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Sample records for aft fuselage assembly

  1. Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center with a lifting frame attached to the aft attach points of the orbiter. In this view, the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod is in place. Also note the darker-colored trapezoidal aft fuselage access door and the T-0 umbilical panel to its right in the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods removed. The openings for the SSMEs have been covered with a flexible barrier to create a positive pressure envelope inside of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center with the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems Pod removed and exposing the insulating foil used to protect the orbiter structure from the heat generated by the maneuvering and reaction control engines. Also note in the view that the aft fuselage access door has bee removed and also note the ground support equipment attached to the T-0 umbilical plate in the lower left of the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery showing the network of supply, distribution and feed lines to deliver fuel, oxidizer and other vital gasses and fluids to the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward showing Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) installed in positions one and three and an SSME on the process of being installed in position two. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Closeup view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the approximate centerline of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the expansion nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and the Orbiter Maneuvering System. Also in the view is the orbiter's body flap with a protective covering over the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles on the surface facing the SSMEs. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery on the starboard side looking forward. This view is of the attach surface for the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System (OMS/RCS) Pod. The OMS/RCS pods are removed for processing and reconditioning at another facility. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated together in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center and being prepared for mounting onto the Mobile Launch Platform and mating with the other Solid Rocket Booster segments. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the right side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the left side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the thrust structure that supports the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). In this view, SSME number two position is on the left and SSME number three position is on the right. The thrust structure transfers the forces produce by the engines into and through the airframe of the orbiter. The thrust structure includes the SSMEs load reaction truss structure, engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the plugged and capped orifices within the engine bays. Note that SSME position two is rotated ninety degrees from position three and one. This was needed to enable enough clearance for the engines to fit and gimbal. Note in engine bay three is a clear view of the actuators that control the gambling of that engine. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. STS-35 Columbia, OV-102, aft fuselage LRU hydrogen recirculation pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Closeup view shows the aft fuselage line replaceable unit (LRU) hydrogen recirculation pump from Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The pump is being tested at JSC's Thermochemical Test Area (TTA) Support Laboratory Bldg 350. JSC technicians ran the pump package through the battery of leak tests. Preliminary indications showed only minor, acceptable leakage from the package and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technicians have replaced a crushed seal on the prevalve of the main propulsion system they believe may have caused the STS-35 hydrogen leak.

  15. Technicians test OV-102's aft fuselage LRU hydrogen recirculation pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Donald C. Buckner, a Lockheed mechanical lead technician, installs an aft fuselage line replaceable unit (LRU) liquid hydrogen recirculation pump from Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102 into JSC's Thermochemical Test Area (TTA) Support Laboratory Bldg 350 test stand. Technicians ran the pump package through the battery of leak tests. Preliminary indications showed only minor, acceptable leakage from the package and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technicians have replaced a crushed seal on the prevalve of the main propulsion system they believe may have caused the STS-35 hydrogen leak. In addition to Buckner, (left to right) Larry Kilbourn, a Rockwell Service Center lead mechanical technician from Cape Canaveral, and John Dickerson, a quality inspector with EBASCO Services, also monitored the test at JSC. Photo taken by JSC photographer Benny Benavides.

  16. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located aft of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    A 12-foot long Boeing 707 aft fuselage section with a tapering cross section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crash laods and to provide data for nonlinear finite element modeling. This was the final test in a series of three different transport fuselage sections tested under identical conditions. The test parameters at impact were: 20 ft/s velocity, and zero pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the test was an operational shock test of the data acquisition system used for the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a remotely piloted Boeing 720 that was crash tested at NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility on December 1, 1984. Post-test measurements of the crush showed that the front of the section (with larger diameter) crushed vertically approximately 14 inches while the rear crushed 18 inches. Analysis of the data traces indicate the maximum peak normal (vertical) accelerations at the bottom of the frames were approximately 109 G at body station 1040 and 64 G at body station 1120. The peak floor acceleration varied from 14 G near the wall to 25 G near the center where high frequency oscillations of the floor were evident. The peak anthropomorphic dummy pelvis normal (vertical) acceleration was 19 G's.

  17. Low-speed stability and control characteristics of a transport model with aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A limited experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to explore the effects of aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprop installations on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a representative transport aircraft in a landing configuration. In general, the experimental results indicate that the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics for the aft-fuselage-mounted single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation pusher propeller configurations tested during this investigation are acceptable aerodynamically. For the single-rotation tractor configuration, the propeller-induced aerodynamics are significantly influenced by the interaction of the propeller slipstream with the pylon and nacelle. The stability characteristics for the counter-rotation pusher configuration are strongly influenced by propeller normal forces. The longitudinal and directional control effectiveness, engine-out characteristics, and ground effects are also presented. In addition, a tabulated presentation of all aerodynamic data presented in this report is included as an appendix.

  18. Pressures measured in flight on the aft fuselage and external nozzle of a twin-jet fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Plant, T. J.; Davis, R. A.; Taillon, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Fuselage, boundary layer, and nozzle pressures were measured in flight for a twin jet fighter over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 2.00 at test altitudes of 6100, 10,700, and 13,700 meters for angles of attack ranging from 0 deg to 7 deg. Test data were analyzed to find the effects of the propulsion system geometry. The flight variables, and flow interference. The aft fuselage flow field was complex and showed the influence of the vertical tail, nacelle contour, and the wing. Changes in the boattail angle of either engine affected upper fuselage and lower fuselage pressure coefficients upstream of the nozzle. Boundary layer profiles at the forward and aft locations on the upper nacelles were relatively insensitive to Mach number and altitude. Boundary layer thickness decreased at both stations as angle of attack increased above 4 deg. Nozzle pressure coefficient was influenced by the vertical tail, horizontal tail boom, and nozzle interfairing; the last two tended to separate flow over the top of the nozzle from flow over the bottom of the nozzle. The left nozzle axial force coefficient was most affected by Mach number and left nozzle boattail angle. At Mach 0.90, the nozzle axial force coefficient was 0.0013.

  19. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft... proposed actions are intended to prevent failure of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear,...

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine general aviation configuration with aft-fuselage-mounted pusher propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Dana Morris; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Applin, Zachary T.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop aircraft model with aft-pylon-mounted pusher propellers. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of -8 to 28 degrees, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -20 to 20 degrees at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 0.55 to 2.14 x 10 to the 6th power based on mean aerodynamic chord. Test results show that for the unpowered configurations the maximum lift coefficients for the cruise, takeoff, and landing configurations are 1.45, 1.90, and 2.10, respectively. Nacelle installation results in a drag coefficient increase of 0.01. Increasing propeller thrust results in a significant increase in lift for angles of attack above stall and improves the longitudinal stability. The cruise configuration remains longitudinally stable to an angle of attack 5 degrees beyond the stall angle, the takeoff configuration is stable 4 degrees beyond stall angle, and the landing configuration is stable 3 degrees beyond stall angle. The predominant effect of symmetric thrust on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics is in the post-stall region, where additional rudder control is available with power on.

  1. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  2. View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carboncarbon nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery looking aft while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... recurring visual, dimensional, and fluorescent penetrant inspections of each aft crosstube, and replacing... recurring visual, dimensional, and fluorescent penetrant inspections of each aft crosstube. If there is a... for a visual inspection; \\1/2\\ hour to do the repetitive visual inspections, assuming 14...

  4. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  5. View looking aft along the starboard side of the midfuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking aft along the starboard side of the mid-fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the wing profile as it intersects with the fuselage. Also note in the foreground the panels protecting the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon leading edge of the wing. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Advanced technology commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Walker, T. H.; Johnson, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing's program for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) has focused on the manufacturing and performance issues associated with a wide body commercial transport fuselage. The primary goal of ATCAS is to demonstrate cost and weight savings over a 1995 aluminum benchmark. A 31 foot section of fuselage directly behind the wing to body intersection was selected for study purposes. This paper summarizes ATCAS contract plans and review progress to date. The six year ATCAS program will study technical issues for crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage. All structural details in these areas will be included in design studies that incorporate a design build team (DBT) approach. Manufacturing technologies will be developed for concepts deemed by the DBT to have the greatest potential for cost and weight savings. Assembly issues for large, stiff, quadrant panels will receive special attention. Supporting technologies and mechanical tests will concentrate on the major issues identified for fuselage. These include damage tolerance, pressure containment, splices, load redistribution, post-buckled structure, and durability/life. Progress to date includes DBT selection of baseline fuselage concepts; cost and weight comparisons for crown panel designs; initial panel fabrication for manufacturing and structural mechanics research; and toughened material studies related to keel panels. Initial ATCAS studies have shown that NASA's Advanced Composite Technology program goals for cost and weight savings are attainable for composite fuselage.

  7. Prediction of airplane aft-cabin noise using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Andrew K.; Davis, Evan B.

    2005-09-01

    Statistical energy analysis (SEA) predictions of turbulent boundary layer and engine exhaust noise in the aft cabin of an airplane have been made and compared to flight data. Measurements of engine shock-cell sound pressure levels, characterized by relatively long correlation lengths and circumferential and axial variation along the fuselage surface, were extrapolated and used as source inputs to an SEA model of a widebody airplane fuselage. Turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations, characterized by relatively short circumferential correlation lengths and uniformity over the aft fuselage, were represented using Efimtsov empirical correlation functions. Model variance was predicted using the Langley method and combined with estimates of measurement uncertainty to verify the prediction process.

  8. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Fuselage ventilation under wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    To determine realistic fuselage ventilation rates for post-crash fires and full-scale fire tests, the effects on wind-about fuselage ventilation rate of various parameters were studied. The parameters investigated were fuselage size and shape, fuselage orientation and proximity to ground, fuselage-opening and location, and wind speed and direction.

  12. Closeup view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note the vertical stabilizer protruding slightly from beyond the clear sheeting used to keep positive pressure in the mid-fuselage and payload bay area during servicing. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the mid fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view has a close-up view of the remote sensor boom and its retention mechanisms at its attach points to the starboard longeron. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft fuselage bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. This image has a detailed portions of the Remote Manipulator System and the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System Pods. This photograph wa taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Aerodynamics of the Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Multhopp, H.

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with a number of problems, particularly with the interaction of the fuselage with the wing and tail, on the basis of simple calculating method's derived from greatly idealized concepts. For the fuselage alone it affords, in variance with potential theory, a certain frictional lift in yawed flow, which, similar to the lift of a wing of small aspect ratio, is no longer linearly related to the angle of attack. Nevertheless there exists for this frictional lift something like a neutral stability point the position of which on oblong fuselages appears to be associated with the lift increase of the fuselage in proximity to the zero lift, according to the present experiments. The Pitching moments of the fuselage can be determined with comparatively great reliability so far as the flow conditions in the neighborhood of the axis of the fuselage can be approximated if the fuselage were absent, which, in general, is not very difficult. For the unstable contribution of the fuselage to the static longitudinal stability of the airplane it affords comparatively simple formulas, the evaluation of which offers little difficulty. On the engine nacelles there is, in addition a very substantial wing moment contribution induced by the nonuniform distribution of the transverse displacement flow of the nacelle along the wing chord; this also can be represented by a simple formula. A check on a large number of dissimilar aircraft types regarding the unstable fuselage and nacelle moments disclosed an agreement with the wind-tunnel tests, which should be sufficient for practical requirements. The errors remained throughout within the scope of instrumental accuracy.

  16. General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated with the Aft Skirt Assembly and External Tank Attach Ring in the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center and awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This detail is showing the four Aft Booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  19. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  20. General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery where the forward section meets the mid-fuselage. Note the head of the jack stand and its mechanism to connect to the one of the forward hoist attach points of the orbiter. Also note the support structure of the service platforms. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the large plugged and capped orifices. Note the handwritten references on the thrust plate in proximity to the actuators that read E3 Pitch and E3 Yaw. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Application of a design-build-team approach to low cost and weight composite fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Walker, T. H.; Willden, K. S.; Swanson, G. D.; Truslove, G.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between manufacturing costs and design details must be understood to promote the application of advanced composite technologies to transport fuselage structures. A team approach, integrating the disciplines responsible for aircraft structural design and manufacturing, was developed to perform cost and weight trade studies for a twenty-foot diameter aft fuselage section. Baseline composite design and manufacturing concepts were selected for large quadrant panels in crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage section. The associated technical issues were also identified. Detailed evaluation of crown panels indicated the potential for large weight savings and costs competitive with aluminum technology in the 1995 timeframe. Different processes and material forms were selected for the various elements that comprise the fuselage structure. Additional cost and weight savings potential was estimated for future advancements.

  5. Composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Michael J.; Lagace, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify and understand, via directed experimentation and analysis, the mechanisms which control the structural behavior of fuselages in their response to damage (resistance, tolerance, and arrest). A further objective is to develop straightforward design methodologies which can be employed by structural designers in preliminary design stages to make intelligent choices concerning the material, layup, and structural configuration so that a more efficient structure with structural integrity can be designed and built.

  6. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  7. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  8. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the four Aft Booster Separation Motors on the left side of the skirt in this view. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  11. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  12. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  13. General view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  15. Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, A.

    1987-09-15

    The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. An oblique view of the forward fuselage and starboard side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An oblique view of the forward fuselage and starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. An oblique view of the forward fuselage and port side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An oblique view of the forward fuselage and port side of the Orbiter Discovery while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the six Thrust Vector Control System access ports, three per hydraulic actuator. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. STS-33 MS Carter operates translation hand control (THC) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr operates translation hand control (THC) at the aft flight deck onorbit station while peering out overhead window W7. Carter's communications kit assembly headset microphone extends across his face.

  20. Composite Fuselage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagace, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Work was conducted over a ten-year period to address the central issue of damage in primary load-bearing aircraft composite structure, specifically fuselage structure. This included the three facets of damage resistance, damage tolerance, and damage arrest. Experimental, analytical, and numerical work was conducted in order to identify and better understand the mechanisms that control the structural behavior of fuselage structures in their response to the three aspects of damage. Furthermore, work was done to develop straightforward design methodologies that can be employed by structural designers in preliminary design stages to make intelligent choices concerning the material, layup, and structural configurations so that a more efficient structure with structural integrity can be designed and built. Considerable progress was made towards achieving these goals via this work. In regard to damage tolerance considerations, the following were identified as important effects: composite layup and associated orthotropy/structural anisotropy, specifics of initial local damage mechanisms, role of longitudinal versus hoop stress, and large deformation and associated geometric nonlinearity. Means were established to account for effects of radius and for the nonlinear response. In particular, nondimensional parameters were identified to characterize the importance of nonlinearity in the response of pressurized cylinders. This led to the establishment of a iso-nonlinear-error plot for reference in structural design. Finally, in the case of damage tolerance, the general approach of the original methodology to predict the failure pressure involving extending basic plate failure data by accounting for the local stress intensification was accomplished for the general case by accounting for the mechanisms noted by utilizing the capability of the STAGS finite element code and numerically calculating the local stress intensification for the particular configuration to be considered

  1. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  2. Closeup view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being tested and prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view is showing the SRB Thrust Vector Control (TVC) System which includes independent auxiliary power units for each actuator to pressurize their respective hydraulic systems. When the Nozzle is mated with the Aft Skirt the two actuators, located on the left and right side of the TVC System in this view, can swivel it up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. 14 CFR 25.783 - Fuselage doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuselage doors. 25.783 Section 25.783... Fuselage doors. (a) General. This section applies to fuselage doors, which includes all doors, hatches... of tools to open or close. This also applies to each door or hatch through a pressure...

  4. 14 CFR 25.783 - Fuselage doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... station that all required operations to close, latch, and lock the door(s) have been completed. (2) There... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuselage doors. 25.783 Section 25.783... Fuselage doors. (a) General. This section applies to fuselage doors, which includes all doors,...

  5. Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note that the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods and the Shuttle Main Engines are removed in this image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Helicopter anti-torque system using fuselage strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor); Wilson, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The improvement of the helicopter torque control system is discussed. At low to medium forward speeds helicopter performance is limited by the effectiveness of the means for counteracting main rotor torque and controlling sideslip airloads. These problems may be overcome by mounting strakes on the aft fuselage section. For single rotor helicopters whose main rotor rotates counter-clockwise as viewed from above, one of the strakes would be mounted in the upper lefthand quadrant and the second in the lower left hand quadrant. The strakes alter the air flow around the fuselage by separating the flow so as to produce lateral airloads on the tail boom which oppose main-rotor torque. The upper strake operates in a right crosswind to oppose main rotor torque, and the lower strake has effect in left crosswinds. The novelty of this invention resides in the simple and economical manner in which the helicopter tail boom may be modified by the addition of strakes in order to increase torque control, and reduce the need for supplemental mechanical means of torque control.

  7. Fuselage upwash effects on RSRA rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J.; Dadone, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of RSRA fuselage configurations on rotor performance and loads have been quantified analytically by means of currently available potential flow and rotor analysis. Four configurations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) were considered in this study. They were: (1) fuselage alone (conventional helicopter); (2) fuselage with auxiliary propulsion; (3) fuselage with wings (auxiliary lift); and (4) fuselage with both auxiliary lift propulsion. The rotor system investigated was identical to a CH-47D front rotor except that it had four instead of three blades. Two scaled-down versions of the same rotor were also analyzed to determine the effect of rotor scale on the fuselage upwash effects. The flight conditions considered for the upwash study are discussed. The potential flow models for the RSRA configuration, with and without the wings and the auxiliary propulsion system, are presented. The results of fuselage/wing/propulsion system upwash on performance and loads are also presented.

  8. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  9. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    shielding material is not used for dual purpose, and is only used for shielding, then the additional weight per aircraft is estimated to be 428 lb. This weight estimate is based upon a number of assumptions that would need to be revised when applying this concept to an actual airplane design. For example, the weight savings that will result when there is no fan blade containment system, manufacturing limitations which may increase the weight where variable thicknesses was assumed, engine placement on the wing versus aft fuselage, etc.

  10. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  11. An Integrated Fuselage-Sting Balance for a Sonic-Boom Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Measured and predicted pressure signatures from a lifting wind-tunnel model can be compared when the lift on the model is accurately known. The model's lift can be set by bending the support sting to a desired angle of attack. This method is simple in practice, but difficult to accurately apply. A second method is to build a normal force/pitching moment balance into the aft end of the sting, and use an angle-of-attack mechanism to set model attitude. In this report, a method for designing a sting/balance into the aft fuselage/sting of a sonic-boom model is described. A computer code is given, and a sample sting design is outlined to demonstrate the method.

  12. An unsteady rotor/fuselage interaction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Lorber, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to treat unsteady helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage interaction aerodynamics. An existing lifting line/prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were modified to predict vibratory fuselage airloads. The analyses were coupled through the induced flow velocities of the rotor and wake on the fuselage and the fuselage on the rotor. A prescribed displacement technique was used to distort the rotor wake about the fuselage. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of wake and body geometry on the computed airloads. Predicted and measured mean and unsteady pressures on a cylindrical body in the wake of a two-bladed rotor were compared. Initial results show good qualitative agreement.

  13. Sound Pressures and Correlations of Noise on the Fuselage of a Jet Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shattuck, Russell D.

    1961-01-01

    Tests were conducted at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 feet at speeds of Mach 0.4, 0.6, and O.8. It was found that the sound pressure levels on the aft fuselage of a jet aircraft in flight can be estimated using an equation involving the true airspeed and the free air density. The cross-correlation coefficient over a spacing of 2.5 feet was generalized with Strouhal number. The spectrum of the noise in flight is comparatively flat up to 10,000 cycles per second.

  14. Door assembly with shear layer control aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C. (Inventor); Johnston, John T. (Inventor); Fluegel, Kyle G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    There is described a vehicle door assembly with shear layer control for controlling the airflow in and around an aperture in the vehicle fuselage. The vehicle door assembly consists of an upper door and a lower door, both slidably mounted to the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. In addition, an inner door is slidably mounted beneath the upper door. Beneath the inner door is an aperture assembly having an aperture opening positionable to be substantially flush with the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. Also provided are means for positioning the aperture assembly in an upward and downward direction in relation to the vehicle fuselage.

  15. An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan

    1988-01-01

    A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.

  16. Flight control augmentation for AFT CG launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was only the first step in achieving routine access to space. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been studying a whole spectrum of new launch vehicles (L/V's) for space transportation. Some of these could transport components of the Space Station to orbit, and some could take us to Mars and beyond to boldly expand our frontiers of knowledge. In all our future launch vehicle (L/V) designs, decreasing the structural weight will always be of great concern. This is tantamount to increased payload capability, which in turn means reduced cost-per-pound to orbit. One very significant increase in payload capability has been defined. In a L/V recently studied at MSFC it has been shown that a sizable weight savings can be realized by a rearrangement of the internal propellant tanks. Studies have been conducted both at MSFC and at Martin Marietta Corporation, maker of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) which show that a very substantial weight can be saved by inverting the relative positions of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks in a particular L/V studied. As the vehicle sits on the launch pad, in the conventional configuration the heavier LOX tank is located on top of the lighter LH2. This requires a heavy structural member between the two tanks to prevent the lighter LH2 tank from being crushed. This configuration also requires large, long, and even drag producing LOX feed lines running the length of the vehicle on the exterior fuselage. If the relative position of the propellant tanks is inverted, both the heavy structural separation member and the long LOX feed lines could be deleted. While the structures community at MSFC was elated with this finding, the LOX tank aft configuration gave the vehicle an aft center-of-gravity (cg) location which surfaced controllability concerns. In the conventional configuration the L/V is controlled in the ascent trajectory by the gimballing of its rocket

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter AFT heat shield seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkover, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the orbiter aft heat shield seal (AHSS) design, which involved advancing mechanical seal technology in severe thermal environment is discussed. The baseline design, various improvements for engine access, and technical problem solution are presented. It is a structure and mechanism at the three main propulsion system (MPS) engine interfaces to the aft compartment structure. Access to each MPS engine requires disassembly and removal of the AHSS. Each AHSS accommodates the engine movement, is exposed to an extremely high temperature environment, and is part of the venting control of the aft compartment.

  18. Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the Orbiter Discovery from an elevated platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the removed Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pod from the base of the vertical stabilizer the strongback ground-support equipment attached to the payload bay door. This view is also a good view of the leading edge and top surface of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Performance of fuselage pressure structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclin, James R.

    1992-01-01

    There are currently more than 1,000 Boeing airplanes around the world over 20 years old. That number is expected to double by the year 1995. With these statistics comes the reality that structural airworthiness will be in the forefront of aviation issues well into the next century. The results of previous and recent test programs Boeing has implemented to study the structural performance of older airplanes relative to pressurized fuselage sections are described. Included in testing were flat panels with multiple site damage (MSD), a full-scale 737 and 2 747s as well as panels representing a 737 and 777, and a generic aircraft in large pressure-test fixtures. Because damage is a normal part of aging, focus is on the degree to which structural integrity is maintained after failure or partial failure of any structural element, including multiple site damage (MSD), and multiple element damage (MED).

  20. Closeup view of the underside of the forward fuselage of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the underside of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the nose landing-gear and into the landing-gear well. The vehicle is elevated and supported by jack stands attached to the hoist attach points and the rear External Tank attach points on the propellant disconnect plate assemblies. This photo was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Aft2, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Required for Iron Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, Surface Adhesion and Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Cheng, Xinxin; Yu, Qilin; Qian, Kefan; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Ruming; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transition and iron metabolism are closely relevant to Candida albicans pathogenicity and virulence. In our previous study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Aft2 plays an important role in ferric reductase activity and virulence. Here, we further explored the roles of C. albicans Aft2 in numerous cellular processes. We found that C. albicans Aft2 exhibited an important role in iron metabolism through bi-directional regulation effects on iron-regulon expression. Deletion of AFT2 reduced cellular iron accumulation under iron-deficient conditions. Furthermore, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were remarkably increased in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, which were thought to be responsible for the defective responses to oxidative stress. However, we found that over-expression of C. albicans AFT2 under the regulation of the strong PGK1 promoter could not effectively rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae aft1Δ mutant defects in some cellular processes, such as cell-wall assembly, ion homeostasis and alkaline resistance, suggesting a possibility that C. albicans Aft2 weakened its functional role of regulating some cellular metabolism during the evolutionary process. Interestingly, deletion of AFT2 in C. albicans increased cell surface hydrophobicity, cell flocculation and the ability of adhesion to polystyrene surfaces. In addition, our results also revealed that C. albicans Aft2 played a dual role in regulating hypha-specific genes under solid and liquid hyphal inducing conditions. Deletion of AFT2 caused an impaired invasive growth in solid medium, but an increased filamentous aggregation and growth in liquid conditions. Moreover, iron deficiency and environmental cues induced nuclear import of Aft2, providing additional evidence for the roles of Aft2 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:23626810

  2. Fore–aft translation aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A general theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus makes it seem more neutral such that perception of subsequent stimuli is shifted in the opposite direction. The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is an extensively studied example of this. Although similar effects have been described in other sensory systems, it has not previously been described in the vestibular system. Velocity storage has been extensively studied in the vestibular system and suggests a persistence of perception in the direction of the initial movement. The current study sought to determine how motion perception is influenced by prior movement in darkness. Thirteen human subjects (mean age 41, range 21–68) underwent whole-body fore–aft translation. The threshold of vestibular motion discrimination perception was measured using a single interval (1I) of motion lasting 0.5 s in which subjects identified their direction of motion as forward or backward using an adaptive staircase. The translation aftereffect (TAE) was measured in 2-interval (2I) experiments: The adapting stimulus moved 15 cm in 1.5 s (peak velocity 20 cm/s, peak acceleration 42 cm/s2). After a fixed inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 3 s, a second stimulus lasting 0.5 s was delivered and the subject identified the perceived direction of the second test stimulus. The test stimulus was determined using an adaptive staircase. The ISI was constant within the block, but adapting stimuli directions were randomly interleaved. During the 1I condition, the response bias was near zero in all subjects. With a 2I stimulus, 8 of 13 subjects demonstrated a significant bias. At an ISI of 0.5 s, a minority of subjects demonstrated a bias in the same direction as the adapter. When the ISI was 1, 1.5, or 3 s, all subjects who demonstrated a significant TAE had one in the opposite direction of the adapter, similar to that seen for MAE. When averaged across subjects, the TAE was significant with ISIs of 1.0 s and

  3. KlAft, the Kluyveromyces lactis Ortholog of Aft1 and Aft2, Mediates Activation of Iron-Responsive Transcription Through the PuCACCC Aft-Type Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Conde e Silva, Natalia; Gonçalves, Isabelle R.; Lemaire, Marc; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Camadro, Jean Michel; Blaiseau, Pierre Louis

    2009-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in fungi is regulated at the transcriptional level by two different mechanisms. It is mediated by a conserved GATA-type repressor in most fungi except in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it is controlled by the transcription activators Aft1 and Aft2. These activators are encoded by the paralogous genes AFT1 and AFT2, which result from the whole-genome duplication. Here, we explore regulation of iron homeostasis in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis that diverged from S. cerevisiae before this event. We identify an ortholog of AFT1/AFT2, designated KlAFT, whose deletion leads to the inability to grow under iron limitation. We show with quantitative real-time PCR analysis that KlAft activates the transcription of all homologs of the Aft1-target genes involved in the iron transport at the cell surface in response to iron limitation. However, homologs of Aft2-specific target genes encoding intracellular iron transporters are regulated neither by KlAft nor by iron. Both bioinformatic and DNA binding and transcription analyses demonstrate that KlAft activates iron-responsive gene expression through the PuCACCC Aft-type sequence. Thus, K. lactis is the first documented species with a positive iron-transcriptional control mediated by only one copy of the Aft-type regulator. This indicates that this function was acquired before the whole-genome duplication and was then diversified into two regulators in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19581449

  4. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  5. Finite Element Model Development and Validation for Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results. The increased frequency range results in a corresponding increase in the number of modes, modal density and spatial resolution requirements. In this study, conventional modal tests using accelerometers are complemented with Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Electro-Optic Holography measurements to further resolve the spatial response characteristics. Whenever possible, component and subassembly modal tests are used to validate the finite element models at lower levels of assembly. Normal mode predictions for different finite element representations of components and assemblies are compared with experimental results to assess the most accurate techniques for modeling aircraft fuselage type structures.

  6. Columbia: The first 5 flights entry heating data series. Volume 5: The side fuselage and payload bay door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the side fuselage and payload bay door, Z = 400 and 440 trace aft of X/L=0.2, for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented. The heating rate data are reviewed in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle of attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heatings rates and temperatures were obtained by the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are outlined.

  7. Effects of boundary layer refraction and fuselage scattering on fuselage surface noise from advanced turboprop propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.; Rawls, J. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic disturbance's propagation through a boundary layer is discussed with a view to the analysis of the acoustic field generated by a propfan rotor incident to the fuselage of an aircraft. Applying the parallel flow assumption, the resulting partial differential equations are reduced to an ordinary acoustic pressure differential equation by means of the Fourier transform. The methods used for the solution of this equation include those of Frobenius and of analytic continuation; both yield exact solutions in series form. Two models of the aircraft fuselage-boundary layer system are considered, in the first of which the fuselage is replaced by a flat plate and the acoustic field is assumed to be two-dimensional, while in the second the fuselage is a cylinder in a fully three-dimensional acoustic field. It is shown that the boundary layer correction improves theory-data comparisons over simple application of a pressure-doubling rule at the fuselage.

  8. Tension Builds over AFT Reform Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Can a teachers' union successfully be both a hardball-playing defender of its rights and a collaborative force for the common good? It is both a question of philosophy and, increasingly, one of policy direction for the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), whose biennial convention in Detroit showed delegates grappling with the tension between…

  9. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  10. In Pennsylvania Primary, AFT Hits the Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, 14 retired teachers and other school employees arrive at the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers' headquarters and go to work for Hillary Rodham Clinton. The retirees--working with volunteers and union staff members from as far away as Alaska--are working to inform teachers' union members why the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)…

  11. 37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Full scale GLARE fuselage panel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercammen, Roland W. A.; Ottens, Harold H.

    1996-01-01

    A GLARE fuselage panel, representative of the crown section of the Fokker 100 fuselage in front of the wing, was tested. The panels were loaded by air pressure resulting in tangential stress in the panel by axial loading, representative of both the cabin pressure and the fuselage bending due to taxiing and gust loading. A fatigue test, simulating 180000 flights, followed by static tests were performed. The panel was loaded to failure at 1.32 ultimate load. The test set-up, the uniform strain distribution of the panel, and the fatigue loads applied at high test frequency are described. The use of GLARE leads to a substantial weight reduction without affecting the fatigue static strength.

  13. Influence of fuselage on propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troller, Theodor

    1928-01-01

    In the present paper I shall not consider the problem of the best arrangement of airplane and propeller, but only a simple method for designing a propeller for a given arrangement of airplane parts. The inflow to the propeller and hence the efficiency of the propeller is affected most by the fuselage.

  14. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  15. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    SciTech Connect

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.

  16. STS-46 Commander Shriver eats candy (M and Ms) on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Commander Loren J. Shriver, wearing a communications kit assembly headset and with his mouth open, pursues several floating chocolate-covered peanut candies (M and Ms) on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Shriver is positioned in front of overhead window W7. Outside the window the cloud-covered surface of the Earth and the Earth's limb are visible.

  17. STS-30 Pilot Grabe uses 35mm camera on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-30 Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, positioned at aft flight deck overhead window W7, holds 35mm camera before photographing Earth observation scene visible outside window. Appearing around Grabe are a pair of binoculars (freefloating in overhead window), overhead light fixture, onorbit station control panels, and a communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) velcroed to onorbit station panel. Grabe is wearing mission polo shirt and light blue flight coverall pants.

  18. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  19. Unsteady transonic potential flow over a flexible fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A flexible fuselage capability has been developed and implemented within version 1.2 of the CAP-TSD code. The capability required adding time dependent terms to the fuselage surface boundary conditions and the fuselage surface pressure coefficient. The new capability will allow modeling the effect of a flexible fuselage on the aeroelastic stability of complex configurations. To assess the flexible fuselage capability several steady and unsteady calculations have been performed for slender fuselages with circular cross-sections. Steady surface pressures are compared with experiment at transonic flight conditions. Unsteady cross-sectional lift is compared with other analytical results at a low subsonic speed and a transonic case has been computed. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the flexible fuselage modifications.

  20. Binocular coordination in fore/aft motion.

    PubMed

    Ramat, Stefano; Zee, David S

    2005-04-01

    Stabilization of images on the fovea during either fore/aft translation of a subject or fore/aft movement of a visual target in front of a stationary observer imposes complex geometrical requirements that depend upon the eccentricity of the object of interest with respect to the eyes. Each eye needs to be rotated independently with varying proportions of conjugate (version) and disconjugate (vergence) eye movements to maintain fixation of the target. Here, we describe binocular coordination in the early response to translational movements of normal subjects along their naso-occipital axis. We recorded the responses evoked by small (about 4 cm), abrupt (about 0.7 g), fore/aft translations in four normal subjects while they viewed a near target. In the forward and backward starting positions the target was 15 or 10.5 cm away, respectively. Each subject was tested with the target centered between the eyes, aligned on the right eye, and placed to the right of the right eye by approximately 3 cm. The three conditions differed only in the lateral eccentricity of the target, yet the geometrical requirements for image stabilization are very different: pure vergence, one eye still, or mostly version. We found that the eye-movement responses closely matched what was needed for visual stabilization of the target, though responses to stimuli calling for divergence were less accurate than those for convergence. The latency of these responses ranged from 40 to 65 ms and achieved about 80% of the ideal response by 90 to 100 ms after the onset of the stimulus. Next, we asked whether these eye movements were generated by the vestibular system or by high-level strategies for image stabilization, such as pursuit. Thus, in a second set of experiments we used the mean profile of fore\\aft body motion computed for each subject to drive a small visual target across the same distances and in the same eccentricities used during body translations. We found that visually driven responses had

  1. Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J. A.; Buttitta, C.

    1996-01-01

    Design development was successfully completed for textile preforms with continuous cross-stiffened epoxy panels with cut-outs. The preforms developed included 3-D angle interlock weaving of graphite structural fibers impregnated by resin film infiltration (RFI) and shown to be structurally suitable under conditions requiring minimum acquisition costs. Design guidelines/analysis methodology for such textile structures are given. The development was expanded to a fuselage side-panel component of a subsonic commercial airframe and found to be readily scalable. The successfully manufactured panel was delivered to NASA Langley for biaxial testing. This report covers the work performed under Task 3 -- Cross-Stiffened Subcomponent; Task 4 -- Design Guidelines/Analysis of Textile-Reinforced Composites; and Task 5 -- Integrally Woven Fuselage Panel.

  2. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  3. Composite fuselage technology (summary of year 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Michael J.; Lagace, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to identify and understand, via directed experimentation and analysis, the mechanisms which control the structural behavior of fuselages in their response to damage (resistance, tolerance, and arrest). A further objective is to develop straightforward design methodologies which can be employed by structural designers in preliminary design stages to make intelligent choices concerning the material, layup, and structural configuration so that a more efficient structure with structural integrity can be designed and built.

  4. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a

  5. Structural analysis of Aircraft fuselage splice joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Prakash, R.; Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ramganesh, T.

    2016-09-01

    In Aviation sector, composite materials and its application to each component are one of the prime factors of consideration due to the high strength to weight ratio, design flexibility and non-corrosive so that the composite materials are widely used in the low weight constructions and also it can be treated as a suitable alternative to metals. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the suitability of a composite skin joint in an aircraft fuselage with different joints by simulating the displacement, normal stress, vonmises stress and shear stress with the help of numerical solution methods. The reference Z-stringer component of this paper is modeled by CATIA and numerical simulation is carried out by ANSYS has been used for splice joint presents in the aircraft fuselage with three combinations of joints such as riveted joint, bonded joint and hybrid joint. Nowadays the stringers are using to avoid buckling of fuselage skin, it has joined together by rivets and they are connected end to end by splice joint. Design and static analysis of three-dimensional models of joints such as bonded, riveted and hybrid are carried out and results are compared.

  6. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage: Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Hanson, C. T.; Walker, T. H.; Metschan, S. L.; Mabson, G. E.; Wilden, K. S.; Flynn, B. W.; Scholz, D. B.; Polland, D. R.; Fredrikson, H. G.; Olson, J. T.; Backman, B. F.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program has studied transport fuselage structure with a large potential reduction in the total direct operating costs for wide-body commercial transports. The baseline fuselage section was divided into four 'quadrants', crown, keel, and sides, gaining the manufacturing cost advantage possible with larger panels. Key processes found to have savings potential include (1) skins laminated by automatic fiber placement, (2) braided frames using resin transfer molding, and (3) panel bond technology that minimized mechanical fastening. The cost and weight of the baseline fuselage barrel was updated to complete Phase B of the program. An assessment of the former, which included labor, material, and tooling costs, was performed with the help of design cost models. Crown, keel, and side quadrant cost distributions illustrate the importance of panel design configuration, area, and other structural details. Composite sandwich panel designs were found to have the greatest cost savings potential for most quadrants. Key technical findings are summarized as an introduction to the other contractor reports documenting Phase A and B work completed in functional areas. The current program status in resolving critical technical issues is also highlighted.

  7. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  8. STS-43 TDRS-E / IUS in OV-104's PLB ASE aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During STS-43 the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite E (TDRS-E) atop the inertial upper stage (IUS) and positioned in the airborne support equipment (ASE) aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table with the forward frame ASE latch actuator released and umbilical cables separated is raised by the aft frame ASE electromechanical tilt actuator to a 58-degree deployment position. The scene is highlighted against the Earth's limb. In the foreground on the port side and mounted on a getaway special (GAS) adapter beam are (forward to aft) the two Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) GAS canisters (one with motorized door assembly (MDA)) and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) GAS canister. Along the starboard sill longeron is the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II).

  9. Disruption of Mycobacterial AftB Results in Complete Loss of Terminal β(1 → 2) Arabinofuranose Residues of Lipoarabinomannan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and arabinogalactan (AG) are the two major mycobacterial cell wall (lipo)polysaccharides, which contain a structurally similar arabinan domain that is highly branched and assembled in a stepwise fashion by variety of arabinofuranosyltransferases (ArafT). In addition to playing an essential role in mycobacterial physiology, LAM and its biochemical precursor lipomannan possess potent immunomodulatory activities that affect the host immune response. In the search of additional mycobacterial ArafTs that participate in the synthesis of the arabinan segment of LAM, we disrupted aftB (MSMEG_6400) in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The deletion of chromosomal aftB locus could only be achieved in the presence of a rescue plasmid carrying a functional copy of aftB, strongly suggesting that it is essential for the viability of M. smegmatis. Isolation and detailed structural characterization of a LAM molecule derived from the conditional mutant deficient in AftB revealed the absence of terminal β(1 → 2)-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that truncated LAM displays proinflammatory activity, which is due to its ability to activate Toll-like receptor 2. All together, our results indicate that AftB is an essential mycobacterial ArafT that plays a role in the synthesis of the arabinan domain of LAM. PMID:28033704

  10. Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

  12. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... if approved by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an aft peak bulkhead: (1) Each vessel 100 gross tons or more...

  13. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... if approved by the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an aft peak bulkhead: (1) Each vessel 100 gross tons or more...

  14. SOFIA Optical Design for the Aft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1994-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a planned NASA facility consisting of an infrared telescope of 2.5 meter system aperture flying in a modified Boeing 747. It will have an image diameter of 1.5 arc seconds, an operating wavelength range from visible through 1 millimeter, an 8 arc minute field of view, and a chopping secondary. the configuration is a Cassegrian with a diagonal tertiary to direct the beam to a Nasmyth focus. The new choice of a location aft of the wings allows the primary mirror to have about an f/1.4 focal ratio, which is preferable to f/1.1 previously planned for the forward location.

  15. AFT-QuEST Consortium Yearbook. Proceedings of the AFT-QuEST Consortium (April 22-26, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document is a report on the proceedings of the 1973 American Federation of Teachers-Quality Educational Standards in Teaching (AFT-QuEST) consortium sponsored by the AFT. Included in this document are the texts of speeches and outlines of workshops and iscussions. The document is divided into the following sections: goals, major proposals,…

  16. VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Transport composite fuselage technology: Impact dynamics and acoustic transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Balena, F. J.; Labarge, W. L.; Pei, G.; Pitman, W. A.; Wittlin, G.

    1986-01-01

    A program was performed to develop and demonstrate the impact dynamics and acoustic transmission technology for a composite fuselage which meets the design requirements of a 1990 large transport aircraft without substantial weight and cost penalties. The program developed the analytical methodology for the prediction of acoustic transmission behavior of advanced composite stiffened shell structures. The methodology predicted that the interior noise level in a composite fuselage due to turbulent boundary layer will be less than in a comparable aluminum fuselage. The verification of these analyses will be performed by NASA Langley Research Center using a composite fuselage shell fabricated by filament winding. The program also developed analytical methodology for the prediction of the impact dynamics behavior of lower fuselage structure constructed with composite materials. Development tests were performed to demonstrate that the composite structure designed to the same operating load requirement can have at least the same energy absorption capability as aluminum structure.

  18. Aircraft system aft telescope cavity configuration study for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The SOFIA Aircraft System (AS) Phase 1 Study was a broad-based study which addressed itself to satisfying technical and programmatic requirements by drawing from existing technology and applying cost-efficient commercial approaches to the aircraft modification. In this SOFIA AS Phase 2 Study, five critical areas of the aircraft were selected for more detailed investigation: forward pressure bulkhead, aft bulkhead, 'free' shell to bulkhead interface, shell cut-out to bulkhead interface, and flooring. The in-depth investigation of these areas upon a finite element model (FEM), with a fine grid model in areas of particular interest, is discussed. The FEM code used is called 'STRAP' and was developed by the engineering firm, Rasmussen and Associates. STRAP is NASTRAN compatible to within 1%. The loads applied to the model were approximated from known 747 envelope conditions. The areas of investigation, and a section through the fuselage is shown. The thrust of this investigation was to develop the design concepts conceived under phase 1 to the point where detailed design could be undertaken with a high level of confidence.

  19. STS-45 MS and PLC Sullivan explains camera usage on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan, holding communications kit assembly unit and 70mm HASSELBLAD camera, explains camera usage and Earth observation procedures during a television downlink to the ground. Sullivan is on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Behind Sullivan are the onorbit station control panels with the payload station control panels at her left. The STS-45 crew put together a brief video 'tour' program to explain some of their inflight operations.

  20. 78 FR 60670 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... cracking at the aft upper corner of the main entry door (MED) 5 cutout. This AD requires inspecting for the... of the door cutout, inspecting for any cracking of the fuselage skin assembly and bear strap in the aft upper corner area of the door cutout, and repairing or modifying the fuselage skin assembly...

  1. 90. STARBOARD CATAPULT AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. STARBOARD CATAPULT - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, RAM CYLINDER, RAM (ON DECK) AND RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN THE OVERHEAD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. 116. #2 FIREROOM LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. #2 FIREROOM - LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING #4 BOILER FRONT WITH SIX (6) BURNERS, FUEL OIL PIPING, VALVES AND OPEN ACCESS TO FIREBOX. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 80. STARBOARD CATAPULT FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. STARBOARD CATAPULT - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, RAILS, RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN OVERHEAD, VARIOUS HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH SHOCK BENDS AND EXPANSION JOINT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING WOOD WORKTABLE AND HEAVY DUTY SINGER SEWING MACHINE SERIAL #4329. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 97. #2 LAUNDRY AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING LARGE CAPACITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. #2 LAUNDRY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING LARGE CAPACITY WASHER, WASHING MACHINE AND TWO (2) LARGE CAPACITY DRYERS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT STERN Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  11. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  12. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. Crewmembers photographing the Earth from the aft flight deck windows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Mike Baker and Mission Specialist Tamara Jernigan looking out the aft flight deck overhead windows and photographing the Earth below. Jernigan is looking out the window while Baker is photographing with a Hasselblad 70mm camera.

  15. 31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH CATERPILLAR DIESELS AND ONE GENERATOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  16. Recommendations for numerical solution of reinforced-panel and fuselage-ring problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A

    1949-01-01

    Procedures are recommended for solving the equations of equilibrium of reinforced panels and isolated fuselage rings as represented by the external loads and the operations table established according to Southwell's method. From the solution of these equations the stress distribution can be easily determined. The method of systematic relaxations, the matrix-calculus method, and several other methods applicable in special cases are discussed. Definite recommendations are made for obtaining the solution of reinforced-panel problems which are generally designated as shear lag problems. The procedures recommended are demonstrated in the analysis of a number of panels. In the case of fuselage rings it is not possible to make definite recommendations for the solution of the equilibrium equations for all rings and loadings. However, suggestions based on the latest experience are made and demonstrated on several rings.

  17. Structural Concepts Study of Non-circular Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivel

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary study of structural concepts for noncircular fuselage configurations is presented. For an unconventional flying-wing type aircraft, in which the fuselage is inside the wing, multiple fuselage bays with non-circular sections need to be considered. In a conventional circular fuselage section, internal pressure is carried efficiently by a thin skin via hoop tension. If the section is non-circular, internal pressure loads also induce large bending stresses. The structure must also withstand additional bending and compression loads from aerodynamic and gravitational forces. Flat and vaulted shell structural configurations for such an unconventional, non-circular pressurized fuselage of a large flying-wing were studied. A deep honeycomb sandwich-shell and a ribbed double-wall shell construction were considered. Combinations of these structural concepts were analyzed using both analytical and simple finite element models of isolated sections for a comparative conceptual study. Weight, stress, and deflection results were compared to identify a suitable configuration for detailed analyses. The flat sandwich-shell concept was found preferable to the vaulted shell concept due to its superior buckling stiffness. Vaulted double-skin ribbed shell configurations were found to be superior due to their weight savings, load diffusion, and fail-safe features. The vaulted double-skin ribbed shell structure concept was also analyzed for an integrated wing-fuselage finite element model. Additional problem areas such as wing-fuselage junction and pressure-bearing spar were identified.

  18. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a significant percentage of both the weight and the cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and the cost of transport fuselage structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted for transport aircraft. The behavior of these important primary structures must be understood, and the structural mechanics methodology for analyzing and designing these complex stiffened shell structures must be validated in the laboratory. The effects of local gradients and discontinuities on fuselage shell behavior and the effects of local damage on pressure containment must be thoroughly understood before composite fuselage structures can be used for commercial aircraft. This paper describes the research being conducted and planned at NASA LaRC to help understand the critical behavior or composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested at Langley to study critical fuselage shell behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient-producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full-scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells. Failure mechanisms are being identified and advanced designs will be developed based on what is learned from early results from

  19. Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, David D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.

  20. The characterization of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.; Miller, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of widespread fatigue damage (WSFD) in fuselage riveted structure were established by detailed nondestructive and destructive examinations of fatigue damage contained in a full size fuselage test article. The objectives of this were to establish an experimental data base for validating emerging WSFD analytical prediction methodology and to identify first order effects that contribute to fatigue crack initiation and growth. Detailed examinations were performed on a test panel containing four bays of a riveted lap splice joint. The panel was removed from a full scale fuselage test article after receiving 60,000 full pressurization cycles. The results of in situ examinations document the progression of fuselage skin fatigue crack growth through crack linkup. Detailed tear down examinations and fractography of the lap splice joint region revealed fatigue crack initiation sites, crack morphology, and crack linkup geometry. From this large data base, distributions of crack size and locations are presented and discussions of operative damage mechanisms are offered.

  1. Design considerations for composite fuselage structure of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. W.; Sakata, I. F.

    1981-01-01

    The structural, manufacturing, and service and environmental considerations that could impact the design of composite fuselage structure for commercial transport aircraft application were explored. The severity of these considerations was assessed and the principal design drivers delineated. Technical issues and potential problem areas which must be resolved before sufficient confidence is established to commit to composite materials were defined. The key issues considered are: definition of composite fuselage design specifications, damage tolerance, and crashworthiness.

  2. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  3. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  4. Rotor-Fuselage Interaction: Analysis and Validation with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; Bettschart, Nicolas

    1997-01-01

    The problem of rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction has to be considered in industry applications from various aspects. First, in order to increase helicopter speed and reduce operational costs, rotorcraft tend to be more and more compact, with a main rotor closer to the fuselage surface. This creates significant perturbations both on the main rotor and on the fuselage, including steady and unsteady effects due to blade and wake passage and perturbed inflow at the rotor disk. Furthermore,the main rotor wake affects the tail boom, empennage and anti-torque system. This has important consequences for helicopter control and vibrations at low speeds and also on tail rotor acoustics (main rotor wake-tail rotor interactions). This report describes the US Army-France MOD cooperative work on this problem from both the theoretical and experimental aspects. Using experimental 3D velocity field and fuselage surface pressure measurements, three codes that model the interactions of a helicopter rotor with a fuselage are compared. These comparisons demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of current models for the combined rotor-fuselage analysis.

  5. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives were to create a capability to simulate curvilinear crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage and to validate with tests. Analysis methodology and software program (FRANC3D/STAGS) developed herein allows engineers to maintain aging aircraft economically, while insuring continuous airworthiness, and to design more damage-tolerant aircraft for the next generation. Simulations of crack growth in fuselages were described. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained from laboratory tests, was used to predict fracture behavior of fuselage panel tests. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element crack growth analyses were conducted. Comparisons of stress distributions, multiple stable crack growth history, and residual strength between measured and predicted results were made to assess the validity of the methodology. Incorporation of residual plastic deformations and tear strap failure was essential for accurate residual strength predictions. Issue related to predicting crack trajectory in fuselages were also discussed. A directional criterion, including T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy, was developed. Curvilinear crack growth was simulated in coupon and fuselage panel tests. Both T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy were essential to predict the observed crack paths. Flapping of fuselages were predicted. Measured and predicted results agreed reasonable well.

  6. Al-Li Alloy 1441 for Fuselage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. K.; Dicus, D. L.; Fridlyander, J. N.; Sandler, V. S.

    2000-01-01

    A cooperative investigation was conducted to evaluate Al-Cu-Mg-Li alloy 1441 for long service life fuselage applications. Alloy 1441 is currently being used for fuselage applications on the Russian Be-103 amphibious aircraft, and is expected to be used for fuselage skin on a new Tupolev business class aircraft. Alloy 1441 is cold-rollable and has several attributes that make it attractive for fuselage skin applications. These attributes include lower density and higher specific modulus with similar strength as compared to conventional Al-Cu-Mg alloys. Cold-rolled 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens were tested at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and at the All-Russia Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM) in Russia to evaluate tensile properties, fracture toughness, impact resistance, fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate. In addition, fuselage panels were fabricated by Tupolev Design Bureau (TDB) using 1441 skins and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy stiffeners. The panels were subjected to cyclic pressurization fatigue tests at TDB and at LaRC to simulate fuselage pressurization/depressurization during aircraft service. This paper discusses the results from this investigation.

  7. Flashback resistant pre-mixer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R [Oviedo, FL; Gambacorta, Domenico [Oviedo, FL

    2012-02-14

    A pre-mixer assembly associated with a fuel supply system for mixing of air and fuel upstream from a main combustion zone in a gas turbine engine. The pre-mixer assembly includes a swirler assembly disposed about a fuel injector of the fuel supply system and a pre-mixer transition member. The swirler assembly includes a forward end defining an air inlet and an opposed aft end. The pre-mixer transition member has a forward end affixed to the aft end of the swirler assembly and an opposed aft end defining an outlet of the pre-mixer assembly. The aft end of the pre-mixer transition member is spaced from a base plate such that a gap is formed between the aft end of the pre-mixer transition member and the base plate for permitting a flow of purge air therethrough to increase a velocity of the air/fuel mixture exiting the pre-mixer assembly.

  8. Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, B.; Carr, D.; Mccorkle, T.; Stevens, C.; Turner, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the 'Viper' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed. The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well. In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components. Table 1.0 lists the resulting margins of safety for these key components, along with the types of the loads involved, and the page number upon which they are discussed.

  9. Applications of advanced fracture mechanics to fuselage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanninen, M. F.; O'Donoghue, P. E.; Green, S. T.; Leung, C. P.; Roy, S.; Burnside, O. H.

    Multi-site damage (MSD) in the form of cracking at rivet holes in lap splice joints has been identified as a serious threat to the integrity of commercial aircraft nearing their design life targets. Consequently, to assure the safety of aircraft that have accumulated large numbers of flights, flight hours and years in service requires requires inspection procedures that are based on the possibility that MSD may be present. For inspections of aircraft components to be properly focused on me defect sizes that are critical for structural integrity, fracture analyses are needed. The current methods are essentially those of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) which are strictly valid only for cracks that extend in a quasi-static manner under small-scale crack tip plasticity conditions. While LEFM is very likely to be appropriate for subcritical crack growth, quantifying the conditions for fracture instability and subsequent propagation may require advanced fracture mechanics techniques. The specific focus in this paper was to identify the conditions in which inelastic-dynamic effects occur in (1) the linking up Of local damage in a lap splice joint to form a major crack, and (2) large-scale fuselage failure by a rapidly occurring fluid structure interaction process.

  10. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage-Structural Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Minguet, P. J.; Flynn, B. W.; Carbery, D. J.; Swanson, G. D.; Ilcewicz, L. B.

    1997-01-01

    Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC). This report addresses the program activities related to structural performance of the selected concepts, including both the design development and subsequent detailed evaluation. Design criteria were developed to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and typical company objectives. Accurate analysis methods were selected and/or developed where practical, and conservative approaches were used where significant approximations were necessary. Design sizing activities supported subsequent development by providing representative design configurations for structural evaluation and by identifying the critical performance issues. Significant program efforts were directed towards assessing structural performance predictive capability. The structural database collected to perform this assessment was intimately linked to the manufacturing scale-up activities to ensure inclusion of manufacturing-induced performance traits. Mechanical tests were conducted to support the development and critical evaluation of analysis methods addressing internal loads, stability, ultimate strength, attachment and splice strength, and damage tolerance. Unresolved aspects of these performance issues were identified as part of the assessments, providing direction for future development.

  11. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  12. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. 100. COBBLER SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD VISIBLE ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. COBBLER SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - VISIBLE ARE THE FINISHING MACHINE, DAVIS STITCHING MACHINE, SINGER SEWING MACHINE FROM TAILOR SHOP, STORAGE SHELVES, WORK BENCH AND SHOE TREE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  15. 34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE SHOWING FLIGHT DECK LIGHTING BOARD, ARRESTING GEAR CONTROL CONSOLE AND FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. 92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, LOOKING FORWARD TOWARD THE STACK AND BOW SECTIONS - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND STERNPOST KNEE (ON WHICH STICK RULE IS LYING). FRESH WATER TANKS APPEAR TO EITHER SIDE OF STERNPOST; SMALL TANK SUSPENDED FROM DECK IN CENTER OF VIEW IS AN AIR RESERVOIR FOR ENGINES' PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  1. 12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW AFT IN MAIN HOLD OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO ENGINE ROOM SO THAT ENGINE COULD BE REMOVED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  2. 18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S CABIN. THE AFTER BULKHEAD OF THE ENGINE ROOM WAS REMOVED WHEN THE ENGINE WAS SALVAGED. ENGINE BED AND GEARBOX ARE REMNANTS OF THE ENGINE INSTALLATION. CABLES AND CHAINS ARE IN PLACE TO HELP STABILIZE THE HULL AND TRANSOM. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  3. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  4. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette on right of photograph, original wood ladder to main deck, heating system radiator on left and officer's stateroom doors. (088) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 108. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD SHOWING #1 REDUCTION GEAR BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SERIAL # 1-A-9638-13 WITH A REDUCTION OF HIGH PRESSURE 20,908 AND LOW PRESSURE 16,226. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. 109. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SHAFT HORSEPOWER 19,800, RPM 4301, STEAM PRESSURE 371/2 LB.G., SERIAL #I-A-9636-14. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 25. HANGAR BAY #3 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HANGAR BAY #3 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFTER BROW, ELEVATOR DOORS, FOG FOAM STATION #7, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFE JACKET BIN #16, PARTS STOREROOM, HATCH AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the mizzenmast. Cans in foreground store Fluid Film, used to protect structural steel below waterline from oxidation. Sails stored on shelving in background have since been moved to Museum Storage. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE FIRE AND BILGE PUMP (LEFT BACKGROUND), BALLAST PUMP, AND CARGO OIL PUMP. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste water overflow pipe appears at left, behind which is bilge pump. At base of hot well on either side are reciprocating boiler feedwater pumps driven from hot well crosshead. (Labels were applied by HAER recording team and are not original to equipment.) - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  14. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  15. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ELEVATOR, HIGH PRESSURE AIR REDUCING STATION, SCUTTLEBUTT, TORPEDO AFTERBODY WORKSHOP, OVERHEAD CHAIN MOIST AND RAIL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD SPRINKLER SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. Fuselage ventilation due to wind flow about a postcrash aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Postcrash aircraft fuselage fire development, dependent on the internal and external fluid dynamics is discussed. The natural ventilation rate, a major factor in the internal flow patterns and fire development is reviewed. The flow about the fuselage as affected by the wind and external fire is studied. An analysis was performend which estimated the rates of ventilation produced by the wind for a limited idealized environmental configuration. The simulation utilizes the empirical pressure coefficient distribution of an infinite circular cylinder near a wall with its boundary later flow to represent the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting maximum ventilation rate for two door size openings, with varying circumferential location in a common 10 mph wind was an order of magnitude greater than the forced ventilation specified in full scale fire testing. The parameter discussed are: (1) fuselage size and shape, (2) fuselage orientation and proximity to the ground, (3) fuselage-openings size and location, (4) wind speed and direction, and (5) induced flow of the external fire plume is recommended. The fire testing should be conducted to a maximum ventilation rate at least an order of magnitude greater than the inflight air conditioning rates.

  18. Surface grid generation for wing-fuselage bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Pitts, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    In the application of finite-difference methods to obtain numerical solutions of viscous compressible fluid flow about wing-fuselage bodies, it is advantageous to transform the governing equations to an idealized boundary-fitted coordinate system. The advantages are reduced computational complexity and added accuracy in the application of boundary conditions. The solution process requires that a grid be superimposed on the physical solution domain which corresponds to a uniform grid on a rectangular computational domain (uniform rectangular parallel-epiped). Grid generation is the determination of a one to one relationship between grid points in the physical domain and grid points in the computational domain. A technique for computing wing-fuselage surface grids using the Harris geometry and software for smooth-surface representation is described. Grid spacing control concepts which govern the relationship between the wing-fuselage surface and the computational grid are also presented.

  19. Global Cost and Weight Evaluation of Fuselage Side Panel Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polland, D. R.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hafenrichter, J. L.; Hanson, C. T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Metschan, S. L.; Scholz, D. B.; Smith, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents preliminary design trades conducted under NASA contracts NAS1 18889 (Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, ATCAS) and NAS1-19349 (Task 3, Pathfinder Shell Design) for a subsonic wide body commercial aircraft fuselage side panel section utilizing composite materials. Included in this effort were (1) development of two complete design concepts, (2) generation of cost and weight estimates, (3) identification of technical issues and potential design enhancements, and (4) selection of a single design to be further developed. The first design concept featured an open-section stringer stiffened skin configuration while the second was based on honeycomb core sandwich construction. The trade study cost and weight results were generated from comprehensive assessment of each structural component comprising the fuselage side panel section from detail fabrication through airplane final assembly. Results were obtained in three phases: (1) for the baseline designs, (2) after global optimization of the designs, and (3) the results anticipated after detailed design optimization. A critical assessment of both designs was performed to determine the risk associated with each concept, that is the relative probability of achieving the cost and weight projections. Seven critical technical issues were identified as the first step towards side panel detailed design optimization.

  20. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  1. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  2. Numerical Investigation of Rotorcraft Fuselage Drag Reduction Using Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of unsteady zero-net-mass-flux jets for fuselage drag reduction was evaluated numerically on a generic rotorcraft fuselage in forward flight with a rotor. Previous efforts have shown significant fuselage drag reduction using flow control for an isolated fuselage by experiment and numerical simulation. This work will evaluate a flow control strategy, that was originally developed on an isolated fuselage, in a more relevant environment that includes the effects of a rotor. Evaluation of different slot heights and jet velocity ratios were performed. Direct comparisons between an isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage simulations were made showing similar flow control performance at a -3deg fuselage angle-of-attack condition. However, this was not the case for a -5deg angle-of-attack condition where the performance between the isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage were different. The fuselage flow control resulted in a 17% drag reduction for a peak C(sub mu) of 0.0069 in a forward flight simulation where mu = 0:35 and CT/sigma = 0:08. The CFD flow control results also predicted a favorable 22% reduction of the fuselage download at this same condition, which can have beneficial compounding effects on the overall performance of the vehicle. This numerical investigation was performed in order to provide guidance for a future 1/3 scale wind tunnel experiment to be performed at the NASA 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel.

  3. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  4. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  5. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. 27.549 Section 27.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear,...

  6. An investigation of airflow over the aft portions of a variable sweep fighter configuration. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of air flow over the aft portions of a variable sweep fighter aircraft configuration was made. Tests conducted in the unitary plan wind tunnel at Mach number 2.16 included measurements of forces, moments, and local static pressures as well as visual recordings of the air flow. An aerodynamic analytical prediction method was evaluated when used in data comparison at angles of attack of 0, 5, and 15 degrees. The results indicate that in supersonic flow the typical outboard located twin vertical tail arrangement tends to provide a more positive increment in normal-force on the afterbody fuselage and the horizontal tail than a single center-mounted vertical tail of similar planform shape. In addition, the results indicate that a method for aerodynamic analysis of wing-body-tail configurations currently available can provide reasonable estimates of pressure coefficient distributions on configurations in regions of complex supersonic flow. At this time, however, the available analytical method cannot adequately replace experimental wind tunnel tests for determining the supersonic flow environment of a given configuration.

  7. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  8. MD-80 aft cabin noise control: A case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M. A.; Lorch, D. R.; May, D. N.; Simpson, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The interior noise technology program to improve the noise environment in the aft cabin of the MD-80 twin jet aircraft is discussed. Two potential noise control treatments were identified: vibration absorber devices for the airframe and for the engine. A series of ground and flight tests using in-service aircraft was then conducted. These tests showed that the vibration absorbers for the airframe and engine decreased aircraft noise significantly.

  9. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  10. Astronaut Susan Helms on aft flight deck with RMS controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck, astronaut Susan J. Helms handles controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The robot arm operated by Helms, who remained inside the cabin, was used to support task such as the release and retrieval of the free-flying Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) - 201, a six-hour space walk and the Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX).

  11. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave pose in aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two of Endeavour's busy team of astronauts share a rare moment of leisure in the aft flight deck captured by an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman, left, and F. Story Musgrave also are sharing three of the mission's five planned sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA). Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  12. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft crew compartment bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. Showing the airlock, the beam-truss attach structure supporting it and its attach points to the payload bay sill longerons. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  14. RWF rotor-wake-fuselage code software reference guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The RWF (Rotor-Wake-Fuselage) code was developed from first principles to compute the aerodynamics associated with the complex flow field of helicopter configurations. The code is sized for a single, multi-bladed main rotor and any configuration of non-lifting fuselage. The mathematical model for the RWF code is based on the integration of the momentum equations and Green's theorem. The unknowns in the problem are the strengths of prescribed singularity distributions on the boundaries of the flow. For the body (fuselage) a surface of constant strength source panels is used. For the rotor blades and rotor wake a surface of constant strength doublet panels is used. The mean camber line of the rotor airfoil is partitioned into surface panels. The no-flow boundary condition at the panel centroids is modified at each azimuthal step to account for rotor blade cyclic pitch variation. The geometry of the rotor wake is computers at each time step of the solution. The code produces rotor and fuselage surface pressures, as well as the complex geometry of the evolving rotor wake.

  15. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. Evaluation of the concept of pressure proof testing fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Orringer, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The FAA and NASA have recently completed independent technical evaluations of the concept of pressure proof testing the fuselage of commercial transport airplanes. The results of these evaluations are summarized. The objectives of the evaluations were to establish the potential benefit of the pressure proof test, to quantify the most desirable proof test pressure, and to quantify the required proof test interval. The focus of the evaluations was on multiple-site cracks extending from adjacent rivet holes of a typical fuselage longitudinal lap splice joint. The FAA and NASA do not support pressure proof testing the fuselage of aging commercial transport aircraft. The argument against proof testing is as follows: (1) a single proof test does not insure an indefinite life; therefore, the proof test must be repeated at regular intervals; (2) for a proof factor of 1.33, the required proof test interval must be below 300 flights to account for uncertainties in the evaluation; (3) conducting the proof test at a proof factor of 1.5 would considerably exceed the fuselage design limit load; therefore, it is not consistent with accepted safe practices; and (4) better safety can be assured by implementing enhanced nondestructive inspection requirements, and adequate reliability can be achieved by an inspection interval several times longer than the proof test interval.

  17. Fuselage structure using advanced technology fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. K.; Tomlinson, H. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fuselage structure is described in which the skin is comprised of layers of a matrix fiber reinforced composite, with the stringers reinforced with the same composite material. The high strength to weight ratio of the composite, particularly at elevated temperatures, and its high modulus of elasticity, makes it desirable for use in airplane structures.

  18. 14 CFR 29.549 - Fuselage and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flight conditions, must be considered. (c) Each engine mount and adjacent fuselage structure must be designed to withstand the loads occurring under accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (d) (e) If approval for the use of 21/2-minute OEI power is requested, each engine mount...

  19. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  20. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  1. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  2. Computing induced velocity perturbations due to a helicopter fuselage in a free stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; Althoff, Susan L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity field of a representative helicopter fuselage in a free stream is computed. Perturbation velocities due to the fuselage are computed in a plan above the location of the helicopter rotor (rotor removed). The velocity perturbations computed by a source-panel model of the fuselage are compared with experimental measurements taken with a laser velocimeter. Three paneled fuselage models are studied: fuselage shape, fuselage shape with hub shape, and a body of revolution. The velocity perturbations computed for both fuselage shape models agree well with the measured velocity field except in the close vicinity of the rotor hub. In the hub region, without knowing the extent of separation, modeling of the effective source shape is difficult. The effects of the fuselage perturbations are not well-predicted with a simplified ellipsoid fuselage. The velocity perturbations due to the fuselage at the plane of the measurements have magnitudes of less than 8 percent of free-stream velocity. The velocity perturbations computed by the panel method are tabulated for the same locations at which previously reported rotor-inflow velocity measurements were made.

  3. 27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. NOTE MAIN HOISTING DRUM IS A STEP DRUM, WITH TWO DIAMETERS ON DRUM. WHEN BUCKET IS IN WATER THE CABLE IS ON THE SMALLER STEP, AS PICTURED, GIVING MORE POWER TO THE LINE. THE CABLE STEPS TO LARGER DIAMETER WHEN BUCKET IS OUT OF WATER, WHERE SPEED IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN POWER. SMALLER BACKING DRUM IN BACKGROUND. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  5. General view looking aft along the port side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the port side of the Orbiter Discovery into its payload bay. Note the Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm, in the foreground mounted on the port side longeron. The Remote Sensor Arm is mounted on the opposite, starboard, longeron. Also note the airlock and the protective covering over the docking mechanism. This image was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  7. Design and analysis of a stiffened composite fuselage panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, J. N.; Biggers, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design and analysis of stiffened composite panel that is representative of the fuselage structure of existing wide bodied aircraft is discussed. The panel is a minimum weight design, based on the current level of technology and realistic loads and criteria. Several different stiffener configurations were investigated in the optimization process. The final configuration is an all graphite/epoxy J-stiffened design in which the skin between adjacent stiffeners is permitted to buckle under design loads. Fail safe concepts typically employed in metallic fuselage structure have been incorporated in the design. A conservative approach has been used with regard to structural details such as skin/frame and stringer/frame attachments and other areas where sufficient design data was not available.

  8. Design and Analysis of a Stiffened Composite Fuselage Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, J. N.; Biggers, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    A stiffened composite panel has been designed that is representative of the fuselage structure of existing wide bodied aircraft. The panel is a minimum weight design, based on the current level of technology and realistic loads and criteria. Several different stiffener configurations were investigated in the optimization process. The final configuration is an all graphite epoxy J-stiffened design in which the skin between adjacent stiffeners is permitted to buckle under design loads. Fail-safe concepts typically employed in metallic fuselage structure have been incorporated in the design. A conservative approach has been used with regard to structural details such as skin frame and stringer frame attachments and other areas where sufficient design data was not available.

  9. Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

  10. Algebraic grid generation for wing-fuselage bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Everton, E. L.; Kudlinski, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    An algebraic procedure for the generation of boundary-fitted grids about wing-fuselage configurations is presented. A wing-fuselage configuration is specified by cross sections and mathematically represented by Coons' patches. A configuration is divided into sections so that several grid blocks that either adjoin each other or partially overlap each other can be generated, and each grid has six surfaces that map into a computational cube. Grids are first determined on the six boundary surfaces and then in the interior. Grid curves that are on the surface of the configuration are derived using plane-patch intersections, and single-valued functions relating approximate arc lengths along the curves to computational coordinates define the distribution of grid points. The two-boundary technique and transfinite interpolation are used to determine the boundary surface grids that are not on the configuration, and transfinite interpolation with linear blending functions is used to determine the interior grids.

  11. Algebraic grid generation about wing-fuselage bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.; Wiese, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    An algebraic procedure for generating boundary-fitted grids about wing-fuselage configurations is presented. A wing-fuselage configuration consists of two aircraft components specified by cross sections and mathematically represented by Coons' patches. Several grid blocks are constructed to cover the entire region surrounding the configuration, and each grid block maps into a computational cube. Grid points are first determined on the six boundary surfaces of a block and then in the interior. Grid points on the surface of the configuration are derived from the intersection of planes with the Coons' patch definition. Approximate arc length distributions along the resulting grid curves concentrate and disperse grid points. The two-boundary technique and transfinite interpolation are used to determine grid points on the remaining boundary surfaces and block interiors.

  12. Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boppe, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.

  13. Damage Tolerant Repair Techniques for Pressurized Aircraft Fuselages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-06

    slightly higher error in the tapered patch can be a result of the stepwise tapering done in modeling the patch. The test specimen had a smooth milled taper...patches to common errors made in fuselage structural repair. The test results show that the soft patching concept explained in the previous chapter...squeezing force. Some specimens were purposely manufactured with known defects to estimate the effects of typical errors made in the repair process. Two

  14. Automated design of minimum drag light aircraft fuselages and nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.; Karlin, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The constrained minimization algorithm of Vanderplaats is applied to the problem of designing minimum drag faired bodies such as fuselages and nacelles. Body drag is computed by a variation of the Hess-Smith code. This variation includes a boundary layer computation. The encased payload provides arbitrary geometric constraints, specified a priori by the designer, below which the fairing cannot shrink. The optimization may include engine cooling air flows entering and exhausting through specific port locations on the body.

  15. Structural integrity of fuselage panels with multisite damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jai H.; Singh, Ripudaman; Pyo, Chang R.; Atluris, Satya N.

    1995-05-01

    Structural integrity assessment of aging flight vehicles is extremely important to ensure their economic and safe operation. A two-step analytical approach, developed to estimate the residual strength of pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with multi-bay fatigue cracking is presented in this article. Conventional finite element analysis of the damaged multibay panel is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through it. The Schwartz-Neumann alternating method is then applied to the fuselage skin with multiple site damage, to obtain stresses and the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture. Fracture mechanics as well as net section yield criteria are used to evaluate the static residual strength. The presence of holes with or without multisite damage ahead of a dominant crack is found to significantly degrade the capacity of the fuselage shell panels to sustain static internal pressure. An elastic-plastic alternating method is newly developed and applied to evaluate the residual strength of flat panels with multiple cracks. The computational methodologies presented herein are marked improvements to the present state-of-the-art, and are extremely efficient, both from engineering manpower as well as computational costs point of view. Once verified, they can very well complement the experimental requirements, reducing the cost of structural integrity assessment programs.

  16. Impact damage resistance of composite fuselage structure, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dost, E. F.; Avery, W. B.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Grande, D. H.; Coxon, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The impact damage resistance of laminated composite transport aircraft fuselage structures was studied experimentally. A statistically based designed experiment was used to examine numerous material, laminate, structural, and extrinsic (e.g., impactor type) variables. The relative importance and quantitative measure of the effect of each variable and variable interactions on responses including impactor dynamic response, visibility, and internal damage state were determined. The study utilized 32 three-stiffener panels, each with a unique combination of material type, material forms, and structural geometry. Two manufacturing techniques, tow placement and tape lamination, were used to build panels representative of potential fuselage crown, keel, and lower side-panel designs. Various combinations of impactor variables representing various foreign-object-impact threats to the aircraft were examined. Impacts performed at different structural locations within each panel (e.g., skin midbay, stiffener attaching flange, etc.) were considered separate parallel experiments. The relationship between input variables, measured damage states, and structural response to this damage are presented including recommendations for materials and impact test methods for fuselage structure.

  17. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  18. Skin, Stringer, and Fastener Loads in Buckled Fuselage Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a numerical study to assess the effect of skin buckling on the internal load distribution in a stiffened fuselage panel, with and without longitudinal cracks, are presented. In addition, the impact of changes in the internal loads on the fatigue life and residual strength of a fuselage panel is assessed. A generic narrow-body fuselage panel is considered. The entire panel is modeled using shell elements and considerable detail is included to represent the geometric-nonlinear response of the buckled skin, cross section deformation of the stiffening components, and details of the skin-string attachment with discrete fasteners. Results are presented for a fixed internal pressure and various combinations of axial tension or compression loads. Results illustrating the effect of skin buckling on the stress distribution in the skin and stringer, and fastener loads are presented. Results are presented for the pristine structure, and for cases where damage is introduced in the form of a longitudinal crack adjacent to the stringer, or failed fastener elements. The results indicate that axial compression loads and skin buckling can have a significant effect on the circumferential stress in the skin, and fastener loads, which will influence damage initiation, and a comparable effect on stress intensity factors for cases with cracks. The effects on stress intensity factors will influence damage propagation rates and the residual strength of the panel.

  19. Test results from large wing and fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.; Voldman, Mike

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the first results in an assessment of the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance of stiffened wing and fuselage subcomponents. Under this NASA funded program, 10 large wing and fuselage panels, variously fabricated by automated tow placement and dry-stitched preform/resin transfer molding, are to be tested. The first test of an automated tow placement six-longeron fuselage panel under shear load was completed successfully. Using NASTRAN finite-element analysis the stiffness of the panel in the linear range prior to buckling was predicted within 3.5 percent. A nonlinear analysis predicted the buckling load within 10 percent and final failure load within 6 percent. The first test of a resin transfer molding six-stringer wing panel under compression was also completed. The panel failed unexpectedly in buckling because of inadequate supporting structure. The average strain was 0.43 percent with a line load of 20.3 kips per inch of width. This strain still exceeds the design allowable strains. Also, the stringers did not debond before failure, which is in contrast to the general behavior of unstitched panels.

  20. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Repair and Damage Assessment Supporting Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Bodine, J. B.; Dopker, B.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hanson, C. T.; Harris, C. G.; Nelson, K. M.; Walker, T. H.; Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC), Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure. Included in the study is the incorporation of maintainability and repairability requirements of composite primary structure into the design. This contractor report describes activities performed to address maintenance issues in composite fuselage applications. A key aspect of the study was the development of a maintenance philosophy which included consideration of maintenance issues early in the design cycle, multiple repair options, and airline participation in design trades. Fuselage design evaluations considered trade-offs between structural weight, damage resistance/tolerance (repair frequency), and inspection burdens. Analysis methods were developed to assess structural residual strength in the presence of damage, and to evaluate repair design concepts. Repair designs were created with a focus on mechanically fastened concepts for skin/stringer structure and bonded concepts for sandwich structure. Both a large crown (skintstringer) and keel (sandwich) panel were repaired. A compression test of the keel panel indicated the demonstrated repairs recovered ultimate load capability. In conjunction with the design and manufacturing developments, inspection methods were investigated for their potential to evaluate damaged structure and verify the integrity of completed repairs.

  1. Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Mark C.; Ardema, Mark D.; Patron, Anthony P.; Hahn, Andrew S.; Miura, Hirokazu; Moore, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft, and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT has traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight. Using statistical analysis techniques, relations between the load-bearing fuselage and wing weights calculated by PDCYL and corresponding actual weights were determined.

  2. General view in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center looking at one of a pair of Aft Center Segments of the Solid Rocket Motor of the Solid Rocket Booster awaiting hoisting and mating to the Solid Rocket Booster's Aft Segment on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  4. Fuselage shell and cavity response measurements on a DC-9 test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Mathur, G. P.; Cannon, M. R.; Tran, B. N.; Burge, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    A series of fuselage shell and cavity response measurements conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are described. The objectives of these measurements were to define the shell and cavity model characteristics of the fuselage, understand the structural-acoustic coupling characteristics of the fuselage, and measure the response of the fuselage to different types of acoustic and vibration excitation. The fuselage was excited with several combinations of acoustic and mechanical sources using interior and exterior loudspeakers and shakers, and the response to these inputs was measured with arrays of microphones and accelerometers. The data were analyzed to generate spatial plots of the shell acceleration and cabin acoustic pressure field, and corresponding acceleration and pressure wavenumber maps. Analysis and interpretation of the spatial plots and wavenumber maps provided the required information on modal characteristics, structural-acoustic coupling, and fuselage response.

  5. Study for prediction of rotor/wake/fuselage interference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. R.; Maskew, B.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed which allows the fully coupled calculation of fuselage and rotor airloads for typical helicopter configurations in forward flight. To do this, an iterative solution is carried out based on a conventional panel representation of the fuselage and a blade element representation of the rotor where fuselage and rotor singularity strengths are determined simultaneously at each step and the rotor wake is allowed to relax (deform) in response to changes in rotor wake loading and fuselage presence. On completion of the iteration, rotor loading and inflow, fuselage singularity strength (and, hence, pressure and velocity distributions) and rotor wake are all consistent. The results of a fully coupled calculation of the flow around representative helicopter configurations are presented. The effect of fuselage components on the rotor flow field and the overall wake structure is detailed and the aerodynamic interference between the different parts of the aircraft is discussed.

  6. Study for prediction of rotor/wake/fuselage interference. Part 2: Program users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. R.; Maskew, B.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed which permits the fully coupled calculation of fuselage and rotor airloads for typical helicopter configurations in forward flight. To do this, an iterative solution is carried out based on a conventional panel representation of the fuselage and a blade element representation of the rotor where fuselage and rotor singularity strengths are determined simultaneously at each step and the rotor wake is allowed to relax (deform) in response to changes in rotor wake loading and fuselage presence. On completion of the iteration, rotor loading and inflow, fuselage singularity strength (and, hence, pressure and velocity distributions) and rotor wake are all consistent. The results of a fully coupled calculation of the flow around representative helicopter configurations are presented. The effect of fuselage components on the rotor flow field and the overall wake structure is discussed as well as the aerodynamic interference between the different parts of the aircraft. Details of the computer program are given.

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Fuselage Dents on Compressive Failure Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Aluminum Alloy 2024 - T3 , a typical material used for fuselages of older transport aircrafts. Our finite element model consisted of impact analysis...SUBJECT TERMS Fuselage, Dents, Damages, Buckling, Al- 2024 - T3 , Impact, Stiffened Plate, Stiffened Panel 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...finite element models is Aluminum Alloy 2024 - T3 , a typical material used for fuselages of older transport aircrafts. Our finite element model

  8. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter-rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of rotor wake on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained on three fuselage models at various combinations of windspeed, sideslip angle, and pitch angle. The data show that the influence of rotor wake on the helicopter fuselage yawing moment imposes a significant additional thrust requirement on the tail rotor of a single-rotor helicopter at high sideslip angles.

  9. Convergent Regulation of Candida albicans Aft2 and Czf1 in Invasive and Opaque Filamentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Yi-Jie; Yu, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Meng; Jia, Chang; Chen, Yu-Lu; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Lai-Jun; Li, Ming-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of mucosal infections and invasive diseases in immuno-compromised humans. The abilities of yeast-hyphal growth and white-opaque switching affect C. albicans physiology and virulence. Here, we showed that C. albicans Aft2 regulator was required for embedded filamentous growth and opaque cell-type formation. Under low-temperature matrix embedded conditions, Aft2 functioned downstream of Czf1-mediated pathway and was required for invasive filamentation. Moreover, deletion of AFT2 significantly reduced opaque cell-type formation under N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) inducing conditions. Ectopic expression of CZF1 slightly increased the white-opaque switching frequency in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, but did not completely restore to wild-type levels, suggesting that Czf1 at least partially bypassed the essential requirement for Aft2 in response to opaque-inducing cues. In addition, multiple environmental cues altered AFT2 mRNA and protein levels, such as low temperature, physical environment and GlcNAc. Although the absence of Czf1 or Efg1 also increased the expression level of AFT2 gene, deletion of CZF1 remarkably reduced the stability of Aft2 protein. Furthermore, C. albicans Aft2 physically interacted with Czf1 under all tested conditions, whereas the interaction between Aft2 and Efg1 was barely detectable under embedded conditions, supporting the hypothesis that Aft2, together with Czf1, contributed to activate filamentous growth by antagonizing Efg1-mediated repression under matrix-embedded conditions.

  10. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  11. View forward to aft of compartment A126, port side fore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment A-126, port side fore to aft showing scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) in background, deck fittings, coal bunker manhole cover at lower left. (043) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Springer uses camera on OV-104 aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, holding HASSELBLAD camera, positions himself under aft flight deck overhead window W7 before recording the Earth's surface below. Behind Springer are Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, onorbit station and aft flight deck viewing windows.

  13. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 esc view --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is photographed prior to recording still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A camera lens is temporarily stowed nearby on the aft wall. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  14. 4. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD DOWN CENTERLINE WITH OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AFT PORT QUARTER AND ACROSS PIER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.

  16. General view of the middeck looking aft and port. In ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the mid-deck looking aft and port. In this view you can clearly see the crew access hatch and the airlock hatch. The hose and ladder in the image are pieces of ground support equipment. The hose is part of the climate control apparatus used while orbiters are being processed. The ladder is used to access the inter-deck passage, leading to the flight deck, while the orbiter is in 1g (earth's gravity). A careful observer will notice a void in the wall near the base of the access ladder, this is the Waste Management Compartment with the Waste Management System, i.e. Space Potty, removed. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. 30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. Finite Element Model Development For Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results.

  19. Probabilistic evaluation of fuselage-type composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally simulate the uncertain behavior of composite structures. The uncertain behavior includes buckling loads, natural frequencies, displacements, stress/strain etc., which are the consequences of the random variation (scatter) of the primitive (independent random) variables in the constituent, ply, laminate and structural levels. This methodology is implemented in the IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures) computer code. A fuselage-type composite structure is analyzed to demonstrate the code's capability. The probability distribution functions of the buckling loads, natural frequency, displacement, strain and stress are computed. The sensitivity of each primitive (independent random) variable to a given structural response is also identified from the analyses.

  20. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report for the NASA funded project entitled "Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage." The primary objective of the project was to create a capability to simulate curvilinear fatigue crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage. The second objective was to validate the capability by way of comparisons to experimental results. Both objectives have been achieved and the results are detailed herein. In the first part of the report, the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained and correlated from coupon tests to predict fracture behavior and residual strength of built-up aircraft fuselages, is discussed. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element analyses are used to simulate stable crack growth and to predict residual strength. Both measured and predicted results of laboratory flat panel tests and full-scale fuselage panel tests show substantial reduction of residual strength due to the occurrence of multi-site damage (MSD). Detailed comparisons of n stable crack growth history, and residual strength between the predicted and experimental results are used to assess the validity of the analysis methodology. In the second part of the report, issues related to crack trajectory prediction in thin shells; an evolving methodology uses the crack turning phenomenon to improve the structural integrity of aircraft structures are discussed, A directional criterion is developed based on the maximum tangential stress theory, but taking into account the effect of T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy. Possible extensions of the current crack growth directional criterion to handle geometrically and materially nonlinear problems are discussed. The path independent contour integral method for T-stress evaluation is derived and its accuracy is assessed using a p- and hp-version adaptive finite element method. Curvilinear crack growth is simulated in

  1. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Aircraft design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobe, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross sections and structural members on the performance of hypersonic cruise aircraft are evaluated. Representative fuselage/tank area structure was analyzed for strength, stability, fatigue and fracture mechanics. Various thermodynamic and structural tradeoffs were conducted to refine the conceptual designs with the primary objective of minimizing weight and maximizing aircraft range.

  2. Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

  3. Algebraic grid generation about wing-fuselage bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    An algebraic procedure for the generation of boundary-fitted grids about wing-fuselage configurations is presented. A wing-fuselage configuration is specified by cross sections and mathematically represented by Coons' patches. A configuration is divided into sections so that several grid blocks that either adjoin each other or partially overlap each other can be generated. Each grid has six exterior surfaces that map into a computational cube. Grids are first determined on the six boundary surfaces and then in the interior. Grid curves that are on the surface of the configuration are derived from the intersection of planes with the Coons' patch definition. Single-valued functions relating approximate arc lengths along the grid curves to a computational coordinate define the distribution of grid points. The two-boundary technique and transfinite interpolation are used to determine the boundary surface grids that are not on the configuration, and transfinite interpolation with linear blending functions is used to determine the interior grid.

  4. Inspection of fabricated fuselage panels using electronic shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John, II; Feferman, Ben

    1992-07-01

    The results of a proof of principle demonstration of using electronic shearography to detect induced damage in fabricated aircraft panels are presented. The demonstration was performed at the FAA's Aircraft Panel Test Facility in Waltham, Massachusetts and all shearography equipment and its operational support was provided by Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) under a separate contract from the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The test panels that were inspected using the electronic shearography were constructed to closely simulate the fuselage and skin structure of Boeing 727 and 737 aircraft. These panels contained programmed flaws intended to simulate two major types of defects associated with aging aircraft, namely cracks along fastener rows, and disbonded tear strap doublers and lap joints. The proof of principle consisted of a series of inspections that demonstrated shearography's capability to detect cracks and disbonds in the fuselage panel specimens. The sensitivity of shearography to detect short, simulated fatigue cracks that would correspond to a multiple site damage situation was too low to provide sufficient confidence that the method could economically replace existing eddy current surface methods. The sensitivity of the method to detect panel disbonding, however, is sufficient to encourage further development of the technique.

  5. Simulation of propfan noise impact on a fuselage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A. B.

    1983-04-01

    The modification of aircraft fuselage structures to withstand and shield against strong acoustic waves generated by propfan engines presents major difficulties in that a full-size propfan has yet to be built. The present paper describes a siren that may be used for the ground-based or in-flight simulation of propfan noise in the development of suitable fuselage structures. The siren is powered by compressed air, and is configured in such a way that the ejected air generates a rotating acoustic wave that is much like the rotating rave attached to a two-bladed propfan. In contrast to the conventional high-energy siren, the rotating-wave-pattern siren can simulate the propfan and its high-speed (up to supersonic) blade rotation. The new device is capable of providing sound pressure levels equal to those projected for an advanced propfan design, yet is economical to build and maintain, requiring only mechanical parts operating at speeds well below sonic.

  6. Local design optimization for composite transport fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. D.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Walker, T. H.; Graesser, D.; Tuttle, M.; Zabinsky, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Composite transport fuselage crown panel design and manufacturing plans were optimized to have projected cost and weight savings of 18 percent and 45 percent, respectively. These savings are close to those quoted as overall NASA ACT program goals. Three local optimization tasks were found to influence the cost and weight of fuselage crown panels. This paper summarizes the effect of each task and describes in detail the task associated with a design cost model. Studies were performed to evaluate the relationship between manufacturing cost and design details. A design tool was developed to aid in these investigations. The development of the design tool included combining cost and performance constraints with a random search optimization algorithm. The resulting software was used in a series of optimization studies that evaluated the sensitivity of design variables, guidelines, criteria, and material selection on cost. The effect of blending adjacent design points in a full scale panel subjected to changing load distributions and local variations was shown to be important. Technical issues and directions for future work were identified.

  7. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  8. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  9. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  10. Space Shuttle with rail system and aft thrust structure securing solid rocket boosters to external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The configuration and relationship of the external propellant tank and solid rocket boosters of space transportation systems such as the space shuttle are described. The space shuttle system with the improved propellant tank is shown. The external tank has a forward pressure vessel for liquid hydrogen and an aft pressure vessel for liquid oxygen. The solid rocket boosters are joined together by a thrust frame which extends across and behind the external tank. The thrust of the orbiter's main rocket engines are transmitted to the aft portion of the external tank and the thrust of the solid rocket boosters are transmitted to the aft end of the external tank.

  11. Thermal Analysis of the X-38 Aft Fin During Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the details of the thermal analysis of the X-38 aft fin during re-entry. This analysis was performed in order to calculate temperature response of the aft fin components. This would be provided as input to a structural analysis and would also define the operating environment for the electromechanical actuator (EMA). The calculated structural temperature response would verify the performance of the thermal protection system (TPS). The geometric representation of the aft fin was derived from an I-DEAS finite element model that was used for structural analysis. The thermal mass network model was derived from the geometric representation.

  12. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  13. Solid rocket motor aft field joint flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, Jayant S.; Gibeling, Edward J.; Mcdonald, Henry

    1987-01-01

    An efficient Navier-Stokes analysis was successfully applied to simulate the complex flow field in the vicinity of a slot in a solid rocket motor with segment joints. The capability of the computer code to resolve the flow near solid surfaces without using a wall function assumption was demonstrated. In view of the complex nature of the flow field in the vicinity of the slot, this approach is considered essential. The results obtained from these calculations provide valuable design information, which would otherwise be extremely difficult to obtain. The results of the axisymmetric calculations indicate the presence of a region of reversed axial flow at the aft-edge of the slot and show the over-pressure in the slot to be only about 10 psi. The results of the asymmetric calculations indicate that a pressure asymmetry more than two diameters downstream of the slot has no noticeable effect on the flow field in the slot. They also indicate that the circumferential pressure differential caused in the slot due to failure of a 15 deg section of the castable inhibitor will be approximately 1 psi.

  14. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 1: Aft Skirt analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, David M.; Stansberry, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Using the ANSYS finite element program, a global model of the aft skirt and a detailed nonlinear model of the failure region was made. The analysis confirmed the area of failure in both STA-2B and STA-3 tests as the forging heat affected zone (HAZ) at the aft ring centerline. The highest hoop strain in the HAZ occurs in this area. However, the analysis does not predict failure as defined by ultimate elongation of the material equal to 3.5 percent total strain. The analysis correlates well with the strain gage data from both the Wyle influence test of the original design aft sjirt and the STA-3 test of the redesigned aft skirt. it is suggested that the sensitivity of the failure area material strength and stress/strain state to material properties and therefore to small manufacturing or processing variables is the most likely cause of failure below the expected material ultimate properties.

  16. Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  17. 5. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AND IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Noise transmission characteristics of a large scale composite fuselage model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Todd B.; Silcox, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Results from an experimental test undertaken to study the basic noise transmission characteristics of a realistic, built-up composite fuselage model are presented. The floor-equipped stiffened composite cylinder was exposed to a number of different exterior noise source configurations in a large anechoic chamber. These exterior source configurations included two point sources located in the same plane on opposite sides of the cylinder, a single point source and a propeller simulator. The results indicate that the interior source field is affected strongly by exterior noise source phasing. Sidewall treatment is seen to reduce the overall interior sound pressure levels and dampen dominant acoustic resonances so that other acoustic modes can affect interior noise distribution.

  19. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer achieve improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  20. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid the dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer in achieving improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  1. Impact damage resistance of composite fuselage structure, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dost, Ernest F.; Finn, Scott R.; Murphy, Daniel P.; Huisken, Amy B.

    1993-01-01

    The strength of laminated composite materials may be significantly reduced by foreign object impact induced damage. An understanding of the damage state is required in order to predict the behavior of structure under operational loads or to optimize the structural configuration. Types of damage typically induced in laminated materials during an impact event include transverse matrix cracking, delamination, and/or fiber breakage. The details of the damage state and its influence on structural behavior depend on the location of the impact. Damage in the skin may act as a soft inclusion or affect panel stability, while damage occurring over a stiffener may include debonding of the stiffener flange from the skin. An experiment to characterize impact damage resistance of fuselage structure as a function of structural configuration and impact threat was performed. A wide range of variables associated with aircraft fuselage structure such as material type and stiffener geometry (termed, intrinsic variables) and variables related to the operating environment such as impactor mass and diameter (termed, extrinsic variables) were studied using a statistically based design-of-experiments technique. The experimental design resulted in thirty-two different 3-stiffener panels. These configured panels were impacted in various locations with a number of impactor configurations, weights, and energies. The results obtained from an examination of impacts in the skin midbay and hail simulation impacts are documented. The current discussion is a continuation of that work with a focus on nondiscrete characterization of the midbay hail simulation impacts and discrete characterization of impact damage for impacts over the stiffener.

  2. STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Jemison conducts AFTE in SLJ module on OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, wearing autogenic feedback training system 2 suit, conducts the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) in Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. AFTE's objective is to teach astronauts to use biofeedback rather than drugs to combat nausea and other effects of space motion sickness. Jemison's physical responses are monitored by sensors attached to the suit.

  3. STS-46 MS-PLC Hoffman monitors EURECA deploy from OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing polarized goggles (sunglasses), monitors the European Retrievable Carrier 1L (EURECA-1L) satellite deploy from the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The remote manipulator system arm's 'Canada' insignia is visible in aft flight deck viewing window W10. Hoffman's left hand is positioned at overhead window W8.

  4. STS-35 MS Hoffman changes a roll of film on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman changes a roll of film in a 70mm ROLLEIFLEX camera while on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Though the mission was dedicated largely to the discipline of astrophysics, the blue and white Earth, partially seen here through OV-102's overhead window W7 and aft flight deck viewing window W9, was also observed and photographed by the crewmembers during the nine-day flight.

  5. STS-26 Commander Hauck looks out window W8 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck looks up at overhead window W8 while on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck rests his right arm between Onorbit Station control panel A7U and aft viewing window W10. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  6. Noise-reduction measurements of stiffened and unstiffened cylindrical models of an airplane fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Noise-reduction measurements are presented for a stiffened and an unstiffened model of an airplane fuselage. The cylindrical models were tested in a reverberant-field noise environment over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 6 kHz. An unstiffened metal fuselage provided more noise reduction than a fuselage having the same sidewall weight divided between skin and stiffening stringers and ring frames. The addition of acoustic insulation to the models tended to smooth out the interior-noise spectrum by reducing or masking the noise associated with the structural response at some of the resonant frequencies.

  7. Some computational tools for the analysis of through cracks in stiffened fuselage shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, C. C.; Brogan, F. A.; Riks, E.

    1992-10-01

    A method for computing the energy release rate for cracks of varying length in a typical stiffened metallic fuselage under general loading conditions is presented. Reliable analytical methods that predict the structural integrity and residual strength of aircraft fuselage structures containing cracks are needed to help to understand the behavior of pressurized stiffened shells with damage, to determine the safe life of such a shell. The models used in the simulation are derived from an extensive analysis of a fuselage barrel section subjected to operational flight loads. Energy release rates are computed as a function of the length of the crack, its location, and the crack propagation mode.

  8. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  9. Evaluation of 7XXX-series aluminum alloys for the W87 aft support ring

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    The study showed that the tensile properties of both 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 decreased significantly after holding the alloys for any length of time at temperatures greater than 500/sup 0/F. After a 2-min hold at 575/sup 0/F, the yield strengths of 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 were 217 MPa (31.5 ksi) and 245 MPa (35.6 ksi), respectively. There did not appear to be a significant difference in the mechanical properties between 7075-T6 and 7050-T6. Time at temperature appeared to be a critical parameter. Cycling the microstructure to 575/sup 0/F or above with no hold at temperature caused considerably less degradation in mechanical properties than a 2-min hold at temperature in all cases. Above 650/sup 0/F, both the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength of the alloys reached a minimum of around 310 MPa (45 ksi) and 138 MPa (20 ksi), respectively. Evidence of a continuous grain boundary film of eta phase precipitates was found in the 7075-T6 alloy after a typical 575/sup 0/F thermal cycle. The presence of this grain boundary precipitate indicated a potential sensitivity of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking. Although the general environment for the aft support ring is controlled, the ring is expected to be under tension after assembly and exposure to small amounts of water vapor will probably occur. The conditions of stress, moisture, and susceptible microstructure increase the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking.

  10. Experimental effects of fuselage camber on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a series of wing-fuselage configurations at a Mach number of 1.41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Morris, O. A.; Adams, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate a method for the integration of a fighter-type fuselage with a theoretical wing to preserve desirable wing aerodynamic characteristics for efficient maneuvering. The investigation was conducted by using semispan wing fuselage models mounted on a splitter plate. The models were tested through an angle of attack range at a Mach number of 1.41. The wing had a leading edge sweep angle of 50 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.76; the wing camber surface was designed for minimum drag due to lift and was to be self trimming at a lift coefficient of 0.2 and at a Mach number of 1.40. A series of five fuselages of various camber was tested on the wing.

  11. Evaluation of Pressurization Fatigue Life of 1441 Al-li Fuselage Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Dicus, Dennis I.; Fridlyander, Joseph; Davydov, Valentin

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the pressurization fatigue life of fuselage panels with skins fabricated from 1441 Al-Li, an attractive new Russian alloy. The study indicated that 1441 Al-Li has several advantages over conventional aluminum fuselage skin alloy with respect to fatigue behavior. Smooth 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens exhibited a fatigue endurance limit similar to that for 1163 Al (Russian version of 2024 Al) sheet. Notched 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens exhibited greater fatigue strength and longer fatigue life than 1163 Al. In addition, Tu-204 fuselage panels fabricated by Tupolev Design Bureau using Al-Li skin and ring frames with riveted 7000-series aluminum stiffeners had longer pressurization fatigue lives than did panels constructed from conventional aluminum alloys. Taking into account the lower density of this alloy, the results suggest that 1441 Al-Li has the potential to improve fuselage performance while decreasing structural weight.

  12. Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.

  13. Crash Simulation of a Boeing 737 Fuselage Section Vertical Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Jones, Yvonne T.; Frings, Gary; Vu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    A 30-ft/s vertical drop test of a fuselage section of a Boeing 737 aircraft was conducted in October of 1999 at the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, NJ. This test was performed to evaluate the structural integrity of a conformable auxiliary fuel tank mounted beneath the floor and to determine its effect on the impact response of the airframe structure and the occupants. The test data were used to compare with a finite element simulation of the fuselage structure and to gain a better understanding of the impact physics through analytical/experimental correlation. To perform this simulation, a full-scale 3-dimensional finite element model of the fuselage section was developed using the explicit, nonlinear transient-dynamic finite element code, MSC.Dytran. The emphasis of the simulation was to predict the structural deformation and floor-level acceleration responses obtained from the drop test of the B737 fuselage section with the auxiliary fuel tank.

  14. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  15. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located forward of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crack loads. Post-test inspection showed that the section bottom collapsed inward approximately 2 ft. Preliminary data traces indicated maximum normal accelerations of 20 g on the fuselage bottom, 10 to 12 g on the cabin floor, and 6.5 to 8 g in the pelvises of the anthropomorphic dummies.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Submerged-Engine Fuselage Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1940-10-01

    pursuit-type fuselage with a practicable internal dust arrangement deralgned to meet all of the air requirements of a 1000-horsepower radial en%ine... radial type, it was de- cided to include two tail outlets in this investigation even though they could obvlouslr not be used ~lth a Pusher. propeller...the bmslo streamline body. 3. Because of the low 10CR1 velocities over the noee shapes tested, the criticnl comprese ~billty speed of the fuselage

  17. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  18. Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects: A CFD Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.

  19. Pressure Distribution Over the Fuselage of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane. Aerodynamic loads on the fuselage are, in general, unimportant from the structural viewpoint, and in most cases they are of such character that, if neglected, a conservative design results. In spins, aerodynamic forces on the fuselage produce diving moments of appreciable magnitude and yawing moments of small magnitude, but opposing the rotation of the airplane. A table of cowling pressures for various maneuvers is included in the report.

  20. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  1. Low speed test of the aft inlet designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, W. W.; Ybarra, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An approximately .25 scale model of a Tandem Fan nacelle designed for a Type A V/STOL aircraft configuration was tested in a 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. A 12 inch, tip driven, turbofan simulator was used to provide the suction source for the aft fan inlet. The front fan inlet was faired over for this test entry. Model variables consisted of a long aft inlet cowl, a short aft inlet cowl, a shaft simulator, blow-in door passages and diffuser vortex generators. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, inlet angle of attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocities from 0 to 240 knots, angles of attack from -10 to 40 degrees and inlet flow rates representative of throat Mach numbers of 0.1 to 0.6. High inlet performance and stable operation was verified at all design forward speed and angle of attack conditions. The short aft inlet configuration provided exceptionally high pressure recovery except at the highest combination of angle of attack and forward speed. The flow quality at the fan face was somewhat degraded by the addition of blow-in door passages to the long aft inlet configuration due to the pressure disturbances generated by the flow entering the diffuser through the auxiliary air passages.

  2. Residual Strength Prediction of Fuselage Structures with Multiple Site Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent results on simulating full-scale pressure tests of wide body, lap-jointed fuselage panels with multiple site damage (MSD). The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion and the FRANC3D/STAGS software program were used to analyze stable crack growth under conditions of general yielding. The link-up of multiple cracks and residual strength of damaged structures were predicted. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis based on the von Mises yield criterion and incremental flow theory with small strain assumption was used. A global-local modeling procedure was employed in the numerical analyses. Stress distributions from the numerical simulations are compared with strain gage measurements. Analysis results show that accurate representation of the load transfer through the rivets is crucial for the model to predict the stress distribution accurately. Predicted crack growth and residual strength are compared with test data. Observed and predicted results both indicate that the occurrence of small MSD cracks substantially reduces the residual strength. Modeling fatigue closure is essential to capture the fracture behavior during the early stable crack growth. Breakage of a tear strap can have a major influence on residual strength prediction.

  3. Interference drag in a simulated wing-fuselage juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubendran, L. R.; Mcmahon, H.; Hubbartt, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The interference drag in a wing fuselage juncture as simulated by a flat plate and a body of constant thickness having a 1.5:1 elliptical leading edge is evaluated experimentally. The experimental measurements consist of mean velocity data taken with a hot wire at a streamwise location corresponding to 16 body widths downstream of the body leading edge. From these data, the interference drag is determined by calculating the total momentum deficit (momentum area) in the juncture and also in the two dimensional turbulent boundary layers on the flat plate and body at locations sufficiently far from the juncture flow effect. The interference drag caused by the juncture drag as measured at this particular streamwise station is -3% of the total drag due to the flat plate and body boundary layers in isolation. If the body is considered to be a wing having a chord and span equal to 16 body widths, the interference drag due to the juncture is only -1% of the frictional drag of one surface of such a wing.

  4. Aft Body Closure: Predicted Strut Effects at M=2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Garritz, Javier A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the predicted M = 2.4 strut-interference effects on a closed aftbody with empennage for the TCA baseline model. The strut mounting technique was needed in order to assess the impact of aft-end shaping, i.e. open for a sting or closed to better represent a flight vehicle. However,this technique can potentially lead to unanticipated effects that are measured on the aft body. Therefore, a set of computations were performed in order to examine the closed aft body with and without strut present, at both zero and non-zero angles of sideslip (AOS). The work was divided into a computational task performed by Javier A. Garriz, using an inviscid (Euler) solver, and a monitoring/reporting task done by John E. Lamar. All this work was performed during FY98 at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  6. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  7. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  8. STS-30 crewmembers pose for onboard portrait on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During STS-30 aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers pose for portrait. In front of aft flight deck onorbit station are (right to left) Mission Specialist (MS) Norman E. Thagard, Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, MS Mary L. Cleave, Commander David M. Walker, and MS Mark C. Lee. Crewmembers are wearing red, white, and blue mission polo shirts and light blue flight coveralls. Overhead windows W7 and W8 and aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 are visible in view.

  9. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the SRB Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, J.; Ayala, S.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the PSAM Project is an example) to develop Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element design tool, known as NESSUS, is used to determine the reliability of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt critical weld. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process.

  10. STS-35 MS Hoffman operates ASTRO-1 MPC on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing headset and monitoring closed circuit television (CCTV) display screen, operates the Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) manual pointing controller (MPC) on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. MPC is used to position the instrument pointing system (IPS) and its three ultraviolet telescopes in OV-102's payload bay (PLB). Hoffman and other crewmembers were able to command the IPS to record astronomical data using the MPC. At Hoffman's left are the onorbit station control panels and the two aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10.

  11. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, Jeff; Ayala, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods Project is an example) to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element software code, known as Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress, is used to determine the reliability of a critical weld of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster aft skirt. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process. Also, analysis findings are compared with measured Space Shuttle flight data.

  12. Nonlinear coupled rotor-fuselage helicopter vibration studies with higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.; Papavassiliou, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters by means of active control methodologies. The nonlinear equations of a coupled rotor/flexible-fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra, thus relegating this tedious task to the computer. In the solution procedure the trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by using a harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter in all the rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. Using this solution procedure, the influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. In addition, it is shown that the conventional single frequency HHC is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. A new scheme called MHHC, having multiple higher harmonic pitch inputs, was used to accomplish this task of simultaneously reducing both the vibratory hub loads and fuselage vibratory response. In addition, the uniqueness of this MHHC scheme is explained in detail.

  13. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ..., Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO 64106..., retractable gear, carbon composite, airplane with one turbofan engine mounted partially in the upper aft.... Issued in Kansas City, Missouri on June 5, 2013. Earl Lawrence, Small Airplane Directorate,...

  14. Looking Back, Looking Ahead: A Reflection on Paraprofessionals and the AFT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    In this article, secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Lorretta Johnson reflects on her early work as a paraprofessional at Liberty Elementary School (Baltimore, Maryland) and what sparked her union activism nearly 50 years ago in 1966. It was that year that she and her colleagues joined the Baltimore Teachers Union…

  15. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein celebrates birthday on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, wearing eye glasses, holds inflated plastic birthday cake during a celebration on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Two of the candles on the cake have collapsed as Brandenstein smiles and wonders whether to blow down the rest.

  16. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. STS-27 Pilot Gardner works with cameras on aft flight deck at window W8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Pilot Guy S. Gardner holds ARRIFLEX 16mm motion picture camera in his right hand and a 70mm still camera in his left hand as another 70mm camera and a 35mm camera float around him. Gardner tries to position the cameras at aft flight deck overhead window W8.

  18. Enabling a Better Aft Heat Shield Solution for Future Mars Science Laboratory Class Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary K.; Covington, Melmoth A.; Goldstein, Howard E.; Arnold, James O.; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    System studies are described that compare masses and estimated manufacturing costs of options for the as-flown Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aft body Thermal Light Weight Ablator (SLA) 561-V and its thickness was not optimized using the standard TPS Sizer Tool widely used for heat shield design. Use of the TPS sizing tool suggests that optimization of the SLA thickness could reduce the aft heat shield mass by 40 percent. Analysis of the predicted aft-shell aerothermodynamics suggests that the bulk of MSL class entry vehicle heat shields could incorporate Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI). AFRSI has a wellestablished record of relatively inexpensive manufacturing and flight certification based on its use on the lee side of the Space Shuttle. Runs with the TPS Sizer show that the AFRSI solution would be 60 percent lighter than the as-flown SLA. The issue of Reaction Control System (RCS) heating on the aft shell could be addressed by locally impregnating the AFRSI with silicone to enhance its robustness to short bursts ofheating. Stagnation point arcjet testing has shown that silicone impregnated AFRSI performs well at heat rates of 115 W/cm2 and 0.1 atmospheres for a duration of 40 seconds, far beyond conditions that are expected for MSL class vehicles. The paper concludes with a discussion of manufacturing processes for AFRSI, impregnation approaches and relative cost comparisons to the SLA solution.

  19. Astronauts Walz and Newman in STS-51 Discovery's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman are pictured on Discovery's aft flight deck near two experiments. Positioned in the window above Walz's head is the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B), while the High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy (HRSGS-A) experiment is deployed in the other window.

  20. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. The Bargaining Table and Beyond: How the AFT Came to Support Labor-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When he first came to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in 1973, reports Phil Kugler, there was no such thing as labor-management collaboration. It was a term he had never heard of, and no one used it. Back then, the focus was on supporting local unions in their struggles to win collective bargaining rights. At the time, teachers were…

  2. View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 3. EXUSS HORNET CVS12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, EX-USS ORISKANY CV-34 RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO, EX-USS JERSEY BB-62 AND OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ACROSS PIER FROM HORNET. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  5. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  6. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, payload bay aft firewall and thermal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, payload bay (PLB) aft firewall is documented to show a loose piece of thermal insulation. The crew discovered the loose blanket soon after opening the PLB doors on 06-05-91. The vertical tail and the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are visible above the bulkhead.

  7. Noniterative grid generation using parabolic difference equations for fuselage-wing flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    A fast method for generating three-dimensional grids for fuselage-wing transonic flow calculations using parabolic difference equations is described. No iterative scheme is used in the three-dimensional sense; grids are generated from one grid surface to the next starting from the fuselage surface. The computational procedure is similar to the iterative solution of the two-dimensional heat conduction equation. The proposed method is at least 10 times faster than the elliptic grid generation method and has much smaller memory requirements. Results are presented for a fuselage and wing of NACA-0012 section and thickness ratio of 10 percent. Although only H-grids are demonstrated, the present technique should be applicable to C-grids and O-grids in three dimensions.

  8. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  9. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  10. XSECT: A computer code for generating fuselage cross sections - user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, XSECT, has been developed to generate fuselage cross sections from a given area distribution and wing definition. The cross sections are generated to match the wing definition while conforming to the area requirement. An iterative procedure is used to generate each cross section. Fuselage area balancing may be included in this procedure if desired. The code is intended as an aid for engineers who must first design a wing under certain aerodynamic constraints and then design a fuselage for the wing such that the contraints remain satisfied. This report contains the information necessary for accessing and executing the code, which is written in FORTRAN to execute on the Cyber 170 series computers (NOS operating system) and produces graphical output for a Tektronix 4014 CRT. The LRC graphics software is used in combination with the interface between this software and the PLOT 10 software.

  11. Investigation on Sound Field Model of Propeller AIRCRAFT—THE Effect of Rigid Fuselage Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. Q.; Zhou, S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved sound field model with multiple propeller noise sources and finite fuselage boundary has been developed for the prediction of propeller aircraft noise by using the acoustic analogy method. It involves the effects of fuselage boundary with arbitrary shape and coupling of multiple propeller sources. It is also applicable to solving the interaction between any known boundary and harmonic sound source. The model has been used to calculate the sound field of propeller aircraft Y12 with rigid fuselage boundary and the sound field of rigid sphere in planar harmonic sound wave. The latter has an analytical solution which could be used to check the present method. The calculation results show that the model is reasonable and valuable.

  12. A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao

    A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection is developed. The coupled rotor/fuselage/vibration absorbers (bifilar type) system incorporates consistent structural, aerodynamic and inertial couplings. The aeroelastic analysis is based on finite element methods in space and time. The coupled rotor, absorbers and fuselage equations are transformed into the modal space and solved in the fixed coordinate system. A coupled trim procedure is used to solve the responses of rotor, fuselage and vibration absorber, rotor trim control and vehicle orientation simultaneously. Rotor system faults are modeled by changing blade structural, inertial and aerodynamic properties. Both adjustable and component faults, such as misadjusted trim-tab, misadjusted pitch-control rod (PCR), imbalanced mass and pitch-control bearing freeplay, are investigated. Detailed SH-60 helicopter fuselage NASTRAN model is integrated into the analysis. Validation study was performed using SH-60 helicopter flight test data. The prediction of fuselage natural frequencies show fairly large error compared to shake test data. Analytical predictions of fuselage baseline (without fault) 4/rev vibration and fault-induced 1/rev vibration and blade displacement deviations are compared with SH-60 flight test (with prescribed fault) data. The fault-induced 1/rev fuselage vibration (magnitude and phase) predicted by present analysis generally capture the trend of the flight test data, although prediction under-predicts. The large discrepancy of fault-induced 1/rev vibration magnitude at hover between prediction and flight test data partially comes from the variation of flight condition (not perfect hover) and partially due to the effect of the rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction (wake effect) at low speed which is not considered in the analysis. Also the differences in the phase prediction is not clear since only the magnitude and phase information were given instead of the

  13. Some computational tools for the analysis of through cracks in stiffened fuselage shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, C. C.; Brogan, F. A.; Riks, E.

    1993-12-01

    Reliable analytical methods that predict the structural integrity and residual strength of aircraft fuselage structures containing cracks are needed to help to understand the behavior of pressurized stiffened shells with damage, so that it becomes possible to determine the safe life of such a shell. Of special importance is the ability to determine under what conditions local failure, once initiated, will propagate. In this paper we shall present a reliable and efficient method for computing the energy release rate for cracks of varying length in a typical stiffened metallic fuselage under general loading conditions. The models used in the simulation are derived from an extensive analysis of a fuselage barrel section subjected to operational flight loads. Energy release rates are computed as a function of the length of the crack, its location, and the crack propagation mode.

  14. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-09-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  15. a Reciprocity Technique for the Characterisation of Sound Transmission Into Aircraft Fuselages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James Meredith

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Experimental determination of the sound insulation of propfan aircraft fuselage structures is problematic. The use of full-scale flight tests to investigate and optimise sidewall design is expensive, while the use of simplified excitation tests is questionable, due to the complicated nature of propeller sound fields and their interaction with the fuselage. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a new experimental reciprocity technique for calibrating a fuselage as a transmitter of pressure acting on the external surface to the interior: it is based upon the use of a transducer which measures the volume velocity of the vibrating fuselage surface. The data generated may be combined with any impinging sound field to obtain a prediction of cabin sound pressure level. In the first instance, the technique is validated for sound transmission through flat panels into a rigid walled box and the results presented demonstrate the validity of the approach. Tests are then conducted on a set of four quarter-scale 'green' fuselage model configurations, constructed to investigate the influence of ring frame bending-stiffness, stringers and floor on airborne sound transmission. Interior noise predictions are obtained for plane wave excitation and a representation of propeller sound field excitation. The important features relating to correct representation of the excitation field and the fuselage structure are isolated, within the scope of the models evaluated. In addition, a statistical perturbation technique is described which demonstrates confidence in the predictions. The technique is recommended for evaluation on a full size airframe.

  16. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-01-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  17. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience has... fire test criteria for insulation films directly relating to the resistance of in-flight...

  18. Interference of Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 209 Combinations in the NACA Variable-Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 209 simple wing-fuselage combinations made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel to provide information regarding the effects of aerodynamic interference between wings and fuselages at a large value of Reynolds number.

  19. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  20. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  1. Results of uniaxial and biaxial tests on riveted fuselage lap joint specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlieger, H.

    1994-01-01

    As part of an FAA-NLR collaborative program on structural integrity of aging aircraft, NLR carried out uniaxial and biaxial fatigue tests on riveted lap joint specimens being representative for application in a fuselage. All tests were constant amplitude tests with maximum stresses being representative for fuselage pressurization cycles and R-values of 0.1. The parameters selected in the testing program were the stress level (sigma(sub max) = 14 and 16 ksi) and the rivet spacing (0.75 and 1.0 inch). All specimens contained 3 rows of countersunk rivets, the rivet row spacing was 1 inch and the rivet orientation continuous.

  2. Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Fuselage Structural Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis and design of efficient pressurized fuselage configurations for the advanced Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) flight vehicle is a challenging problem. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurized fuselage, stress level in a box type BWB fuselage is an order of magnitude higher, because internal pressure primarily results in bending stress instead of skin-membrane stress. In addition, resulting deformation of aerodynamic surface could significantly affect performance advantages provided by lifting body. The pressurized composite conformal multi-lobe tanks of X-33 type space vehicle also suffered from similar problem. In the earlier BWB design studies, Vaulted Ribbed Shell (VLRS), Flat Ribbed Shell (FRS); Vaulted shell Honeycomb Core (VLHC) and Flat sandwich shell Honeycomb Core (FLHC) concepts were studied. The flat and vaulted ribbed shell concepts were found most efficient. In a recent study, a set of composite sandwich panel and cross-ribbed panel were analyzed. Optimal values of rib and skin thickness, rib spacing, and panel depth were obtained for minimal weight under stress and buckling constraints. In addition, a set of efficient multi-bubble fuselage (MBF) configuration concept was developed. The special geometric configuration of this concept allows for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls, while the outer-ribbed shell prevents buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. The initial results from these approximate finite element analyses indicate progressively lower maximum stresses and deflections compared to the earlier study. However, a relative comparison of the FEM weight per unit floor area of the segment unit indicates that the unit weights are still relatively higher that the conventional B777 type cylindrical or A380 type elliptic fuselage design. Due to the manufacturing concern associated with multi-bubble fuselage, a Y braced box

  3. Continued development and correlation of analytically based weight estimation codes for wings and fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The implementation of the changes to the program for Wing Aeroelastic Design and the development of a program to estimate aircraft fuselage weights are described. The equations to implement the modified planform description, the stiffened panel skin representation, the trim loads calculation, and the flutter constraint approximation are presented. A comparison of the wing model with the actual F-5A weight material distributions and loads is given. The equations and program techniques used for the estimation of aircraft fuselage weights are described. These equations were incorporated as a computer code. The weight predictions of this program are compared with data from the C-141.

  4. The Growth of Multi-Site Fatigue Damage in Fuselage Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    Destructive examinations were performed to document the progression of multi-site damage (MSD) in three lap joint panels that were removed from a full scale fuselage test article that was tested to 60,000 full pressurization cycles. Similar fatigue crack growth characteristics were observed for small cracks (50 microns to 10 mm) emanating from counter bore rivets, straight shank rivets, and 100 deg counter sink rivets. Good correlation of the fatigue crack growth data base obtained in this study and FASTRAN Code predictions show that the growth of MSD in the fuselage lap joint structure can be predicted by fracture mechanics based methods.

  5. Experimental modal analysis of the fuselage panels of an Aero Commander aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, D.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of interior noise in light aircraft was investigated with emphasis the thin fuselage sidewall. The approach used is theoretical and involves modeling of the sidewall panels and stiffeners. Experimental data obtained from tests investigating the effects of mass and stiffness treatments to the sidewalls are presented. The dynamic characteristics of treated panels are contrasted with the untreated sidewall panels using experimental modal analysis techniques. The results include the natural frequencies, modal dampling, and mode shapes of selected panels. Frequency response functions, data relating to the global fuselage response, and acoustic response are also presented.

  6. Interactive Inverse Design Optimization of Fuselage Shape for Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood; Le, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool called BOSS (Boom Optimization using Smoothest Shape modifications). BOSS utilizes interactive inverse design optimization to develop a fuselage shape that yields a low-boom aircraft configuration. A fundamental reason for developing BOSS is the need to generate feasible low-boom conceptual designs that are appropriate for further refinement using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based preliminary design methods. BOSS was not developed to provide a numerical solution to the inverse design problem. Instead, BOSS was intended to help designers find the right configuration among an infinite number of possible configurations that are equally good using any numerical figure of merit. BOSS uses the smoothest shape modification strategy for modifying the fuselage radius distribution at 100 or more longitudinal locations to find a smooth fuselage shape that reduces the discrepancies between the design and target equivalent area distributions over any specified range of effective distance. For any given supersonic concept (with wing, fuselage, nacelles, tails, and/or canards), a designer can examine the differences between the design and target equivalent areas, decide which part of the design equivalent area curve needs to be modified, choose a desirable rate for the reduction of the discrepancies over the specified range, and select a parameter for smoothness control of the fuselage shape. BOSS will then generate a fuselage shape based on the designer's inputs in a matter of seconds. Using BOSS, within a few hours, a designer can either generate a realistic fuselage shape that yields a supersonic configuration with a low-boom ground signature or quickly eliminate any configuration that cannot achieve low-boom characteristics with fuselage shaping alone. A conceptual design case study is documented to demonstrate how BOSS can be used to develop a low-boom supersonic concept from a low-drag supersonic concept. The paper also contains a study

  7. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of rotor downwash on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated. A rotor model for generating the downwash was mounted close to each of three fuselage models. The main report presents the force and moment data in both graphical and tabular form and the pressure data in graphical form. This supplement presents the pressure data in tabular form. Each run or parameter sweep is identified by a unique run number. The data points in each run are identified by a point number. The pressure data can be matched to the force data by matching the run and point number.

  8. Test and analysis results for composite transport fuselage and wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Madan, Ram C.; Chen, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) and stitching of dry textile composite preforms followed by resin transfer molding (RTM) are being studied as cost effective manufacturing processes for obtaining damage tolerant fuselage and wing structures for transport aircraft. Data are presented to assess the damage tolerance of ATP and RTM fuselage elements with stitched-on stiffeners from compression tests of impacted three J-stiffened panels and from stiffener pull-off tests. Data are also presented to assess the damage tolerance of RTM wing elements which had stitched skin and stiffeners from impacted single stiffener and three blade stiffened compression tests and stiffener pull-off tests.

  9. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  10. Impact of Fuselage Cross Section on the Stability of a Generic Fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Many traditional data bases, which involved smooth-sided forebodies, are no longer relevant for designing advanced aircraft. The current work provides data on the impact of chined-shaped fuselage cross section on the stability of a generic fighter configuration. Two different chined-shaped fuselages were tested upright and inverted. It was found that a fuselage with a 30" included chine angle resulted in significantly higher values of fuselage with a 100" included chine angle. This difference was attributed to the more beneficial vortical interaction between the stronger forebody vortices coming off of the sharper chine edges and the wing vortices. The longitudinal stability of the configuration with the sharper chine angle was also better because, based on pressures and flow visualization, the vortex burst over the wing was delayed until significantly higher values of a. Unstable rolling moment derivatives were also delayed to higher values of a for the sharper chine angle cross section. Furthermore, it was found that directional stability of both of the upright configurations, which had larger lofts in cross section above the chine lines than below the chine lines. was better than for the inverted configurations.

  11. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  12. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  13. A Short Method of Calculating Torsional Stresses in an Airplane Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, John E

    1924-01-01

    This report deals with an investigation carried out in the Civil Engineering Laboratory of the University of California, to determine the accuracy of existing methods of computing the stresses in an airplane fuselage when subjected to torsion, and to derive a simple approximate formula for the rapid calculation of these stresses.

  14. Study of multiple cracks in airplane fuselage by micromechanics and complex variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denda, Mitsunori; Dong, Y. F.

    1994-01-01

    Innovative numerical techniques for two dimensional elastic and elastic-plastic multiple crack problems are presented using micromechanics concepts and complex variables. The simplicity and the accuracy of the proposed method will enable us to carry out the multiple-site fatigue crack propagation analyses for airplane fuselage by incorporating such features as the curvilinear crack path, plastic deformation, coalescence of cracks, etc.

  15. Transonic perturbation analysis of wing-fuselage-nacelle-pylon configurations with powered jet exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wai, J. C.; Sun, C. C.; Yoshihara, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method using a transonic small disturbance code with successive line over-relaxation is described for treating wing/fuselage configurations with a nacelle/pylon/powered jet. Examples illustrating its use for the NASA transport research model are given. Reasonable test/theory comparisons were obtained.

  16. Film riding seal assembly for turbomachinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Giametta, Andrew Paul; Gibson, Nathan Evan McCurdy; Cleveland, Nicolas Joseph

    2016-06-07

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward load-bearing section and an aft load-bearing section configured to generate an aerodynamic force between the shoe plate and the rotor. The shoe plate includes at least one labyrinth teeth facing the rotor and positioned between the forward load-bearing section and the aft load-bearing section. The sealing segment also includes at least one spring connected to a pedestal located about midway of an axial length of the shoe plate and to a stator interface element. Further, the sealing segment includes a rigid segmented secondary seal attached to the stator interface element at one first end and in contact with the pedestal of the shoe plate at one second end.

  17. Water Impact Test and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Sparks, Chad; Sareen, Ashish

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002, a 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted onto water. The purpose of the test was to obtain experimental data characterizing the structural response of the fuselage section during water impact for comparison with two previous drop tests that were performed onto a rigid surface and soft soil. For the drop test, the fuselage section was configured with ten 100-lb. lead masses, five per side, that were attached to seat rails mounted to the floor. The fuselage section was raised to a height of 10-ft. and dropped vertically into a 15-ft. diameter pool filled to a depth of 3.5-ft. with water. Approximately 70 channels of data were collected during the drop test at a 10-kHz sampling rate. The test data were used to validate crash simulations of the water impact that were developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic codes, MSC.Dytran and LS-DYNA. The fuselage structure was modeled using shell and solid elements with a Lagrangian mesh, and the water was modeled with both Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques. The fluid-structure interactions were executed using the fast general coupling in MSC.Dytran and the Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coupling in LS-DYNA. Additionally, the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) meshless Lagrangian technique was used in LS-DYNA to represent the fluid. The simulation results were correlated with the test data to validate the modeling approach. Additional simulation studies were performed to determine how changes in mesh density, mesh uniformity, fluid viscosity, and failure strain influence the test-analysis correlation.

  18. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  19. Numerical study on the drag coefficient for an ellipsoidal bubble with fore-aft asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Shu; Saito, Takayuki

    2008-11-01

    We evaluate the drag coefficient for ellipsoidal clean bubbles rising steadily at high Re. Flow fields and bubble shapes are obtained using a numerical simulation. The method is based on a finite-difference solution of the equation s of motion on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system [Takagi et al., Phys. Fluids (1994), Ryskin & Leal, J. Fluid Mech. (1984)]. The degree of fore-aft asymmetric bubble shape is quantitatively evaluated using Legendre polynomials. The numerically obtained drag coefficients are compared with those of experimental results. In addition, by comparing the drag coefficients with those for symmetric ellipsoidal bubble obtained analytically by Moore [J. Fluid Mech. (1965)], and via numerical simulation by Blanco & Magnaudet [Phys. Fluids (1995)], the effect of fore-aft asymmetry on a drag coefficient is evaluated. Furthermore the formation of the standing eddy at the rear of deformable bubbles is discussed.

  20. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  1. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  2. STS-65 Japanese Payload Specialist Mukai on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai freefloats on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck in front of overhead windows W7 and W8 while holding a cassette case with bean sprouts in her left hand. Mukai, a physician, represented Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) on the two week mission in support of the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2).

  3. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Propellant grain dynamics in aft attach ring of shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for implementing simultaneously the temperature, dynamic strain, real modulus, and frequency properties of solid propellant in an unsymmetrical vibrating ring mode is presented. All dynamic parameters and sources are defined for a free vibrating ring-grain structure with initial displacement and related to a forced vibrating system to determine the change in real modulus. Propellant test data application is discussed. The technique was developed to determine the aft attach ring stiffness of the shuttle booster at lift-off.

  5. Compartment A123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial at left center appears to be a timer for controlling washing machine at lower right. Low, round machine to the left of the washer is a centrifuge used for spin drying laundry. Laundry was not part of original equipment but was added in the refurbishment of 1899. (024) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Acoustic Barrier Facilitates Inlet Noise Measurements for Aft-Dominated Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Noise levels for modern high-bypass-ratio subsonic turbofans tend to be aft dominated. That is, the highest flyover noise levels radiate from the fan exit. Measuring fan inlet sound radiation without aft radiation contamination requires selective suppression of the aft noise. In NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel, an acoustic barrier was used to effectively isolate the inlet noise field for a model of an advanced turbofan. This proof-of-concept test was performed on a model turbofan manufactured for NASA Lewis by the Allison Engine Company as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology program. The 8-cm-thick acoustic barrier was constructed in sections that were joined upon installation. These sections, which were composed of a wood frame with typically 0.64-cm tempered fiberboard skins, extended from the tunnel's floor to its ceiling and had an axial length of 61 cm. On the fan side of the barrier just downstream of the leading edge, the upstream section had an acoustic treatment--a bulk absorber with a perforated metal skin. It had a nominal full height and an axial length of 46 cm. In addition, an elliptical leading edge was faired into the upstream barrier section. The barrier was mounted on tracks on the tunnel floor and ceiling at a sideline distance of 15 cm from the fan nacelle. Tests were made with the barrier leading edge at the fan inlet highlight plane and 15 cm further aft. The barrier extended downstream essentially to the end of the treated tunnel test section.

  7. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (six female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2 s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus, the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT, responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition, the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT, there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence.

  8. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (6 female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence. PMID:25160866

  9. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., mission specialist, grabs a hand-held 70mm camera and prepares to take still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A pair of windows just out of frame above Runco's head provide the crew members with a prime operating perspective of Earth observation targets. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  10. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  11. STS-27 MS Mullane on aft flight deck with camera equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane is surrounded by cameras and Earth observation equipment on the aft flight deck. In the frame are the ARRIFLEX 16mm motion picture camera, a 70mm still camera, a 35mm still camera, a pair of glasses, and a pair of binoculars. Clouds over an ocean can be seen out overhead window W8 above Mullane. Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screens are visible behind Mullane.

  12. STS-26 Pilot Covey looks up at window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, leaning on Onorbit Station control panel, looks up at overhead window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey's left hand is positioned on Onorbit Station control panel A7U remote manipulator system (RMS) rotation hand control (RHC). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  13. Using probabilistic analysis to assess the reliability of predicted SRB aft-skirt stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic failure analysis is a tool to predict the reliability of a part or system. Probabalistic techniques were used to predict critical stresses which occur in the solid rocket booster aft-skirt during main engine buildup, immediately prior to lift-off. More than any other hold down post (HDP) load component, the Z loads are sensitive to variations in strains and calibration constants. Also, predicted aft-skirt stresses are strongly affected by HDP load variations. Therefore, the instrumented HDP are not effective load transducers for Z loads, and, when used with aft skirt stress indicator equations, yield estimates with large uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation proved to be a straight forward way of studying the overlapping effects of multiple parameters on predicted equipment performance. An advantage of probabilistic analysis is the degree of uncertainty of each parameter as stated explicitly by its probability distribution. It was noted, however, that the choice of parameter distribution had a large effect on the simulation results. Many times these distributions must be assumed. The engineer who is designing the part should be responsible for the choice of parameter distribution.

  14. Modeling of space shuttle SRB aft ends for inherent aerodynamic bias determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, David R.; Stapf, Sean P.; Gebhard, Thomas J.

    2007-04-01

    The Air Force's 45th Space Wing is in charge of operating the Range Safety System (RSS) for all launches that take place on the Eastern Range. If initiated, the RSS currently implemented on the Space Transportation System after launch would provide for the partial destruction of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to terminate thrust. The majority of the risk from the large explosive debris created comes from the aft ends of the SRBs, which fall largely intact along with the remaining propellant. Historically, no impact data on such a scenario has been available and in support of the Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight schedule, aerodynamic and trajectory analyses were performed to characterize any pitch angle biases associated with the aft end's descent after initiating the linear shaped charges (LSCs) on the SRBs. Results show the aft end has a bias towards impacting at +/-5, 70, or 175 degrees and takes an average of 10 seconds to stabilize into any one of these orientations after being separated from the SRB forward body.

  15. Adaptive Aft Signature Shaping of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft Using Off-Body Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The design and optimization of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using the state-of-the- art o -body aerodynamics and sonic boom analysis has long been a challenging problem. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate an e ective geometry parameterization scheme and a numerical optimization approach for the aft shaping of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using o -body pressure calculations. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm that models the objective and constraints as response surface equations is used to drive the aft ground signature toward a ramp shape. The design objective is the minimization of the variation between the ground signature and the target signature subject to several geometric and signature constraints. The target signature is computed by using a least-squares regression of the aft portion of the ground signature. The parameterization and the deformation of the geometry is performed with a NASA in- house shaping tool. The optimization algorithm uses the shaping tool to drive the geometric deformation of a horizontal tail with a parameterization scheme that consists of seven camber design variables and an additional design variable that describes the spanwise location of the midspan section. The demonstration cases show that numerical optimization using the state-of-the-art o -body aerodynamic calculations is not only feasible and repeatable but also allows the exploration of complex design spaces for which a knowledge-based design method becomes less effective.

  16. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  17. Non-Invasive Detection of CH-46 AFT Gearbox Faults Using Digital Pattern Recognition and Classification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 266 NON-INVASIVE DETECTION OF CH-46 AFT GEARBOX FAULTS USING DIGITAL PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION...NUMBERS Non-invasive detection of CH-46 AFT gearbox faults using digital pattern recognition and classification techniques 6. AUTHOR(S) Rex, Bryan D...helicopter gearboxes in order to d~iagnose end correct possible fault condi.itons (incipient faults ) which could eventually lead to gearbox failure. This

  18. Distribution of pressure on fuselage of airplane model: communication from Rijks-Studiedienst voor de Luchtvaart of Amsterdam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of the pressure on the surfaces of a fuselage and the influence of the wing on the air flow along these surfaces, we have made tests pertaining to the bottom and one side.

  19. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Air Load Distribution on Two Combinations of LIfting Surface and Fuselage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    angles of yaw of ±10°, ± 5 °, and 0°. The unsymmetric distribution of fuselage orifices necessitated tests at equal positive and negative angles of yaw...measured drag. The fuselage pressure distribution for different angles of attack and yaw for configurations F and FWST are shown in figures 3 to 5 . The...configurations F. and FW drawn for the vertical plane of symmetry and for a parallel plane displaced 5 inches. The total difference_ in the areas of

  20. Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

  1. The effects of design details on cost and weight of fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. D.; Metschan, S. L.; Morris, M. R.; Kassapoglou, C.

    1993-01-01

    Crown panel design studies showing the relationship between panel size, cost, weight, and aircraft configuration are compared to aluminum design configurations. The effects of a stiffened sandwich design concept are also discussed. This paper summarizes the effect of a design cost model in assessing the cost and weight relationships for fuselage crown panel designs. Studies were performed using data from existing aircraft to assess the effects of different design variables on the cost and weight of transport fuselage crown panel design. Results show a strong influence of load levels, panel size, and material choices on the cost and weight of specific designs. A design tool being developed under the NASA ACT program is used in the study to assess these issues. The effects of panel configuration comparing postbuckled and buckle resistant stiffened laminated structure is compared to a stiffened sandwich concept. Results suggest some potential economy with stiffened sandwich designs for compression dominated structure with relatively high load levels.

  2. Mechanical and analytical screening of braided composites for transport fuselage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian; Ko, Frank K.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanics of materials progress in support of the goal of understanding the application of braided composites in a transport aircraft fuselage are summarized. Composites consisting of both 2-D and 3-D braid patterns are investigated. Both consolidation of commingled graphite/PEEK and resin transfer molding of graphite-epoxy braided composite processes are studied. Mechanical tests were used to examine unnotched tension, open hole tension, compression, compression after impact, in-plane shear, out-of-plane tension, bearing, and crippling. Analytical methods are also developed and applied to predict the stiffness and strengths of test specimens. A preliminary study using the test data and analytical results is performed to assess the applicability of braided composites to a commercial aircraft fuselage.

  3. Fatigue crack initiation in riveted lap joints and in pressurized fuselages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Richard P. G.

    1993-06-01

    Riveted joints in pressurized fuselages are exposed to severe fatigue loading. The study was carried out to increase fundamental understanding of the behavior of riveted fuselage joints. Areas of interest include rivet flexibility, load transfer, residual stress distribution, fatigue crack location, secondary bending and inter-sheet friction. These aspects depend on the squeezing force used to drive the rivet. Flat uniaxially loaded riveted lap joint specimens show longer fatigue lives than curved riveted panels loaded by internal pressure in a barrel test setup. Strain gauge measurements on a barrel test setup show more severe loading of the non-countersunk inner sheet compared to the countersunk outer sheet. Finite element calculations gave insight to the improved fatigue crack initiation performance for increased sqeezing force and to the crack initiation location. The early crack initiation at the edges of flat riveted lap joint panels is explained.

  4. Experimental and analytical investigations of fuselage modal characteristics and structural-acoustic coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Myles A.; Mathur, Gopal P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section to define the shell and cavity modes of the fuselage, understand its structural-acoustic coupling characteristics, and measure its response to different types of acoustic and vibration excitations are reported. The data were processed to generate spatial plots and wavenumber maps of the shell acceleration and cabin acoustic pressure field. Analysis and interpretation of the spatial plots and wavenumber maps showed that the only structural-acoustic coupling occurred at 105 Hz between the N=2 circumferential structural mode and the (n=2, p=0) circumferential cavity mode. The fuselage response to vibration excitation was found to be dominated by modes whose order increases with frequency.

  5. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  6. Implementation and verification of a comprehensive helicopter coupled rotor - Fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. R.; Banerjee, D.; Shamie, J.; Straub, F.; Dinyavari, M. A. H.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical basis and the application of a Rotor/Airframe Comprehensive Aeroelastic Program (RACAP) are described in detail. The rationale behind each analytical choice is outlined and the modular procedure is described. The program is verified by application to the AH-1G helicopter. The applicability of various airload prediction models is examined, and both the steady and vibratory responses of the blade are compared with flight test data. Reasonable correlation is found between measured and calculated blade response, with excellent correlation for vibration amplitudes at various locations on the fuselage such as engine, pilot seat, and gunner. Within the analytical model, comparisons are drawn between an isolated blade analysis and a coupled rotor/fuselage model. The deficiency of the former in the context of the AH-1G is highlighted.

  7. STAGS Developments for Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    A summary of advances in the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) finite element code for the residual strength analysis of metallic fuselage structures, that were realized through collaboration between the structures group at NASA Langley, and Dr. Charles Rankin is presented. The majority of the advancements described were made in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Example results from studies that were conducted using the STAGS code to develop improved understanding of the nonlinear response of cracked fuselage structures subjected to combined loads are presented. An integrated residual strength analysis methodology for metallic structure that models crack growth to predict the effect of cracks on structural integrity is demonstrated

  8. Test and analysis results for composite transport fuselage and wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Madan, Ram C.; Chen, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) and stitching of dry textile composite preforms followed by resin transfer molding (RTM) are being investigated by researchers at NASA LaRC and Douglas Aircraft Company as cost-effective manufacturing processes for obtaining damage tolerant fuselage and wing structures for transport aircraft. The Douglas work is being performed under a NASA contract entitled 'Innovative Composites Aircraft Primary Structures (ICAPS)'. Data are presented in this paper to assess the damage tolerance of ATP and RTM fuselage elements with stitched-on stiffeners from compression tests of impacted three-J-stiffened panels and from stiffener pull-off tests. Data are also presented to assess the damage tolerance of RTM wing elements which had stitched skin and stiffeners from impacted single stiffener and three blade-stiffened compression tests and stiffener pull-off tests.

  9. Crash Simulation of a Vertical Drop Test of a B737 Fuselage Section with Overhead Bins and Luggage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe a crash simulation of a 30-ft/s vertical drop test of a Boeing 737 (B737) fuselage section. The drop test of the 10-ft. long fuselage section of a B737 aircraft was conducted in November of 2000 at the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, NJ. The fuselage section was outfitted with two different commercial overhead stowage bins. In addition, 3,229-lbs. of luggage were packed in the cargo hold to represent a maximum take-off weight condition. The main objective of the test was to evaluate the response and failure modes of the overhead stowage bins in a narrow-body transport fuselage section when subjected to a severe, but survivable, impact. A secondary objective of the test was to generate experimental data for correlation with the crash simulation. A full-scale 3-dimensional finite element model of the fuselage section was developed and a crash simulation was conducted using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic code, MSC.Dytran. Pre-test predictions of the fuselage and overhead bin responses were generated for correlation with the drop test data. A description of the finite element model and an assessment of the analytical/experimental correlation are presented. In addition, suggestions for modifications to the model to improve correlation are proposed.

  10. Coupled rotor/fuselage dynamic analysis of the AH-1G helicopter and correlation with flight vibrations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, J. C.; Cronkhite, J. D.; Dompka, R. V.; Perry, K. S.; Rogers, J. P.; Sadler, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Under a research program designated Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), existing analytical methods are used for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM), which has been developed, extensively documented, and correlated with ground vibration test. One procedure that was used for predicting coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations using the advanced Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Program C81 and NASTRAN is summarized. Detailed descriptions of the analytical formulation of rotor dynamics equations, fuselage dynamic equations, coupling between the rotor and fuselage, and solutions to the total system of equations in C81 are included. Analytical predictions of hub shears for main rotor harmonics 2p, 4p, and 6p generated by C81 are used in conjunction with 2p OLS measured control loads and a 2p lateral tail rotor gearbox force, representing downwash impingement on the vertical fin, to excite the NASTRAN model. NASTRAN is then used to correlate with measured OLS flight test vibrations. Blade load comparisons predicted by C81 showed good agreement. In general, the fuselage vibration correlations show good agreement between anslysis and test in vibration response through 15 to 20 Hz.

  11. Multi-Site Fatigue Testing and Characterization of Fuselage Panels from Aging Aircraft Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-07

    Multi-site fatigue damage is a common problem in the riveted lap joint structure of aging aircraft. Modeling and characterization of such damage is...an especially daunting task. In this effort we present the results from fatigue tests which were performed on fuselage lap joints extracted from...in the lap joint . Some spot welded lap joint panels were also tested during the larger program; however, only the results from mechanically fastened

  12. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  13. STS-40 Commander O'Connor with trainer outside JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Commander Bryan D. O'Connor reviews instructions with training personnel as he fastens a clip on his launch and entry helmet (LEH). Wearing his launch and entry suit (LES), O'Connor is ready to begin emergency egress exercises from the side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) (in background). The FFT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  14. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  15. Automatic computation of Euler-marching and subsonic grids for wing-fuselage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Adams, Mary S.; Krishnan, Ramki R.

    1994-01-01

    Algebraic procedures are described for the automatic generation of structured, single-block flow computation grids for relatively simple configurations (wing, fuselage, and fin). For supersonic flows, a quasi two-dimensional grid for Euler-marching codes is developed, and some sample results in graphical form are included. A type of grid for subsonic flow calculation is also described. The techniques are algebraic and are based on a generalization of the method of transfinite interpolation.

  16. Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Jolen

    1987-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.

  17. Comparison of Hard Surface and Soft Soil Impact Performance of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sareen, Ashish K.; Sparks, Chad; Mullins, B. R., Jr.; Fasanella, Edwin; Jackson, Karen

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the soft soil and hard surface impact performance of a crashworthy composite fuselage concept has been performed. Specifically, comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse duration, and onset rate at specific locations on the fuselage were evaluated. In a prior research program, the composite fuselage section was impacted at 25 feet per second onto concrete at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) at NASA Langley Research Center. A soft soil test was conducted at the same impact velocity as a part of the NRTC/RITA Crashworthy and Energy Absorbing Structures project. In addition to comparisons of soft soil and hard surface test results, an MSC. Dytran dynamic finite element model was developed to evaluate the test analysis correlation. In addition, modeling parameters and techniques affecting test analysis correlation are discussed. Once correlated, the analytical methodology will be used in follow-on work to evaluate the specific energy absorption of various subfloor concepts for improved crash protection during hard surface and soft soil impacts.

  18. Multi-terrain Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sotirios, Kellas; Jackson, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section was retrofitted with four identical blocks of deployable honeycomb energy absorber and crash tested on two different surfaces: soft soil, and water. The drop tests were conducted at the 70-ft. drop tower at the Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility of NASA Langley. Water drop tests were performed into a 15-ft-diameter pool of water that was approximately 42-in. deep. For the soft soil impact, a 15-ft-square container filled with fine-sifted, unpacked sand was located beneath the drop tower. All drop tests were vertical with a nominally flat attitude with respect to the impact surface. The measured impact velocities were 37.4, and 24.7-fps for soft soil and water, respectively. A fuselage section without energy absorbers was also drop tested onto water to provide a datum for comparison with the test, which included energy absorbers. In order to facilitate this type of comparison and to ensure fuselage survivability for the no-energy-absorber case, the velocity of the water impact tests was restricted to 25-fps nominal. While all tests described in this paper were limited to vertical impact velocities, the implications and design challenges of utilizing external energy absorbers during combined forward and vertical impact velocities are discussed. The design, testing and selection of a honeycomb cover, which was required in soft surface and water impacts to transmit the load into the honeycomb cell walls, is also presented.

  19. Design and Evaluation of Composite Fuselage Panels Subjected to Combined Loading Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Rouse, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies used in industry for designing transport aircraft composite fuselage structures are discussed. Several aspects of the design methodologies are based on assumptions from metallic fuselage technology which requires that full-scale structures be tested with the actual loading conditions to validate the designs. Composite panels which represent crown and side regions of a fuselage structure are designed using this approach and tested in biaxial tension. Descriptions of the state-of-the-art test facilities used for this structural evaluation are presented. These facilities include a pressure-box test machine and a D-box test fixture in a combined loads test machine which are part of a Combined Loads Test System (COLTS). Nonlinear analysis results for a reference shell and a stiffened composite panel tested in the pressure-box test machine with and without damage are presented. The analytical and test results are compared to assess the ability of the pressure-box test machine to simulate a shell stress state with and without damage. A combined loads test machine for testing aircraft primary structures is described. This test machine includes a D-box test fixture to accommodate curved stiffened panels and the design features of this test fixture are presented. Finite element analysis results for a curved panel to be tested in the D-box test fixture are also discussed.

  20. Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  1. Multi-Terrain Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section was retrofitted with four identical blocks of deployable honeycomb energy absorber and crash tested on two different surfaces: soft soil, and water. The drop tests were conducted at the 70-ft. drop tower at the Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility of NASA Langley. Water drop tests were performed into a 15-ft-diameter pool of water that was approximately 42-in. deep. For the soft soil impact, a 15-ft-square container filled with fine-sifted, unpacked sand was located beneath the drop tower. All drop tests were vertical with a nominally flat attitude with respect to the impact surface. The measured impact velocities were 37.4, and 24.7-fps for soft soil and water, respectively. A fuselage section without energy absorbers was also drop tested onto water to provide a datum for comparison with the test, which included energy absorbers. In order to facilitate this type of comparison and to ensure fuselage survivability for the no-energy-absorber case, the velocity of the water impact tests was restricted to 25-fps nominal. While all tests described in this paper were limited to vertical impact velocities, the implications and design challenges of utilizing external energy absorbers during combined forward and vertical impact velocities are discussed. The design, testing and selection of a honeycomb cover, which was required in soft surface and water impacts to transmit the load into the honeycomb cell walls, is also presented.

  2. High transonic speed transport aircraft study. [aerodynamic characteristics of single-fuselage, yawed-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Neumann, F. D.; Nisbet, J. W.; Mulally, A. R.; Murakami, J. K.; Noble, E. C.; Mcbarron, J. P.; Stalter, J. L.; Gimmestad, D. W.; Sussman, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    An initial design study of high-transonic-speed transport aircraft has been completed. Five different design concepts were developed. These included fixed swept wing, variable-sweep wing, delta wing, double-fuselage yawed-wing, and single-fuselage yawed-wing aircraft. The boomless supersonic design objectives of range=5560 Km (3000 nmi), payload-18 143 kg (40 000lb), Mach=1.2, and FAR Part 36 aircraft noise levels were achieved by the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration with a gross weight of 211 828 Kg (467 000 lb). A noise level of 15 EPNdB below FAR Part 36 requirements was obtained with a gross weight increase to 226 796 Kg (500 000 lb). Although wing aeroelastic divergence was a primary design consideration for the yawed-wing concepts, the graphite-epoxy wings of this study were designed by critical gust and maneuver loads rather than by divergence requirements. The transonic nacelle drag is shown to be very sensitive to the nacelle installation. A six-degree-of-freedom dynamic stability analysis indicated that the control coordination and stability augmentation system would require more development than for a symmetrical airplane but is entirely feasible. A three-phase development plan is recommended to establish the full potential of the yawed-wing concept.

  3. Sound Transmission Loss Prediction of the Composite Fuselage with Different Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongxin; Bergsma, Otto; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-12-01

    Increase of sound transmission loss(TL) of the fuselage is vital to build a comfortable cabin environment. In this paper, to find a convenient and accurate means for predicting the fuselage TL, the fuselage is modeled as a composite cylinder, and its TL is predicted with the analytical, the statistic energy analysis (SEA) and the hybrid FE&SEA method. The TL results predicted by the three methods are compared to each other and they show good agreement, but in terms of model building the SEA method is the most convenient one. Therefore, the parameters including the layup, the materials, the geometry, and the structure type are studied with the SEA method. It is observed that asymmetric laminates provide better sound insulation in general. It is further found that glass fiber laminates result in the best sound insulation as compared with graphite and aramid fiber laminates. In addition, the cylinder length has little influence on the sound insulation, while an increase of the radius considerably reduces the TL at low frequencies. Finally, by a comparison among an unstiffened laminate, a sandwich panel and a stiffened panel, the sandwich panel presents the largest TL at high frequencies and the stiffened panel demonstrates the poorest sound insulation at all frequencies.

  4. Hybrid Wing-Body Pressurized Fuselage and Bulkhead, Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight reduction of a pressurized Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage is a serious challenge. Hence, research and development are presently being continued at NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) projects in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this paper, a structural analysis of the HWB fuselage and bulkhead panels is presented, with the objectives of design improvement and structural weight reduction. First, orthotropic plate theories for sizing, and equivalent plate analysis with appropriate simplification are considered. Then parametric finite-element analysis of a fuselage section and bulkhead are conducted using advanced stitched composite structural concepts, which are presently being developed at Boeing for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. With this advanced stiffened-shell design, structural weights are computed and compared to the thick sandwich, vaulted-ribbed-shell, and multi-bubble stiffened-shell structural concepts that had been studied previously. The analytical and numerical results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  5. An Airplane Design having a Wing with Fuselage Attached to Each Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, Leroy M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of an airplane having a low aspect ratio wing with fuselages that are attached to each wing tip. The concept is proposed for a high-capacity transport as an alternate to progressively increasing the size of a conventional transport design having a single fuselage with cantilevered wing panels attached to the sides and tail surfaces attached at the rear. Progressively increasing the size of conventional single body designs may lead to problems in some area's such as manufacturing, ground-handling and aerodynamic behavior. A limited review will be presented of some past work related to means of relieving some size constraints through the use of multiple bodies. Recent low-speed wind-tunnel tests have been made of models representative of the inboard-wing concept. These models have a low aspect ratio wing with a fuselage attached to each tip. Results from these tests, which included force measurements, surface pressure measurements, and wake surveys, will be presented herein.

  6. Compression Response of a Sandwich Fuselage Keel Panel With and Without Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental and analytical study of a sandwich fuselage keel panel with and without damage. The fuselage keel panel is constructed of graphite-epoxy skins bonded to a honeycomb core, and is representative of a highly loaded fuselage keel structure. The face sheets of the panel contain several terminated or dropped plies along the length of the panel. The results presented provide a better understanding of the load distribution in damaged and undamaged thick-face-sheet composite sandwich structure with dropped plies and of the failure mechanisms of such structure in the presence of low-speed impact damage and discrete-source damage. The impact-damage condition studied corresponds to barely visible impact damage (BVID), and the discrete-source damage condition studied is a notch machined through both face sheets. Results are presented from an impact-damage screening study conducted on another panel of the same design to determine the impact energy necessary to inflict BVID on the panel. Results are presented from compression tests of the panel in three conditions: undamaged; BVID in two locations; and BVID in two locations and a notch through both face sheets. Surface strains in the face sheets of the undamaged panel and the notched panel obtained experimentally are compared with finite element analysis results. The experimental and analytical results suggest that for the damage conditions studied, discrete-source damage influences the structural performance more than BVID.

  7. Study of utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Campion, M. C.; Pei, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effort required by the transport aircraft manufacturers to support the introduction of advanced composite materials into the fuselage structure of future commercial and military transport aircraft is investigated. Technology issues, potential benefits to military life cycle costs and commercial operating costs, and development plans are examined. The most urgent technology issues defined are impact dynamics, acoustic transmission, pressure containment and damage tolerance, post-buckling, cutouts, and joints and splices. A technology demonstration program is defined and a rough cost and schedule identified. The fabrication and test of a full-scale fuselage barrel section is presented. Commercial and military benefits are identified. Fuselage structure weight savings from use of advanced composites are 16.4 percent for the commercial and 21.8 percent for the military. For the all-composite airplanes the savings are 26 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Commercial/operating costs are reduced by 5 percent for the all-composite airplane and military life cycle costs by 10 percent.

  8. STS-65 Pilot Halsell cleans window on the aft flight deck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr cleans off overhead window W8. Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz looks on (photo's edge). A plastic toy dinosaur, velcroed in front of W9, also appears to be watching the housekeeping activity. A variety of onboard equipment including procedural checklists, a spotmeter, a handheld microphone, and charts are seen in the view. The two shared over fourteen days in Earth orbit with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  9. Portion of left hand SRB aft segment containing ET attach ring for 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two photographs show a portion of the left hand solid rocket booster (SRB) aft segment which contains the external tank (ET) attach ring for the 51-L mission resting on the ocean bottom in 210 feet of water approximately 23 miles east of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The photographs were take by the Deep Drone, a remotely controlled, unmanned U.S. Navy submersible. Photo 1 shows small fish below and to the left of the booster segment (10145); Photo two shows the opposite end of the segment. Visible from left are the clevis portion of the field joint and the external tank attach ring (10146).

  10. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  11. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  12. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford (top), with the Aft Engine shop, along with another worker, removes a heat shield on one of Columbia's engines. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  13. STS-26 MS Nelson operates controls for PVTOS-2 experiment on aft middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson operates generic electronics module for the Physical Vapor Transport of Organic Solids 2 (PVTOS-2) experiment on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft middeck. PVTOS-2 consists of nine independent experimental cells about 12 inches long and 3 inches in diameter. They are mounted in a circular base plate inside the drum-like experimental apparatus container (EAC). PVTOS-2 is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and is being conducted by 3M's Space Research and Applications Laboratory.

  14. Crystal structures of Boro-AFm and sBoro-AFt phases

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Cau Dit Coumes, Celine; Leroux, Fabrice; Mercier, Cyrille; Revel, Bertrand; Damidot, Denis

    2012-10-15

    Crystal structures of boron-containing AFm (B-AFm) and AFt (B-AFt) phases have been solved ab-initio and refined from X-ray powder diffraction. {sup 11}B NMR and Raman spectroscopies confirm the boron local environment in both compounds: three-fold coordinated in B-AFm corresponding to HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} species, and four-fold coordinated in B-AFt corresponding to B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} species. B-AFm crystallizes in the rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaHBO{sub 3}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O (4CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}1/2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}12.5H{sub 2}O, C{sub 4}AB{sub 1/2}H{sub 12.5}) general formulae with planar trigonal HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions weakly bonded at the centre of the interlayer region. One HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion is statistically distributed with two weakly bonded water molecules on the same crystallographic site. B-AFt crystallizes in the trigonal P3cl space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}Ca(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}2Ca(B (OH){sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O (6CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}33H{sub 2}O, C{sub 6}AB{sub 2}H{sub 33}) general formulae with tetrahedral B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} anions located in the channel region of the structure. All tetrahedral anions are oriented in a unique direction, leading to a hexagonal c lattice parameter about half that of ettringite.

  15. Solid Rocket Booster Integrated Electronic Assemblies Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, James

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: assess the impact of aging and usage on SRB Forward and Aft Integrated Electronic Assemblies (IEA's); d3etermine the relative position of the IEA's on their expected reliability curves; provide recommendations, with supporting rationale, for any upgrades necessary to maintain reliability and logistic supportability through the year 2020; if upgrades are recommended the team will define a roadmap for the design and implementation of the upgrade; assess the other reusable boxes on the SRB to determine if the screening tests between flights are adequate; and assess the other reusable boxes on the SRB to determine if they are wearing out.

  16. Feeding of swimming Paramecium with fore-aft asymmetry in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jana, Saikat; Giarra, Matthew; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-11-01

    Swimming behaviours and feeding efficiencies of Paramecium Multimicronucleatum with fore-aft asymmetric body shapes are studied experimentally and numerically. Among various possible swimming ways, ciliates typically exhibit only one preferred swimming directions in favorable conditions. Ciliates, like Paramecia, with fore-aft asymmetric shapes preferably swim towards the slender anterior while feeding fluid to the oral groove located at the center of the body. Since both feeding and swimming efficiencies are influenced by fluid motions around the body, it is important to reveal the fluid mechanics around a moving object. Experimentally, μ-PIV methods are employed to characterize the source-dipole streamline patterns and fluid motions around Paramecium. Numerical simulations by boundary element methods are also used to evaluate surface stresses and velocities, which give insights into the efficiencies of swimming and feeding depending on body asymmetry. It is concluded that a slender anterior and fat posterior increases the combined efficiency of swimming and feeding, which matches well with actual shapes of Paramecium. Discrepancies between experiments and simulations are also discussed.

  17. Aerodynamic Impact of an Aft-Facing Slat-Step on High Re Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Geoffrey; Petrin, Chris; Jacob, Jamey; Elbing, Brian; Ireland, Peter; Black, Buddy

    2016-11-01

    Typically, the initial aerodynamic design and subsequent testing and simulation of an aircraft wing assumes an ideal wing surface without imperfections. In reality, however the surface of an in-service aircraft wing rarely matches the surface characteristics of the test wings used during the conceptual design phase and certification process. This disconnect is usually deemed negligible or overlooked entirely. Specifically, many aircraft incorporate a leading edge slat; however, the mating between the slat and the top surface of the wing is not perfectly flush and creates a small aft-facing step behind the slat. In some cases, the slat can create a step as large as one millimeter tall, which is entirely submerged within the boundary layer. This abrupt change in geometry creates a span-wise vortex behind the step and in transonic flow causes a shock to form near the leading edge. This study investigates both experimentally and computationally the implications of an aft-facing slat-step on an aircraft wing and is compared to the ideal wing surface for subsonic and transonic flow conditions. The results of this study are useful for design of flow control modifications for aircraft currently in service and important for improving the next generation of aircraft wings.

  18. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  19. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-eulerian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  20. Low-Speed Pressure Distribution Measurements Over the Aft-Fuselage, Fins and Stabilators of a 1/9th Scale F/A-18 Wind-Tunnel Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    structural fatigue life, based on measured operational loading con- ditions, is designated the International Follow - On Structural Test Project ( IFOSTP ...Canadian Aeronautical Industry to conduct a fatigue test on the F/A-18 aircraft. This collaboration, which is aimed at re-evaluating the aircraft’s...total loads which will be applied to the structure during the fatigue test are those corre- sponding to the parameters recorded by the onboard

  1. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  2. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a pressure box test fixture for tension damage tolerance testing of curved fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Bodine, J. B.; Preuss, C. H.; Koch, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure box test fixture was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effects of internal pressure, biaxial tension loads, curvature, and damage on the fracture response of composite fuselage structure. Previous work in composite fuselage tension damage tolerance, performed during NASA contract NAS1-17740, evaluated the above effects on unstiffened panels only. This work extends the tension damage tolerance testing to curved stiffened fuselage crown structure that contains longitudinal stringers and circumferential frame elements. The pressure box fixture was designed to apply internal pressure up to 20 psi, and axial tension loads up to 5000 lb/in, either separately or simultaneously. A NASTRAN finite element model of the pressure box fixture and composite stiffened panel was used to help design the test fixture, and was compared to a finite element model of a full composite stiffened fuselage shell. This was done to ensure that the test panel was loaded in a similar way to a panel in the full fuselage shell, and that the fixture and its attachment plates did not adversely affect the panel.

  3. A study of coupled rotor-fuselage vibration with higher harmonic control using a symbolic computing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computing facility. The details of the derivation using the MACSYMA program are described. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control (HHC) capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control (MHHC) is required. The fundamental aspects of this scheme and its uniqueness are described in detail, providing new insight on vibration reduction in helicopters using HHC.

  4. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  5. Computational Assessment of Aft-Body Closure for the HSR Reference H Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Londenberg, W. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine how well the USM3D unstructured Euler solver can be utilized to predict the flow over the High Speed Research (HSR) Reference H configuration with an ultimate goal of prediction of Sting interference so after body closure effects may be evaluated. This study has shown that the code can be used to predict the interference effects of a lower mounted blade sting with a high degree of confidence. It has been shown that wing and fuselage pressures, both levels and trends, can be predicted well. Force and moment levels are not predicted well but experimental trends are predicted. Based upon this, predicted force and moment increments are assumed to be predicted accurately. Deflection of the horizontal tail was found to cause a non-linear increment from the non-deflected sting interference effects.

  6. The Characteristics of Fatigue Damage in the Fuselage Riveted Lap Splice Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive data base has been developed to form the physical basis for new analytical methodology to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint. The results of detailed destructive examinations have been cataloged to describe the physical nature of MSD in the lap splice joint. ne catalog includes a detailed description, e.g., crack initiation, growth rates, size, location, and fracture morphology, of fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint structure. Detailed examinations were conducted on a lap splice joint panel removed from a full scale fuselage test article after completing a 60,000 cycle pressure test. The panel contained a four bay region that exhibited visible outer skin cracks and regions of crack link-up along the upper rivet row. Destructive examinations revealed undetected fatigue damage in the outer skin, inner skin, and tear strap regions. Outer skin fatigue cracks were found to initiate by fretting damage along the faying surface. The cracks grew along the faying surface to a length equivalent to two to three skin thicknesses before penetrating the outboard surface of the outer skin. Analysis of fracture surface marker bands produced during full scale testing revealed that all upper rivet row fatigue cracks contained in a dim bay region grow at similar rates; this important result suggests that fracture mechanics based methods can be used to predict the growth of outer skin fatigue cracks in lap splice structure. Results are presented showing the affects of MSD and out-of-plane pressure loads on outer skin crack link-up.

  7. Classification of fatigue cracking data in a simulated aircraft fuselage using a self-organizing map

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, M.L.; Hill, E.V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Many aircraft are being flown beyond their design lifespans and have therefore fallen victim to fatigue cracking. In some cases, such as the 1988 Aloha Airlines 737-200 incident, catastrophic fatigue growth has caused the loss of life. Acoustic emission (AE) nondestructive testing has been used to detect and classical the growth of fatigue cracks in complex structures, such as aircraft fuselages and wings since as early as 1979. In order to simulate an aircraft fuselage undergoing pressurization cycle fatigue, a test was developed in which a thin-walled aluminum pressure vessel was instrumented with AE sensors and cyclically fatigued to promote crack growth at a stress concentration built into the vessel. The AE data acquisition system. extracted the six AE parameters - amplitude, counts, duration, energy, risetime, and count-to-peak from each of the sensor signals. One-third of these parameter data sets were used to tram a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network. The remaining data sets were used to test the SOM. The SOM output is a two-dimensional map with similar input data sets located at similar coordinates on the map. Because the continuous AE parameter data are grouped into discrete bands or intervals, e.g., all the events having amplitudes between 51.00 dB and 51.99 dB are classified as 51 dB events, the initial SOM output showed no distinct clustering. However, when the output was transformed into three-dimensions, with the third dimension being the frequency of occurrence of each two-dimensional coordinate, several distinct peaks were evident. These peaks correspond to the three AE source in the vessel: metal rubbing, rivet fretting, and fatigue cracking. Thus, the three-dimensional SOM was able to unambiguously classify fatigue crack growth events in a simulated aircraft fuselage structure.

  8. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  9. Nonlinear and progressive failure aspects of transport composite fuselage damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Tom; Ilcewicz, L.; Murphy, Dan; Dopker, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to provide an end-user's perspective on the state of the art in life prediction and failure analysis by focusing on subsonic transport fuselage issues being addressed in the NASA/Boeing Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) contract and a related task-order contract. First, some discrepancies between the ATCAS tension-fracture test database and classical prediction methods is discussed, followed by an overview of material modeling work aimed at explaining some of these discrepancies. Finally, analysis efforts associated with a pressure-box test fixture are addressed, as an illustration of modeling complexities required to model and interpret tests.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of damaged stiffened fuselage shells subjected to combined loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Britt, Vicki O.; Young, Richard D.; Rankin, Charles C.; Shore, Charles P.; Bains, Jane C.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks are presented. The shells are modeled with a hierarchical modeling strategy that accounts for global and local response phenomena accurately. Results are presented for internal pressure and mechanical bending loads. The effects of crack location and orientation on shell response are described. The effects of mechanical fasteners on the response of a lap joint and the effects of elastic and elastic-plastic material properties on the buckling response of tension-loaded flat panels with cracks are also addressed.

  11. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross-section (circular and elliptical) and structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. It was found that integrally machined stiffening of the tank walls, while providing the most weight-efficient use of materials, results in higher production costs. Fatigue and fracture mechanics appeared to have little effect on the weight of the three study aircraft. The need for thermal strain relief through insulation is discussed. Aircraft size and magnitude of the internal pressure are seen to be significant factors in tank design.

  12. Investigation of Transport Airplane Fuselage Fuel Tank Installations under Crash Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Hard end points with soft intermediate frames 2 Only soft frames throughout 3-36 The previous analysis of the double -wall cylinder tank in the 300-inch...installation configurations investigated in this study include: -e Conformable tank containing a bladder and supported within a dedicated structure) -*-- Double ...FUSELAGE FUEL TANK INSTALLATIONS 3-1 3.1 DOUBLE -WALL CYLINDRICAL STRAP-IN AUXILIARY TANKS 3-1 3.1.1 KRASH Analyses 3-4 3.1.1.1 Vertical Direction

  13. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  14. A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system for a two-bladed teetering rotor using finite element methods in space and time is developed which incorporates consistent rotor/fuselage structural, aerodynamic, and inertial couplings and a modern free wake model. A coordinate system is developed to take into account a teetering rotor's unique characteristics, such as teetering motion and undersling. Coupled nonlinear periodic blade and fuselage equations are transformed to the modal space in the fixed frame and solved simultaneously. The elastic line and detailed 3-D NASTRAN finite element models of the AH-1G helicopter airframe from the DAMVIBS program are integrated into the elastic rotor finite element model. Analytical predictions of rotor control angles, blade loads, hub forces, and vibration are compared with AH-1G Operation Load Survey flight test data. The blade loads predicted by present analysis show generally fair agreement with the flight test data, especially blade chord bending moment estimation shows good agreement. Calculated 2/rev vertical vibration levels at pilot seat show good correlation with the flight test data both in magnitude and phase, but 4/rev vibration levels show fair correlation only in magnitude. Lateral vibration results show more disagreement than vertical vibration results. Pylon flexibility effect is essential in the two-bladed teetering rotor vibration analysis. The pylon flexibility increases the first lag frequency by about 14%, and decreases 2/rev longitudinal and lateral hub forces by more than half. Rotor/fuselage coupling reduces 2/rev vertical and lateral vibration levels by 60% to 70% and has a small effect on 4/rev vibration levels. Modeling of difficult components (secondary structures, doors/panels, etc) is essential in predicting airframe natural frequencies. Refined aerodynamics such as free wake and unsteady aerodynamics have an important role in the prediction of vibration. For example, free

  15. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  16. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  17. The numerical calculation for the coupling of multiple propeller discrete noise and its interaction with the fuselage boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongqing; Sheng, Yuansheng; Zhou, Sheng

    This paper presents a numerical method for calculating multiple subsonic propeller discrete noise with the influence of rigid fuselage boundary condition of arbitrary shape, the method described unites the multiple propeller discrete noise coupling effect with the effect caused by its interaction with the fuselage boundary. The interaction of the discrete noise of the Y12 scaled propeller model with a cylindrical fuselage model boundary was calculated. The interpretation of every terms of the governing equation and the discussion of the calculation results illustrated that the mathematical model is acceptable. Substantially, the method can be used to calculate the interaction of any known harmonic sound sources and rigid boundary. The calculation results explain the propeller's sychronizer role, and its applicable principles.

  18. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft. diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  19. View of compartment A102 bread room from forward to AFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment A-102 bread room from forward to AFT. Wood slat decking and ceiling helps to provide adequate air circulation to aid in preservation of flour and baking supplies. Enclosed structure at right of photograph is a portion of the port side coffer dam. The coffer dam ia a partial inner hull to prevent flooding if the outer hull was breached. Originally the coffer dam was filled with water-resistant cellulose mad from corncobs. This material would swell with incoming water if the hull was breached and seal off the hole. Ordinary leakage kept the material wet and created ideal conditions for rot. The material was removed from the coffer dam. Ducts at right provide fresh air to the bread room. (09) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock operates RMS THC on OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock operates the remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control (THC) while observing extravehicular activity (EVA) outside viewing window W10 on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Positioned at the onorbit station, Sherlock moved EVA astronauts in the payload bay (PLB). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low with his feet anchored to a special restraint device on the end of the RMS arm held MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff during the RMS maneuvers. The activity represented an evaluation of techniques which might be used on planned future missions -- a 1993 servicing visit to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and later space station work -- which will require astronauts to frequently lift objects of similar sized bulk. Note: Just below Sherlock's left hand a 'GUMBY' toy watches the actvity.

  1. STS-55 Pilot Henricks uses CTE equipment mounted on SL-D2 aft end cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned in front of an adjustable workstation mounted on the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aft end cone, conducts Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE). The STS-55 crew portrait (STS055(S)002) appears on the screen of the Macintosh portable computer. CTE will demonstrate real-time communication between the shuttle crew and the ground via a computer-based multimedia documentation file that includes text, graphics, and photos. CTE is expected to improve the effectiveness of on-orbit payload operations, returns from scientific investigations, crew interaction with the ground, and contingency maintenance tasks for systems and payloads. Also in the view and attached to the end cone are a fire extinguisher, a checklist, and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  2. Aft-End Flow of a Large-Scale Lifting Body During Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fisher, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting body. Free-flight tests of the X-38 configuration were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California from 1997 to 2001.

  3. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. STS-56 Commander Cameron uses SAREX on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing headset and headband equipped with penlight flashlight, uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Cameron, positioned just behind the pilots seat, talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of the pilots seat. The SAREX scan converter (a white box) is seen just above Cameron's head attached to overhead panel O9. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the JSC Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques. As on several previous missions, SAREX was used on this flight as an educational opportunity

  5. Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal force data were collected before and after a moderate lameness was induced. Peak, mean and summed braking and propulsive forces as well as the duration each force was exerted and the time to reach maximum force were evaluated for both the sound and the lame condition. Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, dogs maximize their double support phases when walking. Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. PMID:23300614

  6. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. II. Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHenry, M. Q.; Angelaki, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain binocular fixation on near targets during fore-aft translational disturbances, largely disjunctive eye movements are elicited the amplitude and direction of which should be tuned to the horizontal and vertical eccentricities of the target. The eye movements generated during this task have been investigated here as trained rhesus monkeys fixated isovergence targets at different horizontal and vertical eccentricities during 10 Hz fore-aft oscillations. The elicited eye movements complied with the geometric requirements for binocular fixation, although not ideally. First, the corresponding vergence angle for which the movement of each eye would be compensatory was consistently less than that dictated by the actual fixation parameters. Second, the eye position with zero sensitivity to translation was not straight ahead, as geometrically required, but rather exhibited a systematic dependence on viewing distance and vergence angle. Third, responses were asymmetric, with gains being larger for abducting and downward compared with adducting and upward gaze directions, respectively. As frequency was varied between 4 and 12 Hz, responses exhibited high-pass filter properties with significant differences between abduction and adduction responses. As a result of these differences, vergence sensitivity increased as a function of frequency with a steeper slope than that of version. Despite largely undercompensatory version responses, vergence sensitivity was closer to ideal. Moreover, the observed dependence of vergence sensitivity on vergence angle, which was varied between 2.5 and 10 MA, was largely linear rather than quadratic (as geometrically predicted). We conclude that the spatial tuning of eye velocity sensitivity as a function of gaze and viewing distance follows the general geometric dependencies required for the maintenance of foveal visual acuity. However, systematic deviations from ideal behavior exist that might reflect asymmetric processing of

  7. Water impact test of aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of water impact loads tests using aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are examined. Dynamic structural response data is developed and an evaluation of the model in various configurations is presented. Impact velocities are determined for the SRB with the larger main chute system. Various failure modes are also investigated.

  8. A NASTRAN model of a large flexible swing-wing bomber. Volume 4: NASTRAN model development-fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, W. D.; Latham, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASTRAN model plan for the fuselage structure was expanded in detail to generate the NASTRAN model for this substructure. The grid point coordinates were coded for each element. The material properties and sizing data for each element were specified. The fuselage substructure model was thoroughly checked out for continuity, connectivity, and constraints. This substructure was processed for structural influence coefficients (SIC) point loadings and the deflections were compared to those computed for the aircraft detail model. Finally, a demonstration and validation processing of this substructure was accomplished using the NASTRAN finite element program. The bulk data deck, stiffness matrices, and SIC output data were delivered.

  9. A three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary-layer method for general fuselages. Volume 1: Numerical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for calculating 3-D, compressible laminar boundary layer flow on general fuselage shapes is described. The boundary layer solutions can be obtained in either nonorthogonal 'body oriented' coordinates or orthogonal streamline coordinates. The numerical procedure is 'second order' accurate, efficient and independent of the cross flow velocity direction. Numerical results are presented for several test cases, including a sharp cone, an ellipsoid of revolution, and a general aircraft fuselage at angle of attack. Comparisons are made between numerical results obtained using nonorthogonal curvilinear 'body oriented' coordinates and streamline coordinates.

  10. Evaluation of a Composite Sandwich Fuselage Side Panel with Damage and Subjected to Internal Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Bodine, Jerry; Dopker, Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    The results from an experimental and analytical study of a composite sandwich fuselage side panel for a transport aircraft are presented. The panel has two window cutouts and three frames, and has been evaluated with internal pressure loads that generate biaxial tension loading conditions. Design limit load and design ultimate load tests have been performed on the graphite-epoxy sandwich panel with the middle frame removed to demonstrate the suitability of this two-frame design for supporting the prescribed biaxial loading conditions with twice the initial frame spacing of 20 inches. The two-frame panel was damaged by cutting a notch that originates at the edge of a cutout and extends in the panel hoop direction through the window-belt area. This panel with a notch was tested in a combined-load condition to demonstrate the structural damage tolerance at the design limit load condition. The two panel configurations successfully satisfied all design load requirements in the experimental part of the study, and the three-frame and two-frame panel responses are fully explained by the analysis results. The results of this study suggest that there is potential for using sandwich structural concepts with greater than the usual 20-in.-wide frame spacing to further reduce aircraft fuselage structural weight.

  11. Mean velocities and Reynolds stresses upstream of a simulated wing-fuselage juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, H.; Hubbartt, J.; Kubendran, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Values of three mean velocity components and six turbulence stresses measured in a turbulent shear layer upstream of a simulated wing-fuselage juncture and immediately downstream of the start of the juncture are presented nd discussed. Two single-sensor hot-wire probes were used in the measurements. The separated region just upstream of the wing contains an area of reversed flow near the fuselage surface where the turbulence level is high. Outside of this area the flow skews as it passes around the body, and in this skewed region the magnitude and distribution of the turbulent normal and shear stresses within the shear layer are modified slightly by the skewing and deceleration of the flow. A short distance downstream of the wing leading edge the secondary flow vortext is tightly rolled up and redistributes both mean flow and turbulence in the juncture. The data acquisition technique employed here allows a hot wire to be used in a reversed flow region to indicate flow direction.

  12. Vibroacoustic Tailoring of a Rod-Stiffened Composite Fuselage Panel with Multidisciplinary Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Albert R.; Przekop, Adam

    2015-01-01

    An efficient multi-objective design tailoring procedure seeking to improve the vibroacoustic performance of a fuselage panel while maintaining or reducing weight is presented. The structure considered is the pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure, a highly integrated composite structure concept designed for a noncylindrical, next-generation flight vehicle fuselage. Modifications to a baseline design are evaluated within a six-parameter design space including spacing, flange width, and web height for both frame and stringer substructure components. The change in sound power radiation attributed to a design change is predicted using finite-element models sized and meshed for analyses in the 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz octave bands. Three design studies are carried out in parallel while considering a diffuse acoustic field excitation and two types of turbulent boundary-layer excitation. Kriging surrogate models are used to reduce the computational costs of resolving the vibroacoustic and weight objective Pareto fronts. The resulting Pareto optimal designs are then evaluated under a static pressurization ultimate load to assess structural strength and stability. Results suggest that choosing alternative configurations within the considered design space can reduce weight and improve vibroacoustic performance without compromising strength and stability of the structure under the static load condition considered, but the tradeoffs are significantly influenced by the spatial characteristics of the assumed excitation field.

  13. Use of nondestructive inspection and fiber optic sensing for damage characterization in carbon fiber fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidigk, Stephen; Le, Jacqui; Roach, Dennis; Duvall, Randy; Rice, Tom

    2014-04-01

    To investigate a variety of nondestructive inspection technologies and assess impact damage characteristics in carbon fiber aircraft structure, the FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center, operated by Sandia National Labs, fabricated and impact tested two full-scale composite fuselage sections. The panels are representative of structure seen on advanced composite transport category aircraft and measured approximately 56"x76". The structural components consisted of a 16 ply skin, co-cured hat-section stringers, fastened shear ties and frames. The material used to fabricate the panels was T800 unidirectional pre-preg (BMS 8-276) and was processed in an autoclave. Simulated hail impact testing was conducted on the panels using a high velocity gas gun with 2.4" diameter ice balls in collaboration with the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Damage was mapped onto the surface of the panels using conventional, hand deployed ultrasonic inspection techniques, as well as more advanced ultrasonic and resonance scanning techniques. In addition to the simulated hail impact testing performed on the panels, 2" diameter steel tip impacts were used to produce representative impact damage which can occur during ground maintenance operations. The extent of impact damage ranges from less than 1 in2 to 55 in2 of interply delamination in the 16 ply skin. Substructure damage on the panels includes shear tie cracking and stringer flange disbonding. It was demonstrated that the fiber optic distributed strain sensing system is capable of detecting impact damage when bonded to the backside of the fuselage.

  14. Developpement de methodes analytiques pour un outil de dimensionnement de cadre de fuselage en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauve, Jeremie

    The goal of this research project is to prepare a series of analytical formulations to be used by a sizing tool for composite airplane fuselage frames. This tool verifies a series of failure modes related to a frame and calculates their respective margins of safety. The tool follows an iterative process until the optimal frame is reached according to user defined parameters. The failure modes taken into account by the sizing tool are the composite material failure, local buckling, crippling, lateral buckling and global buckling. Each phenomenon is associated with its own mathematical formulations, assumptions and limitations. Existing formulations for the margin of safety calculations of each failure phenomenon was found from a literature review. Also, new formulations were developed within the current project for local and lateral buckling. In particular, an analytical formulation and an approximation method based on results obtained from finite element have been developed. Those two methods, combined, allow the estimation of the lateral buckling load of a fuselage composite frame. Finally, the current project required to create some secondary tools used during the development of the methodology for lateral buckling. Those tools are also presented in this thesis.

  15. Damage-Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Fuselage Sandwich Structures with Thick Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1997-01-01

    Damage tolerance characteristics and results from experimental and analytical studies of a composite fuselage keel sandwich structure subjected to low-speed impact damage and discrete-source damage are presented. The test specimens are constructed from graphite-epoxy skins borided to a honeycomb core, and they are representative of a highly loaded fuselage keel structure. Results of compression-after-impact (CAI) and notch-length sensitivity studies of 5-in.-wide by 10-in.long specimens are presented. A correlation between low-speed-impact dent depth, the associated damage area, and residual strength for different impact-energy levels is described; and a comparison of the strength for undamaged and damaged specimens with different notch-length-to-specimen-width ratios is presented. Surface strains in the facesheets of the undamaged specimens as well as surface strains that illustrate the load redistribution around the notch sites in the notched specimens are presented and compared with results from finite element analyses. Reductions in strength of as much as 53.1 percent for the impacted specimens and 64.7 percent for the notched specimens are observed.

  16. Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

  17. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 45 deg Swept Wing Fuselage Model with a Finned and Unfinned Body Pylon Mounted Beneath the Fuselage or Wing, Including Measurements of Body Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, Dewey E.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation of a model of a standard size body in combination with a representative 45 deg swept-wing-fuselage model has been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.80 to 1.43. The body, with a fineness ratio of 8.5, was tested with and without fins, and was pylon-mounted beneath the fuselage or wing. Force measurements were obtained on the wing-fuselage model with and without the body, for an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to approximately 12 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -8 deg to 8 deg. In addition, body loads were measured over the same angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip range. The Reynolds number for the investigation, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, varied from 1.85 x 10(exp 6) to 2.85 x 10(exp 6). The addition of the body beneath the fuselage or the wing increased the drag coefficient of the complete model over the Mach number range tested. On the basis of the drag increase per body, the under-fuselage position was the more favorable. Furthermore, the bodies tended to increase the lateral stability of the complete model. The variation of body loads with angle of attack for the unfinned bodies was generally small and linear over the Mach number range tested with the addition of fins causing large increases in the rates of change of normal-force coefficient and nose-down pitching-moment coefficient. The variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the unfinned body beneath the fuselage was at least twice as large as the variation of this load for the unfinned body beneath the wing. The addition of fins to the body beneath either the fuselage or the wing approximately doubled the rate of change of body side-force coefficient with sideslip. Furthermore, the variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the body beneath the wing was at least twice as large as the variation of this load with angle of attack.

  18. The Influence of Feedback on the Aeroelastic Behavior of Tilt Proprotor Aircraft Including the Effects of Fuselage Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Komatsuzaki, T.; Traybar, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of single loop feedbacks to improve the stability of the system are considered. Reduced order dynamic models are employed where appropriate to promote physical insight. The influence of fuselage freedom on the aeroelastic stability, and the influence of the airframe flexibility on the low frequency modes of motion relevant to the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle were examined.

  19. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer- and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  20. NASTRAN data generation of helicopter fuselages using interactive graphics. [preprocessor system for finite element analysis using IBM computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sainsbury-Carter, J. B.; Conaway, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development and implementation of a preprocessor system for the finite element analysis of helicopter fuselages is described. The system utilizes interactive graphics for the generation, display, and editing of NASTRAN data for fuselage models. It is operated from an IBM 2250 cathode ray tube (CRT) console driven by an IBM 370/145 computer. Real time interaction plus automatic data generation reduces the nominal 6 to 10 week time for manual generation and checking of data to a few days. The interactive graphics system consists of a series of satellite programs operated from a central NASTRAN Systems Monitor. Fuselage structural models including the outer shell and internal structure may be rapidly generated. All numbering systems are automatically assigned. Hard copy plots of the model labeled with GRID or elements ID's are also available. General purpose programs for displaying and editing NASTRAN data are included in the system. Utilization of the NASTRAN interactive graphics system has made possible the multiple finite element analysis of complex helicopter fuselage structures within design schedules.

  1. Simulator study of flight characteristics of a large twin-fuselage cargo transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Deal, P. L.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Smith, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom, ground-based simulator study was conducted to evaluate the low speed flight characteristics of a twin fuselage cargo transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single fuselage (reference) transport configuration which was similar to the Lockheed C-5C airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing. The results indicated that in order to achieve "acceptable' low speed handling qualities on the twin fuselage concept, considerable stability and control augmentation was required, and although the augmented airplane could be landed safely under adverse conditions, the roll performance of the aircraft had to be improved appreciably before the handling qualities were rated as being "satisfactory.' These ground-based simulation results indicated that a value of t sub phi = 30 (time required to bank 30 deg) less than 6 sec should result in "acceptable' roll response characteristics, and when t sub phi = 30 is less than 3.8 sec, "satisfactory' roll response should be attainable on such large and unusually configured aircraft as the subject twin fuselage cargo transport concept.

  2. A 0.15-scale study of configuration effects on the aerodynamic interaction between main rotor and fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trept, Ted

    1984-01-01

    Hover and forward flight tests were conducted to investigate the mutual aerodynamic interaction between the main motor and fuselage of a conventional helicopter configuration. A 0.15-scale Model 222 two-bladed teetering rotor was combined with a 0.15-scale model of the NASA Ames 40x80-foot wind tunnel 1500 horsepower test stand fairing. Configuration effects were studied by modifying the fairing to simulate a typical helicopter forebody. Separation distance between rotor and body were also investigated. Rotor and fuselage force and moment as well as pressure data are presented in graphical and tabular format. Data was taken over a range of thrust coefficients from 0.002 to 0.007. In forward flight speed ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.3 with shaft angle varying from +4 to -12 deg. The data show that the rotors effect on the fuselage may be considerably more important to total aircraft performance than the effect of the fuselage on the rotor.

  3. Effects of fore-aft body mass distribution on acceleration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M; Carrier, David R

    2011-05-15

    The ability of a quadruped to apply propulsive ground reaction forces (GRF) during rapid acceleration may be limited by muscle power, foot traction or the ability to counteract the nose-up pitching moment due to acceleration. Because the biomechanics of acceleration change, both throughout the stride cycle and over subsequent strides as velocity increases, the factors limiting propulsive force production may also change. Depending on which factors are limiting during each step, alterations in fore-aft body mass distribution may either increase or decrease the maximum propulsive GRF produced. We analyzed the effects of experimental alterations in the fore-aft body mass distribution of dogs as they performed rapid accelerations. We measured the changes in trunk kinematics and GRF as dogs accelerated while carrying 10% body mass in saddlebags positioned just in front of the shoulder girdle or directly over the pelvic girdle. We found that dogs applied greater propulsive forces in the initial hindlimb push-off and first step by the lead forelimb in both weighted conditions. During these steps dogs appear to have been limited by foot traction. For the trailing forelimb, propulsive forces and impulses were reduced when dogs wore caudally placed weights and increased when dogs wore cranially placed weights. This is consistent with nose-up pitching or avoidance thereof having limited propulsive force production by the trailing forelimb. By the second stride, the hindlimbs appear to have been limited by muscle power in their ability to apply propulsive force. Adding weights decreased the propulsive force they applied most in the beginning of stance, when limb retractor muscles were active in supporting body weight. These results suggest that all three factors: foot traction, pitching of the body, and muscle power play roles in limiting quadrupedal acceleration. Digging in to the substrate with claws or hooves appears to be necessary for maximizing propulsion in the initial

  4. 78 FR 9789 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... requires inspecting the tailboom interior support structure, and if necessary, installing an inspection panel kit in the aft fuselage assembly, and installing doublers in the stabilizer support brackets. This... proposed inspecting the tailboom interior support structure, and if necessary, installing an...

  5. Test and Analyses of a Composite Multi-Bay Fuselage Panel Under Uni-Axial Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Baker, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    A composite panel containing three stringers and two frames cut from a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded (VaRTM) stitched fuselage article was tested under uni-axial compression loading. The stringers and frames divided the panel into six bays with two columns of three bays each along the compressive loading direction. The two frames were supported at the ends with pins to restrict the out-of-plane translation. The free edges of the panel were constrained by knife-edges. The panel was modeled with shell finite elements and analyzed with ABAQUS nonlinear solver. The nonlinear predictions were compared with the test results in out-of-plane displacements, back-to-back surface strains on stringer flanges and back-to-back surface strains at the centers of the skin-bays. The analysis predictions were in good agreement with the test data up to post-buckling.

  6. Transonic perturbation analysis of wing-fuselage-nacelle-pylon configurations with powered jet exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wai, J. C.; Yoshihara, H.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A transonic small perturbation method has been developed for the analysis of general wing-fuselage-nacelle-pylon configurations with powered jet exhausts. Finite difference successive line relaxation algorithm is used to solve the small disturbance potential equation in conservative form. The nacelle tangency condition and the jet exhaust plume contact conditions are fulfilled in a quasi-cylindrical fashion on a surface fitting the Cartesian grid. The pylon tangency condition is treated in a quasi-planar manner as for the wing. Viscous displacement effects on the wing are modeled by suitable shape changes including the placement of a viscous ramp at the base of the shock. Computed results of a transport configuration show satisfactory correlation with test data.

  7. Helicopter Fuselage Active Flow Control in the Presence of a Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Preston B; Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Wilson, Jacob S.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous investigations of active flow control for helicopter fuselage drag and download reduction to include the effects of the rotor. The development of the new wind tunnel model equipped with fluidic oscillators is explained in terms of the previous test results. Large drag reductions greater than 20% in some cases were measured during powered testing without increasing, and in some cases decreasing download in forward flight. As confirmed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), the optimum actuator configuration that provided a decrease in both drag and download appeared to create a virtual (fluidic) boat-tail fairing instead of attaching flow to the ramp surface. This idea of a fluidic fairing shifts the focus of 3D separation control behind bluff bodies from controlling/reattaching surface boundary layers to interacting with the wake flow.

  8. Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Applied to a Thin Haul Commuter Aircraft for Optimal Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.

  9. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering By Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  10. Measurements of fuselage skin strains and displacements near a longitudinal lap joint in a pressurized aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.; Britt, Vicki O.

    1991-01-01

    Strains and displacements in a small area near a longitudinal lap joint in the fuselage skin of a B737 aircraft were measured during a pressurization cycle to a differential pressure of 6.2 psi while the aircraft was on the ground. It was found that hoop strains were higher than longitudinal strains at each location; membrane strains in the unreinforced skin were higher than in the joint; membrane strains in the hoop direction, as well as radial displacements, tended to be highest at the mid-bay location between skin reinforcements; significant bending in the hoop direction occurred in the joint and in the skin near the joint, and the bending was unsymmetrically distributed about the stringer at the middle of the joint; and radial displacements were unsymmetrically distributed across the lap joint. The interpretation of the strain gage data for locations on the bonded and riveted lap joint assumed that the joint did not contain disbonded areas.

  11. Analysis for the Progressive Failure Response of Textile Composite Fuselage Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Boitnott, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A part of aviation accident mitigation is a crash worthy airframe structure, and an important measure of merit for a crash worthy structure is the amount of kinetic energy that can be absorbed in the crush of the structure. Prediction of the energy absorbed from finite element analyses requires modeling the progressive failure sequence. Progressive failure modes may include material degradation, fracture and crack growth, and buckling and collapse. The design of crash worthy airframe components will benefit from progressive failure analyses that have been validated by tests. The subject of this research is the development of a progressive failure analysis for textile composite. circumferential fuselage frames subjected to a quasi-static, crash-type load. The test data for these frames are reported, and these data, along with stub column test data, are to be used to develop and to validate methods for the progressive failure response.

  12. Analysis for the Progressive Failure Response of Textile Composite Fuselage Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Boitnott, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A part of aviation accident mitigation is a crashworthy airframe structure, and an important measure of merit for a crashworthy structure is the amount of kinetic energy that can be absorbed in the crush of the structure. Prediction of the energy absorbed from finite element analyses requires modeling the progressive failure sequence. Progressive failure modes may include material degradation, fracture and crack growth, and buckling and collapse. The design of crashworthy airframe components will benefit from progressive failure analyses that have been validated by tests. The subject of this research is the development of a progressive failure analysis for a textile composite, circumferential fuselage frame subjected to a quasi-static, crash-type load. The test data for the frame are reported, and these data are used to develop and to validate methods for the progressive failure response.

  13. Multicyclic jet-flap control for alleviation of helicopter blade stresses and fuselage vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccloud, J. L., III; Kretz, M.

    1974-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests of a 12-meter-diameter rotor utilizing multicyclic jet-flap control deflection are presented. Analyses of these results are shown, and experimental transfer functions are determined by which optimal control vectors are developed. These vectors are calculated to eliminate specific harmonic bending stresses, minimize rms levels (a measure of the peak-to-peak stresses), or minimize vertical vibratory loads that would be transmitted to the fuselage. Although the specific results and the ideal control vectors presented are for a specific jet-flap driven rotor, the method employed for the analyses is applicable to similar investigations. A discussion of possible alternative methods of multicyclic control by mechanical flaps or nonpropulsive jet-flaps is presented.

  14. Nonlinear Acoustic Response of an Aircraft Fuselage Sidewall Structure by a Reduced-Order Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Groen, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A reduced-order nonlinear analysis of a structurally complex aircraft fuselage sidewall panel is undertaken to explore issues associated with application of such analyses to practical structures. Of primary interest is the trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy. An approach to modal basis selection is offered based upon the modal participation in the linear regime. The nonlinear static response to a uniform pressure loading and nonlinear random response to a uniformly distributed acoustic loading are computed. Comparisons of the static response with a nonlinear static solution in physical degrees-of-freedom demonstrate the efficacy of the approach taken for modal basis selection. Changes in the modal participation as a function of static and random loading levels suggest a means for improvement in the basis selection.

  15. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  16. On sound transmission into a heavily-damped cylinder. [aircraft noise in fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koval, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transmission of sound into a thin monocoque cylindrical shell is discussed. The model is used to evaluate an oblique plane wave incident upon a flexible thin cylindrical shell. The solution is applicable to the transmission of sound under actual flight conditions. The model is then used to determine curves of cylinder-transmission loss for heavily damped cylinders. Numerical results are found for several plane-wave incidence angles for a narrow-bodied jet fuselage made of aluminum. It is noted that damping (i.e., the loss factor) increases, dips because of reduced cylinder resonances, and eventually disappears when the loss factor of the shell is large enough.

  17. STS-26 MS Hilmers during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), tries out the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Hilmers to his feet once he reaches the bottom. Watching from floor level at the far left is astronaut Steven R. Nagel. A second crewmember stands in the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) awaiting his turn to slide to 'safety'. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The CES pole extends out the side hatch just above Hilmers' head.

  18. STS-26 crew trains in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers are briefed during a training exercise in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Seated outside the open side hatch of the full fuselage trainer (FFT) (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel (left), positioned in the open side hatch, briefs the crew on the pole escape system as he demonstrates some related equipment. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  19. STS-26 crew trains in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers are briefed during a training exercise in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Seated outside the open side hatch of the full fuselage trainer (FFT) (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. Looking on at right are Astronaut Office Chief Daniel C. Brandenstein (standing) and astronaut James P. Bagian. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  20. STS-26 Pilot Covey during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), slides to safety using the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Covey to his feet once he reaches the bottom. The CES pole extends out the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  1. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  2. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far field. The effects of non-uniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing. 0 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General-purpose heat source development: Extended series test program SRB fragment/fuselage tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Theresa A.

    1989-06-01

    General-Purpose Heat Source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) will provide electrical power for the NASA Galileo and European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses missions. Each GPHS-RTG comprises two major components: GPHS modules, which provide thermal energy, and a thermoelectric converter, which converts the thermal energy into electrical power. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in a GPHS-RTG contains four Pu-238O2-fueled capsules. LANL conducted a series of safety verification tests on the GPHS-RTG before the scheduled May 1986 launch of the Galileo spacecraft to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain plutonia in potential accident environments. As a result of the Challenger 51-L accident in January 1986, NASA postponed the launch of Galileo; the spacecraft launch vehicle was reconfigured and the spacecraft trajectory modified. These actions prompted NASA to reevaluate potential mission accidents and the extended series safety test program was initiated. This program included a series of solid rocket booster (SRB) fragment/fuselage tests that simulated the interaction of SRB fragments generated in an SRB motor case rupture (or resulting from a range safety officer SRB destruct action) with sections of the Shuttle Orbiter. The test data helped verify and refine the analytical models of the SRB fragment/fuselage interaction. The results showed that the fragment velocity decreased significantly (up to 40 percent) after penetrating the Orbiter section(s). The interactions also reduced, and in some cases eliminated, the original fragment rotational rate and direction and initiated rotation in other directions.

  4. Masking of thresholds for the perception of fore-and-aft vibration of seat backrests.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The detection of a vibration may be reduced by the presence of another vibration: a phenomenon known as 'masking'. This study investigated how the detection of one frequency of vibration is influenced by vibration at another frequency. With nine subjects, thresholds for detecting fore-and-aft backrest vibration were determined (for 4, 8, 16, and 31.5-Hz sinusoidal vibration) in the presence of a masker vibration (4-Hz random vibration, 1/3-octave bandwidth at six intensities). The masker vibration increased thresholds for perceiving vibration at each frequency by an amount that reduced with increasing difference between the frequency of the sinusoidal vibration and the frequency of the masker vibration. The 4-Hz random vibration almost completely masked 4-Hz sinusoidal vibration, partially masked 8- and 16-Hz vibration, and only slightly masked 31.5-Hz vibration. The findings might be explained by the involvement of different sensory systems and different body locations in the detection of different frequencies of vibration.

  5. Use of photostress to analyze behavior of an aft skirt test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, S. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Strains at twenty-one selected points in the critical lower weld region of a aft skirt of a solid rocket booster of the shuttle were measured using photoelastic coatings and stress separator gages. Data were taken at loads of 5, 14, 20, 28, 42, 56, and 70 percent of the design limit load. Results indicate that general yielding occurred in the weld metal and for a short distance outside the fusion boundaries on either side of the weld metal. The fusion boundaries did not yield at the 70 percent load. Slight non-linearity in the load strain curves were observed at several points above the 20 percent load level. Maximum measured strains occurred at points in the forged metal of the holddown post along a line 0.50 inches from the centerline of the weld. Maximum shearing strains within the area covered by the photoelastic coating occurred at points approximately 0.33 inches to the right of the weld centerline near points 6 and 7 and lying along a yellow vertical line extending from just below point 6 to point 11. Photoelastic coatings were shown to be an excellent method to provide the whole field strain distribution in the region of the critical weld and to enhance the overall understanding of the behavior of the welded joint.

  6. Analysis of pressure blips in aft-finocyl solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacinto, M.; Favini, B.; Cavallini, E.

    2016-07-01

    Ballistic anomalies have frequently occurred during the firing of several solid rocket motors (SRMs) (Inertial Upper Stage, Space Shuttle Redesigned SRM (RSRM) and Titan IV SRM Upgrade (SRMU)), producing even relevant and unexpected variations of the SRM pressure trace from its nominal profile. This paper has the purpose to provide a numerical analysis of the following possible causes of ballistic anomalies in SRMs: an inert object discharge, a slag ejection, and an unexpected increase in the propellant burning rate or in the combustion surface. The SRM configuration under investigation is an aft-finocyl SRM with a first-stage/small booster design. The numerical simulations are performed with a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) unsteady model of the SRM internal ballistics, properly tailored to model each possible cause of the ballistic anomalies. The results have shown that a classification based on the head-end pressure (HEP) signature, relating each other the HEP shape and the ballistic anomaly cause, can be made. For each cause of ballistic anomalies, a deepened discussion of the parameters driving the HEP signatures is provided, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments of the resultant pressure signals.

  7. Investigation of the transmission of fore and aft vibration through the human body.

    PubMed

    Demić, Miroslav; Lukić, Jovanka

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the behavior of human body under the influence of vibration is of great importance for the optimal motor vehicle system design. Therefore, great efforts are being done in order to discover as many information about the influence of vibration on human body as possible. So far the references show that the major scientific attention has been paid to vertical vibration, although intensive research has been performed lately on the other sorts of excitation. In this paper, the results of the investigation of behavior of human body, in seated position, under the influence of random fore and aft vibration are shown. The investigation is performed by the use of an electro-hydraulic simulator, on a group of 30 healthy male occupants. Experiments are performed in order to give results to improve human body modeling in driving conditions. Excitation amplitudes (1.75 and 2.25 m/s(2) rms) and seat backrest conditions (with and without inclination) were varied. Data results are analyzed by partial coherence and transfer functions. Analyses have been performed and results are given in detail. The results obtained have shown that the human body under the influence of random excitations behaves as a non-linear system and its response depends on spatial position. Obtained results give necessary data to define structure and parameters of human biodynamic model with respect to different excitation and seat backrest position.

  8. STS-99 workers move new Master Events Controller into aft compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, workers move the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) into Shuttle Endeavour's aft compartment in the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  9. Explicit Finite Element Techniques Used to Characterize Splashdown of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics Branch has years of expertise in using explicit finite element methods to predict the outcome of ballistic impact events. Shuttle engineers from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Kennedy Space Flight Center required assistance in assessing the structural loads that a newly proposed thrust vector control system for the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) aft skirt would expect to see during its recovery splashdown.

  10. Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

  11. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  12. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Mcfalls, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a 20 inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. These techniques included source noise reduction features of selection of vane-blade ratio to reduce second harmonic noise, spacing effects, and lowering the Mach number through a vane row. Aft suppression features investigated included porosity effects, variable depth treatment, and treatment regenerated flow noise. Initial results and selected comparisons are presented.

  13. Theoretical prediction of thick wing and pylon-fuselage-fanpod-nacelle aerodynamic characteristics at subcritical speeds. Part 1: Theory and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulinius, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical development and the comparison of results with data of a thick wing and pylon-fuselage-fanpod-nacelle analysis are presented. The analysis utilizes potential flow theory to compute the surface velocities and pressures, section lift and center of pressure, and the total configuration lift, moment, and vortex drag. The skin friction drag is also estimated in the analysis. The perturbation velocities induced by the wing and pylon, fuselage and fanpod, and nacelle are represented by source and vortex lattices, quadrilateral vortices, and source frustums, respectively. The strengths of these singularities are solved for simultaneously including all interference effects. The wing and pylon planforms, twists, cambers, and thickness distributions, and the fuselage and fanpod geometries can be arbitrary in shape, provided the surface gradients are smooth. The flow through nacelle is assumed to be axisymmetric. An axisymmetric center engine hub can also be included. The pylon and nacelle can be attached to the wing, fuselage, or fanpod.

  14. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Cam Lever Stop Strain Guage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up of the S-IV-B aft swing arm cam lever stop strain guage.

  15. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  16. Structural FEM analysis of the strut-to-fuselage joint of a two-seat composite aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Rojas, Erik Camarena-Arellano, Diego Hernández-Moreno, Hilario

    2014-05-15

    An analysis of a strut-to-fuselage joint is realized in order to evaluate the zones with a high probability of failure by means of a safety factor. The whole section is analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) so as to estimate static resistance behavior, therefore it is necessary a numerical mock-up of the section, the mechanical properties of the Carbon-Epoxy (C-Ep) material, and to evaluate the applied loads. Results of the analysis show that the zones with higher probability of failure are found around the wing strut and the fuselage joint, with a safety factor lower than expected in comparison with the average safety factor used on aircrafts built mostly with metals.

  17. Preservation of wing leading edge suction at the plane of symmetry as a factor in wing-fuselage design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Most fuselage geometries cover a portion of the wing leading edge near the plane of symmetry, and it seems reasonable to expect that a large fraction of the leading edge suction which would be developed by the covered wing at high angles of attack is not developed on the fuselage. This is one of the reasons that the Oswald span efficiency factor for the wing body combination fails to approach the value predicted by lifting line theory for the isolated wing. Some traditional and recent literature on wing-body interference is discussed and high Reynolds number data on wing-body-nacelle drag are reviewed. An exposed central leading edge geometry has been developed for a sailplane configuration. Low Reynolds number tests have not validated the design concept.

  18. A three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary-layer method for general fuselages. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1990-01-01

    This user's manual contains a complete description of the computer programs developed to calculate three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary layers for perfect gas flow on general fuselage shapes. These programs include the 3-D boundary layer program (3DBLC), the body-oriented coordinate program (BCC), and the streamline coordinate program (SCC). Subroutine description, input, output and sample case are discussed. The complete FORTRAN listings of the computer programs are given.

  19. Effects of the Shuttle Orbiter fuselage and elevon on the molecular distribution of water vapor from the flash evaporator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.; Kelso, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A concern has arisen regarding the emissive distribution of water molecules from the shuttle orbiter flash evaporator system (FES). The role of the orbiter fuselage and elevon in affecting molecular scattering distributions was nuclear. The effect of these components were evaluated. Molecular distributions of the water vapor effluents from the FE were measured. These data were compared with analytically predicted values and the resulting implications were calculated.

  20. Development and validation of a combined rotor fuselage induced flow field computational method. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    A potential-flow panel method was modified to calculate the effects of a rotor wake on the time-averaged surface pressure and velocity distributions on a helicopter fuselage. The rotor-induced velocities are calculated by using a vortex-tube wake model. The calculated pressure distributions are found to compare well with experimental data obtained from tests of a wind-tunnel model.

  1. Resolving the chronology of the South African landscape through joint inverse modelling of AFT and apatite (U-Th)/He data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Beucher, Romain; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    Application of Low temperature thermochronometry (LTT) is a powerful method of constraining thermal history information on samples as they pass through isotherms in the upper crust. Inverse modelling of LTT data generates thermal history information which can then be correlated with independent datasets to infer geological processes that are responsible for producing the observed thermal history held in the thermochronometry record. A critical consideration when choosing which LTT method to use are the closure temperatures associated with each system. In order to generate more complete and robust thermal histories a single sample can be analysed using multiple low temperature thermochronometers that are sensitive over different but complimentary temperature ranges. The main focus of LTT work in South Africa has been on apatite fission track (AFT) analysis which is a world renowned method of constraining thermal history information between c. 60 and 110±10°C. The general conclusions that have been drawn from the South African AFT dataset is that the present day regional topography represents an eroded remnant of an elevated interior that experienced a significant uplift event with km-scale erosion in the Cretaceous following the break-up of Gondwana [1]. The exact nature of Cretaceous uplift and erosion varies both spatially and temporally, especially in south western Africa where at least two distinct denudation events are recorded at c. 130Ma and 90 Ma [2]. There are, however, alternative views suggesting significant epeirogenic-style uplift and subsequent erosion throughout the Cenozoic [3]. A key aspect of this debate which is yet to be fully resolved is the influence of mantle dynamics on the evolution of the overlying topography. To further investigate the timing and amount of Cenozoic uplift and erosion and to what degree this can be ascribed to dynamic topography, efforts have been made to complement the existing AFT record with Apatite (U-Th)/He analysis

  2. Comparison of ALE and SPH Simulations of Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section into Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.

  3. Experimental and analytical program to determine strains in 737 LAP splice joints subjected to normal fuselage pressurization loads

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.P.; Jeong, D.Y.

    1996-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) has initiated several research projects to assess the structural integrity of the aging commercial aircraft fleet. One area of research involves the understanding of a phenomenon known as ``Widespread Fatigue Damage`` or WFD, which refers to a type of multiple element cracking that degrades the damage tolerance capability of an aircraft structure. Research on WFD has been performed both experimentally and analytically including finite element modeling of fuselage lap splice joints by the Volpe Center. Fuselage pressurization tests have also been conducted at the FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to obtain strain gage data from select locations on the FAA/AANC 737 Transport Aircraft Test Bed. One-hundred strain channels were used to monitor five different lap splice bays including the fuselage skin and substructure elements. These test results have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models and to support general aircraft analysis efforts. This paper documents the strain fields measured during the AANC tests and successfully correlates the results with analytical predictions.

  4. Wind-tunnel investigation of several high aspect-ratio supercritical wing configurations on a wide-body-type fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel on two aspect-ratio 11.95 supercritical wings that were tested in combination with a representative wide-body-type fuselage. The two supercritical wings have identical planforms for equal sweep angles and differ only in thickness. Each wing was tested at quarter-chord sweep angles of 27 deg and 30 deg. At the higher sweep angle, the aspect ratio is reduced to 11.36. At 27 deg of quarter-chord sweep, the thicker supercritical wing (SCW-1) has maximum streamwise thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.16 at the wing-fuselage juncture, 0.14 at the planform break station, and 0.12 at the tip. The thinner wing (SCW-2) has maximum streamwise thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.144, 0.12, and 0.10 at the same stations respectively. Tests were also conducted on the thinner supercritical wing at the 27 deg sweep angle with a 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) shorter span which results in an aspect ratio of 10.25. For comparison, data were obtained on a current wide-body transport wing (AR=7) that was tested on the same fuselage used with the supercritical wings.

  5. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Drag Characteristics of an HU2K Helicopter Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1963-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the drag characteristics of the HU2K helicopter fuselage. The effects of body shape, engine operation, appendages, and leakage on the model drag were determined. The results of the tests showed that the largest single contribution to the parasite drag was that of the rotor hub installation which produced about 80 percent of the drag of the sealed and faired production body. Fairings on the rotor hub and blade retentions, or a cleaned-up hub and retentions, appeared to be the most effective single modifications tested. The total drag of all protuberances and air leakage also contributed a major part of the drag - an 83-percent increase over the drag of the sealed and faired production body. An additional increment of drag was caused by the basic shape of the fuselage - 19 percent more than the drag obtained when the fuselage shape was extensively refaired. Another sizable increment of drag was caused by the engine oil-cooler exit which gave a drag of 8 percent of that of the sealed and faired production body.

  6. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several polygon-shaped cross-sectional models applicable to helicopter fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L.; Crowell, Cynthia A.; Wilson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine 2-D aerodynamic characteristics of nine polygon-shaped models applicable to helicopter fuselages. The models varied from 1/2 to 1/5 scale and were nominally triangular, diamond, and rectangular in shape. Side force and normal force were obtained at increments of angle of flow incidence from -45 to 90 degrees. The data were compared with results from a baseline UH-60 tail-boom cross-section model. The results indicate that the overall shapes of the plots of normal force and side force were similar to the characteristic shape of the baseline data; however, there were important differences in magnitude. At a flow incidence of 0 degrees, larger values of normal force for the polygon models indicate an increase in fuselage down load of 1 to 2.5 percent of main-rotor thrust compared with the baseline value. Also, potential was indicated among some of the configurations to produce high fuselage side forces and yawing moments compared with the baseline model.

  7. An Analysis Methodology to Predict Damage Propagation in Notched Composite Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, A.; Davila, C.; Leone, F.; Awerbuch, J.; Tan, T.-M.

    2015-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for predicting damage propagation in notched composite skin-stiffened structures. The proposed approach considers the interaction of damage propagation in the skin with delamination of the stiffener in order to assess the damage containment behavior of the structure. The damage propagating from a notch within a thin fiber-reinforced polymer skin is idealized as a through-the-thickness cohesive crack. The cohesive law for the through-the-thickness crack is characterized using a compact tension test. The approach was applied to a full-scale pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure (PRSEUS) concept fuselage panel that was tested recently. The stitched skin/stringer interfaces, a key feature of the PRSEUS concept, were modeled to assess the effectiveness of the stitching at containing damage propagation. Comparison between the predicted and observed damage extension shows acceptable agreement throughout loading. These results indicate that the model can represent accurately the complex interactions between a through-the-thickness crack in the skin and delamination between the skin and stringer. The model is used to demonstrate that the skin-stiffener interface toughness is critical to damage containment capability

  8. Modelling Strategies for Predicting the Residual Strength of Impacted Composite Aircraft Fuselages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaud, Frederic; Espinosa, Christine; Michel, Laurent; Rahme, Pierre; Piquet, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Aeronautic Certification rules established for the metallic materials are not convenient for the composite structures concerning the resistance against impact. The computer-based design is a new methodology that is thought about to replace the experimental tests. It becomes necessary for numerical methods to be robust and predictive for impact. Three questions are addressed in this study: (i) can a numerical model be "mechanically intrinsic" to predict damage after impact, (ii) can this model be the same for a lab sample and a large structure, and (iii) can the numerical model be predictive enough to predict the Compression After Impact (CAI)? Three different computational strategies are used and compared: a Cohesive Model (CM), a Continuous Damage Model (CDM) coupling failure modes and damage, and a Mixed Methodology (MM) using the CDM for delamination initiation and the CM for cracks propagation. The first attempts to use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method are presented. Finally, impact on a fuselage is modelled and a numerical two-stage strategy is developed to predict the CAI.

  9. Development of a biaxial test facility for structural evaluation of aircraft fuselage panels

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.; Rice, T.

    1998-03-01

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft`s skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The composite doubler repair process produces both engineering and economic benefits. The FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs completed a project to introduce composite doubler repair technology to the commercial aircraft industry. This paper focuses on a specialized structural test facility which was developed to evaluate the performance of composite doublers on actual aircraft structure. The facility can subject an aircraft fuselage section to a combined load environment of pressure (hoop stress) and axial, or longitudinal, stress. The tests simulate maximum cabin pressure loads and use a computerized feedback system to maintain the proper ratio between hoop and axial loads. Through the use of this full-scale test facility it was possible to: (1) assess general composite doubler response in representative flight load scenarios, and (2) verify the design and analysis approaches as applied to an L-1011 door corner repair.

  10. In-flight measurement of propeller noise on the fuselage of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Ranaudo, Richard; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight measurements of propeller noise on the fuselage of an OV-10A aircraft were obtained using a horizontal and a vertical microphone array. A wide range of flight conditions were tested including changes in angle of attack, sideslip angle, power coefficient, helical tip Mach number and advance ratio, and propeller direction of rotation. Results show a dependence of the level and directivity of the tones on the angle of attack and on the sideslip angle with the propeller direction of rotation, which is similar to results obtained in wind tunnel tests with advanced propeller designs. The level of the tones at each microphone increases with increasing angle of attack for inboard-down propeller rotation and decreases for inboard-up rotation. The level also increases with increasing slideslip angle for both propeller directions of rotation. Increasing the power coefficient results in a slight increase in the level of the tones. A strong shock wave is generated by the propeller blades even at relatively low helical tip Mach numbers resulting in high harmonic levels. As the helical tip Mach number and the advance ratio are increased, the level of the higher harmonics increases much faster than the level of the blade passage frequency.

  11. In-flight measurement of propeller noise on the fuselage of an airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Ranaudo, Richard; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-07-01

    In-flight measurements of propeller noise on the fuselage of an OV-10A aircraft were obtained using a horizontal and a vertical microphone array. A wide range of flight conditions were tested including changes in angle of attack, sideslip angle, power coefficient, helical tip Mach number and advance ratio, and propeller direction of rotation. Results show a dependence of the level and directivity of the tones on the angle of attack and on the sideslip angle with the propeller direction of rotation, which is similar to results obtained in wind tunnel tests with advanced propeller designs. The level of the tones at each microphone increases with increasing angle of attack for inboard-down propeller rotation and decreases for inboard-up rotation. The level also increases with increasing slideslip angle for both propeller directions of rotation. Increasing the power coefficient results in a slight increase in the level of the tones. A strong shock wave is generated by the propeller blades even at relatively low helical tip Mach numbers resulting in high harmonic levels. As the helical tip Mach number and the advance ratio are increased, the level of the higher harmonics increases much faster than the level of the blade passage frequency.

  12. Fuselage Structure Response to Boundary Layer, Tonal Sound, and Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the response of curved aluminum and graphite-epoxy fuselage structures to flow and sound loads from turbulent boundary layer, tonal sound, and jet noise. Both structures were the same size. The aluminum structure was reinforced with tear stoppers, while the graphite-epoxy structure was not. The graphite-epoxy structure weighed half as much as the aluminum structure. Spatiotemporal intermittence and chaotic behavior of the structural response was observed, as jet noise and tonal sound interacted with the turbulent boundary layer. The fundamental tone distributed energy to other components via wave interaction with the turbulent boundary layer. The added broadband sound from the jet, with or without a shock, influenced the responses over a wider range of frequencies. Instantaneous spatial correlation indicates small localized spatiotemporal regions of convected waves, while uncorrelated patterns dominate the larger portion of the space. By modifying the geometry of the tear stoppers between panels and frame, the transmitted and reflected waves of the aluminum panels were significantly reduced. The response level of the graphite-epoxy structure was higher, but the noise transmitted was nearly equal to that of the aluminum structure. The fundamental shock mode is between 80 deg and 150 deg and the first harmonic is between 20 deg and 80 deg for the underexpanded supersonic jet impinging on the turbulent boundary layer influencing the structural response. The response of the graphite-epoxy structure due to the fundamental mode of the shock impingement was stabilized by an externally fixed oscillator.

  13. An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.

  14. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  15. Fracture analysis of multi-site cracking in fuselage lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional plane stress elastic fracture mechanics analysis of a cracked lap joint fastened by rigid pins is presented and results are applied to the problem of multi-site damage (MSD) in riveted lap joints of aircraft fuselage skins. Two problems are addressed, the problem of equal length MSD cracks and the problem of alternating length MSD cracks. For the problem of equal length cracks, two models of rivet/skin interactions are studied and the role of residual stresses due to the riveting process is explored. Stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of normalized crack length. Also, the load distribution among rivet rows and the compliance change of the joint due to MSD cracking are obtained. For the problem of alternating length cracks, attention is focussed on how load is distributed between columns of rivets and how this load shedding can alter crack tip stress intensity factors. The equal and alternating length crack analyses reveal no clear-cut mechanism to explain the relative uniformity of fatigue cracks emerging from lap joint rivet holes in actual aircraft and in mechanical lap joint tests.

  16. Integration of Mechanics and Acoustics in a Sandwich Fuselage. Part IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooren, M. J. L.; Krakers, L. A.; Beukers, A.

    2005-01-01

    Until now only the stiffened skin structural concept has been discussed. A different structural concept is the sandwich concept. Sandwiches consist out of layers. The outer layers are called facings and are generally thin and of high density. These facings are supposed to resist most of the edgewise loads and flat-wise bending moments. The inner layer is called the core and is generally rather thick and of low density. The task of the core is to separate and stabilize the two facings, transmit shear between the facings and provide most of the shear rigidity. For sandwich panels no stiffeners are needed. Therefore no mass will be lost in stiffeners resulting in a relative high value of mass per unit area of the skin which results in a better TL according to the mass law. Also the core can be made of a material with high insulation properties (acoustic and thermal). The number of discrete stiffeners can then be minimized, since they are only required at places where high concentrated forces have to be introduced (wing, landing gear, etc.) or diverted (from cut-outs). This can reduce the production and maintenance cost. So it can be concluded that the sandwich concept offers great potential for multidisciplinary fuselage design.

  17. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test predictions. This paper documents the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  18. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  19. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  20. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. LS-DYNA® was used to predict the thickness of the composite shield required to prevent blade penetration. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test LS-DYNA predictions. This paper documents the analysis conducted to predict the required thickness of a composite shield, the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.