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Sample records for aft fuselage assembly

  1. Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center with a lifting frame attached to the aft attach points of the orbiter. In this view, the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod is in place. Also note the darker-colored trapezoidal aft fuselage access door and the T-0 umbilical panel to its right in the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods removed. The openings for the SSMEs have been covered with a flexible barrier to create a positive pressure envelope inside of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center with the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems Pod removed and exposing the insulating foil used to protect the orbiter structure from the heat generated by the maneuvering and reaction control engines. Also note in the view that the aft fuselage access door has bee removed and also note the ground support equipment attached to the T-0 umbilical plate in the lower left of the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward showing Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) installed in positions one and three and an SSME on the process of being installed in position two. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery showing the network of supply, distribution and feed lines to deliver fuel, oxidizer and other vital gasses and fluids to the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery on the starboard side looking forward. This view is of the attach surface for the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System (OMS/RCS) Pod. The OMS/RCS pods are removed for processing and reconditioning at another facility. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the approximate centerline of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the expansion nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and the Orbiter Maneuvering System. Also in the view is the orbiter's body flap with a protective covering over the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles on the surface facing the SSMEs. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the left side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the right side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated together in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center and being prepared for mounting onto the Mobile Launch Platform and mating with the other Solid Rocket Booster segments. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the thrust structure that supports the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). In this view, SSME number two position is on the left and SSME number three position is on the right. The thrust structure transfers the forces produce by the engines into and through the airframe of the orbiter. The thrust structure includes the SSMEs load reaction truss structure, engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the plugged and capped orifices within the engine bays. Note that SSME position two is rotated ninety degrees from position three and one. This was needed to enable enough clearance for the engines to fit and gimbal. Note in engine bay three is a clear view of the actuators that control the gambling of that engine. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located aft of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    A 12-foot long Boeing 707 aft fuselage section with a tapering cross section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crash laods and to provide data for nonlinear finite element modeling. This was the final test in a series of three different transport fuselage sections tested under identical conditions. The test parameters at impact were: 20 ft/s velocity, and zero pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the test was an operational shock test of the data acquisition system used for the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a remotely piloted Boeing 720 that was crash tested at NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility on December 1, 1984. Post-test measurements of the crush showed that the front of the section (with larger diameter) crushed vertically approximately 14 inches while the rear crushed 18 inches. Analysis of the data traces indicate the maximum peak normal (vertical) accelerations at the bottom of the frames were approximately 109 G at body station 1040 and 64 G at body station 1120. The peak floor acceleration varied from 14 G near the wall to 25 G near the center where high frequency oscillations of the floor were evident. The peak anthropomorphic dummy pelvis normal (vertical) acceleration was 19 G's.

  15. Low-speed stability and control characteristics of a transport model with aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A limited experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to explore the effects of aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprop installations on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a representative transport aircraft in a landing configuration. In general, the experimental results indicate that the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics for the aft-fuselage-mounted single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation pusher propeller configurations tested during this investigation are acceptable aerodynamically. For the single-rotation tractor configuration, the propeller-induced aerodynamics are significantly influenced by the interaction of the propeller slipstream with the pylon and nacelle. The stability characteristics for the counter-rotation pusher configuration are strongly influenced by propeller normal forces. The longitudinal and directional control effectiveness, engine-out characteristics, and ground effects are also presented. In addition, a tabulated presentation of all aerodynamic data presented in this report is included as an appendix.

  16. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube) installed on certain Bell... installed during production or based on a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC). This AD requires...

  17. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft... helicopters as an approved Bell part installed during production or based on a Supplemental Type...

  18. Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up of the elevons and underside of the port wing. On the aft fuselage in the approximate center rift of the image is the T-0 umbilical panels. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine general aviation configuration with aft-fuselage-mounted pusher propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Dana Morris; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Applin, Zachary T.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop aircraft model with aft-pylon-mounted pusher propellers. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of -8 to 28 degrees, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -20 to 20 degrees at free-stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 0.55 to 2.14 x 10 to the 6th power based on mean aerodynamic chord. Test results show that for the unpowered configurations the maximum lift coefficients for the cruise, takeoff, and landing configurations are 1.45, 1.90, and 2.10, respectively. Nacelle installation results in a drag coefficient increase of 0.01. Increasing propeller thrust results in a significant increase in lift for angles of attack above stall and improves the longitudinal stability. The cruise configuration remains longitudinally stable to an angle of attack 5 degrees beyond the stall angle, the takeoff configuration is stable 4 degrees beyond stall angle, and the landing configuration is stable 3 degrees beyond stall angle. The predominant effect of symmetric thrust on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics is in the post-stall region, where additional rudder control is available with power on.

  20. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  1. View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carboncarbon nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery looking aft while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  3. Astronaut Eileen Collins in Full Fuselage Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, pilot for the STS-63 mission, participates in STS-63 training at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Collins is seated at the pilot's station in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) (48403-4); Collins looks out the aft flight deck window in the Shuttle mockup trainer (48405).

  4. View looking aft along the starboard side of the midfuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking aft along the starboard side of the mid-fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the wing profile as it intersects with the fuselage. Also note in the foreground the panels protecting the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon leading edge of the wing. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Multi-body aircraft with an all-movable center fuselage actively controlling fuselage pressure drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A multi-body aircraft with an all-movable center fuselage which translates relative to two side fuselages is described. At subsonic and transonic flight the center fuselage is in a forward position. At supersonic speeds the center fuselage moves aft so as to ensure optimum aerodynamic interference at particular Mach numbers. This provides an increased shock strength and greater surface areas so the significant reductions in zero-lift wave drag can be achieved. This concept allows for a significant increase in the wing aspect ratio which would improve high-lift performance at all speeds without incurring a significant supersonic zero-lift wave drag penalty. In addition to an improved low-fineness ratio, high-speed performance is achieved at all speeds and for all flight conditions.

  6. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note the vertical stabilizer protruding slightly from beyond the clear sheeting used to keep positive pressure in the mid-fuselage and payload bay area during servicing. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft fuselage bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. This image has a detailed portions of the Remote Manipulator System and the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System Pods. This photograph wa taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the mid fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view has a close-up view of the remote sensor boom and its retention mechanisms at its attach points to the starboard longeron. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Aerodynamics of the Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Multhopp, H.

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with a number of problems, particularly with the interaction of the fuselage with the wing and tail, on the basis of simple calculating method's derived from greatly idealized concepts. For the fuselage alone it affords, in variance with potential theory, a certain frictional lift in yawed flow, which, similar to the lift of a wing of small aspect ratio, is no longer linearly related to the angle of attack. Nevertheless there exists for this frictional lift something like a neutral stability point the position of which on oblong fuselages appears to be associated with the lift increase of the fuselage in proximity to the zero lift, according to the present experiments. The Pitching moments of the fuselage can be determined with comparatively great reliability so far as the flow conditions in the neighborhood of the axis of the fuselage can be approximated if the fuselage were absent, which, in general, is not very difficult. For the unstable contribution of the fuselage to the static longitudinal stability of the airplane it affords comparatively simple formulas, the evaluation of which offers little difficulty. On the engine nacelles there is, in addition a very substantial wing moment contribution induced by the nonuniform distribution of the transverse displacement flow of the nacelle along the wing chord; this also can be represented by a simple formula. A check on a large number of dissimilar aircraft types regarding the unstable fuselage and nacelle moments disclosed an agreement with the wind-tunnel tests, which should be sufficient for practical requirements. The errors remained throughout within the scope of instrumental accuracy.

  13. Pilot Fullerton sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communication kit assembly (assy) mini headset (HDST), sleeps on aft flight deck resting his back against the floor and his feet against Commanders ejection seat (S1) seat back. Onorbit Station control panel A8 and Payload Station panel L15 appear above Fullerton. Special clips for holding notebooks open and beverage containers are velcroed on various panels.

  14. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Corporation. DATES: This special condition published on April 20, 2010 at 75 FR 20518 is withdrawn, effective... model SF50 certification project was granted an extension on September 19, 2011. Amendment 23-62 (76 FR...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal...

  15. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  16. General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated with the Aft Skirt Assembly and External Tank Attach Ring in the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center and awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This detail is showing the four Aft Booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  19. Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery where the forward section meets the mid-fuselage. Note the head of the jack stand and its mechanism to connect to the one of the forward hoist attach points of the orbiter. Also note the support structure of the service platforms. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the large plugged and capped orifices. Note the handwritten references on the thrust plate in proximity to the actuators that read E3 Pitch and E3 Yaw. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Application of a design-build-team approach to low cost and weight composite fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Walker, T. H.; Willden, K. S.; Swanson, G. D.; Truslove, G.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between manufacturing costs and design details must be understood to promote the application of advanced composite technologies to transport fuselage structures. A team approach, integrating the disciplines responsible for aircraft structural design and manufacturing, was developed to perform cost and weight trade studies for a twenty-foot diameter aft fuselage section. Baseline composite design and manufacturing concepts were selected for large quadrant panels in crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage section. The associated technical issues were also identified. Detailed evaluation of crown panels indicated the potential for large weight savings and costs competitive with aluminum technology in the 1995 timeframe. Different processes and material forms were selected for the various elements that comprise the fuselage structure. Additional cost and weight savings potential was estimated for future advancements.

  4. Interior and exterior fuselage noise measured on NASA's C-8a augmentor wing jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise field was mapped by 11 microphones located internally and externally in three areas: mid-fuselage, aft fuselage, and on the flight deck. Noise levels were recorded at four power settings varying from takeoff to flight idle and were plotted in one-third octave band spectra. The overall sound pressure levels of the external noise field were compared to previous tests and found to correlate well with engine primary thrust levels. Fuselage values were 145 + or - 3 dB over the aircraft's normal STOL operating range.

  5. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  6. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  7. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  8. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the four Aft Booster Separation Motors on the left side of the skirt in this view. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  11. Evaluation of frame/skin bond strength and durability for advanced composite fuselage crown structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, R.; Awerbuch, J.; Wang, A.S.D.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental and analytical investigation was performed to characterize damage initiation and progression along the frame/skin interface of the aft crown panel fuselage section in a commercial aircraft. The effect of manufacturing procedures on damage initiation and failure processes was addressed by evaluating five different frame/skin assemblies. Crack initiation and progression as a function of applied load and the local failure events were monitored and recorded using a high magnification closed circuit television system. For selected specimens, acoustic emission was monitored, X-radiography was performed, and fracture surface morphologies were examined via the scanning electron microscope. In addition, a pilot program on the fatigue behavior of the frame/skin test. elements has been conducted. The Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the skin and braided materials were also determined using the double cantilever beam and the end notch flexure specimen configurations. A finite element code (VISOCRACK) was employed for simulating the types of failure observed experimentally and to predict failure initiation.

  12. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  13. Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, A.

    1987-09-15

    The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Rotorcraft Fuselage Flow Control Using Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Dustin; Thomas, Flint

    2012-11-01

    Active flow control, in the form of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators, is applied to a NASA ROBIN-mod7 generic rotorcraft fuselage model. The model is considered in what would be a typical cruise position i.e. a nose down position at α = -5° . This configuration gives rise to a massive 3-D flow separation over the aft ramp section of the fuselage, characterized by two counter-rotating, streamwise vortices. The control objective is to minimize these concentrated vortices by means of flush fuselage-mounted plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs), and consequently, reduce the form drag of the vehicle. Experiments were conducted at freestream Mach and Reynolds numbers of M∞ = 0 . 12 and ReL = 2 . 65 million, respectively. Aerodynamic loads under both natural and controlled conditions were acquired through use of an ATI Mini40 6-component force sensor. The pressure field on the ramp section was monitored by a 128 count static pressure array. Likewise, the flow field was captured by time-resolved PIV wake surveys. Results are compared with previous studies that utilized active flow control by way of pulsed jets or combustion actuators. This work is supported under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX10AM32G.

  15. Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Magliozzi, B.

    1984-01-01

    In earlier experimental and analytical studies, it was found that the boundary layer on an aircraft could provide significant shielding from propeller noise at typical transport airplane cruise Mach numbers. In this paper a new three-dimensional theory is described that treats the combined effects of refraction and scattering by the fuselage and boundary layer. The complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The model for the incident waves is a near-field frequency-domain propeller source theory developed previously for free field studies. Calculations for an advanced turboprop (Prop-Fan) model flight test at 0.8 Mach number show a much smaller than expected pressure amplification at the noise directivity peak, strong boundary layer shielding in the forward quadrant, and shadowing around the fuselage. Results are presented showing the difference between fuselage surface and free-space noise predictions as a function of frequency and Mach number. Comparison of calculated and measured effects obtained in a Prop-Fan model flight test show good agreement, particularly near and aft of the plane of rotation at high cruise Mach number.

  16. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft-tail configurations for 2 wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations were compared in tests on a general research model (generic fuselage without canopy, inlets, or vertical tails) at Mach 1.60 and 2.00 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two uncambered wing planforms (trapezoidal with 44 deg leading edge sweep and delta with 60 deg leading edge sweep) were tested for each configuration. The relative merits of the configurations were also determined theoretically, to evaluate the capabilities of a linear theory code for such analyses. The canard and aft tail configurations have similar measured values for lift curve slope, maximum lift drag ratio, and zero lift drag. The stability decrease as Mach number increases is greatest for the tailless configuration and least for the canard configuration. Because of very limited accuracy in predicting the aerodynamic parameter increments between configurations, the linear theory code is not adequate for determining the relative merits of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations.

  17. An oblique view of the forward fuselage and starboard side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An oblique view of the forward fuselage and starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. An oblique view of the forward fuselage and port side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An oblique view of the forward fuselage and port side of the Orbiter Discovery while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Composite Fuselage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagace, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Work was conducted over a ten-year period to address the central issue of damage in primary load-bearing aircraft composite structure, specifically fuselage structure. This included the three facets of damage resistance, damage tolerance, and damage arrest. Experimental, analytical, and numerical work was conducted in order to identify and better understand the mechanisms that control the structural behavior of fuselage structures in their response to the three aspects of damage. Furthermore, work was done to develop straightforward design methodologies that can be employed by structural designers in preliminary design stages to make intelligent choices concerning the material, layup, and structural configurations so that a more efficient structure with structural integrity can be designed and built. Considerable progress was made towards achieving these goals via this work. In regard to damage tolerance considerations, the following were identified as important effects: composite layup and associated orthotropy/structural anisotropy, specifics of initial local damage mechanisms, role of longitudinal versus hoop stress, and large deformation and associated geometric nonlinearity. Means were established to account for effects of radius and for the nonlinear response. In particular, nondimensional parameters were identified to characterize the importance of nonlinearity in the response of pressurized cylinders. This led to the establishment of a iso-nonlinear-error plot for reference in structural design. Finally, in the case of damage tolerance, the general approach of the original methodology to predict the failure pressure involving extending basic plate failure data by accounting for the local stress intensification was accomplished for the general case by accounting for the mechanisms noted by utilizing the capability of the STAGS finite element code and numerically calculating the local stress intensification for the particular configuration to be considered

  20. General view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. DETAIL OF AFT STABILIZER, SECOND LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF AFT STABILIZER, SECOND LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Pilot Fullerton reviews checklist on Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communication kit assembly (assy) mini headset, reviews checklist and looks at remote manipulator system (RMS) closed circuit television (CCTV) views displayed on CCTV monitors at Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station. Taken from the aft flight deck starboard side, Fullerton is seen in front of Panels A7 and A8 with remote manipulator syste (RMS) translation hand control (THC) and RMS rotation hand control (RHC) in the foreground and surrounded by University of Michigan (U of M) GO BLUE and United States Air Force - A Great Way of Life Decals.

  3. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the six Thrust Vector Control System access ports, three per hydraulic actuator. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. STS-33 MS Carter operates translation hand control (THC) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr operates translation hand control (THC) at the aft flight deck onorbit station while peering out overhead window W7. Carter's communications kit assembly headset microphone extends across his face.

  5. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  6. Helicopter anti-torque system using fuselage strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor); Wilson, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The improvement of the helicopter torque control system is discussed. At low to medium forward speeds helicopter performance is limited by the effectiveness of the means for counteracting main rotor torque and controlling sideslip airloads. These problems may be overcome by mounting strakes on the aft fuselage section. For single rotor helicopters whose main rotor rotates counter-clockwise as viewed from above, one of the strakes would be mounted in the upper lefthand quadrant and the second in the lower left hand quadrant. The strakes alter the air flow around the fuselage by separating the flow so as to produce lateral airloads on the tail boom which oppose main-rotor torque. The upper strake operates in a right crosswind to oppose main rotor torque, and the lower strake has effect in left crosswinds. The novelty of this invention resides in the simple and economical manner in which the helicopter tail boom may be modified by the addition of strakes in order to increase torque control, and reduce the need for supplemental mechanical means of torque control.

  7. Fuselage upwash effects on RSRA rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J.; Dadone, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of RSRA fuselage configurations on rotor performance and loads have been quantified analytically by means of currently available potential flow and rotor analysis. Four configurations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) were considered in this study. They were: (1) fuselage alone (conventional helicopter); (2) fuselage with auxiliary propulsion; (3) fuselage with wings (auxiliary lift); and (4) fuselage with both auxiliary lift propulsion. The rotor system investigated was identical to a CH-47D front rotor except that it had four instead of three blades. Two scaled-down versions of the same rotor were also analyzed to determine the effect of rotor scale on the fuselage upwash effects. The flight conditions considered for the upwash study are discussed. The potential flow models for the RSRA configuration, with and without the wings and the auxiliary propulsion system, are presented. The results of fuselage/wing/propulsion system upwash on performance and loads are also presented.

  8. Closeup view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being tested and prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view is showing the SRB Thrust Vector Control (TVC) System which includes independent auxiliary power units for each actuator to pressurize their respective hydraulic systems. When the Nozzle is mated with the Aft Skirt the two actuators, located on the left and right side of the TVC System in this view, can swivel it up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note that the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods and the Shuttle Main Engines are removed in this image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    shielding material is not used for dual purpose, and is only used for shielding, then the additional weight per aircraft is estimated to be 428 lb. This weight estimate is based upon a number of assumptions that would need to be revised when applying this concept to an actual airplane design. For example, the weight savings that will result when there is no fan blade containment system, manufacturing limitations which may increase the weight where variable thicknesses was assumed, engine placement on the wing versus aft fuselage, etc.

  11. An unsteady rotor/fuselage interaction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Lorber, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to treat unsteady helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage interaction aerodynamics. An existing lifting line/prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were modified to predict vibratory fuselage airloads. The analyses were coupled through the induced flow velocities of the rotor and wake on the fuselage and the fuselage on the rotor. A prescribed displacement technique was used to distort the rotor wake about the fuselage. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of wake and body geometry on the computed airloads. Predicted and measured mean and unsteady pressures on a cylindrical body in the wake of a two-bladed rotor were compared. Initial results show good qualitative agreement.

  12. An Integrated Fuselage-Sting Balance for a Sonic-Boom Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Measured and predicted pressure signatures from a lifting wind-tunnel model can be compared when the lift on the model is accurately known. The model's lift can be set by bending the support sting to a desired angle of attack. This method is simple in practice, but difficult to accurately apply. A second method is to build a normal force/pitching moment balance into the aft end of the sting, and use an angle-of-attack mechanism to set model attitude. In this report, a method for designing a sting/balance into the aft fuselage/sting of a sonic-boom model is described. A computer code is given, and a sample sting design is outlined to demonstrate the method.

  13. Sound Pressures and Correlations of Noise on the Fuselage of a Jet Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shattuck, Russell D.

    1961-01-01

    Tests were conducted at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 feet at speeds of Mach 0.4, 0.6, and O.8. It was found that the sound pressure levels on the aft fuselage of a jet aircraft in flight can be estimated using an equation involving the true airspeed and the free air density. The cross-correlation coefficient over a spacing of 2.5 feet was generalized with Strouhal number. The spectrum of the noise in flight is comparatively flat up to 10,000 cycles per second.

  14. Acoustic transmission through a fuselage sidewall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Scharton, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    A definition is given of an idealized fuselage sidewall structure and a simplified analytical model for determining acoustical transmission from the exterior to the interior of a fuselage was constructed. The representation of the sidewall structure chosen for the analytical model excludes complicating effects such as cabin pressurization, acoustic transmission through windows or door seal leaks, aerodynamic excitation, and structural vibration excitation of the fuselage skin.

  15. An unsteady helicopter rotor: Fuselage interaction analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. Alan

    1988-01-01

    A computational method was developed to treat unsteady aerodynamic interactions between a helicopter rotor, wake, and fuselage and between the main and tail rotors. An existing lifting line prescribed wake rotor analysis and a source panel fuselage analysis were coupled and modified to predict unsteady fuselage surface pressures and airloads. A prescribed displacement technique is used to position the rotor wake about the fuselage. Either a rigid blade or an aeroelastic blade analysis may be used to establish rotor operating conditions. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of the wake fuselage geometry on the computation. Results are presented that describe the induced velocities, pressures, and airloads on the fuselage and on the rotor. The ability to treat arbitrary geometries is demonstrated using a simulated helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with fuselage surface pressure measurements at several locations. No experimental data was available to validate the primary product of the analysis: the vibratory airloads on the entire fuselage. A main rotor-tail rotor interaction analysis is also described, along with some hover and forward flight.

  16. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  17. Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the Orbiter Discovery from an elevated platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the removed Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pod from the base of the vertical stabilizer the strongback ground-support equipment attached to the payload bay door. This view is also a good view of the leading edge and top surface of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of the underside of the forward fuselage of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the underside of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the nose landing-gear and into the landing-gear well. The vehicle is elevated and supported by jack stands attached to the hoist attach points and the rear External Tank attach points on the propellant disconnect plate assemblies. This photo was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Astronaut Eileen Collins in Full Fuselage Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, pilot for the STS-63 mission, participates in STS-63 training at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Collins is seated at the pilot's station in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT).

  20. Pilot Fullerton in ejection escape suit (EES) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communications kit assembly (ASSY) mini headset (HDST) and ejection escape suit (EES), holds flexible hose attached to his EES vent hose fitting and second hose for commanders EES while behind pilots ejection seat (S2) seat back on the aft flight deck. Forward flight deck control panels are visible in the background.

  1. View aft of compartment D23, aft steering station; note steering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View aft of compartment D-23, aft steering station; note steering unit with crosshead and shaft bearing supports. Note framing supports for armored protective deck at top of photo. (p60) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Fore-aft translation aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2012-06-01

    A general theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus makes it seem more neutral such that perception of subsequent stimuli is shifted in the opposite direction. The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is an extensively studied example of this. Although similar effects have been described in other sensory systems, it has not previously been described in the vestibular system. Velocity storage has been extensively studied in the vestibular system and suggests a persistence of perception in the direction of the initial movement. The current study sought to determine how motion perception is influenced by prior movement in darkness. Thirteen human subjects (mean age 41, range 21-68) underwent whole-body fore-aft translation. The threshold of vestibular motion discrimination perception was measured using a single interval (1I) of motion lasting 0.5 s in which subjects identified their direction of motion as forward or backward using an adaptive staircase. The translation aftereffect (TAE) was measured in 2-interval (2I) experiments: The adapting stimulus moved 15 cm in 1.5 s (peak velocity 20 cm/s, peak acceleration 42 cm/s(2)). After a fixed inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 3 s, a second stimulus lasting 0.5 s was delivered and the subject identified the perceived direction of the second test stimulus. The test stimulus was determined using an adaptive staircase. The ISI was constant within the block, but adapting stimuli directions were randomly interleaved. During the 1I condition, the response bias was near zero in all subjects. With a 2I stimulus, 8 of 13 subjects demonstrated a significant bias. At an ISI of 0.5 s, a minority of subjects demonstrated a bias in the same direction as the adapter. When the ISI was 1, 1.5, or 3 s, all subjects who demonstrated a significant TAE had one in the opposite direction of the adapter, similar to that seen for MAE. When averaged across subjects, the TAE was significant with ISIs of 1.0

  3. Finite Element Model Development and Validation for Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results. The increased frequency range results in a corresponding increase in the number of modes, modal density and spatial resolution requirements. In this study, conventional modal tests using accelerometers are complemented with Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Electro-Optic Holography measurements to further resolve the spatial response characteristics. Whenever possible, component and subassembly modal tests are used to validate the finite element models at lower levels of assembly. Normal mode predictions for different finite element representations of components and assemblies are compared with experimental results to assess the most accurate techniques for modeling aircraft fuselage type structures.

  4. Columbia: The first 5 flights entry heating data series. Volume 5: The side fuselage and payload bay door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the side fuselage and payload bay door, Z = 400 and 440 trace aft of X/L=0.2, for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented. The heating rate data are reviewed in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle of attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heatings rates and temperatures were obtained by the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are outlined.

  5. Effects of boundary layer refraction and fuselage scattering on fuselage surface noise from advanced turboprop propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.; Rawls, J. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic disturbance's propagation through a boundary layer is discussed with a view to the analysis of the acoustic field generated by a propfan rotor incident to the fuselage of an aircraft. Applying the parallel flow assumption, the resulting partial differential equations are reduced to an ordinary acoustic pressure differential equation by means of the Fourier transform. The methods used for the solution of this equation include those of Frobenius and of analytic continuation; both yield exact solutions in series form. Two models of the aircraft fuselage-boundary layer system are considered, in the first of which the fuselage is replaced by a flat plate and the acoustic field is assumed to be two-dimensional, while in the second the fuselage is a cylinder in a fully three-dimensional acoustic field. It is shown that the boundary layer correction improves theory-data comparisons over simple application of a pressure-doubling rule at the fuselage.

  6. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  7. 37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from just aft of forecastle bulkhead showing foremast, fore shrouds, pig house, midship house and boat skids. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Commander Lousma sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma, tethered to panel A12, sleeps on aft flight deck starboard side. Pilots ejection seat (S2) seat back with portable oxygen system (POS) assemby, Onorbit Station control panels, and Mission Station control panels surround Lousma. Window shade is in place in overhead window W7 just above his feet.

  10. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  11. In Pennsylvania Primary, AFT Hits the Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, 14 retired teachers and other school employees arrive at the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers' headquarters and go to work for Hillary Rodham Clinton. The retirees--working with volunteers and union staff members from as far away as Alaska--are working to inform teachers' union members why the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)…

  12. 6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR GALLEY STOVE CHIMNEY. DECKHOUSES ARE (FORE TO AFT) GALLEY COMPANIONWAY, ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT, PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY TO PILOTS' CABIN AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. Influence of fuselage on propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troller, Theodor

    1928-01-01

    In the present paper I shall not consider the problem of the best arrangement of airplane and propeller, but only a simple method for designing a propeller for a given arrangement of airplane parts. The inflow to the propeller and hence the efficiency of the propeller is affected most by the fuselage.

  14. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  15. Unsteady transonic potential flow over a flexible fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A flexible fuselage capability has been developed and implemented within version 1.2 of the CAP-TSD code. The capability required adding time dependent terms to the fuselage surface boundary conditions and the fuselage surface pressure coefficient. The new capability will allow modeling the effect of a flexible fuselage on the aeroelastic stability of complex configurations. To assess the flexible fuselage capability several steady and unsteady calculations have been performed for slender fuselages with circular cross-sections. Steady surface pressures are compared with experiment at transonic flight conditions. Unsteady cross-sectional lift is compared with other analytical results at a low subsonic speed and a transonic case has been computed. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the flexible fuselage modifications.

  16. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.

  17. STS-46 Commander Shriver eats candy (M and Ms) on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Commander Loren J. Shriver, wearing a communications kit assembly headset and with his mouth open, pursues several floating chocolate-covered peanut candies (M and Ms) on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Shriver is positioned in front of overhead window W7. Outside the window the cloud-covered surface of the Earth and the Earth's limb are visible.

  18. Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J. A.; Buttitta, C.

    1996-01-01

    Design development was successfully completed for textile preforms with continuous cross-stiffened epoxy panels with cut-outs. The preforms developed included 3-D angle interlock weaving of graphite structural fibers impregnated by resin film infiltration (RFI) and shown to be structurally suitable under conditions requiring minimum acquisition costs. Design guidelines/analysis methodology for such textile structures are given. The development was expanded to a fuselage side-panel component of a subsonic commercial airframe and found to be readily scalable. The successfully manufactured panel was delivered to NASA Langley for biaxial testing. This report covers the work performed under Task 3 -- Cross-Stiffened Subcomponent; Task 4 -- Design Guidelines/Analysis of Textile-Reinforced Composites; and Task 5 -- Integrally Woven Fuselage Panel.

  19. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 5: Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a

  20. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  1. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage: Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Hanson, C. T.; Walker, T. H.; Metschan, S. L.; Mabson, G. E.; Wilden, K. S.; Flynn, B. W.; Scholz, D. B.; Polland, D. R.; Fredrikson, H. G.; Olson, J. T.; Backman, B. F.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program has studied transport fuselage structure with a large potential reduction in the total direct operating costs for wide-body commercial transports. The baseline fuselage section was divided into four 'quadrants', crown, keel, and sides, gaining the manufacturing cost advantage possible with larger panels. Key processes found to have savings potential include (1) skins laminated by automatic fiber placement, (2) braided frames using resin transfer molding, and (3) panel bond technology that minimized mechanical fastening. The cost and weight of the baseline fuselage barrel was updated to complete Phase B of the program. An assessment of the former, which included labor, material, and tooling costs, was performed with the help of design cost models. Crown, keel, and side quadrant cost distributions illustrate the importance of panel design configuration, area, and other structural details. Composite sandwich panel designs were found to have the greatest cost savings potential for most quadrants. Key technical findings are summarized as an introduction to the other contractor reports documenting Phase A and B work completed in functional areas. The current program status in resolving critical technical issues is also highlighted.

  2. Structural analysis of Aircraft fuselage splice joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Prakash, R.; Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ramganesh, T.

    2016-09-01

    In Aviation sector, composite materials and its application to each component are one of the prime factors of consideration due to the high strength to weight ratio, design flexibility and non-corrosive so that the composite materials are widely used in the low weight constructions and also it can be treated as a suitable alternative to metals. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the suitability of a composite skin joint in an aircraft fuselage with different joints by simulating the displacement, normal stress, vonmises stress and shear stress with the help of numerical solution methods. The reference Z-stringer component of this paper is modeled by CATIA and numerical simulation is carried out by ANSYS has been used for splice joint presents in the aircraft fuselage with three combinations of joints such as riveted joint, bonded joint and hybrid joint. Nowadays the stringers are using to avoid buckling of fuselage skin, it has joined together by rivets and they are connected end to end by splice joint. Design and static analysis of three-dimensional models of joints such as bonded, riveted and hybrid are carried out and results are compared.

  3. Drag of Exposed Fittings and Surface Irregularities on Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1928-01-01

    Measurements of drag were made on fittings taken from a typical fuselage to determine whether the difference between the observed full size fuselage drag and model fuselage drag could be attributed to the effects of fittings and surface irregularities found on the full size fuselage and not on the model. There are wide variations in the drag coefficients for the different fittings. In general those which protrude little from the surface or are well streamlined show very low and almost negligible drag. The measurements show, however, that a large part of the difference between model and full scale test results may be attributed to these fittings.

  4. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  5. Advanced fiber placement of composite fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Grant, Carroll G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hercules/NASA Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program will demonstrate the low cost potential of the automated fiber placement process. The Hercules fiber placement machine was developed for cost effective production of composite aircraft structures. The process uses a low cost prepreg tow material form and achieves equivalent laminate properties to structures fabricated with prepreg tape layup. Fiber placement demonstrations planned for the Hercules/NASA program include fabrication of stiffened test panels which represent crown, keel, and window belt segments of a typical transport aircraft fuselage.

  6. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

  7. 23. HANGAR BAY #3 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. HANGAR BAY #3 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFT ELEVATOR DOORS AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFT JACKET STORAGE BIN AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. The NEA and AFT: Teacher Unions in Power and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron; And Others

    This book describes the structure, operations, and influences of teacher unions, especially the National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). There is a belief that an NEA/AFT merger will take place in the 1990s, and that the emergence of strong teacher unions is an important development in education, the…

  9. Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. 36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and Co. of Baltimore) and steering gear box taken from on top of Aft Cabin. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  11. 7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT. ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT IS AT EXTREME LEFT, FOLLOWED BY PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  12. VIEW OF BOEING 737200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOEING 737-200 FUSELAGE FROM TOP LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK AND. A NEW SAFETY CABLE FROM THE TAIL DOCK WILL ALLOW INSPECTORS TO WALK UP AND DOWN THE FUSELAGE TO CHECK FOR CRACKS OR MISSING FASTENERS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Transport composite fuselage technology: Impact dynamics and acoustic transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Balena, F. J.; Labarge, W. L.; Pei, G.; Pitman, W. A.; Wittlin, G.

    1986-01-01

    A program was performed to develop and demonstrate the impact dynamics and acoustic transmission technology for a composite fuselage which meets the design requirements of a 1990 large transport aircraft without substantial weight and cost penalties. The program developed the analytical methodology for the prediction of acoustic transmission behavior of advanced composite stiffened shell structures. The methodology predicted that the interior noise level in a composite fuselage due to turbulent boundary layer will be less than in a comparable aluminum fuselage. The verification of these analyses will be performed by NASA Langley Research Center using a composite fuselage shell fabricated by filament winding. The program also developed analytical methodology for the prediction of the impact dynamics behavior of lower fuselage structure constructed with composite materials. Development tests were performed to demonstrate that the composite structure designed to the same operating load requirement can have at least the same energy absorption capability as aluminum structure.

  14. AFT-QuEST Consortium Yearbook. Proceedings of the AFT-QuEST Consortium (April 22-26, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document is a report on the proceedings of the 1973 American Federation of Teachers-Quality Educational Standards in Teaching (AFT-QuEST) consortium sponsored by the AFT. Included in this document are the texts of speeches and outlines of workshops and iscussions. The document is divided into the following sections: goals, major proposals,…

  15. Application of Carbon Fibre Truss Technology to the Fuselage Structure of the SKYLON Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varvill, R.; Bond, A.

    A reusable SSTO spaceplane employing dual mode airbreathing/rocket engines, such as SKYLON, has a voluminous fuselage in order to accommodate the considerable quantities of hydrogen fuel needed for the ascent. The loading intensity which this fuselage has to withstand is relatively low due to the modest in-flight inertial accelerations coupled with the very low density of liquid hydrogen. Also the requirement to accommo- date considerable temperature differentials between the internal cryogenic tankage and the aerodynamically heated outer skin of the vehicle imposes an additional design constraint that results in an optimum fuselage structural concept very different to conventional aircraft or rocket practice. Several different structural con- cepts exist for the primary loadbearing structure. This paper explores the design possibilities of the various types and explains why an independent near ambient temperature CFRP truss structure was selected for the SKYLON vehicle. The construction of such a truss structure, at a scale not witnessed since the days of the airship, poses a number of manufacturing and design difficulties. In particular the construction of the nodes and their attachment to the struts is considered to be a key issue. This paper describes the current design status of the overall truss geometry, strut construction and manufacturing route, and the final method of assembly. The results of a preliminary strut and node test programme are presented which give confidence that the design targets will eventually be met.

  16. Recommendations for numerical solution of reinforced-panel and fuselage-ring problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A

    1949-01-01

    Procedures are recommended for solving the equations of equilibrium of reinforced panels and isolated fuselage rings as represented by the external loads and the operations table established according to Southwell's method. From the solution of these equations the stress distribution can be easily determined. The method of systematic relaxations, the matrix-calculus method, and several other methods applicable in special cases are discussed. Definite recommendations are made for obtaining the solution of reinforced-panel problems which are generally designated as shear lag problems. The procedures recommended are demonstrated in the analysis of a number of panels. In the case of fuselage rings it is not possible to make definite recommendations for the solution of the equilibrium equations for all rings and loadings. However, suggestions based on the latest experience are made and demonstrated on several rings.

  17. Design-Oriented Analysis of Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    A design-oriented analysis capability for aircraft fuselage structures that utilizes equivalent plate methodology is described. This new capability is implemented as an addition to the existing wing analysis procedure in the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) computer code. The wing and fuselage analyses are combined to model entire airframes. The paper focuses on the fuselage model definition, the associated analytical formulation and the approach used to couple the wing and fuselage analyses. The modeling approach used to minimize the amount of preparation of input data by the user and to facilitate the making of design changes is described. The fuselage analysis is based on ring and shell equations but the procedure is formulated to be analogous to that used for plates in order to take advantage of the existing code in ELAPS. Connector springs are used to couple the wing and fuselage models. Typical fuselage analysis results are presented for two analytical models. Results for a ring-stiffened cylinder model are compared with results from conventional finite-element analyses to assess the accuracy of this new analysis capability. The connection of plate and ring segments is demonstrated using a second model that is representative of the wing structure for a channel-wing aircraft configuration.

  18. Aircraft system aft telescope cavity configuration study for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The SOFIA Aircraft System (AS) Phase 1 Study was a broad-based study which addressed itself to satisfying technical and programmatic requirements by drawing from existing technology and applying cost-efficient commercial approaches to the aircraft modification. In this SOFIA AS Phase 2 Study, five critical areas of the aircraft were selected for more detailed investigation: forward pressure bulkhead, aft bulkhead, 'free' shell to bulkhead interface, shell cut-out to bulkhead interface, and flooring. The in-depth investigation of these areas upon a finite element model (FEM), with a fine grid model in areas of particular interest, is discussed. The FEM code used is called 'STRAP' and was developed by the engineering firm, Rasmussen and Associates. STRAP is NASTRAN compatible to within 1%. The loads applied to the model were approximated from known 747 envelope conditions. The areas of investigation, and a section through the fuselage is shown. The thrust of this investigation was to develop the design concepts conceived under phase 1 to the point where detailed design could be undertaken with a high level of confidence.

  19. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a significant percentage of both the weight and the cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and the cost of transport fuselage structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted for transport aircraft. The behavior of these important primary structures must be understood, and the structural mechanics methodology for analyzing and designing these complex stiffened shell structures must be validated in the laboratory. The effects of local gradients and discontinuities on fuselage shell behavior and the effects of local damage on pressure containment must be thoroughly understood before composite fuselage structures can be used for commercial aircraft. This paper describes the research being conducted and planned at NASA LaRC to help understand the critical behavior or composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested at Langley to study critical fuselage shell behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient-producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full-scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells. Failure mechanisms are being identified and advanced designs will be developed based on what is learned from early results from

  20. Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, David D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.

  1. STS-45 MS and PLC Sullivan explains camera usage on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan, holding communications kit assembly unit and 70mm HASSELBLAD camera, explains camera usage and Earth observation procedures during a television downlink to the ground. Sullivan is on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Behind Sullivan are the onorbit station control panels with the payload station control panels at her left. The STS-45 crew put together a brief video 'tour' program to explain some of their inflight operations.

  2. Astronaut Claude Nicollier at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Swiss Astronaut Claude Nicollier is pictured at the aft flight deck station he occupies. Among Nicollier 's responsibilities were the control of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) during operations with the Hubble Space Telesocpe (HST).

  3. 35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH CATERPILLAR DIESELS AND ONE GENERATOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. 91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. CANVAS AND FABRIC WORKSHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING WOOD WORKTABLE AND HEAVY DUTY SINGER SEWING MACHINE SERIAL #4329. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING COFFEE MAKER, ICE CREAM FREEZER, TABLES AND SCUTTLEBUTTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. 71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING COFFEE MESS, ICE CREAM COOLER, ICE MACHINE AND SCUTTLEBUTT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  9. 43. Detail of watertight door in lower hold on aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Detail of water-tight door in lower hold on aft side of bulkhead between ship's caboose and lazarette. This bulkhead is of welded construction, installed late in the vessel's career. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  10. 28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT STERN Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  14. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 80. STARBOARD CATAPULT FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. STARBOARD CATAPULT - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, RAILS, RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN OVERHEAD, VARIOUS HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH SHOCK BENDS AND EXPANSION JOINT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 90. STARBOARD CATAPULT AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. STARBOARD CATAPULT - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING CROSSHEAD, RAILS, RAM CYLINDER, RAM (ON DECK) AND RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN THE OVERHEAD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. Astronaut John Fabian show off signs on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut John Fabian, payload specialist, show off a series of signs on the aft flight deck of Discovery, from whose payload bay three communications satellites were deployed. The sign reads 'We deliver and deliver and deliver...'

  18. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING VARIOUS TYPES OF RADAR UNITS, PLOT TABLES AND PLOTTING BOARDS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  1. 8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ENGINE CONTROL PANEL, STEERING GEAR BOX, AND CAVEL BITTS - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  2. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. 89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. Commander Mattingly tangles with NOSL experiment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly uses Nighttime / Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment on aft flight deck. Cables connecting the data recorder to 16mm data aquisition camera (DAC), electronic package, and optical sensor package become tangled as Mattingly points NOSL instrument out overhead aft flight deck window. His cap is also lost amidst the maze of wiring, tape recorder, and camera equipment onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  5. Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles: Differences in Experimental Embodiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2014-01-01

    Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

  6. Design considerations for composite fuselage structure of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. W.; Sakata, I. F.

    1981-01-01

    The structural, manufacturing, and service and environmental considerations that could impact the design of composite fuselage structure for commercial transport aircraft application were explored. The severity of these considerations was assessed and the principal design drivers delineated. Technical issues and potential problem areas which must be resolved before sufficient confidence is established to commit to composite materials were defined. The key issues considered are: definition of composite fuselage design specifications, damage tolerance, and crashworthiness.

  7. Al-Li Alloy 1441 for Fuselage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. K.; Dicus, D. L.; Fridlyander, J. N.; Sandler, V. S.

    2000-01-01

    A cooperative investigation was conducted to evaluate Al-Cu-Mg-Li alloy 1441 for long service life fuselage applications. Alloy 1441 is currently being used for fuselage applications on the Russian Be-103 amphibious aircraft, and is expected to be used for fuselage skin on a new Tupolev business class aircraft. Alloy 1441 is cold-rollable and has several attributes that make it attractive for fuselage skin applications. These attributes include lower density and higher specific modulus with similar strength as compared to conventional Al-Cu-Mg alloys. Cold-rolled 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens were tested at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and at the All-Russia Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM) in Russia to evaluate tensile properties, fracture toughness, impact resistance, fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate. In addition, fuselage panels were fabricated by Tupolev Design Bureau (TDB) using 1441 skins and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy stiffeners. The panels were subjected to cyclic pressurization fatigue tests at TDB and at LaRC to simulate fuselage pressurization/depressurization during aircraft service. This paper discusses the results from this investigation.

  8. Rotor-Fuselage Interaction: Analysis and Validation with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; Bettschart, Nicolas

    1997-01-01

    The problem of rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction has to be considered in industry applications from various aspects. First, in order to increase helicopter speed and reduce operational costs, rotorcraft tend to be more and more compact, with a main rotor closer to the fuselage surface. This creates significant perturbations both on the main rotor and on the fuselage, including steady and unsteady effects due to blade and wake passage and perturbed inflow at the rotor disk. Furthermore,the main rotor wake affects the tail boom, empennage and anti-torque system. This has important consequences for helicopter control and vibrations at low speeds and also on tail rotor acoustics (main rotor wake-tail rotor interactions). This report describes the US Army-France MOD cooperative work on this problem from both the theoretical and experimental aspects. Using experimental 3D velocity field and fuselage surface pressure measurements, three codes that model the interactions of a helicopter rotor with a fuselage are compared. These comparisons demonstrate some of the strengths and weaknesses of current models for the combined rotor-fuselage analysis.

  9. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives were to create a capability to simulate curvilinear crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage and to validate with tests. Analysis methodology and software program (FRANC3D/STAGS) developed herein allows engineers to maintain aging aircraft economically, while insuring continuous airworthiness, and to design more damage-tolerant aircraft for the next generation. Simulations of crack growth in fuselages were described. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained from laboratory tests, was used to predict fracture behavior of fuselage panel tests. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element crack growth analyses were conducted. Comparisons of stress distributions, multiple stable crack growth history, and residual strength between measured and predicted results were made to assess the validity of the methodology. Incorporation of residual plastic deformations and tear strap failure was essential for accurate residual strength predictions. Issue related to predicting crack trajectory in fuselages were also discussed. A directional criterion, including T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy, was developed. Curvilinear crack growth was simulated in coupon and fuselage panel tests. Both T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy were essential to predict the observed crack paths. Flapping of fuselages were predicted. Measured and predicted results agreed reasonable well.

  10. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage-Structural Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Minguet, P. J.; Flynn, B. W.; Carbery, D. J.; Swanson, G. D.; Ilcewicz, L. B.

    1997-01-01

    Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC). This report addresses the program activities related to structural performance of the selected concepts, including both the design development and subsequent detailed evaluation. Design criteria were developed to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and typical company objectives. Accurate analysis methods were selected and/or developed where practical, and conservative approaches were used where significant approximations were necessary. Design sizing activities supported subsequent development by providing representative design configurations for structural evaluation and by identifying the critical performance issues. Significant program efforts were directed towards assessing structural performance predictive capability. The structural database collected to perform this assessment was intimately linked to the manufacturing scale-up activities to ensure inclusion of manufacturing-induced performance traits. Mechanical tests were conducted to support the development and critical evaluation of analysis methods addressing internal loads, stability, ultimate strength, attachment and splice strength, and damage tolerance. Unresolved aspects of these performance issues were identified as part of the assessments, providing direction for future development.

  11. Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, B.; Carr, D.; Mccorkle, T.; Stevens, C.; Turner, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the 'Viper' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed. The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well. In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components. Table 1.0 lists the resulting margins of safety for these key components, along with the types of the loads involved, and the page number upon which they are discussed.

  12. Fuselage ventilation due to wind flow about a postcrash aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Postcrash aircraft fuselage fire development, dependent on the internal and external fluid dynamics is discussed. The natural ventilation rate, a major factor in the internal flow patterns and fire development is reviewed. The flow about the fuselage as affected by the wind and external fire is studied. An analysis was performend which estimated the rates of ventilation produced by the wind for a limited idealized environmental configuration. The simulation utilizes the empirical pressure coefficient distribution of an infinite circular cylinder near a wall with its boundary later flow to represent the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting maximum ventilation rate for two door size openings, with varying circumferential location in a common 10 mph wind was an order of magnitude greater than the forced ventilation specified in full scale fire testing. The parameter discussed are: (1) fuselage size and shape, (2) fuselage orientation and proximity to the ground, (3) fuselage-openings size and location, (4) wind speed and direction, and (5) induced flow of the external fire plume is recommended. The fire testing should be conducted to a maximum ventilation rate at least an order of magnitude greater than the inflight air conditioning rates.

  13. Design Optimisation of Liquid Stage Aft Bays for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persianoff, Richard; Hoerig, Christina; Finkler, Oliver; Barbier, Ivan; Comtesse, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Aft bay structures represent an essential component in the design of launchers. Booster and main engine thrusts generate high stress levels, which must be distributed equally over the circumference of the load carrying structure. Liquid first stages are especially complex due to the presence of additional fluids equipment, such as ground/board interfaces for filling and draining, pressurisation lines or engine feeding lines. The usage of cryogenics imposes thermal constraints, which can then further increase the complexity of the structure. The challenge of a first stage aft bay is to handle this complexity with an affordable solution while at the same time optimising mass performance and operations at stage and launcher level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the recent developments of aft bay designs for the preliminary investigation of new LH2/LO2 liquid first stages at Astrium Space Transportation.

  14. Flashback resistant pre-mixer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R.; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2012-02-14

    A pre-mixer assembly associated with a fuel supply system for mixing of air and fuel upstream from a main combustion zone in a gas turbine engine. The pre-mixer assembly includes a swirler assembly disposed about a fuel injector of the fuel supply system and a pre-mixer transition member. The swirler assembly includes a forward end defining an air inlet and an opposed aft end. The pre-mixer transition member has a forward end affixed to the aft end of the swirler assembly and an opposed aft end defining an outlet of the pre-mixer assembly. The aft end of the pre-mixer transition member is spaced from a base plate such that a gap is formed between the aft end of the pre-mixer transition member and the base plate for permitting a flow of purge air therethrough to increase a velocity of the air/fuel mixture exiting the pre-mixer assembly.

  15. Global Cost and Weight Evaluation of Fuselage Side Panel Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polland, D. R.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hafenrichter, J. L.; Hanson, C. T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Metschan, S. L.; Scholz, D. B.; Smith, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents preliminary design trades conducted under NASA contracts NAS1 18889 (Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, ATCAS) and NAS1-19349 (Task 3, Pathfinder Shell Design) for a subsonic wide body commercial aircraft fuselage side panel section utilizing composite materials. Included in this effort were (1) development of two complete design concepts, (2) generation of cost and weight estimates, (3) identification of technical issues and potential design enhancements, and (4) selection of a single design to be further developed. The first design concept featured an open-section stringer stiffened skin configuration while the second was based on honeycomb core sandwich construction. The trade study cost and weight results were generated from comprehensive assessment of each structural component comprising the fuselage side panel section from detail fabrication through airplane final assembly. Results were obtained in three phases: (1) for the baseline designs, (2) after global optimization of the designs, and (3) the results anticipated after detailed design optimization. A critical assessment of both designs was performed to determine the risk associated with each concept, that is the relative probability of achieving the cost and weight projections. Seven critical technical issues were identified as the first step towards side panel detailed design optimization.

  16. VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH FROM THE AFT (FANTAIL) SECTION OF THE MEMORIAL, LOOKING FORWARD TOWARD THE STACK AND BOW SECTIONS - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 109. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SHAFT HORSEPOWER 19,800, RPM 4301, STEAM PRESSURE 371/2 LB.G., SERIAL #I-A-9636-14. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 108. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD SHOWING #1 REDUCTION GEAR BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SERIAL # 1-A-9638-13 WITH A REDUCTION OF HIGH PRESSURE 20,908 AND LOW PRESSURE 16,226. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 100. COBBLER SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD VISIBLE ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. COBBLER SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - VISIBLE ARE THE FINISHING MACHINE, DAVIS STITCHING MACHINE, SINGER SEWING MACHINE FROM TAILOR SHOP, STORAGE SHELVES, WORK BENCH AND SHOE TREE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

  1. Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette on right of photograph, original wood ladder to main deck, heating system radiator on left and officer's stateroom doors. (088) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 34. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT AT FRAMING OF VESSEL, (CURVED VERTICAL FRAMING, HORIZONTAL FRAMING, AND CEILING FRAMING). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the mizzenmast. Cans in foreground store Fluid Film, used to protect structural steel below waterline from oxidation. Sails stored on shelving in background have since been moved to Museum Storage. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 21. HANGAR BAY #2 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. HANGAR BAY #2 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING THREE (3) DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, UPTAKE SPACE AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION - PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS AND HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 18. HANGAR BAY #1 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HANGAR BAY #1 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING DECK WINCHES AND FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR. PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 20. HANGAR BAY #2 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANGAR BAY #2 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING CONFLAGRATION STATION, UPTAKE SPACE AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES - PORT SIDE SHOWING VARIOUS DECK WINCHES, ROLLER DOORS, HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM HOSE REELS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. 24. HANGAR BAY #3 FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. HANGAR BAY #3 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING LADDERWAY TO THE GALLERY DECK, OVERHEAD RAILWAYS FOR ELECTRIC HOISTS, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, HATCHES LEADING TO THE FANTAIL AND METAL SHOP WITH VARIOUS BOOMS AND ANTENNA SUPPORTS ON DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 19. HANGAR BAY #1 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. HANGAR BAY #1 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE AND OFFICERS' QUARTER DECK - PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  10. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste water overflow pipe appears at left, behind which is bilge pump. At base of hot well on either side are reciprocating boiler feedwater pumps driven from hot well crosshead. (Labels were applied by HAER recording team and are not original to equipment.) - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  13. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. 18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S CABIN. THE AFTER BULKHEAD OF THE ENGINE ROOM WAS REMOVED WHEN THE ENGINE WAS SALVAGED. ENGINE BED AND GEARBOX ARE REMNANTS OF THE ENGINE INSTALLATION. CABLES AND CHAINS ARE IN PLACE TO HELP STABILIZE THE HULL AND TRANSOM. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  16. 34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON PORT SIDE SHOWING FLIGHT DECK LIGHTING BOARD, ARRESTING GEAR CONTROL CONSOLE AND FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. DETAIL OF WATERTIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER-TIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE OF BULKHEAD BETWEEN SHIP’S CABOOSE AND LAZARETTE. THIS BULKHEAD IS OF WELDED CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLED LATE IN THE VESSEL’S CAREER. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. 25. HANGAR BAY #3 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HANGAR BAY #3 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFTER BROW, ELEVATOR DOORS, FOG FOAM STATION #7, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFE JACKET BIN #16, PARTS STOREROOM, HATCH AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  2. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. 23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE FIRE AND BILGE PUMP (LEFT BACKGROUND), BALLAST PUMP, AND CARGO OIL PUMP. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. TORPEDO WORK SHOP - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING TORPEDO ELEVATOR, HIGH PRESSURE AIR REDUCING STATION, SCUTTLEBUTT, TORPEDO AFTERBODY WORKSHOP, OVERHEAD CHAIN MOIST AND RAIL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD SPRINKLER SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. 34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR PAWL BITT Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  8. 13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, SHOWING BUNKS, CABIN SKYLIGHT, WOOD STOVE (WITHOUT CHIMNEY PIPE) LADDERWAY, AND OPEN DOOR IN STERN BULKHEAD, GIVING ACCESS TO INTERIOR OF COUNTER - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  9. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND STERNPOST KNEE (ON WHICH STICK RULE IS LYING). FRESH WATER TANKS APPEAR TO EITHER SIDE OF STERNPOST; SMALL TANK SUSPENDED FROM DECK IN CENTER OF VIEW IS AN AIR RESERVOIR FOR ENGINES' PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  10. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  11. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  12. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear, and... accelerated flight and landing conditions, including engine torque. (Secs. 604, 605, 72 Stat. 778, 49...

  13. Numerical Investigation of Rotorcraft Fuselage Drag Reduction Using Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of unsteady zero-net-mass-flux jets for fuselage drag reduction was evaluated numerically on a generic rotorcraft fuselage in forward flight with a rotor. Previous efforts have shown significant fuselage drag reduction using flow control for an isolated fuselage by experiment and numerical simulation. This work will evaluate a flow control strategy, that was originally developed on an isolated fuselage, in a more relevant environment that includes the effects of a rotor. Evaluation of different slot heights and jet velocity ratios were performed. Direct comparisons between an isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage simulations were made showing similar flow control performance at a -3deg fuselage angle-of-attack condition. However, this was not the case for a -5deg angle-of-attack condition where the performance between the isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage were different. The fuselage flow control resulted in a 17% drag reduction for a peak C(sub mu) of 0.0069 in a forward flight simulation where mu = 0:35 and CT/sigma = 0:08. The CFD flow control results also predicted a favorable 22% reduction of the fuselage download at this same condition, which can have beneficial compounding effects on the overall performance of the vehicle. This numerical investigation was performed in order to provide guidance for a future 1/3 scale wind tunnel experiment to be performed at the NASA 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel.

  14. 14 CFR 27.549 - Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. 27.549 Section 27.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 27.549 Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures. (a) Each fuselage, landing gear,...

  15. STS-76 liftoff - aft end of shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The chase to catch up with the Russian Space Station Mir gets under way with an on-time liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles skyward from Launch Pad 39B at 3:13:04 a.m. EST, March 22. On board for Mission STS-76 -- also the 76th Shuttle flight - - are a crew of six: Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton; Pilot Richard A. Searfoss; Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega; and Mission Specialists Michael Richard 'Rich' Clifford, Linda M. Godwin, and Shannon W. Lucid. During the course of the planned nine-day flight, Atlantis will rendezvous and dock with Mir for athe third time. Lucid will transfer to the station for an approximately four-and-a-half month stay, becoming the first American woman to live on Mir. In addition, Godwin and Clifford will perform an extravehicular activity later in the mission, the first around the mated Atlantis-Mir assembly.

  16. [A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

  17. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Fuselage structure using advanced technology fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. K.; Tomlinson, H. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fuselage structure is described in which the skin is comprised of layers of a matrix fiber reinforced composite, with the stringers reinforced with the same composite material. The high strength to weight ratio of the composite, particularly at elevated temperatures, and its high modulus of elasticity, makes it desirable for use in airplane structures.

  20. RWF rotor-wake-fuselage code software reference guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The RWF (Rotor-Wake-Fuselage) code was developed from first principles to compute the aerodynamics associated with the complex flow field of helicopter configurations. The code is sized for a single, multi-bladed main rotor and any configuration of non-lifting fuselage. The mathematical model for the RWF code is based on the integration of the momentum equations and Green's theorem. The unknowns in the problem are the strengths of prescribed singularity distributions on the boundaries of the flow. For the body (fuselage) a surface of constant strength source panels is used. For the rotor blades and rotor wake a surface of constant strength doublet panels is used. The mean camber line of the rotor airfoil is partitioned into surface panels. The no-flow boundary condition at the panel centroids is modified at each azimuthal step to account for rotor blade cyclic pitch variation. The geometry of the rotor wake is computers at each time step of the solution. The code produces rotor and fuselage surface pressures, as well as the complex geometry of the evolving rotor wake.

  1. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  2. Astronaut Susan Helms on aft flight deck with RMS controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck, astronaut Susan J. Helms handles controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The robot arm operated by Helms, who remained inside the cabin, was used to support task such as the release and retrieval of the free-flying Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) - 201, a six-hour space walk and the Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX).

  3. 26. Port side of engine room looking forward from aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Port side of engine room looking forward from aft bulkhead. This area contains mostly electrical equipment. Two single-cylinder steam-driven dynamos are located near the engine bed, one at right foreground, the other in background. At left in image are a motor-generator set installed to convert DC current (from dynamos) to AC current. Edge-on view of control panel appears near center of image. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  4. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  5. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  6. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft crew compartment bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. Showing the airlock, the beam-truss attach structure supporting it and its attach points to the payload bay sill longerons. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  8. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  9. Computing induced velocity perturbations due to a helicopter fuselage in a free stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; Althoff, Susan L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity field of a representative helicopter fuselage in a free stream is computed. Perturbation velocities due to the fuselage are computed in a plan above the location of the helicopter rotor (rotor removed). The velocity perturbations computed by a source-panel model of the fuselage are compared with experimental measurements taken with a laser velocimeter. Three paneled fuselage models are studied: fuselage shape, fuselage shape with hub shape, and a body of revolution. The velocity perturbations computed for both fuselage shape models agree well with the measured velocity field except in the close vicinity of the rotor hub. In the hub region, without knowing the extent of separation, modeling of the effective source shape is difficult. The effects of the fuselage perturbations are not well-predicted with a simplified ellipsoid fuselage. The velocity perturbations due to the fuselage at the plane of the measurements have magnitudes of less than 8 percent of free-stream velocity. The velocity perturbations computed by the panel method are tabulated for the same locations at which previously reported rotor-inflow velocity measurements were made.

  10. National Aerospace Plane Integrated Fuselage/Cryotank Risk Reduction program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, K. E.

    1993-06-01

    The principal objectives and results of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Integrated Risk Reduction program are briefly reviewed. The program demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight advanced composite materials for single-stage-to-orbit hypersonic flight vehicle applications. A series of combined load simulation tests (thermal, mechanical, and cryogenic) demonstrated proof of concept performance for an all unlined composite cryogenic fuel tank with flat end bulkheads and a high-temperature thin-shell advanced composite fuselage. Temperatures of the fuselage were as high as 1300 F, with 100 percent bending and shear loads applied to the tank while filled with 850 gallons of cryogenic fluid hydrogen (-425 F). Leak rates measured on and around the cryotank shell and bulkheads were well below acceptable levels.

  11. Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boppe, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.

  12. Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

  13. Design of fuselage shapes for natural laminar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodbele, S. S.; Vandam, C. P.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.

    1986-03-01

    Recent technological advances in airplane construction techniques and materials allow for the production of aerodynamic surfaces without significant waviness and roughness, permitting long runs of natural laminar flow (NLF). The present research effort seeks to refine and validate computational design tools for use in the design of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric natural-laminar-flow bodies. The principal task of the investigation involves fuselage body shaping using a computational design procedure. Analytical methods were refined and exploratory calculations conducted to predict laminar boundary-layer on selected body shapes. Using a low-order surface-singularity aerodynamic analysis program, pressure distribution, boundary-layer development, transition location and drag coefficient have been obtained for a number of body shapes including a representative business-aircraft fuselage. Extensive runs of laminar flow were predicted in regions of favorable pressure gradient on smooth body surfaces. A computational design procedure was developed to obtain a body shape with minimum drag having large extent of NLF.

  14. Design and analysis of a stiffened composite fuselage panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, J. N.; Biggers, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design and analysis of stiffened composite panel that is representative of the fuselage structure of existing wide bodied aircraft is discussed. The panel is a minimum weight design, based on the current level of technology and realistic loads and criteria. Several different stiffener configurations were investigated in the optimization process. The final configuration is an all graphite/epoxy J-stiffened design in which the skin between adjacent stiffeners is permitted to buckle under design loads. Fail safe concepts typically employed in metallic fuselage structure have been incorporated in the design. A conservative approach has been used with regard to structural details such as skin/frame and stringer/frame attachments and other areas where sufficient design data was not available.

  15. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  16. A Computational Model for Rotor-Fuselage Interactional Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Gorton, Susan Althoff

    2000-01-01

    A novel unsteady rotor-fuselage interactional aerodynamics model has been developed. This model loosely couples a Generalized Dynamic Wake Theory (GDWT) to a thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure. This coupling is achieved using an unsteady pressure jump boundary condition in the Navier-Stokes model. The new unsteady pressure jump boundary condition models each rotor blade as a moving pressure jump which travels around the rotor azimuth and is applied between two adjacent planes in a cylindrical, non-rotating grid. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted time-averaged and time-accurate rotor inflow ratios. Additional comparisons are made between measured and predicted unsteady surface pressures on the top centerline and sides of the fuselage.

  17. Skid Landings of Airplanes on Rocker-Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Wilbur L.

    1961-01-01

    A study is made of the landing of an airplane on a fuselage with "planned" curvature of its lower surface. Initial contact is considered to stop the vertical motion of a point remote from the center of gravity, thus causing rocking on the curved lower surface which converts sinking-speed energy into angular energy in pitch for dissipation by damping forces. Analysis is made of loads and motions for a given fuselage shape, and the contours required to give desired load histories are determined. Most of the calculations involve initial contact at the tail, but there are two cases of unflared landings with initial contact at the nose. The calculations are checked experimentally for the tail - low case.

  18. Closeup view of the upper exterior of the forward fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the upper exterior of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The view show a detail of the flight deck windows with protective covers installed to protect the window surfaces during processing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Design development tests for composite crashworthy helicopter fuselage

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, J.K.; Dremann, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    Design development tests were conducted to investigate the crashworthy characteristics of composite helicopter fuselage subcomponents, and to design helicopter center beam/bulkhead specimens lighter than structural elements of honeycomb sandwich construction. Skinstringer designs of center beams - made of carbon, and hybrids of carbon and Kevlar - were fabricated and tested in axial compression. Crashworthy design parameters of specific energy, operating load and stroke efficiency were investigated. 8 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft fuselage panels with electronic shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safai, Morteza

    1993-10-01

    With the growing number of aging passenger aircraft in the fleet, improve nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques are being investigated to insure the reliability of the fuselage structures of these aircraft. The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group is evaluating nondestructive testing techniques for detecting disbonds in aircraft structures. One of the techniques under evaluation is electronic shearography. This paper describes the disbond inspection of aluminum lap joint coupons with electronic shearography. Inspection results from the simulated lap joint coupons, containing programmed defects, are reported.

  1. Experimental measurement of structural power flow on an aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is used to measure structural intensity through an aircraft fuselage with an excitation load applied near one of the wing attachment locations. The fuselage is a relatively large structure, requiring a large number of measurement locations to analyze the whole of the structure. For the measurement of structural intensity, multiple point measurements are necessary at every location of interest. A tradeoff is therefore required between the number of measurement transducers, the mounting of these transducers, and the accuracy of the measurements. Using four transducers mounted on a bakelite platform, structural intensity vectors are measured at locations distributed throughout the fuselage. To minimize the errors associated with using the four transducer technique, the measurement locations are selected to be away from bulkheads and stiffeners. Furthermore, to eliminate phase errors between the four transducer measurements, two sets of data are collected for each position, with the orientation of the platform with the four transducers rotated by 180 degrees and an average taken between the two sets of data. The results of these measurements together with a discussion of the suitability of the approach for measuring structural intensity on a real structure are presented.

  2. Experimental measurement of structural power flow on an aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental technique is used to measure the structural power flow through an aircraft fuselage with the excitation near the wing attachment location. Because of the large number of measurements required to analyze the whole of an aircraft fuselage, it is necessary that a balance be achieved between the number of measurement transducers, the mounting of these transducers, and the accuracy of the measurements. Using four transducers mounted on a bakelite platform, the structural intensity vectors at locations distributed throughout the fuselage are measured. To minimize the errors associated with using a four transducers technique the measurement positions are selected away from bulkheads and stiffeners. Because four separate transducers are used, with each transducer having its own drive and conditioning amplifiers, phase errors are introduced in the measurements that can be much greater than the phase differences associated with the measurements. To minimize these phase errors two sets of measurements are taken for each position with the orientation of the transducers rotated by 180 deg and an average taken between the two sets of measurements. Results are presented and discussed.

  3. Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Mark C.; Ardema, Mark D.; Patron, Anthony P.; Hahn, Andrew S.; Miura, Hirokazu; Moore, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft, and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT has traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight. Using statistical analysis techniques, relations between the load-bearing fuselage and wing weights calculated by PDCYL and corresponding actual weights were determined.

  4. Test results from large wing and fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.; Voldman, Mike

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the first results in an assessment of the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance of stiffened wing and fuselage subcomponents. Under this NASA funded program, 10 large wing and fuselage panels, variously fabricated by automated tow placement and dry-stitched preform/resin transfer molding, are to be tested. The first test of an automated tow placement six-longeron fuselage panel under shear load was completed successfully. Using NASTRAN finite-element analysis the stiffness of the panel in the linear range prior to buckling was predicted within 3.5 percent. A nonlinear analysis predicted the buckling load within 10 percent and final failure load within 6 percent. The first test of a resin transfer molding six-stringer wing panel under compression was also completed. The panel failed unexpectedly in buckling because of inadequate supporting structure. The average strain was 0.43 percent with a line load of 20.3 kips per inch of width. This strain still exceeds the design allowable strains. Also, the stringers did not debond before failure, which is in contrast to the general behavior of unstitched panels.

  5. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Repair and Damage Assessment Supporting Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Bodine, J. B.; Dopker, B.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hanson, C. T.; Harris, C. G.; Nelson, K. M.; Walker, T. H.; Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC), Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure. Included in the study is the incorporation of maintainability and repairability requirements of composite primary structure into the design. This contractor report describes activities performed to address maintenance issues in composite fuselage applications. A key aspect of the study was the development of a maintenance philosophy which included consideration of maintenance issues early in the design cycle, multiple repair options, and airline participation in design trades. Fuselage design evaluations considered trade-offs between structural weight, damage resistance/tolerance (repair frequency), and inspection burdens. Analysis methods were developed to assess structural residual strength in the presence of damage, and to evaluate repair design concepts. Repair designs were created with a focus on mechanically fastened concepts for skin/stringer structure and bonded concepts for sandwich structure. Both a large crown (skintstringer) and keel (sandwich) panel were repaired. A compression test of the keel panel indicated the demonstrated repairs recovered ultimate load capability. In conjunction with the design and manufacturing developments, inspection methods were investigated for their potential to evaluate damaged structure and verify the integrity of completed repairs.

  6. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  7. Skin, Stringer, and Fastener Loads in Buckled Fuselage Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a numerical study to assess the effect of skin buckling on the internal load distribution in a stiffened fuselage panel, with and without longitudinal cracks, are presented. In addition, the impact of changes in the internal loads on the fatigue life and residual strength of a fuselage panel is assessed. A generic narrow-body fuselage panel is considered. The entire panel is modeled using shell elements and considerable detail is included to represent the geometric-nonlinear response of the buckled skin, cross section deformation of the stiffening components, and details of the skin-string attachment with discrete fasteners. Results are presented for a fixed internal pressure and various combinations of axial tension or compression loads. Results illustrating the effect of skin buckling on the stress distribution in the skin and stringer, and fastener loads are presented. Results are presented for the pristine structure, and for cases where damage is introduced in the form of a longitudinal crack adjacent to the stringer, or failed fastener elements. The results indicate that axial compression loads and skin buckling can have a significant effect on the circumferential stress in the skin, and fastener loads, which will influence damage initiation, and a comparable effect on stress intensity factors for cases with cracks. The effects on stress intensity factors will influence damage propagation rates and the residual strength of the panel.

  8. Impact damage resistance of composite fuselage structure, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dost, E. F.; Avery, W. B.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Grande, D. H.; Coxon, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The impact damage resistance of laminated composite transport aircraft fuselage structures was studied experimentally. A statistically based designed experiment was used to examine numerous material, laminate, structural, and extrinsic (e.g., impactor type) variables. The relative importance and quantitative measure of the effect of each variable and variable interactions on responses including impactor dynamic response, visibility, and internal damage state were determined. The study utilized 32 three-stiffener panels, each with a unique combination of material type, material forms, and structural geometry. Two manufacturing techniques, tow placement and tape lamination, were used to build panels representative of potential fuselage crown, keel, and lower side-panel designs. Various combinations of impactor variables representing various foreign-object-impact threats to the aircraft were examined. Impacts performed at different structural locations within each panel (e.g., skin midbay, stiffener attaching flange, etc.) were considered separate parallel experiments. The relationship between input variables, measured damage states, and structural response to this damage are presented including recommendations for materials and impact test methods for fuselage structure.

  9. High Fidelity Failure Analysis for a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jain; Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2001-01-01

    A high fidelity delamination failure analysis was developed by combining a local failure analysis with a global full-scale finite element structural analysis to address strength and delamination failure in a single package. The methodology was demonstrated through a local three-dimensional pull-off failure analysis and a geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite helicopter fuselage section. Pull-off specimens were used to identify potential debonding failure of co-cured skin-stringer/frame fuselage structures. An investigation of the failed pull-off specimens was performed to determine the location of the failure initiation. Three-dimensional strain energy release rate analysis indicates that the delamination initiation and growth is controlled by Mode 1 opening mode. The bending moment at the delamination tip was identified as the crucial factor controlling the failure. The geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite fuselage section was performed using a detailed finite element model. Loads were applied along the periphery of the subcomponent using displacement fields generated from solutions of a full-vehicle model.

  10. Fuselage shell and cavity response measurements on a DC-9 test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Mathur, G. P.; Cannon, M. R.; Tran, B. N.; Burge, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    A series of fuselage shell and cavity response measurements conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are described. The objectives of these measurements were to define the shell and cavity model characteristics of the fuselage, understand the structural-acoustic coupling characteristics of the fuselage, and measure the response of the fuselage to different types of acoustic and vibration excitation. The fuselage was excited with several combinations of acoustic and mechanical sources using interior and exterior loudspeakers and shakers, and the response to these inputs was measured with arrays of microphones and accelerometers. The data were analyzed to generate spatial plots of the shell acceleration and cabin acoustic pressure field, and corresponding acceleration and pressure wavenumber maps. Analysis and interpretation of the spatial plots and wavenumber maps provided the required information on modal characteristics, structural-acoustic coupling, and fuselage response.

  11. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter-rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of rotor wake on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Force, moment, and pressure data were obtained on three fuselage models at various combinations of windspeed, sideslip angle, and pitch angle. The data show that the influence of rotor wake on the helicopter fuselage yawing moment imposes a significant additional thrust requirement on the tail rotor of a single-rotor helicopter at high sideslip angles.

  12. SRB attrition rate study of the aft skirt due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology was presented so that realistic attrition prediction could aid in selecting an optimum design option for minimizing the effects of updated loads on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt. The updated loads resulted in water impact attrition rates greater than 10 percent for the aft skirt structure. Adding weight to reinforce the aft skirt was undesirable. The refined method treats the occurrences of the load distribution probabilistically, radially and longitudinally, with respect to the critical structural response.

  13. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  14. 13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  15. 27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. NOTE MAIN HOISTING DRUM IS A STEP DRUM, WITH TWO DIAMETERS ON DRUM. WHEN BUCKET IS IN WATER THE CABLE IS ON THE SMALLER STEP, AS PICTURED, GIVING MORE POWER TO THE LINE. THE CABLE STEPS TO LARGER DIAMETER WHEN BUCKET IS OUT OF WATER, WHERE SPEED IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN POWER. SMALLER BACKING DRUM IN BACKGROUND. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. General view looking aft along the port side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the port side of the Orbiter Discovery into its payload bay. Note the Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm, in the foreground mounted on the port side longeron. The Remote Sensor Arm is mounted on the opposite, starboard, longeron. Also note the airlock and the protective covering over the docking mechanism. This image was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  18. General view in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center looking at one of a pair of Aft Center Segments of the Solid Rocket Motor of the Solid Rocket Booster awaiting hoisting and mating to the Solid Rocket Booster's Aft Segment on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Progress Towards Fuselage Drag Reduction via Active Flow Control: A Combined CFD and Experimental Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Lienard, Caroline; LePape, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental effort has been undertaken to study fuselage drag reduction on a generic, non-proprietary rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active ow control. Fuselage drag reduction is an area of research interest to both the United States and France and this area is being worked collaboratively as a task under the United States/France Memorandum of Agreement on Helicopter Aeromechanics. In the first half of this task, emphasis is placed on the US generic fuselage, the ROBIN-mod7, with the experimental work being conducted on the US side and complementary US and French CFD analysis of the baseline and controlled cases. Fuselage simulations were made using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes ow solvers and with multiple turbulence models. Comparisons were made to experimental data for numerical simulations of the isolated fuselage and for the fuselage as installed in the tunnel, which includes modeling of the tunnel contraction, walls, and support fairing. The numerical simulations show that comparisons to the experimental data are in good agreement when the tunnel and model support are included. The isolated fuselage simulations compare well to each other, however, there is a positive shift in the centerline pressure when compared to the experiment. The computed flow separation locations on the rear ramp region had only slight differences with and without the tunnel walls and model support. For the simulations, the flow control slots were placed at several locations around the flow separation lines as a series of eight slots that formed a nearly continuous U-shape. Results from the numerical simulations resulted in an estimated 35% fuselage drag reduction from a steady blowing flow control configuration and a 26% drag reduction for unsteady zero-net-mass flow control configuration. Simulations with steady blowing show a delayed flow separation at the rear ramp of the fuselage that increases the surface pressure acting on the ramp

  20. Aeroelastic Analysis of Aircraft: Wing and Wing/Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. H.; Chang, K. C.; Tzong, T.; Cebeci, T.

    1997-01-01

    A previously developed interface method for coupling aerodynamics and structures is used to evaluate the aeroelastic effects for an advanced transport wing at cruise and under-cruise conditions. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel test data. The capability of the interface method is also investigated for an MD-90 wing/fuselage configuration. In addition, an aircraft trim analysis is described and applied to wing configurations. The accuracy of turbulence models based on the algebraic eddy viscosity formulation of Cebeci and Smith is studied for airfoil flows at low Mach numbers by using methods based on the solutions of the boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report for the NASA funded project entitled "Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage." The primary objective of the project was to create a capability to simulate curvilinear fatigue crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage. The second objective was to validate the capability by way of comparisons to experimental results. Both objectives have been achieved and the results are detailed herein. In the first part of the report, the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained and correlated from coupon tests to predict fracture behavior and residual strength of built-up aircraft fuselages, is discussed. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element analyses are used to simulate stable crack growth and to predict residual strength. Both measured and predicted results of laboratory flat panel tests and full-scale fuselage panel tests show substantial reduction of residual strength due to the occurrence of multi-site damage (MSD). Detailed comparisons of n stable crack growth history, and residual strength between the predicted and experimental results are used to assess the validity of the analysis methodology. In the second part of the report, issues related to crack trajectory prediction in thin shells; an evolving methodology uses the crack turning phenomenon to improve the structural integrity of aircraft structures are discussed, A directional criterion is developed based on the maximum tangential stress theory, but taking into account the effect of T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy. Possible extensions of the current crack growth directional criterion to handle geometrically and materially nonlinear problems are discussed. The path independent contour integral method for T-stress evaluation is derived and its accuracy is assessed using a p- and hp-version adaptive finite element method. Curvilinear crack growth is simulated in

  2. Convergent Regulation of Candida albicans Aft2 and Czf1 in Invasive and Opaque Filamentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Yi-Jie; Yu, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Meng; Jia, Chang; Chen, Yu-Lu; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Lai-Jun; Li, Ming-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of mucosal infections and invasive diseases in immuno-compromised humans. The abilities of yeast-hyphal growth and white-opaque switching affect C. albicans physiology and virulence. Here, we showed that C. albicans Aft2 regulator was required for embedded filamentous growth and opaque cell-type formation. Under low-temperature matrix embedded conditions, Aft2 functioned downstream of Czf1-mediated pathway and was required for invasive filamentation. Moreover, deletion of AFT2 significantly reduced opaque cell-type formation under N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) inducing conditions. Ectopic expression of CZF1 slightly increased the white-opaque switching frequency in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, but did not completely restore to wild-type levels, suggesting that Czf1 at least partially bypassed the essential requirement for Aft2 in response to opaque-inducing cues. In addition, multiple environmental cues altered AFT2 mRNA and protein levels, such as low temperature, physical environment and GlcNAc. Although the absence of Czf1 or Efg1 also increased the expression level of AFT2 gene, deletion of CZF1 remarkably reduced the stability of Aft2 protein. Furthermore, C. albicans Aft2 physically interacted with Czf1 under all tested conditions, whereas the interaction between Aft2 and Efg1 was barely detectable under embedded conditions, supporting the hypothesis that Aft2, together with Czf1, contributed to activate filamentous growth by antagonizing Efg1-mediated repression under matrix-embedded conditions.

  3. Effect of Fuselage Cross Sections on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Reusable Launch Vehicles in Subsonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadakuma, Kenji; Morita, Wataru; Aso, Shigeru; Tani, Yasuhiro

    An experimental study on aerodynamic effect of RLVs (Reusable Launch Vehicles) due to fuselage cross sections has been conducted in subsonic flow. Three fuselage models and two wing-body models have been considered. Fuselage models have a circular, a square and a triangular cross section. Wing-body models have a square and a triangular cross section with wings. Experiments have been conducted under test conditions of free-stream Mach number M∞=0.3 and Reynolds number Re=3.2×106. Aerodynamic forces are measured and flow fields are visualized by smoke-wire technique and oil-flow technique. Results show that fuselage cross sections have much effect on whole aerodynamic characteristics, the fuselage model with a triangular cross section has higher lift coefficient in high angle of attack region than that of the other fuselage models and the wing-body model with a triangular fuselage cross section does not stall till high angle of attack region compared with the “Square” fuselage wing-body model.

  4. Some studies on the aerodynamic effect of the gap between airplane wings and fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Shatswell

    1929-01-01

    The general result indicated by this study is that if desirable from any viewpoint the gap between wing and fuselage may be closed without detrimental aerodynamic effects, and with a given monoplane there is less drag if the wing is directly on top of the fuselage than if it is parasol.

  5. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Aircraft design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobe, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross sections and structural members on the performance of hypersonic cruise aircraft are evaluated. Representative fuselage/tank area structure was analyzed for strength, stability, fatigue and fracture mechanics. Various thermodynamic and structural tradeoffs were conducted to refine the conceptual designs with the primary objective of minimizing weight and maximizing aircraft range.

  6. 4. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD DOWN CENTERLINE WITH OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AFT PORT QUARTER AND ACROSS PIER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Fighting for the Profession: A History of AFT Higher Education. Item Number 36-0701

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document provides a history of the relationship between higher education faculty and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Highlights include the first AFT higher education local formed in 1918, the role played by the union in the expansion of the G.I. Bill following World War II, increased activism in the 1950s and 1960s to win…

  8. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 esc view --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is photographed prior to recording still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A camera lens is temporarily stowed nearby on the aft wall. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  9. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Springer uses camera on OV-104 aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, holding HASSELBLAD camera, positions himself under aft flight deck overhead window W7 before recording the Earth's surface below. Behind Springer are Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, onorbit station and aft flight deck viewing windows.

  10. View forward to aft of compartment A126, port side fore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment A-126, port side fore to aft showing scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) in background, deck fittings, coal bunker manhole cover at lower left. (043) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Optimization of Sandwich Composites Fuselages Under Flight Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongxin; Bergsma, Otto; Koussios, Sotiris; Zu, Lei; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-02-01

    The sandwich composites fuselages appear to be a promising choice for the future aircrafts because of their structural efficiency and functional integration advantages. However, the design of sandwich composites is more complex than other structures because of many involved variables. In this paper, the fuselage is designed as a sandwich composites cylinder, and its structural optimization using the finite element method (FEM) is outlined to obtain the minimum weight. The constraints include structural stability and the composites failure criteria. In order to get a verification baseline for the FEM analysis, the stability of sandwich structures is studied and the optimal design is performed based on the analytical formulae. Then, the predicted buckling loads and the optimization results obtained from a FEM model are compared with that from the analytical formulas, and a good agreement is achieved. A detailed parametric optimal design for the sandwich composites cylinder is conducted. The optimization method used here includes two steps: the minimization of the layer thickness followed by tailoring of the fiber orientation. The factors comprise layer number, fiber orientation, core thickness, frame dimension and spacing. Results show that the two-step optimization is an effective method for the sandwich composites and the foam sandwich cylinder with core thickness of 5 mm and frame pitch of 0.5 m exhibits the minimum weight.

  12. Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

  13. Interference of Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 28 Combinations in the NACA Variable-Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Albert

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests conducted on 28 wing-fuselage combinations made in the variable-density wind tunnel as a part of the wing-fuselage interference program being conducted therein and in addition to the 209 combinations previously reported in NACA-TR-540. These tests practically complete the study of combinations with a rectangular fuselage and continue the study of combinations with a round fuselage and a tapered wing.

  14. The vibration characteristics of a coupled helicopter rotor-fuselage by a finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between the rotor system and the fuselage of a simplified helicopter model in hover was analytically investigated. Mass, aerodynamic damping, and elastic and centrifugal stiffness matrices are presented for the analytical model; the model is based on a beam finite element, with polynomial mass and stiffness distributions for both the rotor and fuselage representations. For this analytical model, only symmetric fuselage and collective blade degrees of freedom are treated. Real and complex eigen-analyses are carried out to obtain coupled rotor-fuselage natural modes and frequencies as a function of rotor speed. Vibration response results are obtained for the coupled system subjected to a radially uniform, harmonic blade loading. The coupled response results are compared with response results from an uncoupled analysis in which hub loads for an isolated rotor system subjected to the same sinusoidal blade loading as the coupled system are applied to a free-free fuselage.

  15. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  16. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  17. Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.

  18. General view of the middeck looking aft and port. In ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the mid-deck looking aft and port. In this view you can clearly see the crew access hatch and the airlock hatch. The hose and ladder in the image are pieces of ground support equipment. The hose is part of the climate control apparatus used while orbiters are being processed. The ladder is used to access the inter-deck passage, leading to the flight deck, while the orbiter is in 1g (earth's gravity). A careful observer will notice a void in the wall near the base of the access ladder, this is the Waste Management Compartment with the Waste Management System, i.e. Space Potty, removed. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. 30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  20. Coupled rotor-fuselage vibration reduction with multiple frequency blade pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear coupled rotor/flexible fuselage analysis has been developed and used to study the effects of higher harmonic blade pitch control on the vibratory hub loads and fuselage acceleration levels. Previous results, obtained with this model have shown that conventional higher harmonic control (HHC) inputs aimed at hub shear reduction cause an increase in the fuselage accelerations and vice-versa. It was also found that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage accelerations, a pitch input representing a combination of two higher harmonic components of different frequencies was needed. Subsequently, it was found that this input could not be implemented through a conventional swashplate. This paper corrects a mistake originally made in the representation of the multiple frequency pitch input and shows that such a pitch input can be only implemented in the rotating reference frame. A rigorous mathematical solution is found, for the pitch input in the rotating reference frame, which produces simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage acceleration. New insight on vibration reduction in coupled rotor/fuselage systems is obtained from the sensitivity of hub shears to the frequency and amplitude of the open loop HHC signal in the rotating reference frame. Finally the role of fuselage flexibility in this class of problems is determined.

  1. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  2. Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.

    2016-03-01

    The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman's approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.

  3. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Miyakawa, Takeya; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments.

  4. Impact damage resistance of composite fuselage structure, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dost, Ernest F.; Finn, Scott R.; Murphy, Daniel P.; Huisken, Amy B.

    1993-01-01

    The strength of laminated composite materials may be significantly reduced by foreign object impact induced damage. An understanding of the damage state is required in order to predict the behavior of structure under operational loads or to optimize the structural configuration. Types of damage typically induced in laminated materials during an impact event include transverse matrix cracking, delamination, and/or fiber breakage. The details of the damage state and its influence on structural behavior depend on the location of the impact. Damage in the skin may act as a soft inclusion or affect panel stability, while damage occurring over a stiffener may include debonding of the stiffener flange from the skin. An experiment to characterize impact damage resistance of fuselage structure as a function of structural configuration and impact threat was performed. A wide range of variables associated with aircraft fuselage structure such as material type and stiffener geometry (termed, intrinsic variables) and variables related to the operating environment such as impactor mass and diameter (termed, extrinsic variables) were studied using a statistically based design-of-experiments technique. The experimental design resulted in thirty-two different 3-stiffener panels. These configured panels were impacted in various locations with a number of impactor configurations, weights, and energies. The results obtained from an examination of impacts in the skin midbay and hail simulation impacts are documented. The current discussion is a continuation of that work with a focus on nondiscrete characterization of the midbay hail simulation impacts and discrete characterization of impact damage for impacts over the stiffener.

  5. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  6. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  7. Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar boundary-layer flow stability over an aircraft fuselage forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    Fuelled by a need to reduce viscous drag of airframes, significant advances have been made in the last decade to design lifting surface geometries with considerable amounts of laminar flow. In contrast to the present understanding of practical limits for natural laminar flow over lifting surfaces, limited experimental results are available examining applicability of natural laminar flow over axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric fuselage shapes at relevantly high length Reynolds numbers. The drag benefits attainable by realizing laminar flow over nonlifting aircraft components such as fuselages and nacelles are shown. A flight experiment to investigate transition location and transition mode over the forward fuselage of a light twin engine propeller driven airplane is examined.

  8. Iron-responsive Transcription Factor Aft1 Interacts with Kinetochore Protein Iml3 and Promotes Pericentromeric Cohesin*

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Akil; Baetz, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae iron-responsive transcription factor, Aft1, has a well established role in regulating iron homeostasis through the transcriptional induction of iron-regulon genes. However, recent studies have implicated Aft1 in other cellular processes independent of iron regulation such as chromosome stability. In addition, chromosome spreads and two-hybrid data suggest that Aft1 interacts with and co-localizes with kinetochore proteins; however, the cellular implications of this have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that Aft1 associates with the kinetochore complex through Iml3. Furthermore, like Iml3, Aft1 is required for the increased association of cohesin with pericentric chromatin, which is required to resist microtubule tension, and aft1Δ cells display chromosome segregation defects in meiosis. Our work defines a new role for Aft1 in chromosome stability and transmission. PMID:22157760

  9. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  10. 5. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AND IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  12. Compartment A123 crews WC (head) looking aft; to forward; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123 crews WC (head) looking aft; to forward; note wire lockers for transient stowage of clothing while showering. (026) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, pauses during a photography session on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  14. View of admiral dewey's stateroom, compartment A127 looking aft to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of admiral dewey's stateroom, compartment A-127 looking aft to forward; note five inch rapid fire gun at left doors lead to admiral dewey's cabin. (p42) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. RMS upper boom framed by aft flight deck viewing window W10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Remote Manipulator System (RMS) upper arm boom (tear in multilayer beta cloth) deployed during dynamic interaction test using Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) is visible outside aft viewing window W10. RMS 'Canada' insignia or logo appears on boom.

  16. Payload specialists Baudry and Chretien in the Shuttle full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Payload specialists Patrick Baudry (left) and Jean Loup Chretien are seated at the commander and pilot stations on the Shuttle full fuselage trainer. In this view they are looking at the camera over the backs of the shuttle seats.

  17. STS 51-E crew is briefed on the Shuttle full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    STS 51-E crew is briefed on the Shuttle full fuselage trainer. Astronauts Dave Griggs (foreground), Jean Loup Chretien (behind Griggs) and Jeff Hoffman are being shown the workings of the trainer by flight instructors.

  18. Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.

  19. Crash Simulation of a Boeing 737 Fuselage Section Vertical Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Jones, Yvonne T.; Frings, Gary; Vu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    A 30-ft/s vertical drop test of a fuselage section of a Boeing 737 aircraft was conducted in October of 1999 at the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, NJ. This test was performed to evaluate the structural integrity of a conformable auxiliary fuel tank mounted beneath the floor and to determine its effect on the impact response of the airframe structure and the occupants. The test data were used to compare with a finite element simulation of the fuselage structure and to gain a better understanding of the impact physics through analytical/experimental correlation. To perform this simulation, a full-scale 3-dimensional finite element model of the fuselage section was developed using the explicit, nonlinear transient-dynamic finite element code, MSC.Dytran. The emphasis of the simulation was to predict the structural deformation and floor-level acceleration responses obtained from the drop test of the B737 fuselage section with the auxiliary fuel tank.

  20. Evaluation of Pressurization Fatigue Life of 1441 Al-li Fuselage Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Dicus, Dennis I.; Fridlyander, Joseph; Davydov, Valentin

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the pressurization fatigue life of fuselage panels with skins fabricated from 1441 Al-Li, an attractive new Russian alloy. The study indicated that 1441 Al-Li has several advantages over conventional aluminum fuselage skin alloy with respect to fatigue behavior. Smooth 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens exhibited a fatigue endurance limit similar to that for 1163 Al (Russian version of 2024 Al) sheet. Notched 1441 Al-Li sheet specimens exhibited greater fatigue strength and longer fatigue life than 1163 Al. In addition, Tu-204 fuselage panels fabricated by Tupolev Design Bureau using Al-Li skin and ring frames with riveted 7000-series aluminum stiffeners had longer pressurization fatigue lives than did panels constructed from conventional aluminum alloys. Taking into account the lower density of this alloy, the results suggest that 1441 Al-Li has the potential to improve fuselage performance while decreasing structural weight.

  1. STS-46 MS-PLC Hoffman monitors EURECA deploy from OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing polarized goggles (sunglasses), monitors the European Retrievable Carrier 1L (EURECA-1L) satellite deploy from the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The remote manipulator system arm's 'Canada' insignia is visible in aft flight deck viewing window W10. Hoffman's left hand is positioned at overhead window W8.

  2. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located forward of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crack loads. Post-test inspection showed that the section bottom collapsed inward approximately 2 ft. Preliminary data traces indicated maximum normal accelerations of 20 g on the fuselage bottom, 10 to 12 g on the cabin floor, and 6.5 to 8 g in the pelvises of the anthropomorphic dummies.

  3. Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Fuselage Model with Various Arrangements of Elongated Lift Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, R. D.; Goodson, K. W.

    1973-01-01

    Data were obtained for a round jet located on the center of the bottom of a fuselage and for elongated slots separated spanwise by distances of 0.8 and 1.2 of the fuselage width. The effect of yawing the slots, inclining the jets laterally, and combining slot yaw with jet inclination was determined. Data were obtained in and out of ground effect through a range of effective velocity ratios and through a range of sideslip angles.

  4. Crashworthy Evaluation of a 1/5-Scale Model Composite Fuselage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1999-01-01

    A 1/5-scale model composite fuselage concept for light aircraft and rotorcraft has been developed to satisfy structural and flight loads requirements and to satisfy design goals for improved crashworthiness. The 1/5-scale model fuselage consists of a relatively rigid upper section which forms the passenger cabin, a stiff structural floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor which is designed to limit impact forces during a crash event. The focus of the present paper is to describe the crashworthy evaluation of the fuselage concept through impact testing and finite element simulation using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, MSC/DYTRAN. The energy absorption behavior of two different subfloor configurations was determined through quasi-static crushing tests. For the dynamic evaluation, each subfloor configuration was incorporated into a 1/5-scale model fuselage section, which was impacted at 31 ft/s vertical velocity onto a rigid surface. The experimental data demonstrate that the fuselage section with a foam-filled subfloor configuration satisfied the impact design requirement. In addition, the fuselage section maintained excellent energy absorption behavior for a 31 ft/s vertical drop test with a 15 deg-roll impact attitude. Good correlation was obtained between the experimental data and analytical results for both impact conditions.

  5. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  6. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  7. Pressure Distribution Over the Fuselage of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane. Aerodynamic loads on the fuselage are, in general, unimportant from the structural viewpoint, and in most cases they are of such character that, if neglected, a conservative design results. In spins, aerodynamic forces on the fuselage produce diving moments of appreciable magnitude and yawing moments of small magnitude, but opposing the rotation of the airplane. A table of cowling pressures for various maneuvers is included in the report.

  8. Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects: A CFD Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.

  9. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Umbilical Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a general view of the S-IV-B aft swing arm umbilical carrier.

  10. Interference drag in a simulated wing-fuselage juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubendran, L. R.; Mcmahon, H.; Hubbartt, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The interference drag in a wing fuselage juncture as simulated by a flat plate and a body of constant thickness having a 1.5:1 elliptical leading edge is evaluated experimentally. The experimental measurements consist of mean velocity data taken with a hot wire at a streamwise location corresponding to 16 body widths downstream of the body leading edge. From these data, the interference drag is determined by calculating the total momentum deficit (momentum area) in the juncture and also in the two dimensional turbulent boundary layers on the flat plate and body at locations sufficiently far from the juncture flow effect. The interference drag caused by the juncture drag as measured at this particular streamwise station is -3% of the total drag due to the flat plate and body boundary layers in isolation. If the body is considered to be a wing having a chord and span equal to 16 body widths, the interference drag due to the juncture is only -1% of the frictional drag of one surface of such a wing.

  11. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  12. Mechanism Underlying the Iron-dependent Nuclear Export of the Iron-responsive Transcription Factor Aft1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ueta, Ryo; Fujiwara, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Aft1p is an iron-responsive transcriptional activator that plays a central role in maintaining iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aft1p is regulated primarily by iron-induced shuttling of the protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but its nuclear import is not regulated by iron. Here, we have shown that the nuclear export of Aft1p is promoted in the presence of iron and that Msn5p is the nuclear export receptor (exportin) for Aft1p. Msn5p recognizes Aft1p in the iron-replete condition. Phosphorylation of S210 and S224 in Aft1p, which is not iron dependent, and the iron-induced intermolecular interaction of Aft1p are both essential for its recognition by Msn5p. Mutation of Cys291 of Aft1p to Phe, which causes Aft1p to be retained in the nucleus and results in constitutive activation of Aft1-target genes, disrupts the intermolecular interaction of Aft1p. Collectively, these results suggest that iron induces a conformational change in Aft1p, in which Aft1p Cys291 plays a critical role, and that, in turn, Aft1p is recognized by Msn5p and exported into the cytoplasm in an iron-dependent manner. PMID:17538022

  13. Aft Body Closure: Predicted Strut Effects at M=2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Garritz, Javier A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the predicted M = 2.4 strut-interference effects on a closed aftbody with empennage for the TCA baseline model. The strut mounting technique was needed in order to assess the impact of aft-end shaping, i.e. open for a sting or closed to better represent a flight vehicle. However,this technique can potentially lead to unanticipated effects that are measured on the aft body. Therefore, a set of computations were performed in order to examine the closed aft body with and without strut present, at both zero and non-zero angles of sideslip (AOS). The work was divided into a computational task performed by Javier A. Garriz, using an inviscid (Euler) solver, and a monitoring/reporting task done by John E. Lamar. All this work was performed during FY98 at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  14. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  15. A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao

    A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection is developed. The coupled rotor/fuselage/vibration absorbers (bifilar type) system incorporates consistent structural, aerodynamic and inertial couplings. The aeroelastic analysis is based on finite element methods in space and time. The coupled rotor, absorbers and fuselage equations are transformed into the modal space and solved in the fixed coordinate system. A coupled trim procedure is used to solve the responses of rotor, fuselage and vibration absorber, rotor trim control and vehicle orientation simultaneously. Rotor system faults are modeled by changing blade structural, inertial and aerodynamic properties. Both adjustable and component faults, such as misadjusted trim-tab, misadjusted pitch-control rod (PCR), imbalanced mass and pitch-control bearing freeplay, are investigated. Detailed SH-60 helicopter fuselage NASTRAN model is integrated into the analysis. Validation study was performed using SH-60 helicopter flight test data. The prediction of fuselage natural frequencies show fairly large error compared to shake test data. Analytical predictions of fuselage baseline (without fault) 4/rev vibration and fault-induced 1/rev vibration and blade displacement deviations are compared with SH-60 flight test (with prescribed fault) data. The fault-induced 1/rev fuselage vibration (magnitude and phase) predicted by present analysis generally capture the trend of the flight test data, although prediction under-predicts. The large discrepancy of fault-induced 1/rev vibration magnitude at hover between prediction and flight test data partially comes from the variation of flight condition (not perfect hover) and partially due to the effect of the rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction (wake effect) at low speed which is not considered in the analysis. Also the differences in the phase prediction is not clear since only the magnitude and phase information were given instead of the

  16. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  17. Multi-Terrain Impact Testing and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Sparks, Chad E.; Sareen, Ashish K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparisons of the impact performance of a 5-ft diameter crashworthy composite fuselage section were investigated for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts. The fuselage concept, which was originally designed for impacts onto a hard surface only, consisted of a stiff upper cabin, load bearing floor, and an energy absorbing subfloor. Vertical drop tests were performed at 25-ft/s onto concrete, soft-soil, and water at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse durations, and onset rates were evaluated for each test at specific locations on the fuselage. In addition to comparisons of the experimental results, dynamic finite element models were developed to simulate each impact condition. Once validated, these models can be used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of subfloor components for improved crash protection for hard surface, soft soil, and water impacts.

  18. XSECT: A computer code for generating fuselage cross sections - user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, XSECT, has been developed to generate fuselage cross sections from a given area distribution and wing definition. The cross sections are generated to match the wing definition while conforming to the area requirement. An iterative procedure is used to generate each cross section. Fuselage area balancing may be included in this procedure if desired. The code is intended as an aid for engineers who must first design a wing under certain aerodynamic constraints and then design a fuselage for the wing such that the contraints remain satisfied. This report contains the information necessary for accessing and executing the code, which is written in FORTRAN to execute on the Cyber 170 series computers (NOS operating system) and produces graphical output for a Tektronix 4014 CRT. The LRC graphics software is used in combination with the interface between this software and the PLOT 10 software.

  19. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  20. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  1. Evaluation of the fuselage lap joint fatigue and terminating action repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samavedam, Gopal; Thomson, Douglas; Jeong, David Y.

    1994-01-01

    Terminating action is a remedial repair which entails the replacement of shear head countersunk rivets with universal head rivets which have a larger shank diameter. The procedure was developed to eliminate the risk of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the upper rivet row of a fuselage lap joint. A test and evaluation program has been conducted by Foster-Miller, Inc. (FMI) to evaluate the terminating action repair of the upper rivet row of a commercial aircraft fuselage lap splice. Two full scale fatigue tests were conducted on fuselage panels using the growth of fatigue cracks in the lap joint. The second test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the terminating action repair. In both tests, cyclic pressurization loading was applied to the panels while crack propagation was recorded at all rivet locations at regular intervals to generate detailed data on conditions of fatigue crack initiation, ligament link-up, and fuselage fracture. This program demonstrated that the terminating action repair substantially increases the fatigue life of a fuselage panel structure and effectively eliminates the occurrence of cracking in the upper rivet row of the lap joint. While high cycle crack growth was recorded in the middle rivet row during the second test, failure was not imminent when the test was terminated after cycling to well beyond the service life. The program also demonstrated that the initiation, propagation, and linkup of WFD in full-scale fuselage structures can be simulated and quantitatively studied in the laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the testing program and provides a detailed discussion of the data analysis and results. Crack distribution and propagation rates and directions as well as frequency of cracking are presented for both tests. The progression of damage to linkup of adjacent cracks and to eventual overall panel failure is discussed. In addition, an assessment of the effectiveness of the terminating action repair and the

  2. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience...

  3. Interactive Inverse Design Optimization of Fuselage Shape for Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood; Le, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool called BOSS (Boom Optimization using Smoothest Shape modifications). BOSS utilizes interactive inverse design optimization to develop a fuselage shape that yields a low-boom aircraft configuration. A fundamental reason for developing BOSS is the need to generate feasible low-boom conceptual designs that are appropriate for further refinement using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based preliminary design methods. BOSS was not developed to provide a numerical solution to the inverse design problem. Instead, BOSS was intended to help designers find the right configuration among an infinite number of possible configurations that are equally good using any numerical figure of merit. BOSS uses the smoothest shape modification strategy for modifying the fuselage radius distribution at 100 or more longitudinal locations to find a smooth fuselage shape that reduces the discrepancies between the design and target equivalent area distributions over any specified range of effective distance. For any given supersonic concept (with wing, fuselage, nacelles, tails, and/or canards), a designer can examine the differences between the design and target equivalent areas, decide which part of the design equivalent area curve needs to be modified, choose a desirable rate for the reduction of the discrepancies over the specified range, and select a parameter for smoothness control of the fuselage shape. BOSS will then generate a fuselage shape based on the designer's inputs in a matter of seconds. Using BOSS, within a few hours, a designer can either generate a realistic fuselage shape that yields a supersonic configuration with a low-boom ground signature or quickly eliminate any configuration that cannot achieve low-boom characteristics with fuselage shaping alone. A conceptual design case study is documented to demonstrate how BOSS can be used to develop a low-boom supersonic concept from a low-drag supersonic concept. The paper also contains a study

  4. Wind tunnel investigation of helicopter rotor wake effects on three helicopter fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of rotor downwash on helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics were investigated. A rotor model for generating the downwash was mounted close to each of three fuselage models. The main report presents the force and moment data in both graphical and tabular form and the pressure data in graphical form. This supplement presents the pressure data in tabular form. Each run or parameter sweep is identified by a unique run number. The data points in each run are identified by a point number. The pressure data can be matched to the force data by matching the run and point number.

  5. Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Fuselage Structural Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis and design of efficient pressurized fuselage configurations for the advanced Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) flight vehicle is a challenging problem. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurized fuselage, stress level in a box type BWB fuselage is an order of magnitude higher, because internal pressure primarily results in bending stress instead of skin-membrane stress. In addition, resulting deformation of aerodynamic surface could significantly affect performance advantages provided by lifting body. The pressurized composite conformal multi-lobe tanks of X-33 type space vehicle also suffered from similar problem. In the earlier BWB design studies, Vaulted Ribbed Shell (VLRS), Flat Ribbed Shell (FRS); Vaulted shell Honeycomb Core (VLHC) and Flat sandwich shell Honeycomb Core (FLHC) concepts were studied. The flat and vaulted ribbed shell concepts were found most efficient. In a recent study, a set of composite sandwich panel and cross-ribbed panel were analyzed. Optimal values of rib and skin thickness, rib spacing, and panel depth were obtained for minimal weight under stress and buckling constraints. In addition, a set of efficient multi-bubble fuselage (MBF) configuration concept was developed. The special geometric configuration of this concept allows for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls, while the outer-ribbed shell prevents buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. The initial results from these approximate finite element analyses indicate progressively lower maximum stresses and deflections compared to the earlier study. However, a relative comparison of the FEM weight per unit floor area of the segment unit indicates that the unit weights are still relatively higher that the conventional B777 type cylindrical or A380 type elliptic fuselage design. Due to the manufacturing concern associated with multi-bubble fuselage, a Y braced box

  6. Continued development and correlation of analytically based weight estimation codes for wings and fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The implementation of the changes to the program for Wing Aeroelastic Design and the development of a program to estimate aircraft fuselage weights are described. The equations to implement the modified planform description, the stiffened panel skin representation, the trim loads calculation, and the flutter constraint approximation are presented. A comparison of the wing model with the actual F-5A weight material distributions and loads is given. The equations and program techniques used for the estimation of aircraft fuselage weights are described. These equations were incorporated as a computer code. The weight predictions of this program are compared with data from the C-141.

  7. STS-54 MS3 Helms talks to radio station from OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist (MS3) Susan J. Helms, holding microphone, participates in an interview with a radio station on the Continental United States (CONUS) from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Behind Helms are Pilot Donald R. McMonagle (left) and MS2 Gregory J. Harbaugh.

  8. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 3. EXUSS HORNET CVS12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, EX-USS ORISKANY CV-34 RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO, EX-USS JERSEY BB-62 AND OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ACROSS PIER FROM HORNET. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein celebrates birthday on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, wearing eye glasses, holds inflated plastic birthday cake during a celebration on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Two of the candles on the cake have collapsed as Brandenstein smiles and wonders whether to blow down the rest.

  11. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  13. STS-34 Mission Specialist (MS) Lucid looks out aft flight deck viewing window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Mission Specialist (MS) Shannon W. Lucid points to payload bay (PLB) activity while looking out Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, aft flight deck viewing window W9. Lucid is wearing a headset and a pair of sunglasses with brightly colored frames. Her reflection is visible in overhead window W7 just above her head.

  14. STS-37 Pilot Cameron and MS Godwin work on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron and Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin pause from their work on aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, to pose for a picture. Cameron holds onto an onorbit station control panel while Godwin steadies herself by using the overhead window (W8) sill.

  15. Looking Back, Looking Ahead: A Reflection on Paraprofessionals and the AFT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    In this article, secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Lorretta Johnson reflects on her early work as a paraprofessional at Liberty Elementary School (Baltimore, Maryland) and what sparked her union activism nearly 50 years ago in 1966. It was that year that she and her colleagues joined the Baltimore Teachers Union…

  16. Enabling a Better Aft Heat Shield Solution for Future Mars Science Laboratory Class Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary K.; Covington, Melmoth A.; Goldstein, Howard E.; Arnold, James O.; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    System studies are described that compare masses and estimated manufacturing costs of options for the as-flown Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aft body Thermal Light Weight Ablator (SLA) 561-V and its thickness was not optimized using the standard TPS Sizer Tool widely used for heat shield design. Use of the TPS sizing tool suggests that optimization of the SLA thickness could reduce the aft heat shield mass by 40 percent. Analysis of the predicted aft-shell aerothermodynamics suggests that the bulk of MSL class entry vehicle heat shields could incorporate Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI). AFRSI has a wellestablished record of relatively inexpensive manufacturing and flight certification based on its use on the lee side of the Space Shuttle. Runs with the TPS Sizer show that the AFRSI solution would be 60 percent lighter than the as-flown SLA. The issue of Reaction Control System (RCS) heating on the aft shell could be addressed by locally impregnating the AFRSI with silicone to enhance its robustness to short bursts ofheating. Stagnation point arcjet testing has shown that silicone impregnated AFRSI performs well at heat rates of 115 W/cm2 and 0.1 atmospheres for a duration of 40 seconds, far beyond conditions that are expected for MSL class vehicles. The paper concludes with a discussion of manufacturing processes for AFRSI, impregnation approaches and relative cost comparisons to the SLA solution.

  17. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, payload bay aft firewall and thermal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, payload bay (PLB) aft firewall is documented to show a loose piece of thermal insulation. The crew discovered the loose blanket soon after opening the PLB doors on 06-05-91. The vertical tail and the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are visible above the bulkhead.

  18. The Bargaining Table and Beyond: How the AFT Came to Support Labor-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When he first came to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in 1973, reports Phil Kugler, there was no such thing as labor-management collaboration. It was a term he had never heard of, and no one used it. Back then, the focus was on supporting local unions in their struggles to win collective bargaining rights. At the time, teachers were…

  19. STS-54 MS2 Harbaugh talks to radio station from OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Gregory J. Harbaugh, holding microphone, participates in an interview with a radio station on the Continental United States (CONUS) from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Behind Harbaugh are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr (left) and Pilot Donald R. McMonagle.

  20. STS-54 Commander Casper talks to radio station from OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Commander John H. Casper, holding microphone, participates in an interview with a radio station on the Continental United States (CONUS) from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Behind Casper are Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr (left) and MS2 Gregory J. Harbaugh.

  1. STS-54 MS1 Runco talks to radio station from OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr, holding microphone, participates in an interview with a radio station on the Continental United States (CONUS) from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Behind Runco are Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Susan J. Helms (left) and MS2 Gregory J. Harbaugh.

  2. 31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. CREW MEMBER IS UNKNOWN. Original 3-1/2'x4-1/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  3. View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Astronauts Walz and Newman in STS-51 Discovery's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman are pictured on Discovery's aft flight deck near two experiments. Positioned in the window above Walz's head is the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B), while the High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy (HRSGS-A) experiment is deployed in the other window.

  5. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  6. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  7. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  8. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  9. Summary of AH-1G flight vibration data for validation of coupled rotor-fuselage analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.; Cronkhite, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Under a NASA research program designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), four U. S. helicopter industry participants (Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, and Sikorsky Aircraft) are to apply existing analytical methods for calculating coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations of the AH-1G helicopter for correlation with flight test data from an AH-1G Operational Load Survey (OLS) test program. Bell Helicopter, as the manufacturer of the AH-1G, was asked to provide pertinent rotor data and to collect the OLS flight vibration data needed to perform the correlations. The analytical representation of the fuselage structure is based on a NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) developed by Bell which has been extensively documented and correlated with ground vibration tests.The AH-1G FEM was provided to each of the participants for use in their coupled rotor-fuselage analyses. This report describes the AH-1G OLS flight test program and provides the flight conditions and measured vibration data to be used by each participant in their correlation effort. In addition, the mechanical, structural, inertial and aerodynamic data for the AH-1G two-bladed teetering main rotor system are presented. Furthermore, modifications to the NASTRAN FEM of the fuselage structure that are necessary to make it compatible with the OLS test article are described. The AH-1G OLS flight test data was found to be well documented and provide a sound basis for evaluating currently existing analysis methods used for calculation of coupled rotor-fuselage vibrations.

  10. Water Impact Test and Simulation of a Composite Energy Absorbing Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Sparks, Chad; Sareen, Ashish

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002, a 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted onto water. The purpose of the test was to obtain experimental data characterizing the structural response of the fuselage section during water impact for comparison with two previous drop tests that were performed onto a rigid surface and soft soil. For the drop test, the fuselage section was configured with ten 100-lb. lead masses, five per side, that were attached to seat rails mounted to the floor. The fuselage section was raised to a height of 10-ft. and dropped vertically into a 15-ft. diameter pool filled to a depth of 3.5-ft. with water. Approximately 70 channels of data were collected during the drop test at a 10-kHz sampling rate. The test data were used to validate crash simulations of the water impact that were developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic codes, MSC.Dytran and LS-DYNA. The fuselage structure was modeled using shell and solid elements with a Lagrangian mesh, and the water was modeled with both Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques. The fluid-structure interactions were executed using the fast general coupling in MSC.Dytran and the Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) coupling in LS-DYNA. Additionally, the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) meshless Lagrangian technique was used in LS-DYNA to represent the fluid. The simulation results were correlated with the test data to validate the modeling approach. Additional simulation studies were performed to determine how changes in mesh density, mesh uniformity, fluid viscosity, and failure strain influence the test-analysis correlation.

  11. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  12. Internal Performance of a Fixed-Shroud Nonaxisymmetric Nozzle Equipped with an Aft-Hood Exhaust Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of a fixed-shroud nonaxisymmetric nozzle equipped with an aft-hood exhaust deflector. Model geometric parameters investigated included nozzle power setting, aft-hood deflector angle, throat area control with the aft-hood deflector deployed, and yaw vector angle. Results indicate that cruise configurations produced peak performance in the range consistent with previous investigations of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles. The aft-hood deflector produced resultant pitch vector angles that were always less than the geometric aft-hood deflector angle when the nozzle throat was positioned upstream of the deflector exit. Significant losses in resultant thrust ratio occurred when the aft-hood deflector was deployed with an upstream throat location. At each aft-hood deflector angle, repositioning the throat to the deflector exit improved pitch vectoring performance and, in some cases, substantially improved resultant thrust ratio performance. Transferring the throat to the deflector exit allowed the flow to be turned upstream of the throat at subsonic Mach numbers, thereby eliminating losses associated with turning supersonic flow. Internal throat panel deflections were largely unsuccessful in generating yaw vectoring.

  13. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  14. Aeroacoustic effects of reduced aft tip speed at constant thrust for a model counterrotation turboprop at takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    1990-01-01

    A model high-speed, advanced counterrotation propeller, F7/A7, was tested in the anechoic wind tunnel at simulated takeoff and approach conditions of Mach 0.2. The propeller was operated in a baseline configuration with the forward and aft rotor blade setting angles and forward and aft rotational speeds essentially equal. Two additional configurations were tested with the aft rotor at increased blade setting angles and the rotational speed reduced to achieve overall performance similar to that of the baseline configuration. Acoustic data were taken with an axially translating microphone probe that was attached to the tunnel floor. Concurrent aerodynamic data were taken to define propeller operating conditions.

  15. Shock Characteristics Measured Upstream of Both a Forward-Swept and an Aft-Swept Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Krupar, Martin J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Horvath, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    Three different types of diagnostic data-blade surface flow visualization, shroud unsteady pressure, and laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV)--were obtained on two fans, one forward-swept and one aft-swept, in order to learn more about the shocks which propagate upstream of these rotors when they are operated at transonic tip speeds. Flow visualization data are presented for the forward-swept fan operating at 13831 rpm(sub c), and for the aft-swept fan operating at 12500 and 13831 rpm(sub c) (corresponding to tip rotational Mach numbers of 1.07 and 1.19, respectively). The flow visualization data identify where the shocks occur on the suction side of the rotor blades. These data show that at the takeoff speed, 13831 rpm(sub c), the shocks occurring in the tip region of the forward-swept fan are further downstream in the blade passage than with the aft-swept fan. Shroud unsteady pressure measurements were acquired using a linear array of 15 equally-spaced pressure transducers extending from two tip axial chords upstream to 0.8 tip axial chords downstream of the static position of the tip leading edge of each rotor. Such data are presented for each fan operating at one subsonic and five transonic tip speeds. The unsteady pressure data show relatively strong detached shocks propagating upstream of the aft-swept rotor at the three lowest transonic tip speeds, and weak, oblique pressure disturbances attached to the tip of the aft-swept fan at the two highest transonic tip speeds. The unsteady pressure measurements made with the forward-swept fan do not show strong shocks propagating upstream of that rotor at any of the tested speeds. A comparison of the forward-swept and aft-swept shroud unsteady pressure measurements indicates that at any given transonic speed the pressure disturbance just upstream of the tip of the forward-swept fan is much weaker than that of the aft-swept fan. The LDV data suggest that at 12500 and 13831 rpm(sub c), the forward-swept fan swallowed the

  16. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  17. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  18. Film riding seal assembly for turbomachinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Giametta, Andrew Paul; Gibson, Nathan Evan McCurdy; Cleveland, Nicolas Joseph

    2016-06-07

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward load-bearing section and an aft load-bearing section configured to generate an aerodynamic force between the shoe plate and the rotor. The shoe plate includes at least one labyrinth teeth facing the rotor and positioned between the forward load-bearing section and the aft load-bearing section. The sealing segment also includes at least one spring connected to a pedestal located about midway of an axial length of the shoe plate and to a stator interface element. Further, the sealing segment includes a rigid segmented secondary seal attached to the stator interface element at one first end and in contact with the pedestal of the shoe plate at one second end.

  19. STS-65 Pilot Halsell points camera out window on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr uses a handheld HASSELBLAD camera at aft flight deck overhead window W8 to take Earth photographs while aboard the orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Part of Baja, California can be seen in the upper left quadrant of the photo. This photo was one of the first released by NASA following the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  20. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (six female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2 s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus, the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT, responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition, the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT, there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence.

  1. Effect of reduced aft diameter and increased blade number on high-speed counterrotation propeller performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Gayle E.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Performance data of 0.17-scale model counterrotation pusher propeller configurations were taken in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.66, 0.71, 0.75, and 0.79. These tests investigated the aerodynamic performance of the unducted fan (UDF) demonstrator propeller engine developed in a joint program by General Electric and NASA. Data were recorded to show the effect on counterrotation propeller cruise efficiency of two takeoff noise-reduction concepts. These two concepts are reduced aft blade diameter and increased forward blade number. The four configurations tested were a baseline (F1/A1 8/8) configuration, a reduced aft diameter (F1/A3 8/8) configuration, an increase forward blade number (F1/A1 9/8) configuration, and a combination of the latter two (F1/A3 9/8) configurations. Data were collected with a complex counterrotation propeller test rig via rotating thrust and torque balances and pressure instrumentation. Data comparisons documented the power differences between the baseline and the reduced aft diameter concepts. Performance comparisons to the baseline configuration showed that reducing the aft blade diameter reduced the net efficiency, and adding a blade to the front rotor increased the net efficiency. The combination of the two concepts showed only slightly lower net efficiency than the baseline configuration. It was also found that the counterrotation demonstrator propeller model (F7/A7 8/8) configuration outperformed the baseline (F1/A1 8/8) configuration.

  2. Compartment A123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial at left center appears to be a timer for controlling washing machine at lower right. Low, round machine to the left of the washer is a centrifuge used for spin drying laundry. Laundry was not part of original equipment but was added in the refurbishment of 1899. (024) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Propellant grain dynamics in aft attach ring of shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for implementing simultaneously the temperature, dynamic strain, real modulus, and frequency properties of solid propellant in an unsymmetrical vibrating ring mode is presented. All dynamic parameters and sources are defined for a free vibrating ring-grain structure with initial displacement and related to a forced vibrating system to determine the change in real modulus. Propellant test data application is discussed. The technique was developed to determine the aft attach ring stiffness of the shuttle booster at lift-off.

  4. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  6. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (6 female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence. PMID:25160866

  7. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  8. Adaptive Aft Signature Shaping of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft Using Off-Body Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The design and optimization of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using the state-of-the- art o -body aerodynamics and sonic boom analysis has long been a challenging problem. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate an e ective geometry parameterization scheme and a numerical optimization approach for the aft shaping of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using o -body pressure calculations. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm that models the objective and constraints as response surface equations is used to drive the aft ground signature toward a ramp shape. The design objective is the minimization of the variation between the ground signature and the target signature subject to several geometric and signature constraints. The target signature is computed by using a least-squares regression of the aft portion of the ground signature. The parameterization and the deformation of the geometry is performed with a NASA in- house shaping tool. The optimization algorithm uses the shaping tool to drive the geometric deformation of a horizontal tail with a parameterization scheme that consists of seven camber design variables and an additional design variable that describes the spanwise location of the midspan section. The demonstration cases show that numerical optimization using the state-of-the-art o -body aerodynamic calculations is not only feasible and repeatable but also allows the exploration of complex design spaces for which a knowledge-based design method becomes less effective.

  9. Modeling of space shuttle SRB aft ends for inherent aerodynamic bias determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, David R.; Stapf, Sean P.; Gebhard, Thomas J.

    2007-04-01

    The Air Force's 45th Space Wing is in charge of operating the Range Safety System (RSS) for all launches that take place on the Eastern Range. If initiated, the RSS currently implemented on the Space Transportation System after launch would provide for the partial destruction of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to terminate thrust. The majority of the risk from the large explosive debris created comes from the aft ends of the SRBs, which fall largely intact along with the remaining propellant. Historically, no impact data on such a scenario has been available and in support of the Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight schedule, aerodynamic and trajectory analyses were performed to characterize any pitch angle biases associated with the aft end's descent after initiating the linear shaped charges (LSCs) on the SRBs. Results show the aft end has a bias towards impacting at +/-5, 70, or 175 degrees and takes an average of 10 seconds to stabilize into any one of these orientations after being separated from the SRB forward body.

  10. Using probabilistic analysis to assess the reliability of predicted SRB aft-skirt stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic failure analysis is a tool to predict the reliability of a part or system. Probabalistic techniques were used to predict critical stresses which occur in the solid rocket booster aft-skirt during main engine buildup, immediately prior to lift-off. More than any other hold down post (HDP) load component, the Z loads are sensitive to variations in strains and calibration constants. Also, predicted aft-skirt stresses are strongly affected by HDP load variations. Therefore, the instrumented HDP are not effective load transducers for Z loads, and, when used with aft skirt stress indicator equations, yield estimates with large uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation proved to be a straight forward way of studying the overlapping effects of multiple parameters on predicted equipment performance. An advantage of probabilistic analysis is the degree of uncertainty of each parameter as stated explicitly by its probability distribution. It was noted, however, that the choice of parameter distribution had a large effect on the simulation results. Many times these distributions must be assumed. The engineer who is designing the part should be responsible for the choice of parameter distribution.

  11. View of the O-ring in the top of the aft segment of the right SRB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a close-out photograph of the O-ring in the top of the aft segment of the right solid rocket booster (SRB) flown on Space Shuttle mission 51-L. The photograph was released following a hearing on the accident (10163); Close-out photograph of the top of the aft segment of the right SRB flown on Space Shuttle mission 51-L (10164).

  12. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  13. Experimental and analytical investigations of fuselage modal characteristics and structural-acoustic coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Myles A.; Mathur, Gopal P.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section to define the shell and cavity modes of the fuselage, understand its structural-acoustic coupling characteristics, and measure its response to different types of acoustic and vibration excitations are reported. The data were processed to generate spatial plots and wavenumber maps of the shell acceleration and cabin acoustic pressure field. Analysis and interpretation of the spatial plots and wavenumber maps showed that the only structural-acoustic coupling occurred at 105 Hz between the N=2 circumferential structural mode and the (n=2, p=0) circumferential cavity mode. The fuselage response to vibration excitation was found to be dominated by modes whose order increases with frequency.

  14. STAGS Developments for Residual Strength Analysis Methods for Metallic Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    A summary of advances in the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) finite element code for the residual strength analysis of metallic fuselage structures, that were realized through collaboration between the structures group at NASA Langley, and Dr. Charles Rankin is presented. The majority of the advancements described were made in the 1990's under the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program (NASIP). Example results from studies that were conducted using the STAGS code to develop improved understanding of the nonlinear response of cracked fuselage structures subjected to combined loads are presented. An integrated residual strength analysis methodology for metallic structure that models crack growth to predict the effect of cracks on structural integrity is demonstrated

  15. Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

  16. Test and analysis results for composite transport fuselage and wing structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Madan, Ram C.; Chen, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) and stitching of dry textile composite preforms followed by resin transfer molding (RTM) are being investigated by researchers at NASA LaRC and Douglas Aircraft Company as cost-effective manufacturing processes for obtaining damage tolerant fuselage and wing structures for transport aircraft. The Douglas work is being performed under a NASA contract entitled 'Innovative Composites Aircraft Primary Structures (ICAPS)'. Data are presented in this paper to assess the damage tolerance of ATP and RTM fuselage elements with stitched-on stiffeners from compression tests of impacted three-J-stiffened panels and from stiffener pull-off tests. Data are also presented to assess the damage tolerance of RTM wing elements which had stitched skin and stiffeners from impacted single stiffener and three blade-stiffened compression tests and stiffener pull-off tests.

  17. The effects of design details on cost and weight of fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. D.; Metschan, S. L.; Morris, M. R.; Kassapoglou, C.

    1993-01-01

    Crown panel design studies showing the relationship between panel size, cost, weight, and aircraft configuration are compared to aluminum design configurations. The effects of a stiffened sandwich design concept are also discussed. This paper summarizes the effect of a design cost model in assessing the cost and weight relationships for fuselage crown panel designs. Studies were performed using data from existing aircraft to assess the effects of different design variables on the cost and weight of transport fuselage crown panel design. Results show a strong influence of load levels, panel size, and material choices on the cost and weight of specific designs. A design tool being developed under the NASA ACT program is used in the study to assess these issues. The effects of panel configuration comparing postbuckled and buckle resistant stiffened laminated structure is compared to a stiffened sandwich concept. Results suggest some potential economy with stiffened sandwich designs for compression dominated structure with relatively high load levels.

  18. Mechanical and analytical screening of braided composites for transport fuselage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian; Ko, Frank K.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanics of materials progress in support of the goal of understanding the application of braided composites in a transport aircraft fuselage are summarized. Composites consisting of both 2-D and 3-D braid patterns are investigated. Both consolidation of commingled graphite/PEEK and resin transfer molding of graphite-epoxy braided composite processes are studied. Mechanical tests were used to examine unnotched tension, open hole tension, compression, compression after impact, in-plane shear, out-of-plane tension, bearing, and crippling. Analytical methods are also developed and applied to predict the stiffness and strengths of test specimens. A preliminary study using the test data and analytical results is performed to assess the applicability of braided composites to a commercial aircraft fuselage.

  19. Crash Simulation of a Vertical Drop Test of a B737 Fuselage Section with Overhead Bins and Luggage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe a crash simulation of a 30-ft/s vertical drop test of a Boeing 737 (B737) fuselage section. The drop test of the 10-ft. long fuselage section of a B737 aircraft was conducted in November of 2000 at the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, NJ. The fuselage section was outfitted with two different commercial overhead stowage bins. In addition, 3,229-lbs. of luggage were packed in the cargo hold to represent a maximum take-off weight condition. The main objective of the test was to evaluate the response and failure modes of the overhead stowage bins in a narrow-body transport fuselage section when subjected to a severe, but survivable, impact. A secondary objective of the test was to generate experimental data for correlation with the crash simulation. A full-scale 3-dimensional finite element model of the fuselage section was developed and a crash simulation was conducted using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic code, MSC.Dytran. Pre-test predictions of the fuselage and overhead bin responses were generated for correlation with the drop test data. A description of the finite element model and an assessment of the analytical/experimental correlation are presented. In addition, suggestions for modifications to the model to improve correlation are proposed.

  20. Automatic computation of Euler-marching and subsonic grids for wing-fuselage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Adams, Mary S.; Krishnan, Ramki R.

    1994-01-01

    Algebraic procedures are described for the automatic generation of structured, single-block flow computation grids for relatively simple configurations (wing, fuselage, and fin). For supersonic flows, a quasi two-dimensional grid for Euler-marching codes is developed, and some sample results in graphical form are included. A type of grid for subsonic flow calculation is also described. The techniques are algebraic and are based on a generalization of the method of transfinite interpolation.

  1. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  2. Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Jolen

    1987-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.

  3. Navier-Stokes and potential theory solutions for ahelicopter fuselage and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffin, Mark S.; Berry, John D.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code and a panel method code are used to predict the flow over a generic helicopter fuselage. The computational results are compared with pressure data at four experimental conditions. Both methods produce results that agree with the experimental pressure data. However, separation patterns and other viscous flow features from the Navier-Stokes code solution are shown that cannot be easily modeled with the panel method.

  4. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  5. Comparison of Hard Surface and Soft Soil Impact Performance of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sareen, Ashish K.; Sparks, Chad; Mullins, B. R., Jr.; Fasanella, Edwin; Jackson, Karen

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the soft soil and hard surface impact performance of a crashworthy composite fuselage concept has been performed. Specifically, comparisons of the peak acceleration values, pulse duration, and onset rate at specific locations on the fuselage were evaluated. In a prior research program, the composite fuselage section was impacted at 25 feet per second onto concrete at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) at NASA Langley Research Center. A soft soil test was conducted at the same impact velocity as a part of the NRTC/RITA Crashworthy and Energy Absorbing Structures project. In addition to comparisons of soft soil and hard surface test results, an MSC. Dytran dynamic finite element model was developed to evaluate the test analysis correlation. In addition, modeling parameters and techniques affecting test analysis correlation are discussed. Once correlated, the analytical methodology will be used in follow-on work to evaluate the specific energy absorption of various subfloor concepts for improved crash protection during hard surface and soft soil impacts.

  6. Hybrid Wing-Body Pressurized Fuselage and Bulkhead, Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight reduction of a pressurized Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage is a serious challenge. Hence, research and development are presently being continued at NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) projects in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this paper, a structural analysis of the HWB fuselage and bulkhead panels is presented, with the objectives of design improvement and structural weight reduction. First, orthotropic plate theories for sizing, and equivalent plate analysis with appropriate simplification are considered. Then parametric finite-element analysis of a fuselage section and bulkhead are conducted using advanced stitched composite structural concepts, which are presently being developed at Boeing for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. With this advanced stiffened-shell design, structural weights are computed and compared to the thick sandwich, vaulted-ribbed-shell, and multi-bubble stiffened-shell structural concepts that had been studied previously. The analytical and numerical results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  7. Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  8. Compression Response of a Sandwich Fuselage Keel Panel With and Without Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental and analytical study of a sandwich fuselage keel panel with and without damage. The fuselage keel panel is constructed of graphite-epoxy skins bonded to a honeycomb core, and is representative of a highly loaded fuselage keel structure. The face sheets of the panel contain several terminated or dropped plies along the length of the panel. The results presented provide a better understanding of the load distribution in damaged and undamaged thick-face-sheet composite sandwich structure with dropped plies and of the failure mechanisms of such structure in the presence of low-speed impact damage and discrete-source damage. The impact-damage condition studied corresponds to barely visible impact damage (BVID), and the discrete-source damage condition studied is a notch machined through both face sheets. Results are presented from an impact-damage screening study conducted on another panel of the same design to determine the impact energy necessary to inflict BVID on the panel. Results are presented from compression tests of the panel in three conditions: undamaged; BVID in two locations; and BVID in two locations and a notch through both face sheets. Surface strains in the face sheets of the undamaged panel and the notched panel obtained experimentally are compared with finite element analysis results. The experimental and analytical results suggest that for the damage conditions studied, discrete-source damage influences the structural performance more than BVID.

  9. High transonic speed transport aircraft study. [aerodynamic characteristics of single-fuselage, yawed-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Neumann, F. D.; Nisbet, J. W.; Mulally, A. R.; Murakami, J. K.; Noble, E. C.; Mcbarron, J. P.; Stalter, J. L.; Gimmestad, D. W.; Sussman, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    An initial design study of high-transonic-speed transport aircraft has been completed. Five different design concepts were developed. These included fixed swept wing, variable-sweep wing, delta wing, double-fuselage yawed-wing, and single-fuselage yawed-wing aircraft. The boomless supersonic design objectives of range=5560 Km (3000 nmi), payload-18 143 kg (40 000lb), Mach=1.2, and FAR Part 36 aircraft noise levels were achieved by the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration with a gross weight of 211 828 Kg (467 000 lb). A noise level of 15 EPNdB below FAR Part 36 requirements was obtained with a gross weight increase to 226 796 Kg (500 000 lb). Although wing aeroelastic divergence was a primary design consideration for the yawed-wing concepts, the graphite-epoxy wings of this study were designed by critical gust and maneuver loads rather than by divergence requirements. The transonic nacelle drag is shown to be very sensitive to the nacelle installation. A six-degree-of-freedom dynamic stability analysis indicated that the control coordination and stability augmentation system would require more development than for a symmetrical airplane but is entirely feasible. A three-phase development plan is recommended to establish the full potential of the yawed-wing concept.

  10. Multi-Terrain Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section was retrofitted with four identical blocks of deployable honeycomb energy absorber and crash tested on two different surfaces: soft soil, and water. The drop tests were conducted at the 70-ft. drop tower at the Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility of NASA Langley. Water drop tests were performed into a 15-ft-diameter pool of water that was approximately 42-in. deep. For the soft soil impact, a 15-ft-square container filled with fine-sifted, unpacked sand was located beneath the drop tower. All drop tests were vertical with a nominally flat attitude with respect to the impact surface. The measured impact velocities were 37.4, and 24.7-fps for soft soil and water, respectively. A fuselage section without energy absorbers was also drop tested onto water to provide a datum for comparison with the test, which included energy absorbers. In order to facilitate this type of comparison and to ensure fuselage survivability for the no-energy-absorber case, the velocity of the water impact tests was restricted to 25-fps nominal. While all tests described in this paper were limited to vertical impact velocities, the implications and design challenges of utilizing external energy absorbers during combined forward and vertical impact velocities are discussed. The design, testing and selection of a honeycomb cover, which was required in soft surface and water impacts to transmit the load into the honeycomb cell walls, is also presented.

  11. Study of utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Campion, M. C.; Pei, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effort required by the transport aircraft manufacturers to support the introduction of advanced composite materials into the fuselage structure of future commercial and military transport aircraft is investigated. Technology issues, potential benefits to military life cycle costs and commercial operating costs, and development plans are examined. The most urgent technology issues defined are impact dynamics, acoustic transmission, pressure containment and damage tolerance, post-buckling, cutouts, and joints and splices. A technology demonstration program is defined and a rough cost and schedule identified. The fabrication and test of a full-scale fuselage barrel section is presented. Commercial and military benefits are identified. Fuselage structure weight savings from use of advanced composites are 16.4 percent for the commercial and 21.8 percent for the military. For the all-composite airplanes the savings are 26 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Commercial/operating costs are reduced by 5 percent for the all-composite airplane and military life cycle costs by 10 percent.

  12. An Airplane Design having a Wing with Fuselage Attached to Each Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, Leroy M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of an airplane having a low aspect ratio wing with fuselages that are attached to each wing tip. The concept is proposed for a high-capacity transport as an alternate to progressively increasing the size of a conventional transport design having a single fuselage with cantilevered wing panels attached to the sides and tail surfaces attached at the rear. Progressively increasing the size of conventional single body designs may lead to problems in some area's such as manufacturing, ground-handling and aerodynamic behavior. A limited review will be presented of some past work related to means of relieving some size constraints through the use of multiple bodies. Recent low-speed wind-tunnel tests have been made of models representative of the inboard-wing concept. These models have a low aspect ratio wing with a fuselage attached to each tip. Results from these tests, which included force measurements, surface pressure measurements, and wake surveys, will be presented herein.

  13. Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of interference on lateral-stability characteristics of four NACA 23012 wings, an elliptical and a circular fuselage and vertical fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Rufus O; Wallace, Arthur R

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of wing-fuselage interference on lateral-stability characteristics made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel on four fuselages and two fins, representing high-wing, low-wing, and midwing monoplanes. The fuselages are of circular and elliptical cross section. The wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the three are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. The rate of change in the coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and lateral force with angle of yaw is given in a form to show the increment caused by wing-fuselage interference for the model with no fin and the effect of wing-fuselage interference on fin effectiveness. Results for the fuselage-fin combination and the wing tested alone are also given.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of an NASA supercritical-wing research airplane model with and without fuselage area-rule additions at Mach 0.25 to 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. W.; Harris, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Transonic pressure tunnel tests at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.00 were performed to determine the effects of area-rule additions to the sides of the fuselage on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.087 scale model of an NASA supercritical-wing research airplane. Presented are the longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment characteristics for horizontal-tail deflection angles of -2.5 deg and -5 deg with the side fuselage area-rule additions on and off the model. The effects of the side fuselage area-rule additions on selected wing and fuselage pressure distributions at near-cruise conditions are also presented.

  15. STS-48 Commander Creighton on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Commander John O. Creighton, positioned under overhead window W8, interrupts an out-the-window observation to display a pleasant countenance for an electronic still camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  16. STS-48 Pilot Reightler on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Pilot Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr, positioned under overhead window W8, poses for an electronic still camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  17. STS-48 MS Brown on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown looks away from the portable laptop computer screen to pose for an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Brown was working at the payload station before the interruption. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  18. Portion of left hand SRB aft segment containing ET attach ring for 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two photographs show a portion of the left hand solid rocket booster (SRB) aft segment which contains the external tank (ET) attach ring for the 51-L mission resting on the ocean bottom in 210 feet of water approximately 23 miles east of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The photographs were take by the Deep Drone, a remotely controlled, unmanned U.S. Navy submersible. Photo 1 shows small fish below and to the left of the booster segment (10145); Photo two shows the opposite end of the segment. Visible from left are the clevis portion of the field joint and the external tank attach ring (10146).

  19. STS-56 crew poses for onboard (inflight) portrait on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 crewmembers pose for onboard (inflight) portrait on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. In front are Commander Kenneth Cameron (left) and Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale. In back are (left to right) MS3 Ellen Ochoa, Pilot Stephen S. Oswald, and MS2 Kenneth D. Cockrell. The crew is positioned next to the onorbit station with the Earth's blue and white surface appearing in overhead windows W7 and W8 above them. A 35mm camera with a 20mm lens was used to expose this frame.

  20. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  1. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  2. Crystal structures of Boro-AFm and sBoro-AFt phases

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Cau Dit Coumes, Celine; Leroux, Fabrice; Mercier, Cyrille; Revel, Bertrand; Damidot, Denis

    2012-10-15

    Crystal structures of boron-containing AFm (B-AFm) and AFt (B-AFt) phases have been solved ab-initio and refined from X-ray powder diffraction. {sup 11}B NMR and Raman spectroscopies confirm the boron local environment in both compounds: three-fold coordinated in B-AFm corresponding to HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} species, and four-fold coordinated in B-AFt corresponding to B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} species. B-AFm crystallizes in the rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaHBO{sub 3}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O (4CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}1/2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}12.5H{sub 2}O, C{sub 4}AB{sub 1/2}H{sub 12.5}) general formulae with planar trigonal HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions weakly bonded at the centre of the interlayer region. One HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion is statistically distributed with two weakly bonded water molecules on the same crystallographic site. B-AFt crystallizes in the trigonal P3cl space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}Ca(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}2Ca(B (OH){sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O (6CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}33H{sub 2}O, C{sub 6}AB{sub 2}H{sub 33}) general formulae with tetrahedral B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} anions located in the channel region of the structure. All tetrahedral anions are oriented in a unique direction, leading to a hexagonal c lattice parameter about half that of ettringite.

  3. STS-65 Pilot Halsell cleans window on the aft flight deck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr cleans off overhead window W8. Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz looks on (photo's edge). A plastic toy dinosaur, velcroed in front of W9, also appears to be watching the housekeeping activity. A variety of onboard equipment including procedural checklists, a spotmeter, a handheld microphone, and charts are seen in the view. The two shared over fourteen days in Earth orbit with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  4. Surface generation and editing operations applied to structural support of aerospace vehicle fuselages. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) is a computer aided design tool used in aerospace vehicle design. Modeling of structural components using SMART includes the representation of the transverse or cross-wise elements of a vehicle's fuselage, ringframes, and bulkheads. Ringframes are placed along a vehicle's fuselage to provide structural support and maintain the shape of the fuselage. Bulkheads are also used to maintain shape, but are placed at locations where substantial structural support is required. Given a Bezier curve representation of a cross sectional cut through a vehicle's fuselage and/or an internal tank, this project produces a first-guess Bezier patch representation of a ringframe or bulkhead at the cross-sectional position. The grid produced is later used in the structural analysis of the vehicle. The graphical display of the generated patches allows the user to edit patch control points in real time. Constraints considered in the patch generation include maintaining 'square-like' patches and placement of longitudinal, or lengthwise along the fuselage, structural elements called longerons.

  5. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a pressure box test fixture for tension damage tolerance testing of curved fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Bodine, J. B.; Preuss, C. H.; Koch, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure box test fixture was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effects of internal pressure, biaxial tension loads, curvature, and damage on the fracture response of composite fuselage structure. Previous work in composite fuselage tension damage tolerance, performed during NASA contract NAS1-17740, evaluated the above effects on unstiffened panels only. This work extends the tension damage tolerance testing to curved stiffened fuselage crown structure that contains longitudinal stringers and circumferential frame elements. The pressure box fixture was designed to apply internal pressure up to 20 psi, and axial tension loads up to 5000 lb/in, either separately or simultaneously. A NASTRAN finite element model of the pressure box fixture and composite stiffened panel was used to help design the test fixture, and was compared to a finite element model of a full composite stiffened fuselage shell. This was done to ensure that the test panel was loaded in a similar way to a panel in the full fuselage shell, and that the fixture and its attachment plates did not adversely affect the panel.

  6. A study of coupled rotor-fuselage vibration with higher harmonic control using a symbolic computing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computing facility. The details of the derivation using the MACSYMA program are described. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control (HHC) capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselage vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control (MHHC) is required. The fundamental aspects of this scheme and its uniqueness are described in detail, providing new insight on vibration reduction in helicopters using HHC.

  7. The Characteristics of Fatigue Damage in the Fuselage Riveted Lap Splice Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    An extensive data base has been developed to form the physical basis for new analytical methodology to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint. The results of detailed destructive examinations have been cataloged to describe the physical nature of MSD in the lap splice joint. ne catalog includes a detailed description, e.g., crack initiation, growth rates, size, location, and fracture morphology, of fatigue damage in the fuselage lap splice joint structure. Detailed examinations were conducted on a lap splice joint panel removed from a full scale fuselage test article after completing a 60,000 cycle pressure test. The panel contained a four bay region that exhibited visible outer skin cracks and regions of crack link-up along the upper rivet row. Destructive examinations revealed undetected fatigue damage in the outer skin, inner skin, and tear strap regions. Outer skin fatigue cracks were found to initiate by fretting damage along the faying surface. The cracks grew along the faying surface to a length equivalent to two to three skin thicknesses before penetrating the outboard surface of the outer skin. Analysis of fracture surface marker bands produced during full scale testing revealed that all upper rivet row fatigue cracks contained in a dim bay region grow at similar rates; this important result suggests that fracture mechanics based methods can be used to predict the growth of outer skin fatigue cracks in lap splice structure. Results are presented showing the affects of MSD and out-of-plane pressure loads on outer skin crack link-up.

  8. Experimental and analytical study of the effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Robinson, Martha; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented of the effects of floor placement on the structural response and strength of I-cross section, semi-circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The composite frame configuration is representative of current conventional aircraft design. Experimental strain distributions are presented from static loading tests of the composite frames and compared with finite element structural models and closed form solutions. An understanding of floor location effects can aid dynamists in predicting the crash behavior of these conventional structures, and may assist the designer in developing crashworthy structures for future aircraft.

  9. Structural Stability of a Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panel Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Internal Pressure Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Young, Richard D.; Gehrki, Ralph R.

    2003-01-01

    Results from an experimental and analytical study of a curved stiffened aluminum panel subjected to combined mechanical and internal pressure loads are presented. The panel loading conditions were simulated using a D-box test fixture. Analytical buckling load results calculated from a finite element analysis are presented and compared to experimental results. Buckling results presented indicate that the buckling load of the fuselage panel is significantly influenced by internal pressure loading. The experimental results suggest that the stress distribution is uniform in the panel prior to buckling. Nonlinear finite element analysis results correlates well with experimental results up to buckling.

  10. Nonlinear and progressive failure aspects of transport composite fuselage damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Tom; Ilcewicz, L.; Murphy, Dan; Dopker, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to provide an end-user's perspective on the state of the art in life prediction and failure analysis by focusing on subsonic transport fuselage issues being addressed in the NASA/Boeing Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) contract and a related task-order contract. First, some discrepancies between the ATCAS tension-fracture test database and classical prediction methods is discussed, followed by an overview of material modeling work aimed at explaining some of these discrepancies. Finally, analysis efforts associated with a pressure-box test fixture are addressed, as an illustration of modeling complexities required to model and interpret tests.

  11. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross-section (circular and elliptical) and structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. It was found that integrally machined stiffening of the tank walls, while providing the most weight-efficient use of materials, results in higher production costs. Fatigue and fracture mechanics appeared to have little effect on the weight of the three study aircraft. The need for thermal strain relief through insulation is discussed. Aircraft size and magnitude of the internal pressure are seen to be significant factors in tank design.

  12. Three-dimensional compressible boundary layer calculations to fourth order accuracy on wings and fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Venkit; Harris, Julius E.

    1989-01-01

    Laminar flow control and drag reduction research requires accurate boundary layer solutions as input to the three-dimensional stability analysis procedures currently under development. In support of these major programs, a fourth-order accurate finite difference scheme for solving the three-dimensional, compressible boundary layer equations has been developed and is presented in this paper. The method employs a two-point scheme in the wall normal direction and second order zigzag scheme in the cross flow direction. Accurate procedures to interface with the inviscid results are also presented. The results of applying the procedure to laminar flow on wings and fuselages are presented.

  13. Nonlinear analysis of damaged stiffened fuselage shells subjected to combined loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Britt, Vicki O.; Young, Richard D.; Rankin, Charles C.; Shore, Charles P.; Bains, Jane C.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks are presented. The shells are modeled with a hierarchical modeling strategy that accounts for global and local response phenomena accurately. Results are presented for internal pressure and mechanical bending loads. The effects of crack location and orientation on shell response are described. The effects of mechanical fasteners on the response of a lap joint and the effects of elastic and elastic-plastic material properties on the buckling response of tension-loaded flat panels with cracks are also addressed.

  14. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  15. A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system for a two-bladed teetering rotor using finite element methods in space and time is developed which incorporates consistent rotor/fuselage structural, aerodynamic, and inertial couplings and a modern free wake model. A coordinate system is developed to take into account a teetering rotor's unique characteristics, such as teetering motion and undersling. Coupled nonlinear periodic blade and fuselage equations are transformed to the modal space in the fixed frame and solved simultaneously. The elastic line and detailed 3-D NASTRAN finite element models of the AH-1G helicopter airframe from the DAMVIBS program are integrated into the elastic rotor finite element model. Analytical predictions of rotor control angles, blade loads, hub forces, and vibration are compared with AH-1G Operation Load Survey flight test data. The blade loads predicted by present analysis show generally fair agreement with the flight test data, especially blade chord bending moment estimation shows good agreement. Calculated 2/rev vertical vibration levels at pilot seat show good correlation with the flight test data both in magnitude and phase, but 4/rev vibration levels show fair correlation only in magnitude. Lateral vibration results show more disagreement than vertical vibration results. Pylon flexibility effect is essential in the two-bladed teetering rotor vibration analysis. The pylon flexibility increases the first lag frequency by about 14%, and decreases 2/rev longitudinal and lateral hub forces by more than half. Rotor/fuselage coupling reduces 2/rev vertical and lateral vibration levels by 60% to 70% and has a small effect on 4/rev vibration levels. Modeling of difficult components (secondary structures, doors/panels, etc) is essential in predicting airframe natural frequencies. Refined aerodynamics such as free wake and unsteady aerodynamics have an important role in the prediction of vibration. For example, free

  16. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  17. Feeding of swimming Paramecium with fore-aft asymmetry in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jana, Saikat; Giarra, Matthew; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-11-01

    Swimming behaviours and feeding efficiencies of Paramecium Multimicronucleatum with fore-aft asymmetric body shapes are studied experimentally and numerically. Among various possible swimming ways, ciliates typically exhibit only one preferred swimming directions in favorable conditions. Ciliates, like Paramecia, with fore-aft asymmetric shapes preferably swim towards the slender anterior while feeding fluid to the oral groove located at the center of the body. Since both feeding and swimming efficiencies are influenced by fluid motions around the body, it is important to reveal the fluid mechanics around a moving object. Experimentally, μ-PIV methods are employed to characterize the source-dipole streamline patterns and fluid motions around Paramecium. Numerical simulations by boundary element methods are also used to evaluate surface stresses and velocities, which give insights into the efficiencies of swimming and feeding depending on body asymmetry. It is concluded that a slender anterior and fat posterior increases the combined efficiency of swimming and feeding, which matches well with actual shapes of Paramecium. Discrepancies between experiments and simulations are also discussed.

  18. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  19. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  20. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  1. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Crashworthy Composite Fuselage Section with Energy-Absorbing Seats and Dummies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    A 25-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section was conducted with two energy-absorbing seats occupied by anthropomorphic dummies to evaluate the crashworthy features of the fuselage section and to determine its interaction with the seats and dummies. The 5-ft. diameter fuselage section consists of a stiff structural floor and an energy-absorbing subfloor constructed of Rohacel foam blocks. The experimental data from this test were analyzed and correlated with predictions from a crash simulation developed using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic computer code, MSC.Dytran. The anthropomorphic dummies were simulated using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) code, which is integrated into MSC.Dytran.

  2. A theoretical investigation of noise reduction through the cylindrical fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, R. B.; Mixson, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interior noise in the fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft with two propellers rotating in opposite directions is studied analytically. The fuselage was modeled as a stiffened cylindrical shell with simply supported ends, and the effects of stringers and frames were averaged over the shell surface. An approximate mathematical model of the propeller noise excitation was formulated which includes some of the propeller noise characteristics such as sweeping pressure waves around the sidewalls due to propeller rotation and the localized nature of the excitation with the highest levels near the propeller plane. Results are presented in the form of noise reduction, which is the difference between the levels of external and interior noise. The influence of propeller noise characteristics on the noise reduction was studied. The results indicate that the sweep velocity of the excitation around the fuselage sidewalls is critical to noise reduction.

  3. Solid Rocket Booster Integrated Electronic Assemblies Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, James

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: assess the impact of aging and usage on SRB Forward and Aft Integrated Electronic Assemblies (IEA's); d3etermine the relative position of the IEA's on their expected reliability curves; provide recommendations, with supporting rationale, for any upgrades necessary to maintain reliability and logistic supportability through the year 2020; if upgrades are recommended the team will define a roadmap for the design and implementation of the upgrade; assess the other reusable boxes on the SRB to determine if the screening tests between flights are adequate; and assess the other reusable boxes on the SRB to determine if they are wearing out.

  4. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  5. Lateral-directional stability characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration at angles of attack up to 44 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.; Huffman, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of configuration variables on the lateral-directional stability characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration. The variables under study included variations in the location of a single center-line vertical tail and twin vertical tails, wing height, fuselage strakes, and horizontal tails. The study was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7-by 10-foot tunnel at a Mach number of 0.30, at angles of attack up to 44 deg and at sideslip angles of 0 deg and plus or minus 5 deg.

  6. A three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary-layer method for general fuselages. Volume 1: Numerical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for calculating 3-D, compressible laminar boundary layer flow on general fuselage shapes is described. The boundary layer solutions can be obtained in either nonorthogonal 'body oriented' coordinates or orthogonal streamline coordinates. The numerical procedure is 'second order' accurate, efficient and independent of the cross flow velocity direction. Numerical results are presented for several test cases, including a sharp cone, an ellipsoid of revolution, and a general aircraft fuselage at angle of attack. Comparisons are made between numerical results obtained using nonorthogonal curvilinear 'body oriented' coordinates and streamline coordinates.

  7. A NASTRAN model of a large flexible swing-wing bomber. Volume 4: NASTRAN model development-fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, W. D.; Latham, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASTRAN model plan for the fuselage structure was expanded in detail to generate the NASTRAN model for this substructure. The grid point coordinates were coded for each element. The material properties and sizing data for each element were specified. The fuselage substructure model was thoroughly checked out for continuity, connectivity, and constraints. This substructure was processed for structural influence coefficients (SIC) point loadings and the deflections were compared to those computed for the aircraft detail model. Finally, a demonstration and validation processing of this substructure was accomplished using the NASTRAN finite element program. The bulk data deck, stiffness matrices, and SIC output data were delivered.

  8. Wing-Fuselage Interference, Tail Buffeting, and Air Flow About the Tail of a Low-Wing Monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James A; Hood, Manley J

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Mcdonnell Douglas airplane to determine the wing-fuselage interference of a low-wing monoplane. The tests included a study of tail buffeting and the air flow in the region of the tail. The airplane was tested with and without the propeller slipstream, both in the original condition and with several devices designed to reduce or eliminate tail buffeting. The devices used were wing-fuselage fillets, a NACA cowling, reflexed trailing edge of the wing, and stub auxiliary airfoils.

  9. Use of nondestructive inspection and fiber optic sensing for damage characterization in carbon fiber fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidigk, Stephen; Le, Jacqui; Roach, Dennis; Duvall, Randy; Rice, Tom

    2014-04-01

    To investigate a variety of nondestructive inspection technologies and assess impact damage characteristics in carbon fiber aircraft structure, the FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center, operated by Sandia National Labs, fabricated and impact tested two full-scale composite fuselage sections. The panels are representative of structure seen on advanced composite transport category aircraft and measured approximately 56"x76". The structural components consisted of a 16 ply skin, co-cured hat-section stringers, fastened shear ties and frames. The material used to fabricate the panels was T800 unidirectional pre-preg (BMS 8-276) and was processed in an autoclave. Simulated hail impact testing was conducted on the panels using a high velocity gas gun with 2.4" diameter ice balls in collaboration with the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Damage was mapped onto the surface of the panels using conventional, hand deployed ultrasonic inspection techniques, as well as more advanced ultrasonic and resonance scanning techniques. In addition to the simulated hail impact testing performed on the panels, 2" diameter steel tip impacts were used to produce representative impact damage which can occur during ground maintenance operations. The extent of impact damage ranges from less than 1 in2 to 55 in2 of interply delamination in the 16 ply skin. Substructure damage on the panels includes shear tie cracking and stringer flange disbonding. It was demonstrated that the fiber optic distributed strain sensing system is capable of detecting impact damage when bonded to the backside of the fuselage.

  10. Mean velocities and Reynolds stresses upstream of a simulated wing-fuselage juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, H.; Hubbartt, J.; Kubendran, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Values of three mean velocity components and six turbulence stresses measured in a turbulent shear layer upstream of a simulated wing-fuselage juncture and immediately downstream of the start of the juncture are presented nd discussed. Two single-sensor hot-wire probes were used in the measurements. The separated region just upstream of the wing contains an area of reversed flow near the fuselage surface where the turbulence level is high. Outside of this area the flow skews as it passes around the body, and in this skewed region the magnitude and distribution of the turbulent normal and shear stresses within the shear layer are modified slightly by the skewing and deceleration of the flow. A short distance downstream of the wing leading edge the secondary flow vortext is tightly rolled up and redistributes both mean flow and turbulence in the juncture. The data acquisition technique employed here allows a hot wire to be used in a reversed flow region to indicate flow direction.

  11. Tension fracture of laminates for transport fuselage. Part 1: Material screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Avery, W. B.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Harris, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Transport fuselage structures are designed to contain pressure following a large penetrating damage event. Applications of composites to fuselage structures require a database and supporting analysis on tension damage tolerance. Tests with 430 fracture specimens were used to accomplish the following: (1) identify critical material and laminate variables affecting notch sensitivity; (2) evaluate composite failure criteria; and (3) recommend a screening test method. Variables studied included fiber type, matrix toughness, lamination manufacturing process, and intraply hybridization. The laminates found to have the lowest notch sensitivity were manufactured using automated tow placement. This suggests a possible relationship between the stress distribution and repeatable levels of material inhomogeneity that are larger than found in traditional tape laminates. Laminates with the highest notch sensitivity consisted of toughened matrix materials that were resistant to a splitting phenomena that reduces stress concentrations in major load bearing plies. Parameters for conventional fracture criteria were found to increase with crack length for the smallest notch sizes studied. Most material and laminate combinations followed less than a square root singularity for the largest crack sizes studied. Specimen geometry, notch type, and notch size were evaluated in developing a screening test procedure. Traitional methods of correcting for specimen finite width were found to be lacking. Results indicate that a range of notch sizes must be tested to determine notch sensitivity. Data for a single small notch size (0.25 in. diameter) was found to give no indication of the sensitivity of a particular material and laminate layup to larger notch sizes.

  12. Crashworthiness of light aircraft fuselage structures: A numerical and experimental investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanyaro, A. P.; Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of aircraft fuselage structures subject to various impact conditions was investigated. An analytical model was developed based on a self-consistent finite element (CFE) formulation utilizing shell, curved beam, and stringer type elements. Equations of motion were formulated and linearized (i.e., for small displacements), although material nonlinearity was retained to treat local plastic deformation. The equations were solved using the implicit Newmark-Beta method with a frontal solver routine. Stiffened aluminum fuselage models were also tested in free flight using the UTIAS pendulum crash test facility. Data were obtained on dynamic strains, g-loads, and transient deformations (using high speed photography in the latter case) during the impact process. Correlations between tests and predicted results are presented, together with computer graphics, based on the CFE model. These results include level and oblique angle impacts as well as the free-flight crash test. Comparisons with a hybrid, lumped mass finite element computer model demonstrate that the CFE formulation provides the test overall agreement with impact test data for comparable computing costs.

  13. Response of Composite Fuselage Sandwich Side Panels Subjected to Internal Pressure and Axial Tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Dopker, Bernard; Shah, Bharat

    1998-01-01

    The results from an experimental and analytical study of two composite sandwich fuselage side panels for a transport aircraft are presented. Each panel has two window cutouts and three frames and utilizes a distinctly different structural concept. These panels have been evaluated with internal pressure loads that generate biaxial tension loading conditions. Design limit load and design ultimate load tests have been performed on both panels. One of the sandwich panels was tested with the middle frame removed to demonstrate the suitability of this two-frame design for supporting the prescribed biaxial loading conditions with twice the initial frame spacing of 20 inches. A damage tolerance study was conducted on the two-frame panel by cutting a notch in the panel that originates at the edge of a cutout and extends in the panel hoop direction through the window-belt area. This panel with a notch was tested in a combined-load condition to demonstrate the structural damage tolerance at the design limit load condition. Both the sandwich panel designs successfully satisfied all desired load requirements in the experimental part of the study, and experimental results from the two-frame panel with and without damage are fully explained by the analytical results. The results of this study suggest that there is potential for using sandwich structural concepts with greater than the usual 20-in. wide frame spacing to further reduce aircraft fuselage structural weight.

  14. Tension fracture of laminates for transport fuselage. Part 1: Material screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Avery, W. B.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Harris, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Transport fuselage structures are designed to contain pressure following a large penetrating damage event. Application of composites to fuselage structures requires a data base and supporting analysis on tension damage tolerance. Tests with 430 fracture specimens were used to accomplish the following: (1) identify critical material and laminate variables affecting notch sensitivity, (2) evaluate composite failure criteria, and (3) recommend a screening test method. Variables studied included fiber type, matrix toughness, lamination manufacturing process, and intraply hybridization. The laminates found to have the lowest notch sensitivity were manufactured using automated tow placement. This suggests a possible relationship between the stress distribution and repeatable levels of material inhomogeneity that are larger than found in traditional tape laminates. Laminates with the highest notch sensitivity consisted of toughened matrix materials that were resistant to a splitting phenomena that reduces stress concentrations in load bearing plies. Parameters for conventional fracture criteria were found to increase with the crack length of the smallest notch sizes studied. Most materials and laminate combinations followed less than a square root singularity for the largest crack sizes studied. Specimen geometry, notch type, and notch size were evaluated in developing a screening test procedure. Results indicate that a range of notch sizes must be tested to determine notch sensitivity.

  15. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1995-05-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modelling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically non-linear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology, and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures, is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  16. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modeling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  17. Vibroacoustic Tailoring of a Rod-Stiffened Composite Fuselage Panel with Multidisciplinary Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Albert R.; Przekop, Adam

    2015-01-01

    An efficient multi-objective design tailoring procedure seeking to improve the vibroacoustic performance of a fuselage panel while maintaining or reducing weight is presented. The structure considered is the pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure, a highly integrated composite structure concept designed for a noncylindrical, next-generation flight vehicle fuselage. Modifications to a baseline design are evaluated within a six-parameter design space including spacing, flange width, and web height for both frame and stringer substructure components. The change in sound power radiation attributed to a design change is predicted using finite-element models sized and meshed for analyses in the 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz octave bands. Three design studies are carried out in parallel while considering a diffuse acoustic field excitation and two types of turbulent boundary-layer excitation. Kriging surrogate models are used to reduce the computational costs of resolving the vibroacoustic and weight objective Pareto fronts. The resulting Pareto optimal designs are then evaluated under a static pressurization ultimate load to assess structural strength and stability. Results suggest that choosing alternative configurations within the considered design space can reduce weight and improve vibroacoustic performance without compromising strength and stability of the structure under the static load condition considered, but the tradeoffs are significantly influenced by the spatial characteristics of the assumed excitation field.

  18. Computational Assessment of Aft-Body Closure for the HSR Reference H Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Londenberg, W. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine how well the USM3D unstructured Euler solver can be utilized to predict the flow over the High Speed Research (HSR) Reference H configuration with an ultimate goal of prediction of Sting interference so after body closure effects may be evaluated. This study has shown that the code can be used to predict the interference effects of a lower mounted blade sting with a high degree of confidence. It has been shown that wing and fuselage pressures, both levels and trends, can be predicted well. Force and moment levels are not predicted well but experimental trends are predicted. Based upon this, predicted force and moment increments are assumed to be predicted accurately. Deflection of the horizontal tail was found to cause a non-linear increment from the non-deflected sting interference effects.

  19. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock operates RMS THC on OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock operates the remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control (THC) while observing extravehicular activity (EVA) outside viewing window W10 on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Positioned at the onorbit station, Sherlock moved EVA astronauts in the payload bay (PLB). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low with his feet anchored to a special restraint device on the end of the RMS arm held MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff during the RMS maneuvers. The activity represented an evaluation of techniques which might be used on planned future missions -- a 1993 servicing visit to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and later space station work -- which will require astronauts to frequently lift objects of similar sized bulk. Note: Just below Sherlock's left hand a 'GUMBY' toy watches the actvity.

  20. STS-55 Pilot Henricks uses CTE equipment mounted on SL-D2 aft end cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned in front of an adjustable workstation mounted on the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aft end cone, conducts Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE). The STS-55 crew portrait (STS055(S)002) appears on the screen of the Macintosh portable computer. CTE will demonstrate real-time communication between the shuttle crew and the ground via a computer-based multimedia documentation file that includes text, graphics, and photos. CTE is expected to improve the effectiveness of on-orbit payload operations, returns from scientific investigations, crew interaction with the ground, and contingency maintenance tasks for systems and payloads. Also in the view and attached to the end cone are a fire extinguisher, a checklist, and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  1. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  2. STS-56 Commander Cameron uses SAREX on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing headset and headband equipped with penlight flashlight, uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Cameron, positioned just behind the pilots seat, talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of the pilots seat. The SAREX scan converter (a white box) is seen just above Cameron's head attached to overhead panel O9. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the JSC Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques. As on several previous missions, SAREX was used on this flight as an educational opportunity

  3. STS-56 crewmembers on aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 crewmembers pose on aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, for this in-cabin electronic still camera (ESC) photograph. Clockwise from the bottom right corner are Commander Kenneth Cameron, Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Ellen Ochoa, MS2 Kenneth D. Cockrell, and Pilot Stephen S. Oswald. The crewmembers are positioned in front of the onorbit station. The image was recorder with the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for Shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real time. In-cabin shots are for test purposes only.

  4. View of compartment A102 bread room from forward to AFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment A-102 bread room from forward to AFT. Wood slat decking and ceiling helps to provide adequate air circulation to aid in preservation of flour and baking supplies. Enclosed structure at right of photograph is a portion of the port side coffer dam. The coffer dam ia a partial inner hull to prevent flooding if the outer hull was breached. Originally the coffer dam was filled with water-resistant cellulose mad from corncobs. This material would swell with incoming water if the hull was breached and seal off the hole. Ordinary leakage kept the material wet and created ideal conditions for rot. The material was removed from the coffer dam. Ducts at right provide fresh air to the bread room. (09) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Aft-End Flow of a Large-Scale Lifting Body During Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fisher, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting body. Free-flight tests of the X-38 configuration were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California from 1997 to 2001.

  6. Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

  7. Agreement between Vermont State Colleges and Vermont State Colleges Faculty Federation, AFT, VFT, Local 3180, AFL-CIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Commission on Higher Education.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Vermont State Colleges (VSC) and Vermont State Colleges Faculty Federation, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), is presented that covers the period from September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1988. The following 48 articles are included: definitions, recognition, management rights,…

  8. Water impact test of aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of water impact loads tests using aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are examined. Dynamic structural response data is developed and an evaluation of the model in various configurations is presented. Impact velocities are determined for the SRB with the larger main chute system. Various failure modes are also investigated.

  9. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. II. Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHenry, M. Q.; Angelaki, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain binocular fixation on near targets during fore-aft translational disturbances, largely disjunctive eye movements are elicited the amplitude and direction of which should be tuned to the horizontal and vertical eccentricities of the target. The eye movements generated during this task have been investigated here as trained rhesus monkeys fixated isovergence targets at different horizontal and vertical eccentricities during 10 Hz fore-aft oscillations. The elicited eye movements complied with the geometric requirements for binocular fixation, although not ideally. First, the corresponding vergence angle for which the movement of each eye would be compensatory was consistently less than that dictated by the actual fixation parameters. Second, the eye position with zero sensitivity to translation was not straight ahead, as geometrically required, but rather exhibited a systematic dependence on viewing distance and vergence angle. Third, responses were asymmetric, with gains being larger for abducting and downward compared with adducting and upward gaze directions, respectively. As frequency was varied between 4 and 12 Hz, responses exhibited high-pass filter properties with significant differences between abduction and adduction responses. As a result of these differences, vergence sensitivity increased as a function of frequency with a steeper slope than that of version. Despite largely undercompensatory version responses, vergence sensitivity was closer to ideal. Moreover, the observed dependence of vergence sensitivity on vergence angle, which was varied between 2.5 and 10 MA, was largely linear rather than quadratic (as geometrically predicted). We conclude that the spatial tuning of eye velocity sensitivity as a function of gaze and viewing distance follows the general geometric dependencies required for the maintenance of foveal visual acuity. However, systematic deviations from ideal behavior exist that might reflect asymmetric processing of

  10. Thermophoresis of axially and fore-and-aft symmetric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu C.; Keh, Huan J.

    2010-11-01

    The thermophoretic motion of an aerosol particle of revolution with fore-and-aft symmetry in a uniformly prescribed temperature gradient normal to its axis of revolution is studied theoretically. The Knudsen number is assumed to be small so that the fluid flow is described by a continuum model. A method of distribution of a set of spherical singularities along the axis of revolution within a prolate particle or on the fundamental plane within an oblate particle is used to find the general solutions for the temperature and fluid velocity fields. The temperature jump and fluid slip conditions at the particle surface are satisfied by applying a boundary collocation technique to these general solutions to determine the unknown coefficients. The thermophoretic velocity of the particle is calculated with good convergence behavior for various cases, and the agreement between our results and the available analytical solutions is very good. It is found that the normalized thermophoretic velocity of a prolate or oblate spheroid perpendicular to its axis of revolution decreases monotonically with an increase in its axial-to-radial aspect ratio. For most practical cases of a spheroid with a specified aspect ratio, its thermophoretic mobility is not a monotonic function of its relative thermal conductivity. For the general problem of a particle with axial and fore-and-aft symmetry undergoing thermophoresis in a temperature gradient oriented arbitrarily with respect to its axis of revolution, the solution of the particle velocity can be obtained as a superposition of the solution obtained previously for the axisymmetric motion of the particle and the current result.

  11. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer- and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  12. NASTRAN data generation of helicopter fuselages using interactive graphics. [preprocessor system for finite element analysis using IBM computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sainsbury-Carter, J. B.; Conaway, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development and implementation of a preprocessor system for the finite element analysis of helicopter fuselages is described. The system utilizes interactive graphics for the generation, display, and editing of NASTRAN data for fuselage models. It is operated from an IBM 2250 cathode ray tube (CRT) console driven by an IBM 370/145 computer. Real time interaction plus automatic data generation reduces the nominal 6 to 10 week time for manual generation and checking of data to a few days. The interactive graphics system consists of a series of satellite programs operated from a central NASTRAN Systems Monitor. Fuselage structural models including the outer shell and internal structure may be rapidly generated. All numbering systems are automatically assigned. Hard copy plots of the model labeled with GRID or elements ID's are also available. General purpose programs for displaying and editing NASTRAN data are included in the system. Utilization of the NASTRAN interactive graphics system has made possible the multiple finite element analysis of complex helicopter fuselage structures within design schedules.

  13. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer-and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  14. A 0.15-scale study of configuration effects on the aerodynamic interaction between main rotor and fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trept, Ted

    1984-01-01

    Hover and forward flight tests were conducted to investigate the mutual aerodynamic interaction between the main motor and fuselage of a conventional helicopter configuration. A 0.15-scale Model 222 two-bladed teetering rotor was combined with a 0.15-scale model of the NASA Ames 40x80-foot wind tunnel 1500 horsepower test stand fairing. Configuration effects were studied by modifying the fairing to simulate a typical helicopter forebody. Separation distance between rotor and body were also investigated. Rotor and fuselage force and moment as well as pressure data are presented in graphical and tabular format. Data was taken over a range of thrust coefficients from 0.002 to 0.007. In forward flight speed ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.3 with shaft angle varying from +4 to -12 deg. The data show that the rotors effect on the fuselage may be considerably more important to total aircraft performance than the effect of the fuselage on the rotor.

  15. The Influence of Feedback on the Aeroelastic Behavior of Tilt Proprotor Aircraft Including the Effects of Fuselage Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Komatsuzaki, T.; Traybar, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of single loop feedbacks to improve the stability of the system are considered. Reduced order dynamic models are employed where appropriate to promote physical insight. The influence of fuselage freedom on the aeroelastic stability, and the influence of the airframe flexibility on the low frequency modes of motion relevant to the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle were examined.

  16. Analysis for the Progressive Failure Response of Textile Composite Fuselage Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Boitnott, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A part of aviation accident mitigation is a crash worthy airframe structure, and an important measure of merit for a crash worthy structure is the amount of kinetic energy that can be absorbed in the crush of the structure. Prediction of the energy absorbed from finite element analyses requires modeling the progressive failure sequence. Progressive failure modes may include material degradation, fracture and crack growth, and buckling and collapse. The design of crash worthy airframe components will benefit from progressive failure analyses that have been validated by tests. The subject of this research is the development of a progressive failure analysis for textile composite. circumferential fuselage frames subjected to a quasi-static, crash-type load. The test data for these frames are reported, and these data, along with stub column test data, are to be used to develop and to validate methods for the progressive failure response.

  17. Analysis for the Progressive Failure Response of Textile Composite Fuselage Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Boitnott, Richard L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A part of aviation accident mitigation is a crashworthy airframe structure, and an important measure of merit for a crashworthy structure is the amount of kinetic energy that can be absorbed in the crush of the structure. Prediction of the energy absorbed from finite element analyses requires modeling the progressive failure sequence. Progressive failure modes may include material degradation, fracture and crack growth, and buckling and collapse. The design of crashworthy airframe components will benefit from progressive failure analyses that have been validated by tests. The subject of this research is the development of a progressive failure analysis for a textile composite, circumferential fuselage frame subjected to a quasi-static, crash-type load. The test data for the frame are reported, and these data are used to develop and to validate methods for the progressive failure response.

  18. Nonlinear Acoustic Response of an Aircraft Fuselage Sidewall Structure by a Reduced-Order Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Groen, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A reduced-order nonlinear analysis of a structurally complex aircraft fuselage sidewall panel is undertaken to explore issues associated with application of such analyses to practical structures. Of primary interest is the trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy. An approach to modal basis selection is offered based upon the modal participation in the linear regime. The nonlinear static response to a uniform pressure loading and nonlinear random response to a uniformly distributed acoustic loading are computed. Comparisons of the static response with a nonlinear static solution in physical degrees-of-freedom demonstrate the efficacy of the approach taken for modal basis selection. Changes in the modal participation as a function of static and random loading levels suggest a means for improvement in the basis selection.

  19. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  20. Helicopter Fuselage Active Flow Control in the Presence of a Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Preston B; Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Wilson, Jacob S.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous investigations of active flow control for helicopter fuselage drag and download reduction to include the effects of the rotor. The development of the new wind tunnel model equipped with fluidic oscillators is explained in terms of the previous test results. Large drag reductions greater than 20% in some cases were measured during powered testing without increasing, and in some cases decreasing download in forward flight. As confirmed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), the optimum actuator configuration that provided a decrease in both drag and download appeared to create a virtual (fluidic) boat-tail fairing instead of attaching flow to the ramp surface. This idea of a fluidic fairing shifts the focus of 3D separation control behind bluff bodies from controlling/reattaching surface boundary layers to interacting with the wake flow.

  1. STS-26 MS Hilmers during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), tries out the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Hilmers to his feet once he reaches the bottom. Watching from floor level at the far left is astronaut Steven R. Nagel. A second crewmember stands in the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) awaiting his turn to slide to 'safety'. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The CES pole extends out the side hatch just above Hilmers' head.

  2. STS-26 crew trains in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers are briefed during a training exercise in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Seated outside the open side hatch of the full fuselage trainer (FFT) (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. Looking on at right are Astronaut Office Chief Daniel C. Brandenstein (standing) and astronaut James P. Bagian. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  3. STS-26 Pilot Covey during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), slides to safety using the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Covey to his feet once he reaches the bottom. The CES pole extends out the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  4. STS-26 crew trains in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers are briefed during a training exercise in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Seated outside the open side hatch of the full fuselage trainer (FFT) (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel (left), positioned in the open side hatch, briefs the crew on the pole escape system as he demonstrates some related equipment. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  5. Measurements of fuselage skin strains and displacements near a longitudinal lap joint in a pressurized aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.; Britt, Vicki O.

    1991-01-01

    Strains and displacements in a small area near a longitudinal lap joint in the fuselage skin of a B737 aircraft were measured during a pressurization cycle to a differential pressure of 6.2 psi while the aircraft was on the ground. It was found that hoop strains were higher than longitudinal strains at each location; membrane strains in the unreinforced skin were higher than in the joint; membrane strains in the hoop direction, as well as radial displacements, tended to be highest at the mid-bay location between skin reinforcements; significant bending in the hoop direction occurred in the joint and in the skin near the joint, and the bending was unsymmetrically distributed about the stringer at the middle of the joint; and radial displacements were unsymmetrically distributed across the lap joint. The interpretation of the strain gage data for locations on the bonded and riveted lap joint assumed that the joint did not contain disbonded areas.

  6. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far field. The effects of non-uniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing. 0 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering By Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  8. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering by Fuselage and Wings: A Computational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. The approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Large-scale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic configuration, with and without a wing.

  9. Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Applied to a Thin Haul Commuter Aircraft for Optimal Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.

  10. An analysis of available data on effects of wing-fuselage-tail and wing-nacelle interference on the distribution of the air load among components of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollner, Bertram C

    1949-01-01

    Available information on the effects of wing-fuselage-tail and wing-nacelle interference on the distribution of the air load among components of airplanes is analyzed. The effects of wing and nacelle incidence, horizontal andvertical position of wing and nacelle, fuselage shape, wing section and filleting are considered. Where sufficient data were unavailable to determine the distribution of the air load, the change in lift caused by interference between wing and fuselage was found. This increment is affected to the greatest extent by vertical wing position.

  11. Effects of fore-aft body mass distribution on acceleration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M; Carrier, David R

    2011-05-15

    The ability of a quadruped to apply propulsive ground reaction forces (GRF) during rapid acceleration may be limited by muscle power, foot traction or the ability to counteract the nose-up pitching moment due to acceleration. Because the biomechanics of acceleration change, both throughout the stride cycle and over subsequent strides as velocity increases, the factors limiting propulsive force production may also change. Depending on which factors are limiting during each step, alterations in fore-aft body mass distribution may either increase or decrease the maximum propulsive GRF produced. We analyzed the effects of experimental alterations in the fore-aft body mass distribution of dogs as they performed rapid accelerations. We measured the changes in trunk kinematics and GRF as dogs accelerated while carrying 10% body mass in saddlebags positioned just in front of the shoulder girdle or directly over the pelvic girdle. We found that dogs applied greater propulsive forces in the initial hindlimb push-off and first step by the lead forelimb in both weighted conditions. During these steps dogs appear to have been limited by foot traction. For the trailing forelimb, propulsive forces and impulses were reduced when dogs wore caudally placed weights and increased when dogs wore cranially placed weights. This is consistent with nose-up pitching or avoidance thereof having limited propulsive force production by the trailing forelimb. By the second stride, the hindlimbs appear to have been limited by muscle power in their ability to apply propulsive force. Adding weights decreased the propulsive force they applied most in the beginning of stance, when limb retractor muscles were active in supporting body weight. These results suggest that all three factors: foot traction, pitching of the body, and muscle power play roles in limiting quadrupedal acceleration. Digging in to the substrate with claws or hooves appears to be necessary for maximizing propulsion in the initial

  12. Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

  13. Theoretical study of nonadiabatic boundary-layer stabilization times in a cryogenic wind tunnel for typical stainless steel wing and fuselage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    The time varying effect of nonadiabatic wall conditions on boundary layer properties was studied for a two dimensional wing section and an axisymmetric fuselage. The wing and fuselage sections are representative of the wing root chord and fuselage of a typical transport model for the National Transonic Facility. The analysis was made with a solid wing and three fuselage configurations (one solid and two hollow with varying skin thicknesses) all made from AISI type 310S stainless steel. The displacement thickness and local skin friction were investigated at a station on the model in terms of the time required for these two boundary layer properties to reach an adiabatic wall condition after a 50 K step change in total temperature. The analysis was made for a free stream Mach number of 0.85, a total temperature of 117 K, and stagnation pressures of 2, 6, and 9 atm.

  14. Gravitaxis in motile micro-organisms: the role of fore aft body asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A. M.; Deacon, F. M.

    2002-02-01

    Scale model experiments on axially symmetric bodies exhibiting fore aft asymmetry are described. Body shapes are specified by a three parameter equation: two of the parameters (a and b) describe the length and breadth of the body and the third (c) the degree of asymmetry. Objects of this shape orientate as they sediment downwards under gravity until the narrower end lies uppermost, after which they fall vertically downward with no further change in orientation. For the range of parameters investigated the sedimentation velocities, both when vertical and horizontal, are governed principally by a and b, while the rate of orientation is determined by c. The sedimentation characteristics of bodies which cannot be described exactly by the equation can be predicted approximately using best-fit values for a, b and c. These results are applied to consider the role of front rear asymmetry in ciliated free-swimming micro-organisms. The shape asymmetry is probably sufficient to account for the observed orientation rates in the ciliated protozoan Paramecium. It is suggested that these results may be used to deduce the sedimentation behaviour of ciliates from microscope images of individual cells. In small flagellates such as Chlamydomonas the orientating effects of the protruding flagella are much larger than the effects of cell body asymmetry. The extreme sensitivity of the orientation rate to slight changes in body shape and flagellar beat patterns may explain why experiments to distinguish between various orientational mechanisms involved in gravitaxis have in the past produced equivocal results.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Staged Combustion Aft-Injected Hybrid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijsse, Jeff

    The staged combustion aft-injected hybrid (SCAIH) rocket motor is a promising design for the future of hybrid rocket propulsion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics and scientific computing have made computational modelling an effective tool in hybrid rocket motor design and development. The focus of this thesis is the numerical modelling of the SCAIH rocket motor in a turbulent combustion, high-speed, reactive flow framework accounting for solid soot transport and radiative heat transfer. The SCAIH motor is modelled with a shear coaxial injector with liquid oxygen injected in the center at sub-critical conditions: 150 K and 150 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.9), and a gas-generator gas-solid mixture of one-third carbon soot by mass injected in the annual opening at 1175 K and 460 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.6). Flow conditions in the near injector region and the flame anchoring mechanism are of particular interest. Overall, the flow is shown to exhibit instabilities and the flame is shown to anchor directly on the injector faceplate with temperatures in excess of 2700 K.

  16. A parametric shell analysis of the shuttle 51-L SRB AFT field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Bowman, Lynn M.; Hughes, Robert M., IV; Jackson, Brian J.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Shuttle 51-L accident, an investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure. Investigators at the Langley Research Center focused attention on the structural behavior of the field joints with O-ring seals in the steel solid rocket booster (SRB) cases. The shell-of-revolution computer program BOSOR4 was used to model the aft field joint of the solid rocket booster case. The shell model consisted of the SRB wall and joint geometry present during the Shuttle 51-L flight. A parametric study of the joint was performed on the geometry, including joint clearances, contact between the joint components, and on the loads, induced and applied. In addition combinations of geometry and loads were evaluated. The analytical results from the parametric study showed that contact between the joint components was a primary contributor to allowing hot gases to blow by the O-rings. Based upon understanding the original joint behavior, various proposed joint modifications are shown and analyzed in order to provide additional insight and information. Finally, experimental results from a hydro-static pressurization of a test rocket booster case to study joint motion are presented and verified analytically.

  17. Monitoring the censored lognormal reliability data in a three-stage process using AFT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Azam; Amiri, Amirhossein; Asadzadeh, Shervin

    2016-09-01

    Improving the product reliability is the main concern in both manufacturing and service processes which is obtained by monitoring the reliability-related quality characteristics. Nowadays, products or services are the result of processes with dependent stages referred to as multistage processes. In these processes, the quality characteristic in each stage is affected by the quality characteristic in the previous stages known as cascade property. Two regression-adjusted control schemes are applied to monitor the output quality variables of interest. Moreover, censoring is among the main limitations while monitoring the reliability-related quality characteristics, causing not to record the real values of some observations. Hence, the right censored observations are used to extend monitoring schemes under both the fixed- and variable-competing risks. In this paper, the accelerated failure time (AFT) is used to relate the reliability-related quality characteristic with lognormal distribution to the incoming variables. Then, two cause-selecting control charts are developed to monitor outgoing quality variables when censoring happens in each reliability-related stage. The performance of the control charts is evaluated and compared through extensive simulation studies under the censored and non-censored scenarios.

  18. Analysis of pressure blips in aft-finocyl solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacinto, M.; Favini, B.; Cavallini, E.

    2016-07-01

    Ballistic anomalies have frequently occurred during the firing of several solid rocket motors (SRMs) (Inertial Upper Stage, Space Shuttle Redesigned SRM (RSRM) and Titan IV SRM Upgrade (SRMU)), producing even relevant and unexpected variations of the SRM pressure trace from its nominal profile. This paper has the purpose to provide a numerical analysis of the following possible causes of ballistic anomalies in SRMs: an inert object discharge, a slag ejection, and an unexpected increase in the propellant burning rate or in the combustion surface. The SRM configuration under investigation is an aft-finocyl SRM with a first-stage/small booster design. The numerical simulations are performed with a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) unsteady model of the SRM internal ballistics, properly tailored to model each possible cause of the ballistic anomalies. The results have shown that a classification based on the head-end pressure (HEP) signature, relating each other the HEP shape and the ballistic anomaly cause, can be made. For each cause of ballistic anomalies, a deepened discussion of the parameters driving the HEP signatures is provided, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments of the resultant pressure signals.

  19. Use of photostress to analyze behavior of an aft skirt test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, S. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Strains at twenty-one selected points in the critical lower weld region of a aft skirt of a solid rocket booster of the shuttle were measured using photoelastic coatings and stress separator gages. Data were taken at loads of 5, 14, 20, 28, 42, 56, and 70 percent of the design limit load. Results indicate that general yielding occurred in the weld metal and for a short distance outside the fusion boundaries on either side of the weld metal. The fusion boundaries did not yield at the 70 percent load. Slight non-linearity in the load strain curves were observed at several points above the 20 percent load level. Maximum measured strains occurred at points in the forged metal of the holddown post along a line 0.50 inches from the centerline of the weld. Maximum shearing strains within the area covered by the photoelastic coating occurred at points approximately 0.33 inches to the right of the weld centerline near points 6 and 7 and lying along a yellow vertical line extending from just below point 6 to point 11. Photoelastic coatings were shown to be an excellent method to provide the whole field strain distribution in the region of the critical weld and to enhance the overall understanding of the behavior of the welded joint.

  20. Masking of thresholds for the perception of fore-and-aft vibration of seat backrests.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The detection of a vibration may be reduced by the presence of another vibration: a phenomenon known as 'masking'. This study investigated how the detection of one frequency of vibration is influenced by vibration at another frequency. With nine subjects, thresholds for detecting fore-and-aft backrest vibration were determined (for 4, 8, 16, and 31.5-Hz sinusoidal vibration) in the presence of a masker vibration (4-Hz random vibration, 1/3-octave bandwidth at six intensities). The masker vibration increased thresholds for perceiving vibration at each frequency by an amount that reduced with increasing difference between the frequency of the sinusoidal vibration and the frequency of the masker vibration. The 4-Hz random vibration almost completely masked 4-Hz sinusoidal vibration, partially masked 8- and 16-Hz vibration, and only slightly masked 31.5-Hz vibration. The findings might be explained by the involvement of different sensory systems and different body locations in the detection of different frequencies of vibration.

  1. STS-99 Technicians work in Endeavour's aft compartment of the payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Technicians work in the aft compartment of Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay, where a new Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) will be installed. The original E-MEC in Endeavour became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. Before workers can begin E-MEC replacement efforts at the launch pad, cryogenic reactants had to be offloaded from the orbiter and Space Shuttle ordnance disconnected. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  2. STS-54 Pilot McMonagle talks to radio station from OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Pilot Donald R. McMonagle, holding microphone, participates in an interview with a radio station on the Continental United States (CONUS) from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Behind McMonagle are Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Susan J. Helms (left) and MS2 Gregory J. Harbaugh. A third crewmember's legs appear above McMonagle's head.

  3. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koval, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  4. Structural FEM analysis of the strut-to-fuselage joint of a two-seat composite aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Rojas, Erik; Camarena-Arellano, Diego; Hernández-Moreno, Hilario

    2014-05-01

    An analysis of a strut-to-fuselage joint is realized in order to evaluate the zones with a high probability of failure by means of a safety factor. The whole section is analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) so as to estimate static resistance behavior, therefore it is necessary a numerical mock-up of the section, the mechanical properties of the Carbon-Epoxy (C-Ep) material, and to evaluate the applied loads. Results of the analysis show that the zones with higher probability of failure are found around the wing strut and the fuselage joint, with a safety factor lower than expected in comparison with the average safety factor used on aircrafts built mostly with metals.

  5. An estimate of the noise shielding on the fuselage resulting from installing a short duct around an advanced propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1988-01-01

    A simple barrier shielding model was used to estimate the amount of noise shielding on the fuselage that could result from installing a short duct around a wing-mounted advanced propeller. With the propeller located one-third of the duct length from the inlet, estimates for the maximum blade passing tone attenuation varied from 7 dB for a duct 0.25 propeller diameter long to 16.75 dB for a duct 1 diameter long. Attenuations for the higher harmonics would be even larger because of their shorter wavelengths relative to the duct length. These estimates show that the fuselage noise reduction potential of a ducted compared with an unducted propeller is significant. Even more reduction might occur if acoustic attenuation material were installed in the duct.

  6. Structural FEM analysis of the strut-to-fuselage joint of a two-seat composite aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Rojas, Erik Camarena-Arellano, Diego Hernández-Moreno, Hilario

    2014-05-15

    An analysis of a strut-to-fuselage joint is realized in order to evaluate the zones with a high probability of failure by means of a safety factor. The whole section is analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) so as to estimate static resistance behavior, therefore it is necessary a numerical mock-up of the section, the mechanical properties of the Carbon-Epoxy (C-Ep) material, and to evaluate the applied loads. Results of the analysis show that the zones with higher probability of failure are found around the wing strut and the fuselage joint, with a safety factor lower than expected in comparison with the average safety factor used on aircrafts built mostly with metals.

  7. Preservation of wing leading edge suction at the plane of symmetry as a factor in wing-fuselage design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Most fuselage geometries cover a portion of the wing leading edge near the plane of symmetry, and it seems reasonable to expect that a large fraction of the leading edge suction which would be developed by the covered wing at high angles of attack is not developed on the fuselage. This is one of the reasons that the Oswald span efficiency factor for the wing body combination fails to approach the value predicted by lifting line theory for the isolated wing. Some traditional and recent literature on wing-body interference is discussed and high Reynolds number data on wing-body-nacelle drag are reviewed. An exposed central leading edge geometry has been developed for a sailplane configuration. Low Reynolds number tests have not validated the design concept.

  8. Effects of the Shuttle Orbiter fuselage and elevon on the molecular distribution of water vapor from the flash evaporator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.; Kelso, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A concern has arisen regarding the emissive distribution of water molecules from the shuttle orbiter flash evaporator system (FES). The role of the orbiter fuselage and elevon in affecting molecular scattering distributions was nuclear. The effect of these components were evaluated. Molecular distributions of the water vapor effluents from the FE were measured. These data were compared with analytically predicted values and the resulting implications were calculated.

  9. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests with a Series of Propellers of Different Diameters on a Single Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests were made with four geometrically similar metal propellers of different diameters, on a Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine in an open cockpit fuselage. The results show little difference in the characteristics of the various propellers, the only one of any importance being an increase of efficiency of the order of 1 per cent for a 5 per cent increase of diameter, within the range of the tests.

  10. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Mcfalls, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a 20 inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. These techniques included source noise reduction features of selection of vane-blade ratio to reduce second harmonic noise, spacing effects, and lowering the Mach number through a vane row. Aft suppression features investigated included porosity effects, variable depth treatment, and treatment regenerated flow noise. Initial results and selected comparisons are presented.

  11. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  12. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Drag Characteristics of an HU2K Helicopter Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1963-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the drag characteristics of the HU2K helicopter fuselage. The effects of body shape, engine operation, appendages, and leakage on the model drag were determined. The results of the tests showed that the largest single contribution to the parasite drag was that of the rotor hub installation which produced about 80 percent of the drag of the sealed and faired production body. Fairings on the rotor hub and blade retentions, or a cleaned-up hub and retentions, appeared to be the most effective single modifications tested. The total drag of all protuberances and air leakage also contributed a major part of the drag - an 83-percent increase over the drag of the sealed and faired production body. An additional increment of drag was caused by the basic shape of the fuselage - 19 percent more than the drag obtained when the fuselage shape was extensively refaired. Another sizable increment of drag was caused by the engine oil-cooler exit which gave a drag of 8 percent of that of the sealed and faired production body.

  13. Comparison of ALE and SPH Simulations of Vertical Drop Tests of a Composite Fuselage Section into Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fuchs, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of multi-terrain impact has been identified as an important research area for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program on Rotorcraft Crashworthiness. As part of this effort, two vertical drop tests were conducted of a 5-ft-diameter composite fuselage section into water. For the first test, the fuselage section was impacted in a baseline configuration without energy absorbers. For the second test, the fuselage section was retrofitted with a composite honeycomb energy absorber. Both tests were conducted at a nominal velocity of 25-ft/s. A detailed finite element model was developed to represent each test article and water impact was simulated using both Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches in LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Analytical predictions were correlated with experimental data for both test configurations. In addition, studies were performed to evaluate the influence of mesh density on test-analysis correlation.

  14. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  15. Fracture analysis of multi-site cracking in fuselage lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional plane stress elastic fracture mechanics analysis of a cracked lap joint fastened by rigid pins is presented and results are applied to the problem of multi-site damage (MSD) in riveted lap joints of aircraft fuselage skins. Two problems are addressed, the problem of equal length MSD cracks and the problem of alternating length MSD cracks. For the problem of equal length cracks, two models of rivet/skin interactions are studied and the role of residual stresses due to the riveting process is explored. Stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of normalized crack length. Also, the load distribution among rivet rows and the compliance change of the joint due to MSD cracking are obtained. For the problem of alternating length cracks, attention is focussed on how load is distributed between columns of rivets and how this load shedding can alter crack tip stress intensity factors. The equal and alternating length crack analyses reveal no clear-cut mechanism to explain the relative uniformity of fatigue cracks emerging from lap joint rivet holes in actual aircraft and in mechanical lap joint tests.

  16. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Twin-Fuselage Pursuit Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkac, Victor B

    1946-01-01

    At the request of the Air Technical Service Command, U.S. Army Air Forces, a 0.22-scale model of a twin-fuselae pursuit airplane was built and tested at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The tests of this model were made in order that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane, especially at high speed, might be predicted. The results shown in this report consist of force data for the model and critical Mach numbers of parts of the model as determined from pressure-distribution measurements. The results indicate that a diving tendency of the airplane can be expected at Mach numbers above 0.70 at lift co-efficients from 0 to 0.4. There is an indication that the Mach number at which the airpolane would first experience a diving tendency for lift coefficients from 0 to 0.2 can be increased if the critical speed of the radiator enclosures is increased, and the wing-fuselage-juncture fillets are improved.

  17. In-flight measurement of propeller noise on the fuselage of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Ranaudo, Richard; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight measurements of propeller noise on the fuselage of an OV-10A aircraft were obtained using a horizontal and a vertical microphone array. A wide range of flight conditions were tested including changes in angle of attack, sideslip angle, power coefficient, helical tip Mach number and advance ratio, and propeller direction of rotation. Results show a dependence of the level and directivity of the tones on the angle of attack and on the sideslip angle with the propeller direction of rotation, which is similar to results obtained in wind tunnel tests with advanced propeller designs. The level of the tones at each microphone increases with increasing angle of attack for inboard-down propeller rotation and decreases for inboard-up rotation. The level also increases with increasing slideslip angle for both propeller directions of rotation. Increasing the power coefficient results in a slight increase in the level of the tones. A strong shock wave is generated by the propeller blades even at relatively low helical tip Mach numbers resulting in high harmonic levels. As the helical tip Mach number and the advance ratio are increased, the level of the higher harmonics increases much faster than the level of the blade passage frequency.

  18. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test predictions. This paper documents the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  19. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. LS-DYNA® was used to predict the thickness of the composite shield required to prevent blade penetration. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test LS-DYNA predictions. This paper documents the analysis conducted to predict the required thickness of a composite shield, the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  20. Development of a biaxial test facility for structural evaluation of aircraft fuselage panels

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.; Rice, T.

    1998-03-01

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft`s skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The composite doubler repair process produces both engineering and economic benefits. The FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs completed a project to introduce composite doubler repair technology to the commercial aircraft industry. This paper focuses on a specialized structural test facility which was developed to evaluate the performance of composite doublers on actual aircraft structure. The facility can subject an aircraft fuselage section to a combined load environment of pressure (hoop stress) and axial, or longitudinal, stress. The tests simulate maximum cabin pressure loads and use a computerized feedback system to maintain the proper ratio between hoop and axial loads. Through the use of this full-scale test facility it was possible to: (1) assess general composite doubler response in representative flight load scenarios, and (2) verify the design and analysis approaches as applied to an L-1011 door corner repair.

  1. An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.

  2. An analytic modeling and system identification study of rotor/fuselage dynamics at hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Steven W.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of analytic modeling and system identification methods have been used to develop an improved dynamic model describing the response of articulated rotor helicopters to control inputs. A high-order linearized model of coupled rotor/body dynamics including flap and lag degrees of freedom and inflow dynamics with literal coefficients is compared to flight test data from single rotor helicopters in the near hover trim condition. The identification problem was formulated using the maximum likelihood function in the time domain. The dynamic model with literal coefficients was used to generate the model states, and the model was parametrized in terms of physical constants of the aircraft rather than the stability derivatives resulting in a significant reduction in the number of quantities to be identified. The likelihood function was optimized using the genetic algorithm approach. This method proved highly effective in producing an estimated model from flight test data which included coupled fuselage/rotor dynamics. Using this approach it has been shown that blade flexibility is a significant contributing factor to the discrepancies between theory and experiment shown in previous studies. Addition of flexible modes, properly incorporating the constraint due to the lag dampers, results in excellent agreement between flight test and theory, especially in the high frequency range.

  3. Fuselage Versus Subcomponent Panel Response Correlation Based on ABAQUS Explicit Progressive Damage Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis performed in this study substantiates the need for high fidelity vehicle level progressive damage analyses (PDA) structural models for use in the verification and validation of proposed sub-scale structural models and to support required full-scale vehicle level testing. PDA results are presented that capture and correlate the responses of sub-scale 3-stringer and 7-stringer panel models and an idealized 8-ft diameter fuselage model, which provides a vehicle level environment for the 7-stringer sub-scale panel model. Two unique skin-stringer attachment assumptions are considered and correlated in the models analyzed: the TIE constraint interface versus the cohesive element (COH3D8) interface. Evaluating different interfaces allows for assessing a range of predicted damage modes, including delamination and crack propagation responses. Damage models considered in this study are the ABAQUS built-in Hashin procedure and the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage procedure implemented through a VUMAT user subroutine using the ABAQUS/Explicit code.

  4. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  5. Modelling Strategies for Predicting the Residual Strength of Impacted Composite Aircraft Fuselages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaud, Frederic; Espinosa, Christine; Michel, Laurent; Rahme, Pierre; Piquet, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Aeronautic Certification rules established for the metallic materials are not convenient for the composite structures concerning the resistance against impact. The computer-based design is a new methodology that is thought about to replace the experimental tests. It becomes necessary for numerical methods to be robust and predictive for impact. Three questions are addressed in this study: (i) can a numerical model be "mechanically intrinsic" to predict damage after impact, (ii) can this model be the same for a lab sample and a large structure, and (iii) can the numerical model be predictive enough to predict the Compression After Impact (CAI)? Three different computational strategies are used and compared: a Cohesive Model (CM), a Continuous Damage Model (CDM) coupling failure modes and damage, and a Mixed Methodology (MM) using the CDM for delamination initiation and the CM for cracks propagation. The first attempts to use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method are presented. Finally, impact on a fuselage is modelled and a numerical two-stage strategy is developed to predict the CAI.

  6. Fuselage Structure Response to Boundary Layer, Tonal Sound, and Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the response of curved aluminum and graphite-epoxy fuselage structures to flow and sound loads from turbulent boundary layer, tonal sound, and jet noise. Both structures were the same size. The aluminum structure was reinforced with tear stoppers, while the graphite-epoxy structure was not. The graphite-epoxy structure weighed half as much as the aluminum structure. Spatiotemporal intermittence and chaotic behavior of the structural response was observed, as jet noise and tonal sound interacted with the turbulent boundary layer. The fundamental tone distributed energy to other components via wave interaction with the turbulent boundary layer. The added broadband sound from the jet, with or without a shock, influenced the responses over a wider range of frequencies. Instantaneous spatial correlation indicates small localized spatiotemporal regions of convected waves, while uncorrelated patterns dominate the larger portion of the space. By modifying the geometry of the tear stoppers between panels and frame, the transmitted and reflected waves of the aluminum panels were significantly reduced. The response level of the graphite-epoxy structure was higher, but the noise transmitted was nearly equal to that of the aluminum structure. The fundamental shock mode is between 80 deg and 150 deg and the first harmonic is between 20 deg and 80 deg for the underexpanded supersonic jet impinging on the turbulent boundary layer influencing the structural response. The response of the graphite-epoxy structure due to the fundamental mode of the shock impingement was stabilized by an externally fixed oscillator.

  7. An in-flight investigation of a twin fuselage configuration in approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in-flight investigation of the flying qualities of a twin fuselage aircraft design in the approach and landing flight phase was carried out in the USAF/AFWAL Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS). The objective was to determine the effects of actual motion and visual cues on the pilot when he was offset from the centerline of the aircraft. The experiment variables were lateral pilot offset position (0, 30 and 50 feet) and effective roll mode time constant (.6, 1.2, 2.4 seconds). The evaluation included the final approach, flare and touchdown. Lateral runway offsets and 15 knot crosswinds were used to increase the pilot's workload and force him to make large lateral corrections in the final portion of the approach. Results indicated that large normal accelerations rather than just vertical displacements in rolling maneuvers had the most significant degrading effect on pilot ratings. The normal accelerations are a result of large lateral offset and fast roll mode time constant and caused the pilot to make unnecessary pitch inputs and get into a coupled pitch/roll oscillation while he was making line up and crosswind corrections. A potential criteria for lateral pilot offset position effects is proposed. When the ratio of incremented normal aceleration at the pilot station to the steady state roll rate for a step input reaches .01 to .02 g/deg/sec a deterioration of pilot rating and flying qualities level can be expected.

  8. The calculation of rotor/fuselage interaction for two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces have a significant influence on the aerodynamic performance of the helicopter, ride quality, and vibration. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary 2-D bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The vorticity and flow field velocities are calculated on a body-fitted computational mesh using an uncoupled iterative solution. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a simulated rotor wake with the flow about 2-D bodies, representing cross sections of fuselage components, was calculated to address the vortex interaction problem. The vortex interaction was calculated for the flow about a circular and an elliptic cylinder at 45 and 90 degrees incidence. The results demonstrate the significant variation in lift and drag on the 2-D bodies during the vortex interaction.

  9. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  10. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Cam Lever Stop Strain Guage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up of the S-IV-B aft swing arm cam lever stop strain guage.

  11. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Hydraulic With Drain System Orifice Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up view of the S-IV-B aft swing arm hydraulic with drain system orifice valve.

  12. Resolving the chronology of the South African landscape through joint inverse modelling of AFT and apatite (U-Th)/He data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Beucher, Romain; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    Application of Low temperature thermochronometry (LTT) is a powerful method of constraining thermal history information on samples as they pass through isotherms in the upper crust. Inverse modelling of LTT data generates thermal history information which can then be correlated with independent datasets to infer geological processes that are responsible for producing the observed thermal history held in the thermochronometry record. A critical consideration when choosing which LTT method to use are the closure temperatures associated with each system. In order to generate more complete and robust thermal histories a single sample can be analysed using multiple low temperature thermochronometers that are sensitive over different but complimentary temperature ranges. The main focus of LTT work in South Africa has been on apatite fission track (AFT) analysis which is a world renowned method of constraining thermal history information between c. 60 and 110±10°C. The general conclusions that have been drawn from the South African AFT dataset is that the present day regional topography represents an eroded remnant of an elevated interior that experienced a significant uplift event with km-scale erosion in the Cretaceous following the break-up of Gondwana [1]. The exact nature of Cretaceous uplift and erosion varies both spatially and temporally, especially in south western Africa where at least two distinct denudation events are recorded at c. 130Ma and 90 Ma [2]. There are, however, alternative views suggesting significant epeirogenic-style uplift and subsequent erosion throughout the Cenozoic [3]. A key aspect of this debate which is yet to be fully resolved is the influence of mantle dynamics on the evolution of the overlying topography. To further investigate the timing and amount of Cenozoic uplift and erosion and to what degree this can be ascribed to dynamic topography, efforts have been made to complement the existing AFT record with Apatite (U-Th)/He analysis

  13. Low frequency ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.

    1994-01-04

    This thesis is a collection of research efforts in ultrasonics, conducted at the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability located at Iowa State University, as part of the Federal Aviation Administration`s ``Aging Aircraft Program.`` The research was directed toward the development of an ultrasonic prototype to inspect the aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices found on 1970`s vintage Boeing passenger aircraft. The ultrasonic prototype consists of a normal incidence, low frequency inspection technique, and a scanning adapter that allows focused immersion transducers to be operated in a direct contact manner in any inspection orientation, including upside-down. The inspection technique uses a computer-controlled data acquisition system to produce a C-scan image of a radio frequency (RF) waveform created by a low frequency, broadband, focused beam transducer, driven with a spike voltage pulser. C-scans produced by this technique are color representations of the received signal`s peak-to-peak amplitude (voltage) taken over an (x, y) grid. Low frequency, in this context, refers to a wavelength that is greater than the lap splice`s layer thicknesses. With the low frequency technique, interface echoes of the lap splice are not resolved and gating of the signal is unnecessary; this in itself makes the technique simple to implement and saves considerable time in data acquisition. Along with the advantages in data acquisition, the low frequency technique is relatively insensitive to minor surface curvature and to ultrasonic interference effects caused by adhesive bondline thickness variations in the lap splice.

  14. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Pressurized Aircraft Fuselage Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aims to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration are not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One of the airframe concepts that might dramatically improve aircraft performance is a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presents inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a nonlinear finite element analysis of a large-scale test article being developed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. There are specific reasons why geometrically nonlinear analysis may be warranted for the hybrid wing body flat panel structure. In general, for sufficiently high internal pressure and/or mechanical loading, energy related to the in-plane strain may become significant relative to the bending strain energy, particularly in thin-walled areas such as the minimum gage skin extensively used in the structure under analysis. To account for this effect, a geometrically nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is needed to properly couple large out-of-plane and in-plane deformations. Depending on the loading, this nonlinear coupling mechanism manifests itself in a distinct manner in compression- and tension-dominated sections of the structure. Under significant compression, nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately predict loss of stability and postbuckled deformation. Under significant tension, the nonlinear effects account for suppression of the out-of-plane deformation due to in-plane stretching. By comparing the present results with the previously

  15. Load transfer in the stiffener-to-skin joints of a pressurized fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Rastogi, Naveen

    1995-01-01

    Structural analyses are developed to determine the linear elastic and the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of an internally pressurized, orthogonally stiffened, composite material cylindrical shell. The configuration is a long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity permits the analysis of a unit cell model consisting of a portion of the shell wall centered over one stringer-ring joint. The stringer-ring-shell joint is modeled in an idealized manner; the stiffeners are mathematically permitted to pass through one another without contact, but do interact indirectly through their mutual contact with the shell at the joint. Discrete beams models of the stiffeners include a stringer with a symmetrical cross section and a ring with either a symmetrical or an asymmetrical open section. Mathematical formulations presented for the linear response include the effect of transverse shear deformations and the effect of warping of the ring's cross section due to torsion. These effects are important when the ring has an asymmetrical cross section because the loss of symmetry in the problem results in torsion and out-of-plane bending of the ring, and a concomitant rotation of the joint at the stiffener intersection about the circumferential axis. Data from a composite material crown panel typical of a large transport fuselage structure are used for two numerical examples. Although the inclusion of geometric nonlinearity reduces the 'pillowing' of the shell, it is found that bending is localized to a narrow region near the stiffener. Including warping deformation of the ring into the analysis changes the sense of the joint rotation. Transverse shear deformation models result in increased joint flexibility.

  16. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  17. A multi-domain 3D Euler solver for flows in solid propellant rocket motor with AFT fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouat, Bruno; Vuillot, Francois

    1992-07-01

    The steady state three-dimensional flow field is computed by means of finite volume explicit NI centered scheme that solves the Euler equations. The treatment of boundary conditions is based on the use of characteristic relations. Application to a geometry including an aft end fin is detailed. The built in multi-domain capability of the code was used to divide the computational domain into three simpler sub-domains. The results are analyzed in terms of erosive burning and nozzle material ablation risks.

  18. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  19. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  20. A record of all marker bands found in the upper rivet rows of 2 adjacent bays from a fuselage lap splice joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    A full scale fuselage test article was subjected to 60,000 load cycles (pressurizations) to study the effect of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structures. Every 10,000 cycles coded marker block loading sequences were used to mark the fracture surfaces of the fatigue cracks propagating within the panel. The loading sequences consisted of series of underloads combined with a series of full pressurizations. The combination of loads and underloads marked the fracture surfaces with marker bands that could later be used to reconstruct the fatigue crack growth history of selected regions within the test article. Thirty rivet holes comprising the upper rivet rows from two adjacent bays (bays #3 and #4) from a fuselage lap splice joint were examined for the purpose of this study. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to locate the marker bands.