsts/graben-bounding faults oriented preferably in N-S direction. The second system is presented by faults of NW-SE direction disturbing the first one. In the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge such faults are the strike-slip faults with small horizontal displacements. Starting from the central part of the ridge and further to the north, displacements along strike-slip faults become progressively more pronounced and have sinistral character. In the northern part of the ridge a pull-apart structures are recognized which

  11. The Sum of Their Fears: The Relationship Between the Joint Targeting Coordination Board and the Joint Force Commander.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    established the Joint Target Group (JTG) on August 2, 1944. The JCS organized the JTG because, "Duplication of effort and lack of integration between the...field.ŗ The JCS tasked the Joint Target Group to provide continuing target analysis and assure a high degree of integration and coordination between...Memorandum, JCS 1020, subject: Joint Target Group , 24 August 1944, USAFHRA No K142.6601-1, 4. 3 Ibid. 2. 9 made it clear that the "Joint Targeting

  12. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints ...

  13. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  14. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  15. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  16. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  17. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  18. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  19. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  20. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) Print A A A What's in ... español Aspiración articular (artrocentesis) What It Is A joint aspiration (arthrocentesis) is a test that involves withdrawing ( ...

  1. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  2. A model function for jet noise events at aft angles and what it says about the statistical relationships of the events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney-Fischer, M.

    2015-03-01

    Previous works have shown that subsonic jet noise radiating to aft angles can be described as a succession of independent large fluctuations (i.e. events). Building on these previous works, a model function is found that can accurately reproduce the observed spectra for jets whose aft angle noise is well described the Large-scale Similarity Spectrum (LSS). The selection of the model function is informed by the LSS and autocorrelation analysis of experimental data. It is determined that the model function should be a bipolar pulse with zero mean in order to reproduce the LSS over low to midrange frequencies (i.e. frequencies much higher than the spectral peak frequency are not considered). It is also found that, without sacrificing much fidelity in terms of the resulting spectrum, the model function can be antisymmetric leading to a compact analytical expression with a minimal number of parameters. Along with the statistical parameters and distributions extracted from the data, it is shown that this model function for the events can reproduce the measured spectral characteristics quite well. The model function is then used to explore the link between the event distributions and parameters and the resulting spectrum.

  3. An investigation of the effects of aft blowing on a 3.0 caliber tangent ogive body at high angles of attack. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittner, Nathan M.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of aft blowing on the asymmetric vortex flow of a slender, axisymmetric body at high angles of attack was conducted. A 3.0 caliber tangent ogive body fitted with a cylindrical afterbody was tested in a wind tunnel under subsonic, laminar flow test conditions. Asymmetric blowing from both a single nozzle and a double nozzle configuration, positioned near the body apex, was investigated. Aft blowing was observed to alter the vortex asymmetry by moving the blowing-side vortex closer to the body surface while moving the non-blowing-side vortex further away from the body. The effect of increasing the blowing coefficient was to move the blowing-side vortex closer to the body surface at a more upstream location. The data also showed that blowing was more effective in altering the initial vortex asymmetry at the higher angles of attack than at the lower. The effects of changing the nozzle exit geometry were investigated and it was observed that blowing from a nozzle with a low, broad exit geometry was more effective in reducing the vortex asymmetry than blowing from a high, narrow exit geometry.

  4. Modeling Progressive Failure of Bonded Joints Using a Single Joint Finite Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution which can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh-independent finite element analysis. In the present study, an enhanced finite element is applied to generate a general framework capable of modeling an array of joint types. The joint field equations are derived using the principle of minimum potential energy, and the resulting solutions for the displacement fields are used to generate shape functions and a stiffness matrix for a single joint finite element. This single finite element thus captures the detailed stress and strain fields within the bonded joint, but it can function within a broader structural finite element model. The costs associated with a fine mesh of the joint can thus be avoided while still obtaining a detailed solution for the joint. Additionally, the capability to model non-linear adhesive constitutive behavior has been included within the method, and progressive failure of the adhesive can be modeled by using a strain-based failure criteria and re-sizing the joint as the adhesive fails. Results of the model compare favorably with experimental and finite element results.

  5. Joint Command and Control: Integration Not Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    field and operate distinct, in effect, stand-alone C2 systems. However, every operational level event is Joint. In order to incorporate their...capabilities into Joint operations, the Services have developed distinct C2 systems with various level of interoperability, but none of them are truly...separate computer and communication equipment. Besides having to engineer interoperability, the Services also must determine the level of

  6. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    PubMed Central

    Legout, Laurence; Senneville, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections. PMID:24288493

  7. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  8. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  9. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2005-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  10. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2004-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and non-standard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  11. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2004-10-29

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and non-standard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  12. Analyses and estimates of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests in alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the collection, analyses, and distribution of hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from slug tests completed in the alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, during October 2002 and August 2003 and summarizes previously available hydraulic-conductivity data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, completed 30 slug tests in October 2002 and August 2003 to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity to use as initial values in a ground-water-flow model for the site. The tests were done by placing a polyvinyl-chloride slug of known volume beneath the water level in selected wells, removing the slug, and measuring the resulting water-level recovery over time. The water levels were measured with a pressure transducer and recorded with a data logger. Hydraulic-conductivity values were estimated from an analytical relation between the instantaneous displacement of water in a well bore and the resulting rate of head change. Although nearly two-thirds of the tested wells recovered 90 percent of their slug-induced head change in less than 2 minutes, 90-percent recovery times ranged from 3 seconds to 35 minutes. The estimates of hydraulic conductivity range from 0.2 to 200 feet per day. Eighty-three percent of the estimates are between 1 and 100 feet per day.

  13. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  14. Sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, Paul; Dreyer, Susan J; Cole, Andrew; Mayo, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a source of pain in the lower back and buttocks in approximately 15% of the population. Diagnosing sacroiliac joint-mediated pain is difficult because the presenting complaints are similar to those of other causes of back pain. Patients with sacroiliac joint-mediated pain rarely report pain above L5; most localize their pain to the area around the posterior superior iliac spine. Radiographic and laboratory tests primarily help exclude other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and bone scans of the sacroiliac joint cannot reliably determine whether the joint is the source of the pain. Controlled analgesic injections of the sacroiliac joint are the most important tool in the diagnosis. Treatment modalities include medications, physical therapy, bracing, manual therapy, injections, radiofrequency denervation, and arthrodesis; however, no published prospective data compare the efficacy of these modalities.

  15. Automatic segmentation of cartilage in high-field magnetic resonance images of the knee joint with an improved voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm using vicinity-correlated subsampling.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ceyda Nur; Albayrak, Songül

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical structures that can deteriorate over time, such as cartilage, can be successfully delineated with voxel-classification approaches in magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, segmentation via voxel-classification is a computationally demanding process for high-field MR images with high spatial resolutions. In this study, the whole femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments in the knee joint were automatically segmented in high-field MR images obtained from Osteoarthritis Initiative using a voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm with sample-expand method. Computational complexity of the classification was alleviated via subsampling of the background voxels in the training MR images and selecting a small subset of significant features by taking into consideration systems with limited memory and processing power. Although subsampling of the voxels may lead to a loss of generality of the training models and a decrease in segmentation accuracies, effective subsampling strategies can overcome these problems. Therefore, different subsampling techniques, which involve uniform, Gaussian, vicinity-correlated (VC) sparse, and VC dense subsampling, were used to generate four training models. The segmentation system was experimented using 10 training and 23 testing MR images, and the effects of different training models on segmentation accuracies were investigated. Experimental results showed that the highest mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values for all compartments were obtained when the training models of VC sparse subsampling technique were used. Mean DSC values optimized with this technique were 82.6%, 83.1%, and 72.6% for femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments, respectively, when mean sensitivities were 79.9%, 84.0%, and 71.5%, and mean specificities were 99.8%, 99.9%, and 99.9%.

  16. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    non-surgical measures, high-grade inju- ries frequently warrant surgical intervention to minimize pain and maximize shoulder function. Factors such as...sports [1–3]. While most injuries can be managed non-operatively, high-grade separations may result in per- sistent pain or functional decline and...joint pathology (cross arm adduction and loading of the AC joint) can be helpful to localize shoulder pain to the AC joint. These tests are especial- ly

  17. Joint Program Management Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is...to review concept formulaton. Systems Engilneertn As with service programs, systems engineering in joint program management is an essential tool . I...MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK On=e wd Umawtaiutt As discussed in Chapter 7, systems analysis of relationships is a usef tool for joint program managers. The joint

  18. Ultrasonic Welding of Hybrid Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Guntram; Balle, Frank; Eifler, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    A central research field of the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern (WKK), Germany, is the realization of innovative hybrid joints by ultrasonic metal welding. This article gives an overview of suitable ultrasonic welding systems as well as of essential machine and material parameters, which influence the quality of the welds. Besides the ultrasonic welding of dissimilar metals such as Al to Cu or Al to steels, the welds between newly developed materials like aluminum foam sandwiches or flat flexible cables also can be realized. Moreover, the joining of glass and ceramic to sheet metals is a point of interest at the WKK. By using the ultrasonic metal welding process, it is possible to realize metal/glass welds with tensile shear strengths of 50 MPa. For metal/ceramic joints, the shear strengths values up to 150 MPa were measured. Finally, selected results about the occurring bonding mechanisms will be discussed.

  19. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:26110171

  20. [Chronic knee joint discomfort].

    PubMed

    Wittke, R

    2005-06-23

    Chronic pain in the knee joint is frequently a sign of arthrosis in adults. This must be clearly differentiated from other knee problems. Patellofemoral stress syndrome (occurs mostly in young people) and arthritis with effusion in the knee joint after long and mostly unusual stress also allow only a reduced function of the knee joint. However, even when the knee joint is still fully functional, chronic problems could already exist: For example, for joggers, iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee) or after high unphysiological stress, patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee). These must be differentiated from pes anserinus syndrome and a plica mediopatellaris.

  1. Laboratory experiments on columnar jointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Morris, S. W.

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism causing columnar jointing has remained an enticing mystery since the basalt columns of the Giant's Causeway in N. Ireland were first reported to science in the 17th century. This phenomenon, in which shrinkage cracks form a quasi-hexagonal arrangement, has been shown to produce columns in starch, glass, coal, sandstone, and ice, as well as in a variety of lava flows. This suggests that this pattern-forming process is very general in nature. However, most studies of columnar jointing have been confined to field studies of basalt flows. Following Muller, we have experimented with desiccating corn starch in an effort to understand this pattern from a more general point of view. The diffusion and evaporation of water in starch is thought to be analogous to the diffusion and extraction of heat from a basalt flow. By combining direct sampling and x-ray tomography, fully 3D descriptions of columnar jointing were obtained with starch samples. We have characterized the pattern with several statistical indices, which describe its structure and relative disorder. These methods can resolve the ordering of the colonnade near the free surface. We identified two distinct mechanisms by which the mean column area increases during pattern evolution. We found both a slow, almost power-law increase in column area, as well as episodes of sudden catastrophic jumps in scale. The latter suggests that the column scale is not a simple single-valued function of drying rate, but rather a metastable state subject to hysteresis. Such metastable behaviour might explain a fundamental question about columnar jointing -- why the columns are so regular in the direction of their growth. Moreover, these experiments may help discriminate between the various theoretical models of this pattern forming process. Finally, our results lead to predictions that could be tested by field measurements on basaltic colonnades.

  2. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical breakdown of rock across a broad scale spectrum involves fracturing. In many areas large fractures develop near the topographic surface, with sheeting joints being among the most impressive. Sheeting joints share many geometric, textural, and kinematic features with other joints (opening-mode fractures) but differ in that they are (a) discernibly curved, (b) open near the topographic surface, and (c) form subparallel to the topographic surface. Where sheeting joints are geologically young, the surface-parallel compressive stresses are typically several MPa or greater. Sheeting joints are best developed beneath domes, ridges, and saddles; they also are reported, albeit rarely, beneath valleys or bowls. A mechanism that accounts for all these associations has been sought for more than a century: neither erosion of overburden nor high lateral compressive stresses alone suffices. Sheeting joints are not accounted for by Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criteria. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, together with the mechanical effect of a curved topographic surface, do provide a basis for understanding sheeting joint growth and the pattern sheeting joints form. Compressive stresses parallel to a singly or doubly convex topographic surface induce a tensile stress perpendicular to the surface at shallow depths; in some cases this alone could overcome the weight of overburden to open sheeting joints. If regional horizontal compressive stresses, augmented by thermal stresses, are an order of magnitude or so greater than a characteristic vertical stress that scales with topographic amplitude, then topographic stress perturbations can cause sheeting joints to open near the top of a ridge. This topographic effect can be augmented by pressure within sheeting joints arising from water, ice, or salt. Water pressure could be particularly important in helping drive sheeting joints downslope beneath valleys. Once sheeting joints have formed, the rock sheets between

  3. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  4. Using Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint for Global Surface Pressure and Temperature Measurements on the Aft-Body of a Capsule Reentry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Buck, Gregory M.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) and Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) were used to visualize and quantify the surface interactions of reaction control system (RCS) jets on the aft body of capsule reentry vehicle shapes. The first model tested was an Apollo-like configuration and was used to focus primarily on the effects of the forward facing roll and yaw jets. The second model tested was an early Orion Crew Module configuration blowing only out of its forward-most yaw jet, which was expected to have the most intense aerodynamic heating augmentation on the model surface. This paper will present the results from the experiments, which show that with proper system design, both PSP and TSP are effective tools for studying these types of interaction in hypersonic testing environments.

  5. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  6. Jointness, A Selected Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Joint warfare is team warfare. Joint Pub 1 purple- suiter -An officer assigned to duty on a staff where no particu- lar service predominates. This may...Force Quarterly, no. 5 (Summer 1994): 64-70. Winton, Harold R. "Partnership and Tension: The Army and Air Force Between Vietnam and Desert Shield

  7. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Vision 2020 (JV 2020 ) is the conceptual template established to guide the transformation of America’s Armed Forces. According to this template, the...of Staff. Joint Vision 2020 , (Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library, February 2001):1. 2 Ibid...Staffs of Staff, 2011. __________. Joint Vision 2020 .Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library

  8. [Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of leprosy reaction services with standard prednisolone treatment at field level in an endemic country--some data from joint leprosy research collaboration in Myanmar].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yutaka

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of standard predonisolone treatment for leprosy reaction at field level in some place of Myanmar are shown in this paper as results of joint leprosy research collaboration. WHO disability grading was measured for all newly registered leprosy patients through 2007 in 5 selected townships of Ayeyarwaddy Division, with the results of G0 = 66.3%, GI = 18.9%, GII = 14.7% (N = 95). The cross-sectional disability survey at selected 9 townships in Mandalay, Sagaing and Magway Division for all registered patients who had completed WHO/MDT done by JICA project in 2003/4 showed G0 = 62.5%, GI = 2.4%, GII = 35.1% (N = 10,528). From these two data, it is supposed that considerable number of patients with G1 at registered time developed worsening of disability from G1 to G2. Proportion of G0 also reduced a little bit in patients who completed WHO/MDT. Early detection and proper treatment of leprosy reaction are one of the main issues of prevention of disability. Effectiveness of leprosy reaction services were evaluated at Mandalay Special Skin Clinic, where WHO fixed regimen of prednisolone were given as routine service. 100 cases were evaluated who developed leprosy reactions from 1st December 2007 to 31st December 2008 and identified severe reaction who needed oral prednisolone treatment. Evaluation criteria of "effective" was defined as "no more signs and symptoms of reactions were present after treatment. And "less effective" was defined as "more than one of signs and symptoms were still remained after treatment". Over all "effective" was 36 (36%) and "less effective" was 64 (64%). It was also found that rates of improvement of nerve functions, either in sensory or in motor, were little after the standard treatment.

  9. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  10. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  11. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  12. Joint Robotics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  13. Total ankle joint replacement.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  14. Issues related to SPR joints subjected to fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    SPR joints will represent an alternative solution to spot welding in automotive field. However, their fatigue behavior shows several critical issues. After a brief introduction of this new solution, different crack modes are described, emphasizing the parameters that characterize them, i.e. the applied loads, the geometry of the joint and other phenomenon as fretting, vibration and corrosion.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on joint modelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    Joint modelling techniques have seen great advances in the recent years, with several types of joint models having been developed in literature that can handle a wide range of applications. This special issue of Statistical Methods in Medical Research presents some recent developments from this field. This introductory article contains some background material and highlights the contents of the contributions.

  16. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  17. The complex post-rift evolution of the South Atlantic margin, South Africa: new insights from joint inversion of apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track thermochronometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Persano, Cristina; Beucher, Romain; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    The continental edge of southwestern Africa has long been seen as a type example of a high elevation passive margin, with its characteristic topography forming during or shortly after rifting (c. 130 Ma). Recent work along the South Atlantic passive margin has highlighted the importance of interactions between rift-tectonics, mantle flow and dynamic topography on controlling margin evolution, however, the temporal relationship between these processes is still poorly understood. There is now increasing evidence from satellite imagery, onshore field observations (e.g. Viola et al., 2012) and offshore sedimentary basin analysis (e.g. Hirsch et al., 2010) that suggests that these processes have resulted in a much more complex structural and thermal history along the margin than previously thought. A critical step towards developing a better understanding of the post-rift evolution of this margin is to quantify the surface response (i.e. uplift and erosion) to these major structural and thermal events. Apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) has been used world-wide as a powerful means of extracting quantitative constraints on the timing and rate of major episodes of onshore denudation. Previous AFTA studies in SW Africa have identified two distinct cooling events occurred during early and late Cretaceous, respectively. However, in places AFT ages vary significantly over relatively short distances and this has been interpreted to indicate local differential erosion levels controlled by tectonic displacements related to fault reactivation. A limitation of the AFT system is that it is sensitive to a temperature range of c. 120-60°C and therefore is unable to evaluate the magnitude of denudation episodes where the amounts are less than c. 1.5-2 km. So while the Cretaceous history of erosion is well established from existing AFTA data, the details of the timing and amount of erosion occurring during the Cenozoic remain relatively poorly constrained. The apatite (U

  18. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... examination. This will assess shoulder motion, stability, and strength. joint. (Right) Osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Note the ... you can start moving sooner and get your strength back more quickly. Talk with your surgeon if ...

  19. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  20. Jointness: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    JOINTNESS A Selected Bibliography U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE LIBRARY December 2010 Report Documentation Page Form...Lenore Garder 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College...of the U.S. Army War College. A revised and updated version of our earlier bibliographies on jointness, it focuses on aspects of United States

  1. Successfully Developing Joint Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    least for the ROTC aspect of the Navy commissioning source, this is about to change at the University of South Florida (USF). In fact the “Joint...get their training over a six- month period at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. A Marine aviator will go through Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida alongside...MCAS Beaufort, he served in Afghanistan as “Commanding Officer of Taskforce Panther , a joint coalition taskforce in support of OEF” (http

  2. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  3. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  4. Columnar Jointing Thermo-Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddon, Fiona; Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Wadsworth, Fabian; von Aulock, Felix; Lavallée, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Thermo-mechanical effects, common to a wide range of geological phenomena, are integral to the formation of columnar joints during cooling and crystallisation of lava flows. The process, and resultant geometry, relies on a complex inter-play between heat distribution, contraction and tensile strength, yet the kinetics of their formation remains elusive. Results are presented from a combination of field survey, thermo-analytical characterisation and mechanical investigation to constrain conditions favourable for columnar jointing. Columnar joints from Seljavallir, Iceland, produce quadratic to heptagonal cross sectional patterns with column widths ranging from 20 to 70 cm in size. The fracture surfaces are characterised by striae of which spacing (between 1 to 6 cm) appear to share a positive linear relationship to the joint spacing. The striae exhibit both a smooth and rough portion, interpreted to express a change in deformation regime from fully brittle, mode-I fracture propagation to an increasingly ductile response of the lava with tensile fracture dissipation as the fracture event wanes. The contraction of the basalts has been investigated via the expansion coefficient determined in a dilatometer (at 3mN of normal stress and a rate of 2 °C/min). The expansion coefficient has been constrained to 10-5/°C and the onset of melting (and completion of natural crystallisation) at 1150°C. Experiments are currently being conducted to assess the effect of cooling rate and normal stress on the properties of the Seljavallir basalts. The mechanical properties of the rock in tension have been tested at room temperature in a uniaxial press (high-temperature tests are also scheduled). During true-tension pull test at a strain rate of 10-4 s-1, elastic deformation agrees to a Young's modulus of 6.3 GPa. Tensile failure initiated after 0.35% strain with the generation of a large crack at a peak stress of 2.2 MPa. The fracture induced a stress drop and upon stress build-up to

  5. Experimental studies of mechanical joints by automated grating (moire) interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymny, G.; Kujawinska, M.; Salbut, L.; Boronski, D.

    2005-06-01

    Current design, analysis and control engineering applications require effective experimental methodologies and tools for determination of displacement and strain fields as well as material characterization. One of the most important problem in engineering objects is proper design and quality of joints between elements in the form of welds, glued and riveted joints and many others. Specificly the fatigue and fracture mechanics problems in joints are difficult to analyze numerically, therefore they need experimental support. In the paper we present the results of static, dynamic and fatigue experiments performed by grating (moire) interferometry systems. These full-field optical extensometers provide information about in-plane displacement field (u,v) and strain fields (ɛx, ɛy, γxy) in the region of a joint subjected to various modes of loads. It is shown that proper design of full-field extensometer (insensitivity to vibration, good quality of interferogram, automatic analysis of long series of interferograms) allows to use it efficiently directly at conventional loading machine in workshop environment and for long term fatigue tests. In the paper we present results of studies of: conventional laser welds (static, fatigue tests), friction stir weld (static tests), riveted joint (static, fatigue tests). The methodology of determination of local material constants in different zones of a joint (inc. Poisson ratio, Young"s modulus) is given. The future trends in hybrid experimental-numerical analysis of joints in conventional and novel material are discussed.

  6. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  7. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    synchronizing, and deconflicting JEMSMO actions (p. IV-7) Doctrine Update for JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations...communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6), to support joint planning, coordination, and control of the spectrum for assigned forces. Executive...in the respective Service or joint publications. Interference Resolution To ensure critical frequencies and spectrum-dependent systems are

  8. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  9. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases. PMID:24023542

  10. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

  11. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Vanelderen, Pascal; Szadek, Karolina; Cohen, Steven P; De Witte, Jan; Lataster, Arno; Patijn, Jacob; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Van Zundert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower limb(s). Because sacroiliac joint pain is difficult to distinguish from other forms of low back pain based on history, different provocative maneuvers have been advocated. Individually, they have weak predictive value, but combined batteries of tests can help ascertain a diagnosis. Radiological imaging is important to exclude "red flags" but contributes little in the diagnosis. Diagnostic blocks are the diagnostic gold standard but must be interpreted with caution, because false-positive as well as false-negative results occur frequently. Treatment of sacroiliac joint pain is best performed in the context of a multidisciplinary approach. Conservative treatments address the underlying causes (posture and gait disturbances) and consist of exercise therapy and manipulation. Intra-articular sacroiliac joint infiltrations with local anesthetic and corticosteroids hold the highest evidence rating (1 B+). If the latter fail or produce only short-term effects, cooled radiofrequency treatment of the lateral branches of S1 to S3 (S4) is recommended (2 B+) if available. When this procedure cannot be used, (pulsed) radiofrequency procedures targeted at L5 dorsal ramus and lateral branches of S1 to S3 may be considered (2 C+).

  12. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  13. Dissimilar metals joint evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

  14. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  15. Visually induced motion sickness when viewing visual oscillations of different frequencies along the fore-and-aft axis: keeping velocity versus amplitude constant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel Jinzhao; Bao, Beisheng; Zhao, Yue; So, Richard H Y

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to visual oscillations (VOs) can lead to visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). The level of VIMS among viewers has been shown to vary when the frequency of the VOs is changed either by manipulating their amplitude or velocity. The present study investigates whether the level of VIMS would change if we keep the root mean square (rms) velocity or amplitude of VOs constant while manipulating the VO frequency. A total of 25 individuals were exposed to random-dot and checkerboard VOs along the fore-and-aft axis in two experiments. Changing the amplitude (or frequency) of VOs while keeping the rms velocity constant did not affect the level of VIMS; however, increasing the rms velocity (or frequency) of VOs while keeping the amplitude constant made VIMS significantly worse. Practitioner Summary: Exposure to VOs of the same frequency can cause different levels of nausea depending on the combination of oscillation amplitude and velocity. Results suggest an opportunity for game designers to reduce symptoms of game sickness by using the correct combinations of velocity and amplitude of the visual motions.

  16. [The temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Louryan, S

    1992-10-01

    With its discordant articular surfaces and complete division in two cavities separated by a disk, the temporomandibular joint appears as a complex anatomical and functional entity. Combined movements involving anteroposterior gliding between the disk and temporal bone in the upper cavity, anteroposterior condyle translation, hinge and rotation movements between the disk and mandibular condyle contribute to the different movements of the jaw. With dental occlusion, the masticatory apparatus therefore includes five functionally coordinated articular compartments. Various impairments of the normal static and dynamic features of the temporomandibular joint may lead to relatively frequent pathological conditions which can be easily diagnosed by modern imaging and arthroscopic methods.

  17. Joint for deployable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  18. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  19. Integrated High-Speed Torque Control System for a Robotic Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A control system for achieving high-speed torque for a joint of a robot includes a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) having a collocated joint processor and high-speed communication bus. The PCBA may also include a power inverter module (PIM) and local sensor conditioning electronics (SCE) for processing sensor data from one or more motor position sensors. Torque control of a motor of the joint is provided via the PCBA as a high-speed torque loop. Each joint processor may be embedded within or collocated with the robotic joint being controlled. Collocation of the joint processor, PIM, and high-speed bus may increase noise immunity of the control system, and the localized processing of sensor data from the joint motor at the joint level may minimize bus cabling to and from each control node. The joint processor may include a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  20. Thermal Analysis of a Carbon Fiber Rope Barrier for Use in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie; Phelps, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study provides for development and verification of analysis methods used to assess performance of a carbon fiber rope (CFR) thermal barrier system that is currently being qualified for use in Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle joint-2. Modeled geometry for flow calculations considers the joint to be vented with the porous CFR barriers placed in the "open' assembly gap. Model development is based on a 1-D volume filling approach where flow resistances (assembly gap and CFRs) are defined by serially connected internal flow and the porous media "Darcy" relationships. Combustion gas flow rates are computed using the volume filling code by assuming a lumped distribution total joint fill volume on a per linear circumferential inch basis. Gas compressibility, friction and heat transfer are included in the modeling. Gas-to-wall heat transfer is simulated by concurrent solution of the compressible flow equations and a large thermal 2-D finite element (FE) conduction grid. The derived numerical technique loosely couples the FE conduction matrix with the compressible gas flow equations, Free constants that appear in the governing equations are calibrated by parametric model comparison to hot fire subscale test results. The calibrated model is then used to make full-scale motor predictions using RSRM aft dome environments. Model results indicate that CFR thermal barrier systems will provide a thermally benign and controlled pressurization environment for the RSRM nozzle joint-2 primary seal activation.

  1. Thermal Analysis of a Carbon Fiber Rope Barrier for Use in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2002-01-01

    This study provides development and verification of analysis methods used to assess performance of a carbon fiber rope (CFR) thermal barrier system that is currently being qualified for use in Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle joint-2. Modeled geometry for flow calculations considers the joint to be vented with the porous CFR barriers placed in the 'open' assembly gap. Model development is based on a 1-D volume filling approach where flow resistances (assembly gap and CFRs) are defined by serially connected internal flow and the porous media 'Darcy' relationships. Combustion gas flow rates are computed using the volume filling code by assuming a lumped distribution total joint fill volume on a per linear circumferential inch basis. Gas compressibility, friction and heat transfer are included in the modeling. Gas-to-wall heat transfer is simulated by concurrent solution of the compressible flow equations and a large thermal 2-D finite element (FE) conduction grid. The derived numerical technique loosely couples the FE conduction matrix with the compressible gas flow equations. Free constants that appear in the governing equations are calibrated by parametric model comparison to hot fire subscale test results. The calibrated model is then used to make full-scale motor predictions using RSRM aft dome environments. Model results indicate that CFR thermal barrier systems will provide a thermally benign and controlled pressurization environment for the RSRM nozzle joint-2 primary seal activation.

  2. Analysis of Bonded Joints Between the Facesheet and Flange of Corrugated Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrington, Phillip W.; Collier, Craig S.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for the stress analysis of bonded composite corrugated panel facesheet to flange joints. The method relies on the existing HyperSizer Joints software, which analyzes the bonded joint, along with a beam analogy model that provides the necessary boundary loading conditions to the joint analysis. The method is capable of predicting the full multiaxial stress and strain fields within the flange to facesheet joint and thus can determine ply-level margins and evaluate delamination. Results comparing the method to NASTRAN finite element model stress fields are provided illustrating the accuracy of the method.

  3. New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

  4. Reliability Evaluation of Bga Solder Joints during Accelerated Life Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ouk Sub; Myoung, No Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Hur, Man Jae; Hwang, Si Woon

    The use of BGA (Ball Grid Array) interconnects utilizing the lead-free solder joint has grown rapidly because of its small volume and diversity of application. Thus, it requires the continuous quantification and refinement of lead-free solder joint reliability. The lead-free solder creep and cyclically applied mechanical loads cause metal fatigue on the lead-free solder joint which inevitably leads to an electrical discontinuity. In the field application, BGA solder joints experience mechanical loads during temperature changes caused by power up/down events as the result of the CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatch between the substrate and the Si die. In this paper, extremely small resistance changes at joint area corresponding to through-cracks generated by thermal fatigue were measured. In this way, the failure was defined in terms of anomalous changes in electrical resistance of the joint. Furthermore the reliability of BGA solder joints in thermal cycling is evaluated by using the modified coffin-Manson criterion which may define and distinguish failure. Any change in circuit resistance according to the accumulated damage induced by the thermal cycling in the joint was recorded and evaluated in order to quantitate reliability of solder joint.

  5. Genesis and morphogenesis of limb synovial joints and articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Limb synovial joints are intricate structures composed of articular cartilage, synovial membranes, ligaments and an articular capsule. Together, these tissues give each joint its unique shape, organization and biomechanical function. Articular cartilage itself is rather complex and organized in distinct zones, including the superficial zone that produces lubricants and contains stem/progenitor cells. For many years there has been great interest in deciphering the mechanisms by which the joints form and come to acquire such unique structural features and diversity. Decades ago, classic embryologists discovered that the first overt sign of joint formation at each prescribed limb site was the appearance of a dense and compact population of mesenchymal cells collectively called the interzone. Work carried out since then by several groups has provided evidence that the interzone cells actively participate in joint tissue formation over developmental time. This minireview provides a succinct but comprehensive description of the many important recent advances in this field of research. These include studies using various conditional reporter mice to genetically trace and track the origin, fate and possible function of joint progenitor cells; studies on the involvement and roles in signaling pathways and transcription factors in joint cell determination and functioning; and studies using advanced methods of gene expression analyses to uncover novel genetic determinants of joint formation and diversity. The overall advances are impressive, and the findings are not only of obvious interest and importance but also have major implications in the conception of future translational medicine tools to repair and regenerate defective, overused or aging joints.

  6. Examining the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Monk, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate history taking and examination can ensure accurate diagnosis of common knee problems, and rapid and effective interventions or referral to orthopaedic specialists. This article describes the anatomy of the knee joint and discusses relevant history taking, the examination process, special tests and radiology, as well as common knee injuries and their management.

  7. Jointness: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Straus, Giroux, 2000. (UA23 .O94 2000) Perry, Mark. Four Stars. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. 412pp. (UA23.7 .P47 1989) 4 Quinn , Dennis J., ed...U.S. Naval Institute 131 (June 2005): 77-79. ProQuest 23 Strabbing, Timothy R., and Elliot L. Ackerman. "Preparing Lieutenants for the Joint

  8. Clad metal joint closure

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, O.W.

    1985-04-09

    A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

  9. Joint Operation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-26

    feasibility — only then does he issue an order.” General Mathew B. Ridgway The Korean War, 1967 SECTION A. JOINT STRATEGIC PLANNING — TYPES AND SCOPE 1...necessary. Meanwhile from the west would come the U.S. (sic) Army’s power punch. Looking at [Commander, XVIII Airborne Corps, Lieutenant General] Gary

  10. Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, T

    2009-12-17

    Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.

  11. Glycoconjugate markers of joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Popko, Janusz; Olszewski, Sławomir; Guszczyn, Tomasz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2011-01-01

    A number of different types of glycoconjugate are found associated with joint tissue and fluids, comprising glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. Oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates are degraded by exoglycosidases, and the dominant exoglycosidase found in human blood, synovial fluid, the synovial membrane and chondrocytes of articular cartilage is HEX (N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase). HEX is localized mostly intracellularly in synovial cells. Serum activity of HEX may be used to monitor the course and efficiency of treatment of Lyme arthritis, and activity of HEX, above 10 μkat/kg of protein in the synovial fluid, suggests rheumatoid disease. There is a shortage of HEX inhibitors able to penetrate synoviocytes, so the development of drugs which inhibit synthesis and/or the activity of HEX will be a promising field for future investigations.

  12. Low Distortion Welded Joints for NCSX

    SciTech Connect

    M. Denault, M Viola, W. England

    2009-02-19

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) required precise positioning of the field coils in order to generate suitable magnetic fields. A set of three modular field coils were assembled to form the Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA). Final assembly of the HPA required a welded shear plate to join individual coils in the nose region due to the geometric limitations and the strength constraints. Each of the modular coil windings was wound on a stainless steel alloy (Stellalloy) casting. The alloy is similar to austenitic 316 stainless steel. During the initial welding trials, severe distortion, of approximately 1/16", was observed in the joint caused by weld shrinkage. The distortion was well outside the requirements of the design. Solutions were attempted through several simultaneous routes. The joint design was modified, welding processes were changed, and specialized heat reduction techniques were utilized. A final joint design was selected to reduce the amount of weld material needed to be deposited, while maintaining adequate penetration and strength. Several welding processes and techniques using Miller Axcess equipment were utilized that significantly reduced heat input. The final assembly of the HPA was successful. Distortion was controlled to 0.012", well within the acceptable design tolerance range of 0.020" over a 3.5 foot length.

  13. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, ... often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider ...

  14. Shoulder Joint For Protective Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder joint allows full range of natural motion: wearer senses little or no resisting force or torque. Developed for space suit, joint offers advantages in protective garments for underwater work, firefighting, or cleanup of hazardous materials.

  15. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  16. Planning for Victory: Joint Synchronization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-22

    Desert Storm . . . .. 13 V A JOINT SYNCHRONIZATION MATRIX .. ........ .. 16 Proposed Synchronization Matrixes Joint Sync Matrix: D-day, 1944 . . .. 16...campaigns. I will offer two such proposals. Joint Sync Matrix: D-day, 1944 . Figure 2 is offered as one proposal of how a joint synchronization matrix...CHANNEL sweep CENTRAL CHANNEL commence sweep AfW ALLIED completeI CHERBOURG-LE HAVRE FLEET sweep UTAH OMAHA GOLD JUNO SWORD ASUW SWEEPS ALLIED

  17. Deficiencies in Indian Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    India’s Sri Lanka Fiasco: Peace Keepers at War (New Delhi: Vision Books, 1990), 137. 3...Joint Force 2020 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 10 September 2012), 16; Indian Army Doctrine, Part II Conduct of Operations, 1st ed...the US principles of joint operations. 11 JP 3-0, I-1. 12 Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 , 16. 13 Indian Army Doctrine, Part

  18. Phase 1 Program Joint Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nield, George C. (Editor); Vorobiev, Pavel Mikhailovich (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of inputs from each of the Phase I Program Joint Working Groups. The Working Groups were tasked to describe the organizational structure and work processes that they used during the program, joint accomplishments, lessons learned, and applications to the International Space Station Program. This report is a top-level joint reference document that contains information of interest to both countries.

  19. Signaling networks in joint development.

    PubMed

    Salva, Joanna E; Merrill, Amy E

    2017-04-01

    Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints such as the intervertebral disc unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or a fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue. We describe how the distinct morphologic and histogenic characteristics of these joint classes are established during embryonic development. Collectively, these studies reveal that despite the heterogeneity of joint strength and mobility, joint development throughout the skeleton utilizes common signaling networks via long-range morphogen gradients and direct cell-cell contact. This suggests that different joint types represent specialized variants of homologous developmental modules. Identifying the unifying aspects of the signaling networks between joint classes allows a more complete understanding of the signaling code for joint formation, which is critical to improving strategies for joint regeneration and repair. Developmental Dynamics 246:262-274, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Double slotted socket spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2001-05-22

    A new class of spherical joints is disclosed. These spherical joints are capable of extremely large angular displacements (full cone angles in excess of 270.degree.), while exhibiting no singularities or dead spots in their range of motion. These joints can improve or simplify a wide range of mechanical devices.