Science.gov

Sample records for aft swing arm

  1. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Umbilical Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a general view of the S-IV-B aft swing arm umbilical carrier.

  2. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Hydraulic With Drain System Orifice Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up view of the S-IV-B aft swing arm hydraulic with drain system orifice valve.

  3. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Cam Lever Stop Strain Guage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up of the S-IV-B aft swing arm cam lever stop strain guage.

  4. Arm swing in human walking: what is their drive?

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Marije; Jonkers, Ilse; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-06-01

    Although previous research has studied arm swing during walking, to date, it remains unclear what the contribution of passive dynamics versus active muscle control to arm swing is. In this study, we measured arm swing kinematics with 3D-motion analysis. We used a musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and generated dynamic simulations of walking with and without upper limb muscle excitations. We then compared arm swing amplitude and relative phase during both simulations to verify the extent to which passive dynamics contribute to arm swing. The results confirm that passive dynamics are partly responsible for arm swing during walking. However, without muscle activity, passive swing amplitude and relative phase decrease significantly (both p<0.05), the latter inducing a more in-phase swing pattern of the arms. Therefore, we conclude that muscle activity is needed to increase arm swing amplitude and modify relative phase during human walking to obtain an out-phase movement relative to the legs. PMID:24865637

  5. Detailed view of one (1) arm of the swing bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view of one (1) arm of the swing bridge cantilevering out from the center/pivot pier on which the entire span is balanced at its center when in the open position. Both arms of the span have equal length. Note that the members are pin-connected at their connections (joints). - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  6. 8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER (WHITE ROOM). WHITE ROOM MADE CONNECTION WITH CAPSULE ON LAUNCH VEHICLE. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  7. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles. PMID:26473519

  8. Effect of arm swing on single-step balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Huang, Yi-Chang; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Balance recovery techniques are useful not only in preventing falls but also in many sports activities. The step strategy plays an important role especially under intense perturbations. However, relatively little is known about the effect of arm swing on stepping balance recovery although considerable arm motions have been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine how the arms influence kinematic and kinetic characteristics in single-step balance recovery. Twelve young male adults were released from three forward-lean angles and asked to regain balance by taking a single step under arm swing (AS) and arm constrained (AC) conditions. It was found that unconstrained arms had initial forward motion and later upward motion causing increased moment of inertia of the body, which decreased falling angular velocity and allowed more time for stepping. The lengthened total balance time included weight transfer and stepping time, although duration increase in the latter was significant only at the largest lean angle. In contrast, step length, step velocity, and vertical ground reaction forces on the stepping foot were unaffected by arm swing. Future studies are required to investigate optimal movement strategies for the arms to coordinate with other body segments in balance recovery and injury reduction. PMID:25457416

  9. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction. PMID:26615477

  10. A swing arm profilometer for large telescope mirror element metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, M. J.; Efstathiou, A.; King, C. W.; Walker, D. D.; Gee, A. E.; Lewis, A. J.; Oldfield, S.; Steel, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of ground-based extremely large telescopes of 30 m to 100 m aperture calls for the manufacture of several hundred sub-aperture segments of 1 m to 2 m diameter. Each annulus of the overall aperture is formed from separate elements of the appropriate off-axis conic section (usually a paraboloid). Manufacture of these segments requires a systematic approach to in- and post-process metrology for all stages of manufacture, including the grinding stage, despite the fact that the resulting ground surface is generally not amenable to optically reflective measurement techniques. To address the need for measurements on such 1 m to 2 m telescope segments, a swing arm profilometer has been constructed as part of a collaborative project between University College London (UCL) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The current swing-arm profilometer is intended as a proof-of-concept device and has the capability to measure concave and convex surfaces of up to 1 m in diameter with a minimum radius of curvature of 1.75 m for concave and 1.25 m for convex surfaces. Results will be traceable to national length standards. Principles of the swing-arm instrument will be described together with the mechanics of the arm design, its bearing and adjustment arrangements and surface probe options. We assess the performance requirements of 20 nm RMS form measurement accuracy in the context of the tolerances of the selected profilometer components, the error budget, and preliminary system measurements. Initial results are presented with a Solartron linear encoder. We also plan to mount optical sensors on the end of the arm as an alternative to traditional contact probes. Initially these will include an Arden AWS-50 wavefront curvature sensor and a Fisba μ-phase interferometer. The method of attachment of the Arden AWS-50 is outlined. The swing arm profilometer is to be located at a specialised facility, the OPtiC Technium, Denbigh, North Wales, where it will form

  11. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  12. Arm Swing Magnitude and Asymmetry During Gait in the Early Stages of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewek, Michael D.; Poole, Roxanne; Johnson, Julia; Halawa, Omar; Huang, Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    The later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by altered gait patterns. Although decreased arm swing during gait is the most frequently reported motor dysfunction in individuals with PD, quantitative descriptions of gait in early PD have largely ignored upper extremity movements. This study was designed to perform a quantitative analysis of arm swing magnitude and asymmetry that might be useful in the assessment of early PD. Twelve individuals with early PD (in “off” state) and eight controls underwent gait analysis using an optically-based motion capture system. Participants were instructed to walk at normal and fast velocities, and then on heels (to minimize push-off). Arm swing was measured as the excursion of the wrist with respect to the pelvis. Arm swing magnitude for each arm, and inter-arm asymmetry, were compared between groups. Both groups had comparable gait velocities (p=0.61), and there was no significant difference between the groups in the magnitude of arm swing in all walking conditions for the arm that swung more (p=0.907) or less (p=0.080). Strikingly, the PD group showed significantly greater arm swing asymmetry (asymmetry angle: 13.9±7.9%) compared to the control group (asymmetry angle: 5.1±4.0%; p=0.003). Unlike arm swing magnitude, arm swing asymmetry unequivocally differs between people with early PD and controls. Such quantitative evaluation of arm swing, especially its asymmetry, may have utility for early and differential diagnosis, and for tracking disease progression in patients with later PD. PMID:19945285

  13. Both Coordination and Symmetry of Arm Swing Are Reduced in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuemei; Mahoney, Joseph M.; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Du, Guangwei; Piazza, Stephen J.; Cusumano, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A recent study reporting significantly reduced symmetry in arm swing amplitude in early Parkinson’s disease (PD), as measured during single strides in a gait laboratory, led to this investigation of arm swing symmetry and coordination over many strides using wearable accelerometers in PD. Methods Forearm accelerations were recorded while eight early PD subjects and eight Controls performed eight-minute walking trials. Arm swing asymmetry (ASA), maximal cross-correlation (MXC), and instantaneous relative phase (IRP) of bilateral arm swing were compared between PD and Controls. Correlations between arm swing measurements (ASA and MXC) and Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were estimated. Results PD subjects demonstrated significantly higher ASA (p = 0.002) and lower MXC (p < 0.001) than Controls. The IRP probability distribution for PD was significantly different than Controls (p < 0.001), with an angular standard deviation of 67.2° for PD and 50.6° for Controls. Among PD subjects, ASA was significantly correlated with the UPDRS score for the limbs (R2 = 0.58, p = 0.049), whereas MXC was significantly correlated with the tremor subscore of the limbs (R2 = 0.64, p = 0.031). Discussion The study confirms previously reported higher arm swing asymmetry in PD but also shows there is significantly lower MXC and greater IRP variability, suggesting that reduction in bilateral arm coordination may contribute to clinically observed asymmetry in PD. The differential correlation of clinical measures of motor disability with measurements of arm swing during gait is intriguing and deserves further investigation. PMID:22098825

  14. 45Degree view of one (1) arm of the swing span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45-Degree view of one (1) arm of the swing span bridge in the open position. The view shows the continuous bottom chord of the truss. The vertical post and diagonal web members that frame into this bottom chord are connected with single steel pins at each panel point (or joint). The timber track ties, supporting the track, span from truss to truss bottom chords (16' -0') and are supported thereby. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  15. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  16. Direct measurements of the coordination of lever arm swing and the catalytic cycle in myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Darshan V.; Muretta, Joseph M.; Swenson, Anja M.; Davis, Jonathon P.; Thomas, David D.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Myosins use a conserved structural mechanism to convert the energy from ATP hydrolysis into a large swing of the force-generating lever arm. The precise timing of the lever arm movement with respect to the steps in the actomyosin ATPase cycle has not been determined. We have developed a FRET system in myosin V that uses three donor–acceptor pairs to examine the kinetics of lever arm swing during the recovery and power stroke phases of the ATPase cycle. During the recovery stroke the lever arm swing is tightly coupled to priming the active site for ATP hydrolysis. The lever arm swing during the power stroke occurs in two steps, a fast step that occurs before phosphate release and a slow step that occurs before ADP release. Time-resolved FRET demonstrates a 20-Å change in distance between the pre- and postpower stroke states and shows that the lever arm is more dynamic in the postpower stroke state. Our results suggest myosin binding to actin in the ADP.Pi complex triggers a rapid power stroke that gates the release of phosphate, whereas a second slower power stroke may be important for mediating strain sensitivity. PMID:26553992

  17. Myosin VI: an innovative motor that challenged the swinging lever arm hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2010-01-01

    The swinging crossbridge hypothesis states that energy from ATP hydrolysis is transduced to mechanical movement of the myosin head while bound to actin. The light chain-binding region of myosin is thought to act as a lever arm that amplifies movements near the catalytic site. This model has been challenged by findings that myosin VI takes larger steps along actin filaments than early interpretations of its structure seem to allow. We now know that myosin VI does indeed operate by an unusual ~ 180° lever arm swing and achieves its large step size using special structural features in its tail domain. PMID:20094053

  18. Multicomponent control strategy underlying production of maximal hand velocity during horizontal arm swing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N; Dounskaia, Natalia

    2009-11-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  19. Multicomponent Control Strategy Underlying Production of Maximal Hand Velocity During Horizontal Arm Swing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  20. “Gunslinger’s gait”: a new cause of unilaterally reduced arm swing

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To postulate a new possible cause of a unilaterally reduced arm swing in addition to the known medical conditions such as shoulder pathology, Erb’s palsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Methods Analysis of YouTube videos depicting the gait of highly ranked Russian officials. Results We found a similar walking pattern in President Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and three other highly ranked Russian officials, all presenting with a consistently reduced right arm swing in the absence of other overt neurological abnormalities. Conclusions We propose that this new gait pattern, which we term “gunslinger’s gait,” may result from a behavioural adaptation, possibly triggered by KGB or other forms of weapons training where trainees are taught to keep their right hand close to the chest while walking, allowing them to quickly draw a gun when faced with a foe. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a unilaterally reduced arm swing. PMID:26666758

  1. Swing Amplification of Galactic Spiral Arms: Phase Synchronization of Stellar Epicycle Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the swing amplification model of galactic spiral arms proposed by Toomre. We describe the derivation of the perturbation equation in detail and investigate the amplification process of stellar spirals. We find that the elementary process of the swing amplification is the phase synchronization of the stellar epicycle motion. Regardless of the initial epicycle phase, the epicycle phases of stars in a spiral are synchronized during the amplification. Based on the phase synchronization, we explain the dependence of the pitch angle of spirals on the epicycle frequency. We find the most amplified spiral mode and calculate its pitch angle, wavelengths, and amplification factor, which are consistent with those obtained by the more rigorous model based on the Boltzmann equation by Julian & Toomre.

  2. Multi-enzyme complexes on DNA scaffolds capable of substrate channelling with an artificial swinging arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinglin; Yang, Yuhe Renee; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Woodbury, Neal W.; Yan, Hao

    2014-07-01

    Swinging arms are a key functional component of multistep catalytic transformations in many naturally occurring multi-enzyme complexes. This arm is typically a prosthetic chemical group that is covalently attached to the enzyme complex via a flexible linker, allowing the direct transfer of substrate molecules between multiple active sites within the complex. Mimicking this method of substrate channelling outside the cellular environment requires precise control over the spatial parameters of the individual components within the assembled complex. DNA nanostructures can be used to organize functional molecules with nanoscale precision and can also provide nanomechanical control. Until now, protein-DNA assemblies have been used to organize cascades of enzymatic reactions by controlling the relative distance and orientation of enzymatic components or by facilitating the interface between enzymes/cofactors and electrode surfaces. Here, we show that a DNA nanostructure can be used to create a multi-enzyme complex in which an artificial swinging arm facilitates hydride transfer between two coupled dehydrogenases. By exploiting the programmability of DNA nanostructures, key parameters including position, stoichiometry and inter-enzyme distance can be manipulated for optimal activity.

  3. Multi-enzyme complexes on DNA scaffolds capable of substrate channelling with an artificial swinging arm.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinglin; Yang, Yuhe Renee; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G; Woodbury, Neal W; Yan, Hao

    2014-07-01

    Swinging arms are a key functional component of multistep catalytic transformations in many naturally occurring multi-enzyme complexes. This arm is typically a prosthetic chemical group that is covalently attached to the enzyme complex via a flexible linker, allowing the direct transfer of substrate molecules between multiple active sites within the complex. Mimicking this method of substrate channelling outside the cellular environment requires precise control over the spatial parameters of the individual components within the assembled complex. DNA nanostructures can be used to organize functional molecules with nanoscale precision and can also provide nanomechanical control. Until now, protein-DNA assemblies have been used to organize cascades of enzymatic reactions by controlling the relative distance and orientation of enzymatic components or by facilitating the interface between enzymes/cofactors and electrode surfaces. Here, we show that a DNA nanostructure can be used to create a multi-enzyme complex in which an artificial swinging arm facilitates hydride transfer between two coupled dehydrogenases. By exploiting the programmability of DNA nanostructures, key parameters including position, stoichiometry and inter-enzyme distance can be manipulated for optimal activity. PMID:24859813

  4. Swing arm profilometer: analytical solutions of misalignment errors for testing axisymmetric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ling; Luo, Xiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiaokun; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Ligong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-07-01

    The swing arm profilometer (SAP) has been playing a very important role in testing large aspheric optics. As one of most significant error sources that affects the test accuracy, misalignment error leads to low-order errors such as aspherical aberrations and coma apart from power. In order to analyze the effect of misalignment errors, the relation between alignment parameters and test results of axisymmetric optics is presented. Analytical solutions of SAP system errors from tested mirror misalignment, arm length L deviation, tilt-angle θ deviation, air-table spin error, and air-table misalignment are derived, respectively; and misalignment tolerance is given to guide surface measurement. In addition, experiments on a 2-m diameter parabolic mirror are demonstrated to verify the model; according to the error budget, we achieve the SAP test for low-order errors except power with accuracy of 0.1 μm root-mean-square.

  5. Design of a Motorcycle Composite Swing-Arm by Means of Multi-objective Optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airoldi, Alessandro; Bertoli, Simone; Lanzi, Luca; Sirna, Marco; Sala, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    A study for the replacement of a metallic swing-arm of a high performance motorcycle with a composite part is presented. Considering the high structural effectiveness of the original metallic component, the case study evaluates the potential of composites in a challenging application. The FE model of the original component is developed to evaluate the structural performance in the most significant load conditions. A manufacturing process, based on a RTM technique, is proposed and analysed in order to develop realistic design hypotheses. The design approach is based on an optimisation process with 60 design variables. A constrained multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to identify the solutions representing the best trade-off between mass reduction and improvement of torsional stiffness. Results show that composite materials can enhance the structural efficiency of the original metallic part, even considering technological limitations and damage tolerance requirements.

  6. Coupling of lever arm swing and biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Togashi, Akio; Sasaki, Takeshi N; Takano, Mitsunori; Sasai, Masaki; Terada, Tomoki P

    2014-04-01

    An important unresolved problem associated with actomyosin motors is the role of Brownian motion in the process of force generation. On the basis of structural observations of myosins and actins, the widely held lever-arm hypothesis has been proposed, in which proteins are assumed to show sequential structural changes among observed and hypothesized structures to exert mechanical force. An alternative hypothesis, the Brownian motion hypothesis, has been supported by single-molecule experiments and emphasizes more on the roles of fluctuating protein movement. In this study, we address the long-standing controversy between the lever-arm hypothesis and the Brownian motion hypothesis through in silico observations of an actomyosin system. We study a system composed of myosin II and actin filament by calculating free-energy landscapes of actin-myosin interactions using the molecular dynamics method and by simulating transitions among dynamically changing free-energy landscapes using the Monte Carlo method. The results obtained by this combined multi-scale calculation show that myosin with inorganic phosphate (Pi) and ADP weakly binds to actin and that after releasing Pi and ADP, myosin moves along the actin filament toward the strong-binding site by exhibiting the biased Brownian motion, a behavior consistent with the observed single-molecular behavior of myosin. Conformational flexibility of loops at the actin-interface of myosin and the N-terminus of actin subunit is necessary for the distinct bias in the Brownian motion. Both the 5.5-11 nm displacement due to the biased Brownian motion and the 3-5 nm displacement due to lever-arm swing contribute to the net displacement of myosin. The calculated results further suggest that the recovery stroke of the lever arm plays an important role in enhancing the displacement of myosin through multiple cycles of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting a unified movement mechanism for various members of the myosin family. PMID:24762409

  7. Sticky swinging arm dynamics: studies of an acyl carrier protein domain from the mycolactone polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Steven; Tkachenko, Olga; Thomas, Ben; Bassuni, Mona; Hong, Hui; Nietlispach, Daniel; Broadhurst, William

    2016-01-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce polyketide natural products by passing a growing acyl substrate chain between a series of enzyme domains housed within a gigantic multifunctional polypeptide assembly. Throughout each round of chain extension and modification reactions, the substrate stays covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In the present study we report on the solution structure and dynamics of an ACP domain excised from MLSA2, module 9 of the PKS system that constructs the macrolactone ring of the toxin mycolactone, cause of the tropical disease Buruli ulcer. After modification of apo ACP with 4′-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to create the holo form, 15N nuclear spin relaxation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments suggest that the prosthetic group swings freely. The minimal chemical shift perturbations displayed by Ppant-attached C3 and C4 acyl chains imply that these substrate-mimics remain exposed to solvent at the end of a flexible Ppant arm. By contrast, hexanoyl and octanoyl chains yield much larger chemical shift perturbations, indicating that they interact with the surface of the domain. The solution structure of octanoyl-ACP shows the Ppant arm bending to allow the acyl chain to nestle into a nonpolar pocket, whereas the prosthetic group itself remains largely solvent exposed. Although the highly reduced octanoyl group is not a natural substrate for the ACP from MLSA2, similar presentation modes would permit partner enzyme domains to recognize an acyl group while it is bound to the surface of its carrier protein, allowing simultaneous interactions with both the substrate and the ACP. PMID:26920023

  8. Intelligent fault-tolerant control for swing-arm system in the space-borne spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yufeng; Zhou, Chunjie; Huang, Xiongfeng; Yin, Quan

    2012-04-01

    Fault-tolerant control (FTC) for the space-borne equipments is very important in the engineering design. This paper presents a two-layer intelligent FTC approach to handle the speed stability problem in the swing-arm system suffering from various faults in space. This approach provides the reliable FTC at the performance level, and improves the control flow error detection capability at the code level. The faults degrading the system performance are detected by the performance-based fault detection mechanism. The detected faults are categorized as the anticipated faults and unanticipated faults by the fault bank. Neural network is used as an on-line estimator to approximate the unanticipated faults. The compensation control and intelligent integral sliding mode control are employed to accommodate two types of faults at the performance level, respectively. To guarantee the reliability of the FTC at the code level, the key parts of the program codes are modified by control flow checking by software signatures (CFCSS) to detect the control flow errors caused by the single event upset. Meanwhile, some of the undetected control flow errors can be detected by the FTC at the performance level. The FTC for the anticipated fault and unanticipated fault are verified in Synopsys Saber, and the detection of control flow error is tested in the DSP controller. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the novel FTC approach.

  9. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. PMID:27031075

  10. Research on the relationship of the probe system for the swing arm profilometer based on the point source microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingxing; Jing, Hongwei; Cao, Xuedong; Chen, Lin; Yang, Jie

    2015-08-01

    When using the swing arm profilometer (SAP) to measure the aspheric mirror and the off-axis aspheric mirror, the error of the effective arm length of the SAP has an obvious influence on the measurement result. In order to reduce the influence of the effective arm length and increase the measurement accuracy of the SAP, the laser tracker is adopted to measure the effective arm length. Because the space position relationship of the probe system for the SAP is needed to measured before using the laser tracker, the point source microscope (PSM) is used to measure the space positional relationship. The measurement principle of the PSM and other applications are introduced; the accuracy and repeatability of this technology are analysed; the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are summarized.

  11. Arm Swing during Walking at Different Speeds in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Massaad, Firas; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Duysens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) have difficulties walking at a normal or high speed. It is known that arm movements play an important role to achieve higher walking speeds in healthy subjects. However, the role played by arm movements while walking at different speeds has received no attention in children with CP. Therefore we investigated the…

  12. Biomechanical mechanism for transitions in phase and frequency of arm and leg swing during walking.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Wagenaar, Robert C; Saltzman, Elliot; Holt, Kenneth G

    2004-08-01

    As humans increase walking speed, there are concurrent transitions in the frequency ratio between arm and leg movements from 2:1 to 1:1 and in the phase relationship between the movements of the two arms from in-phase to out-of-phase. Superharmonic resonance of a pendulum with monofrequency excitation had been proposed as a potential model for this phenomenon. In this study, an alternative model of paired pendulums with multiple-frequency excitations is explored. It was predicted that the occurrence of the concurrent transitions was a function of (1) changes in the magnitude ratio of shoulder accelerations at step and stride frequencies that accompany changes in walking speed and (2) proximity of these frequencies to the natural resonance frequencies of the arms modeled as a pair of passive pendulums. Model predictions were compared with data collected from 14 healthy young subjects who were instructed to walk on a treadmill. Walking speeds were manipulated between 0.18 and 1.52 m/s in steps of 0.22 m/s. Kinematic data for the arms and shoulders were collected using a 3D motion analysis system, and simulations were conducted in which the movements of a double-pendulum system excited by the accelerations at the suspension point were analyzed to determine the extent to which the arms acted as passive pendulums. It was confirmed that the acceleration waveforms at the shoulder are composed primarily of stride and step frequency components. Between the shoulders, the stride frequency components were out-of-phase, while the step frequency components were in-phase. The amplitude ratio of the acceleration waveform components at the step and stride frequencies changed as a function of walking speed and were associated with the occurrence of the transitions. Simulation results using these summed components as excitatory inputs to the double-pendulum system were in agreement with actual transitions in 80% of the cases. The potential role of state-dependent active muscle

  13. General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Skirt Assembly and the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated together in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center and being prepared for mounting onto the Mobile Launch Platform and mating with the other Solid Rocket Booster segments. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  15. General closeup view of the swing span bridge in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General close-up view of the swing span bridge in the close position, looking upriver. The pivot/center pier is positioned in the center of Tennessee River. Note: Each arm of the continuous swing span acts as simple spans. The total span over four (4) supports is partially continuous-- the middle panel at the center pier is continuous for bending moments, but discontinuous for shears. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  16. 12. STATIC TEST TOWER SOUTHEAST SIDE CLOSEUP OF SWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. STATIC TEST TOWER - SOUTHEAST SIDE CLOSE-UP OF SWING ARM AMD PLATFORM FOR FLAME DEFLECTOR PIT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. STS-46 MS-PLC Hoffman monitors EURECA deploy from OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing polarized goggles (sunglasses), monitors the European Retrievable Carrier 1L (EURECA-1L) satellite deploy from the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The remote manipulator system arm's 'Canada' insignia is visible in aft flight deck viewing window W10. Hoffman's left hand is positioned at overhead window W8.

  18. On the efficiency of the golf swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rod

    2006-12-01

    A non-driven double pendulum model is used to explain the principle underlying the surprising efficiency of the golf swing. The principle can be described as a parametric energy transfer between the arms and the club head due to the changing moment of inertia of the club. The transfer is a consequence of conservation of energy and angular momentum. Because the pendulum is not driven by an external force, it shows that the golfer need do little more than accelerate the arms with the wrists cocked and let the double pendulum transfer kinetic energy to the club head. A driven double pendulum model is used to study factors affecting the efficiency of a real golf swing. It is concluded that the wrist-cock angle is the most significant efficiency-determining parameter under the golfer's control and that improvements in golf technology have had a significant impact on driving distance.

  19. ANTI-SWING CRANE

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.

    1957-09-17

    A device that reduces or eliminntes the swing of an object being transported by a traveling crane is described. The supporting cable of the crane extends through a guide and follower positioned below the crane by an electric motor and follow-up circuit. The swing or horizontal motion of the cable is detected by the follower, and a signal is generated that will cause the motor to move the follower in opposition to the motion of the swing thus having a dampening effect on the pendulum action of the supported body. This improvement is particularly valuable when the supported load may be so radioactive that a person could not manually stop the swing.

  20. Slides, Swings and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Kay Jardon; Bryte, Janelle

    1990-01-01

    Described are eight science activities that may take place on a school playground using a parachute, balls, swings, slides, and a balance beam. Procedures and questions for each activity are included. (CW)

  1. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  2. Detailed view of one (1) end of the swing span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view of one (1) end of the swing span, supported on a rest pier, with the span in the closed position and in the train operational mode. Note the end truss bearing where a steel wedge is in the driven position to complete the end bearing arrangement. The wedges are power-driven through the machinery crank arms shown, thus forcing the ends of the swing span truss upward. Note: The top of the old stone pies has been encased with a concrete collar to hold stone masonry together and strengthen truss bearing points. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  3. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  4. Early improper motion detection in golf swings using wearable motion sensors: the first approach.

    PubMed

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  5. General view looking aft along the port side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the port side of the Orbiter Discovery into its payload bay. Note the Remote Manipulator System, Canadarm, in the foreground mounted on the port side longeron. The Remote Sensor Arm is mounted on the opposite, starboard, longeron. Also note the airlock and the protective covering over the docking mechanism. This image was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Gas and Shadow Swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chi-Hung; Lai, Mei-Yi; Liu, Che-Wei; Huang, Shiang-Yin; Lin, Che-Yu; Yeh, Jeng-Sheng

    In our digital art, we design a folding fan as an interactive magic device. You can use it to play with gas around the world of illusions. Although gas could not be seen in our real world, we still want to interact with it in our illusions by the element of bubble shadows. Opening and swinging the folding fan can blow the bubble shadows away; closing and swinging it can break bubbles. If the magic fan touches the shadow of gas, the bubble shadows will explode and release colorful particles to surround you. Those actions are controlled and located by our circuits with Arduino board.

  7. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  8. A Library That Swings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragens, Thomas A.

    1971-01-01

    The Grace Doherty Library (Centre College, Danville, Kentucky) is a library that "swings," being so designed that a substantial part of its space is used alternately for classroom purposes during the day and for library reading-study space in the peak evening hours. (Author)

  9. Swing beam internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenstein, F.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, a piston displaceable in the cylinder for executing at least two strokes over an engine cycle, namely, a compression stroke and a power stroke, a crankshaft, and a swing beam. It includes a coupling between one end of the swing beam and the piston; a second coupling between the crankshaft and swing beam; means engaging the swing beam for causing the swing beam to rotate about a pivot point; and means responsive to the piston stroke for varying the pivot point, relative to the cylinder, between each compression stroke and each power stroke.

  10. Space Shuttle Orbiter AFT heat shield seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkover, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the orbiter aft heat shield seal (AHSS) design, which involved advancing mechanical seal technology in severe thermal environment is discussed. The baseline design, various improvements for engine access, and technical problem solution are presented. It is a structure and mechanism at the three main propulsion system (MPS) engine interfaces to the aft compartment structure. Access to each MPS engine requires disassembly and removal of the AHSS. Each AHSS accommodates the engine movement, is exposed to an extremely high temperature environment, and is part of the venting control of the aft compartment.

  11. View aft of compartment D23, aft steering station; note steering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View aft of compartment D-23, aft steering station; note steering unit with crosshead and shaft bearing supports. Note framing supports for armored protective deck at top of photo. (p60) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Fore–aft translation aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A general theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus makes it seem more neutral such that perception of subsequent stimuli is shifted in the opposite direction. The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is an extensively studied example of this. Although similar effects have been described in other sensory systems, it has not previously been described in the vestibular system. Velocity storage has been extensively studied in the vestibular system and suggests a persistence of perception in the direction of the initial movement. The current study sought to determine how motion perception is influenced by prior movement in darkness. Thirteen human subjects (mean age 41, range 21–68) underwent whole-body fore–aft translation. The threshold of vestibular motion discrimination perception was measured using a single interval (1I) of motion lasting 0.5 s in which subjects identified their direction of motion as forward or backward using an adaptive staircase. The translation aftereffect (TAE) was measured in 2-interval (2I) experiments: The adapting stimulus moved 15 cm in 1.5 s (peak velocity 20 cm/s, peak acceleration 42 cm/s2). After a fixed inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 3 s, a second stimulus lasting 0.5 s was delivered and the subject identified the perceived direction of the second test stimulus. The test stimulus was determined using an adaptive staircase. The ISI was constant within the block, but adapting stimuli directions were randomly interleaved. During the 1I condition, the response bias was near zero in all subjects. With a 2I stimulus, 8 of 13 subjects demonstrated a significant bias. At an ISI of 0.5 s, a minority of subjects demonstrated a bias in the same direction as the adapter. When the ISI was 1, 1.5, or 3 s, all subjects who demonstrated a significant TAE had one in the opposite direction of the adapter, similar to that seen for MAE. When averaged across subjects, the TAE was significant with ISIs of 1.0 s and

  13. Mechanics of swinging a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on the swing of a baseball bat are analyzed to extract the basic mechanics of the swing. The force acting on the bat is determined from the velocity of the center of mass, and the angular velocity of the bat provides additional information on the couple exerted by the two hands. The motion of the bat was calculated for other force-couple combinations to determine their effects on the swing of the bat. It was found that a couple is needed to start the swing, and a large opposing couple is required near the end of the swing to prevent the bat rotating through an excessive angle before it impacts with the ball.

  14. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  15. 37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View aft of main deck, port side, taken from just aft of forecastle bulkhead showing foremast, fore shrouds, pig house, midship house and boat skids. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. A.F.T. Tones Down Its Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the 1984 annual conference of the American Federal of Teachers (AFT). Some issues members discussed are teacher evaluations (in relation to merit pay), teacher training, and education reform. Includes an interview with the AFT president. (MD)

  18. In Pennsylvania Primary, AFT Hits the Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, 14 retired teachers and other school employees arrive at the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers' headquarters and go to work for Hillary Rodham Clinton. The retirees--working with volunteers and union staff members from as far away as Alaska--are working to inform teachers' union members why the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)…

  19. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  20. Tension Builds over AFT Reform Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Can a teachers' union successfully be both a hardball-playing defender of its rights and a collaborative force for the common good? It is both a question of philosophy and, increasingly, one of policy direction for the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), whose biennial convention in Detroit showed delegates grappling with the tension between…

  1. Swinging around the high bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiley, M. J.; Yeadon, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of a gymnast around the high bar is modelled first as swinging around a rigid rod then more accurately when the rod is considered to be elastic. How the gymnast should best move his hips is also considered.

  2. 6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR GALLEY STOVE CHIMNEY. DECKHOUSES ARE (FORE TO AFT) GALLEY COMPANIONWAY, ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT, PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY TO PILOTS' CABIN AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  3. Could IGCC swing

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-06-15

    A few big-name utilities are looking to make big-time power from gasified coal. AEP has utility-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants in the works for Ohio and West Virginia. Duke Energy Indiana plans to build a 630 MW IGCC plant at Edwardsport to replace the existing 160 MW coal-fired unit there. NRG hopes to build utility-scale IGCC plants in New York and Delaware. Tampa Electric has announced plans to build a 630 MW IGCC at its Polk site, already the location of a 260 MW IGCC. In Taylorville, IL, another power-oriented IGCC is under development, owned by individuals from original developer ERORA and Omaha-based Tenaska. And yet another power producing IGCC is being proposed by Tondu Corporation at Corpus Christi, Texas to be fired by petroleum coke, also known as petcoke. The article gives an overview of these developments and moves on to discuss the popular question of the economic viability of IGCC making marketable byproducts in addition to power. Several projects are under way to make synthetic natural gas for coal. These are reported. Although the versatility of gasification may well give the ability to swing from various levels of power production to various levels of co-producing one or more products, for the time being it appears the IGCCs being built will produce power only, along with elemental sulphur and slag.

  4. Challenger's RMS arm grasps SPAS-01 during proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Challenger's remote manipulator system (RMS) arm grasps Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01) during proximity operations. The frame shows a number of reflections on the window, located overhead in the aft flight deck.

  5. Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Lleras, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem's solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the solution (stretch group). Although most of the participants were unaware of the relationship between their arm movement exercises and the problem-solving task, the participants who moved their arms in a manner that suggested the problem's solution were more likely to solve the problem than were those who moved their arms in other ways. Consistent with embodied theories of cognition, these findings show that actions influence thought and, furthermore, that we can implicitly guide people toward insight by directing their actions. PMID:19648458

  6. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  7. Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the DMOI bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p < 0.05). The findings suggested that the swing training with the DMOI bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball. PMID:21993041

  8. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  9. Swinging around the High Bar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiley, M. J.; Yeadon, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Models the motion of a gymnast around the high bar first as swinging around a rigid rod, then more accurately when the rod is considered to be elastic. Also considers how the gymnast should best move his hips. (Author/ASK)

  10. Young Children's Development of Swinging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jill Englebright; Tipps, R. Steven

    1995-01-01

    Examined development of young children's psychomotor behaviors on outdoor swings, devising a Guttman hierarchical scale. Found that children consolidate basic movements into proficient swinging skills, and then experiment with the physical properties of the swing and with the social context. Modeling, informal instruction, and practice contribute…

  11. AFT No Longer a Major Player in Reform Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has lost several of its most prominent leaders over the past decade. It has struggled with scandals at major locals. An internal survey showed low morale among its own employees. The union itself insists it is still very much on the path blazed by Albert Shanker, the AFT's late, legendary president, under…

  12. 7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT NEAR ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT. ENGINE ROOM SKYLIGHT IS AT EXTREME LEFT, FOLLOWED BY PILOTS' CABIN SKYLIGHT, AFT COMPANIONWAY AND STEERING GEAR BOX - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. 36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View aft to steering wheel (R. H. Dougherty and Co. of Baltimore) and steering gear box taken from on top of Aft Cabin. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  14. 46 CFR 153.234 - Fore and aft location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fore and aft location. 153.234 Section 153.234 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Containment Systems § 153.234 Fore and aft location. Except as allowed in § 153.7, each ship must meet...

  15. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly in the process of being mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Rocket Motor mated with the External Tank Attach Ring and Aft Skirt Assembly being transported from the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. The NEA and AFT: Teacher Unions in Power and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron; And Others

    This book describes the structure, operations, and influences of teacher unions, especially the National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). There is a belief that an NEA/AFT merger will take place in the 1990s, and that the emergence of strong teacher unions is an important development in education, the…

  18. Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aft peak bulkhead. 171.090 Section 171.090 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an...

  20. Oxygen cost of kettlebell swings.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Ryan E; Mayhew, Jerry L; Koch, Alexander J

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, kettlebells have re-emerged as a popular training modality for the conditioning of athletes. We sought to quantify the aerobic challenge of one popularly recommended kettlebell workout. Ten college-aged men (age = 20.8 +/- 1.1 years, height = 179 +/- 3 cm, body mass = 77.3 +/- 7.7 kg, Vo2max = 52.78 +/- 6.22 ml.kg.min) completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion for the determination of Vo2max. Two to 7 days later, subjects completed a kettlebell exercise routine consisting of as many 2-handed swings as could be completed in 12 minutes using a 16-kg kettlebell. During this exercise bout, subjects' expired gases were collected and analyzed for the determination of Vo2, and heart rate (HR) was continuously measured. Percent HRmax and Vo2max achieved during the kettlebell exercise were compared with each other using a paired t-test. Subjects completed 265 +/- 68 swings during the 12 minutes and achieved an average Vo2 of 34.31 +/- 5.67 ml.kg.min and an average HR of 165 +/- 13 b.min. The average %HRmax (86.8 +/- 6.0%) during kettlebell exercise was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the average Vo2max (65.3 +/- 9.8%) that was achieved. Continuous kettlebell swings can impart a metabolic challenge of sufficient intensity to increase Vo2max. Heart rate was substantially higher than Vo2 during kettlebell swings. Kettlebells provide a useful tool with which coaches may improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of their athletes. However, HRs achieved during continuous kettlebell exercise are significantly higher than actual Vo2. PMID:20300022

  1. Analysis of Human Swing Movement and Transferring into Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimodaira, Jun; Amaoka, Yuki; Hamatani, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio

    Based on Generalized Motor Program, we analyzed the skill of human's table-tennis movement We hypothesized that it can be divided into arm swing and translational movements by upper and lower body movements, respectively. We expressed 3D position of the racket by only one parameter resulted from the analysis using Principal Component Analysis. Body trunk position measurement attested the lower body plays the role of keeping fixed relative-position between the ball and the body trunk at any hitting time. By applying human skills in upper and lower body movements, we could make the robot properly play table-tennis with a human.

  2. SOFIA Optical Design for the Aft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1994-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a planned NASA facility consisting of an infrared telescope of 2.5 meter system aperture flying in a modified Boeing 747. It will have an image diameter of 1.5 arc seconds, an operating wavelength range from visible through 1 millimeter, an 8 arc minute field of view, and a chopping secondary. the configuration is a Cassegrian with a diagonal tertiary to direct the beam to a Nasmyth focus. The new choice of a location aft of the wings allows the primary mirror to have about an f/1.4 focal ratio, which is preferable to f/1.1 previously planned for the forward location.

  3. Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the port side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center with a lifting frame attached to the aft attach points of the orbiter. In this view, the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems pod is in place. Also note the darker-colored trapezoidal aft fuselage access door and the T-0 umbilical panel to its right in the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. 53. SECONDARY CONNING STATION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SECONDARY CONNING STATION - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, HELM, RADAR, GYRO REPEATERS, PORTHOLE WITH BATTLE PORTS CLOSED. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 52. SECONDARY CONNING STATION FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SECONDARY CONNING STATION - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, HELM, RADAR, GYRO REPEATERS, PORTHOLE WITH BATTLE PORTS CLOSED. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  7. 35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 102. STEERING GEAR ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. STEERING GEAR ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING RUDDER POST, HYDRAULIC RAM, EMERGENCY STEERING PUMP PIPING AND REMOTE OPERATING LINKAGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD STERN ON MAIN DECK, SHOWING ENGINE CONTROL PANEL, STEERING GEAR BOX, AND CAVEL BITTS - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  11. 63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING LINE REELS, MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, CHAIN STOPPERS, CAPSTAN AND CONTROLS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 116. #2 FIREROOM LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. #2 FIREROOM - LOOKING AFT PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING #4 BOILER FRONT WITH SIX (6) BURNERS, FUEL OIL PIPING, VALVES AND OPEN ACCESS TO FIREBOX. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. AFT CREWS' MESS DECK - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING COFFEE MAKER, ICE CREAM FREEZER, TABLES AND SCUTTLEBUTTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. 80. STARBOARD CATAPULT FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. STARBOARD CATAPULT - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING STATIONARY SHEAVE, RAILS, RETRACTING ENGINE SHEAVE IN OVERHEAD, VARIOUS HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH SHOCK BENDS AND EXPANSION JOINT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 89. BAKE SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. BAKE SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING KNEADING TABLE, OVENS, DOUGH MIXER, BREAD RACKS AND RISING CABINETS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH CATERPILLAR DIESELS AND ONE GENERATOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  20. 71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS' LOUNGE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING COFFEE MESS, ICE CREAM COOLER, ICE MACHINE AND SCUTTLEBUTT. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. Astronaut John Fabian show off signs on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut John Fabian, payload specialist, show off a series of signs on the aft flight deck of Discovery, from whose payload bay three communications satellites were deployed. The sign reads 'We deliver and deliver and deliver...'

  2. 49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING VARIOUS TYPES OF RADAR UNITS, PLOT TABLES AND PLOTTING BOARDS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. View of CCTV camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    View of the closed circuit television (CCTV) camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead on the starboard side of the space shuttle near the orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods.

  4. 2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF AFT DEADWOOD AT STERN Edward Larrabee, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. 44. #3 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. #3 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING MURAL OF LUCY AND CHARLIE BROWN ON HYDRAULIC OIL ACCUMULATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  7. 43. Detail of watertight door in lower hold on aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Detail of water-tight door in lower hold on aft side of bulkhead between ship's caboose and lazarette. This bulkhead is of welded construction, installed late in the vessel's career. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  8. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  9. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  10. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  11. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  13. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  14. General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Aft Solid Rocket Motor Segment mated with the Aft Skirt Assembly and External Tank Attach Ring in the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center and awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building where it will be mounted onto the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This detail is showing the four Aft Booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft, starboard section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the main engines and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods are removed in this photo. The flexible hoses protruding from the starboard aft section are to control temperature, humidity and pressure in the orbiter's void spaces during its down time. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up oblique view aft, port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up of the elevons and underside of the port wing. On the aft fuselage in the approximate center rift of the image is the T-0 umbilical panels. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Contributing factors for increased bat swing velocity.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; DeRenne, Coop; Spaniol, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Bat swing velocity is an important characteristic of successful hitters in baseball and softball. The purpose of this literature review is threefold. First, before describing what components and training methods have been investigated to improve bat swing velocity, it is necessary to discuss the importance of bat swing velocity and batted-ball velocity. The second purpose is to discuss bat weight during on-deck circle warm-up, bat weight during resistance training, resistance training with an overload of force, performance of additional supplemental resistance exercises, the relationship between strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and bat swing velocity, and the relationship between improvements in strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and improvements in bat swing velocity. The third purpose of this review is to recommend some practical applications based on research results. PMID:19528868

  20. Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles: Differences in Experimental Embodiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2014-01-01

    Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

  1. Effects of swing-weight on swing speed and racket power.

    PubMed

    Cross, Rod; Bower, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the speed at which six different rods could be swung by four male students. Three of the rods had the same mass but their swing-weight (i.e. moment of inertia) differed by large factors. The other three rods had the same swing-weight but different masses. Our primary objective was to quantify the effects of mass and swing-weight on swing speed. The result has a direct bearing on whether baseball, tennis, cricket and golf participants should choose a heavy or light implement to impart maximum speed to a ball. When swinging with maximum effort, swing speed (V) was found to decrease as swing-weight (Io) increased, according to the relation V = C/Ion, where C is a different constant for each participant and n = 0.27 when Io > 0.03 kg x m2. Remarkably similar results were obtained previously with softball bats (where n = 0.25) and golf clubs (where n = 0.26). Swing speed remained approximately constant as swing mass increased (when keeping swing-weight fixed). The implications for racket power are discussed. PMID:16368611

  2. [Effects of swing on music appreciation: a study on perceived impressions of various swing ratios].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shimpei; Shigeno, Sumi

    2013-06-01

    Swing is a musical performance technique, whose magnitude is indicated by the swing ratio. This study examines the effects of swing on music-listening appreciation. In Experiment 1, 21 participants were presented with synthesized performances with three swing ratios, and were asked to rate their impressions using the semantic differential method. The results show that there exists a certain relationship between swing and the affective evaluation of music and tempo. Experiment 2 explored the relationship between swing and melody, another dimension of music, in perceived dynamism and preference for swing. Two musical instruments were used: piano and drums. Twenty-two participants were presented with synthesized performances and were asked to rate the degree of dynamism and their preference using Scheffé's paired comparison method. The evaluations for five swing conditions were similar for those performed by the piano and by the drums. The discussion looks at the swing ratio and its psychological attributes as well as the relationships of perceived impressions of swing to tempo and musical instruments. PMID:23847999

  3. Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees.

    PubMed

    Stastny, Petr; Maszczyk, Adam; Tománková, Kristina; Kubový, Petr; Richtrová, Michaela; Otáhal, Jakub; Čichoň, Rostislav; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-11-22

    Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing "mistakes" in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless. PMID:26834871

  4. Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Petr; Maszczyk, Adam; Tománková, Kristina; Kubový, Petr; Richtrová, Michaela; Otáhal, Jakub; Čichoň, Rostislav; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing „mistakes” in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless. PMID:26834871

  5. Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marius; Häger, Charlotte; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf-swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on 13 male golfers (27.5 +/- 4.6 years old, 12.7 +/- 4.9 handicap) who completed 12 sessions of SMT over a four-week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-iron, and pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club velocity at three different swing phases (backswing, downswing, and follow-through) was measured and cross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings (wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motor control strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf-swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf-shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT. PMID:24968507

  6. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  7. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  8. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  9. Myths of Teaching the Golf Swing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    This article dispells 11 myths about common teaching practices and misconceptions about the modern golf swing. Each myth is counterbalanced by facts presented by researchers about appropriate movements, skills, and practices. (CB)

  10. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  11. Mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise and provide context by comparing them to mechanical demands of back squat and jump squat exercise. Sixteen men performed 2 sets of 10 swings with 16, 24, and 32 kg, 2 back squats with 20, 40, 60, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 2 jump squats with 0, 20, 40, and 60% 1RM. Sagittal plane motion and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded during swing performance, and GRFs were recorded during back and jump squat performances. Net impulse, and peak and mean propulsion phase force and power applied to the center of mass (CM) were obtained from GRF data and kettlebell displacement and velocity from motion data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that all swing CM measures were maximized during the 32-kg condition but that velocity of the kettlebell was maximized during the 16-kg condition; displacement was consistent across different loads. Peak and mean force tended to be greater during back and jump squat performances, but swing peak and mean power were greater than back squat power and largely comparable with jump squat power. However, the highest net impulse was recorded during swing exercise with 32 kg (276.1 ± 45.3 N·s vs. 60% 1RM back squat: 182.8 ± 43.1 N·s, and 40% jump squat: 231.3 ± 47.1 N·s). These findings indicate a large mechanical demand during swing exercise that could make swing exercise a useful addition to strength and conditioning programs that aim to develop the ability to rapidly apply force. PMID:22207261

  12. STS-57 MS2 Sherlock operates RMS THC on OV-105's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock operates the remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control (THC) while observing extravehicular activity (EVA) outside viewing window W10 on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Positioned at the onorbit station, Sherlock moved EVA astronauts in the payload bay (PLB). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low with his feet anchored to a special restraint device on the end of the RMS arm held MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff during the RMS maneuvers. The activity represented an evaluation of techniques which might be used on planned future missions -- a 1993 servicing visit to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and later space station work -- which will require astronauts to frequently lift objects of similar sized bulk. Note: Just below Sherlock's left hand a 'GUMBY' toy watches the actvity.

  13. Angular Impulse and Balance Regulation During the Golf Swing.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Travis J; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to determine how skilled players regulate linear and angular impulse while maintaining balance during the golf swing. Eleven highly-skilled golf players performed swings with a 6-iron and driver. Components contributing to linear and angular impulse generated by the rear and target legs (resultant horizontal reaction force [RFh], RFh-angle, and moment arm) were quantified and compared across the group and within a player (α = .05). Net angular impulse generated by both the rear and target legs was greater for the driver than the 6-iron. Mechanisms used to regulate angular impulse generation between clubs varied across players and required coordination between the legs. Increases in net angular impulse with a driver involved increases in target leg RFh. Rear leg RFh-angle was maintained between clubs whereas target leg RFh became more aligned with the target line. Net linear impulse perpendicular to the target line remained near zero, preserving balance, while net linear impulse along the target line decreased in magnitude. These results indicate that the net angular impulse was regulated between clubs by coordinating force generation of the rear and target legs while sustaining balance throughout the task. PMID:26958870

  14. Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Hoo; Como, Christopher S; Singhal, Kunal; Lee, Sangwoo; Han, Ki Hoon

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the functional swing plane (FSP) of the clubhead and the motion planes (MPs) of the shoulder/arm points and (2) to assess planarity of the golf swing based on the FSP and the MPs. The swing motions of 14 male skilled golfers (mean handicap = -0.5 +/- 2.0) using three different clubs (driver, 5-iron, and pitching wedge) were captured by an optical motion capture system (250Hz). The FSP and MPs along with their slope/relative inclination and direction/direction of inclination were obtained using a new trajectory-plane fitting method. The slope and direction of the FSP revealed a significant club effect (p < 0.001). The relative inclination and direction of inclination of the MP showed significant point (p < 0.001) and club (p < 0.001) effects and interaction (p < 0.001). Maximum deviations of the points from the FSP revealed a significant point effect (p < 0.001) and point-club interaction (p < 0.001). It was concluded that skilled golfers exhibited well-defined and consistent FSP and MPs, and the shoulder/arm points moved on vastly different MPs and exhibited large deviations from the FSP. Skilled golfers in general exhibited semi-planar downswings with two distinct phases: a transition phase and a planar execution phase. PMID:22900396

  15. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the four Aft Booster Separation Motors on the left side of the skirt in this view. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods removed. The openings for the SSMEs have been covered with a flexible barrier to create a positive pressure envelope inside of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the starboard side of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center with the Orbiter Maneuvering/Reaction Control Systems Pod removed and exposing the insulating foil used to protect the orbiter structure from the heat generated by the maneuvering and reaction control engines. Also note in the view that the aft fuselage access door has bee removed and also note the ground support equipment attached to the T-0 umbilical plate in the lower left of the view. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard with the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods still in place. However. the heat shields have been removed from the SSMEs providing a good view toward the interior of the aft fuselage. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Pilot Fullerton reviews checklist on Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communication kit assembly (assy) mini headset, reviews checklist and looks at remote manipulator system (RMS) closed circuit television (CCTV) views displayed on CCTV monitors at Aft Flight Deck Onorbit Station. Taken from the aft flight deck starboard side, Fullerton is seen in front of Panels A7 and A8 with remote manipulator syste (RMS) translation hand control (THC) and RMS rotation hand control (RHC) in the foreground and surrounded by University of Michigan (U of M) GO BLUE and United States Air Force - A Great Way of Life Decals.

  2. 114. #1 AUXILIARY MACHINE SPACE FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. #1 AUXILIARY MACHINE SPACE FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING GRISCOM-RUSSELL LOW PRESSURE TRIPLE EFFECT FRESH WATER DISTILLING. PLANT AND CUP RACK PAINTING OF SNUFFY SMITH. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. 92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. STARBOARD CATAPULT HYDRAULIC MANIFOLD - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING THE SEVEN (7) DISCHARGE LINES FROM THE SEVEN (7) HYDRAULIC PUMPS THROUGH SHUT-OFF VALVES TO ACCUMULATOR TANKS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. 108. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD AFT CENTERLINE TO STARBOARD SHOWING #1 REDUCTION GEAR BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SERIAL # 1-A-9638-13 WITH A REDUCTION OF HIGH PRESSURE 20,908 AND LOW PRESSURE 16,226. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. 23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FORWARD PUMP ROOM LOOKING AFT AT OIL TANK BULKHEAD. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE FIRE AND BILGE PUMP (LEFT BACKGROUND), BALLAST PUMP, AND CARGO OIL PUMP. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  7. 24. HANGAR BAY #3 FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. HANGAR BAY #3 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING LADDERWAY TO THE GALLERY DECK, OVERHEAD RAILWAYS FOR ELECTRIC HOISTS, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, HATCHES LEADING TO THE FANTAIL AND METAL SHOP WITH VARIOUS BOOMS AND ANTENNA SUPPORTS ON DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wardroom staterooms, officer's country, view forward to aft showing barbette on right of photograph, original wood ladder to main deck, heating system radiator on left and officer's stateroom doors. (088) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 100. COBBLER SHOP AFT LOOKING FORWARD VISIBLE ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. COBBLER SHOP - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - VISIBLE ARE THE FINISHING MACHINE, DAVIS STITCHING MACHINE, SINGER SEWING MACHINE FROM TAILOR SHOP, STORAGE SHELVES, WORK BENCH AND SHOE TREE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 25. HANGAR BAY #3 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. HANGAR BAY #3 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING AFTER BROW, ELEVATOR DOORS, FOG FOAM STATION #7, AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES. PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS, LIFE JACKET BIN #16, PARTS STOREROOM, HATCH AND LADDERWAY TO GALLERY DECK. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF COUNTER, LOOKING AFT AT STERNPOST AND STERNPOST KNEE (ON WHICH STICK RULE IS LYING). FRESH WATER TANKS APPEAR TO EITHER SIDE OF STERNPOST; SMALL TANK SUSPENDED FROM DECK IN CENTER OF VIEW IS AN AIR RESERVOIR FOR ENGINES' PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  12. 34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW LOOKING AFT DOWN STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM A POINT NEAR PAWL BITT Original 5'x5' photograph taken by Robert S. Douglas, 1966 - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. 13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING AFT IN PILOTS' CABIN ON 'TWEEN DECK, SHOWING BUNKS, CABIN SKYLIGHT, WOOD STOVE (WITHOUT CHIMNEY PIPE) LADDERWAY, AND OPEN DOOR IN STERN BULKHEAD, GIVING ACCESS TO INTERIOR OF COUNTER - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  14. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  15. 109. #1 ENGINE ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. #1 ENGINE ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING #4 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE BUILT BY WESTINGHOUSE SHAFT HORSEPOWER 19,800, RPM 4301, STEAM PRESSURE 371/2 LB.G., SERIAL #I-A-9636-14. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW AFT INTO ENGINE ROOM AND UP INTO CAPTAIN'S CABIN. THE AFTER BULKHEAD OF THE ENGINE ROOM WAS REMOVED WHEN THE ENGINE WAS SALVAGED. ENGINE BED AND GEARBOX ARE REMNANTS OF THE ENGINE INSTALLATION. CABLES AND CHAINS ARE IN PLACE TO HELP STABILIZE THE HULL AND TRANSOM. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  17. 41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. #1 ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ARRESTING GEAR ENGINE ACCUMULATOR, AIR FLASK, CONTROL VALVE, WITH CONTROL RAM, SHEAVES AND WIRES UNDERNEATH ENGINE STAND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Schools, Discipline, and Students with Disabilities: The AFT Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Beth D.

    This position paper of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) addresses issues related to the discipline of students with severe behavior disorders or other disabilities. It specifically considers: (1) placement of disruptive and/or dangerous students; (2) cost issues of alternatives to suspension and expulsion; (3) legal parameters under the…

  19. 25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Hot well, as seen from port side aft. Waste water overflow pipe appears at left, behind which is bilge pump. At base of hot well on either side are reciprocating boiler feedwater pumps driven from hot well crosshead. (Labels were applied by HAER recording team and are not original to equipment.) - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  20. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  1. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  4. Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. General view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. This view shows a close up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. 46 CFR 153.234 - Fore and aft location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... located must be forward of a tankship's accommodation spaces. (b) Except as described in § 153.235, each cargo containment system must be located at least 0.05L aft of the forward perpendicular, but in no case forward of a collision bulkhead....

  8. General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. 20. HANGAR BAY #2 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANGAR BAY #2 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING CONFLAGRATION STATION, UPTAKE SPACE AND DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES - PORT SIDE SHOWING VARIOUS DECK WINCHES, ROLLER DOORS, HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM HOSE REELS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 18. HANGAR BAY #1 FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HANGAR BAY #1 - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING DECK WINCHES AND FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR. PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 21. HANGAR BAY #2 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. HANGAR BAY #2 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING THREE (3) DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINES, LIFE JACKET STORAGE BINS, UPTAKE SPACE AND AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION - PORT SIDE SHOWING SCUPPER COVERS AND HANGAR DECK PLANE CONTROL STATION. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 19. HANGAR BAY #1 AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. HANGAR BAY #1 - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE - STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING FORWARD BOMB ELEVATOR, DEHUMIDIFICATION MACHINE AND OFFICERS' QUARTER DECK - PORT SIDE SHOWING AQUEOUS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM STATION, HATCHES AND BLOWER VENTS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 34. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT AT FRAMING OF VESSEL, (CURVED VERTICAL FRAMING, HORIZONTAL FRAMING, AND CEILING FRAMING). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 33. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, SHOWING SHAFT ALLEY IN FOREGROUND AND FRAMING OF VESSEL (CURVED VERTICAL FRAMING, HORIZONTAL FRAMING, AND CEILING FRAMING). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  15. 96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. View aft, port side, from just forward of the mizzenmast. Cans in foreground store Fluid Film, used to protect structural steel below waterline from oxidation. Sails stored on shelving in background have since been moved to Museum Storage. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. DETAIL OF WATERTIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER-TIGHT DOOR IN LOWER HOLD ON AFT SIDE OF BULKHEAD BETWEEN SHIP’S CABOOSE AND LAZARETTE. THIS BULKHEAD IS OF WELDED CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLED LATE IN THE VESSEL’S CAREER. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  17. Transcriptional analysis in high-anthocyanin tomatoes reveals synergistic effect of Aft and atv genes.

    PubMed

    Povero, Giovanni; Gonzali, Silvia; Bassolino, Laura; Mazzucato, Andrea; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2011-02-15

    Anthocyanins are high value plant antioxidants, which are not present in the fruits of the cultivated tomato. However, both the dominant gene Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) and the recessive gene atroviolacea (atv), when introgressed into the domesticated tomato from two different wild Solanum species, stimulate a limited anthocyanin pigmentation. Surprisingly, the double mutant Aft/Aft atv/atv gives rise to intensely purple pigmented tomatoes. A transcript profiling analysis was carried out using quantitative RT-PCR and GeneChip(®) Tomato Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes when comparing Ailsa Craig, Aft/Aft, atv/atv, and Aft/Aft atv/atv fruits. Anthocyanin levels and the expression of the genes involved in anthocyanin production and compartmentalization were higher in the peel of Aft/Aft atv/atv fruits than in the individual parental lines. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the two alleles Aft and atv on the transcription of specific anthocyanin genes and the activation of the whole anthocyanin pathway was observed. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, biotic and abiotic stress responses, cell wall and hormone metabolism were over-represented in Aft/Aft atv/atv fruit peel. Transcriptomic analyses thus revealed that the activation of anthocyanin synthesis in the peel of tomato fruit was accompanied by a complex remodulation of gene expression. PMID:20888667

  18. Challenger's RMS arm grasps SPAS-01 during proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Challenger's remote manipulator system (RMS) arm grasps Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01) during proximity operations. Behind the SPAS-01 can be seen the clouded surface of the earth. The frame shows a number of reflections on the window, located overhead in the aft flight deck.

  19. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, IS AT CENTER OF PICTURE. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Closeup view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the interior of an Aft Skirt being tested and prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view is showing the SRB Thrust Vector Control (TVC) System which includes independent auxiliary power units for each actuator to pressurize their respective hydraulic systems. When the Nozzle is mated with the Aft Skirt the two actuators, located on the left and right side of the TVC System in this view, can swivel it up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Closeup view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view looking aft from the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery looking into the payload bay and the bulkhead of the aft fuselage. Note the vertical stabilizer protruding slightly from beyond the clear sheeting used to keep positive pressure in the mid-fuselage and payload bay area during servicing. Note that the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is still attached while the Remote Manipulator System has been removed. Also note the suspended protective panels and walkways in place to protect the interior surfaces of the payload bay doors while in their open position. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Physics of swinging a striking implement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-03-01

    The act of swinging an object such as a hammer or a tennis racket involves the application of forces and torques in a manner that is intuitively obvious to the person performing the task, but is probably much less obvious to the average physics student. This article describes the basic mechanics of the problem.

  4. The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Discontent with failed, top-down reform and the immediate prospect of political change have created a rare opportunity to reinvent education policy and to think afresh about how teachers and children should be encouraged to develop their full potential. "The Pendulum Swings" explores alternative, genuinely transformative conceptions of leadership…

  5. Physics of Swinging a Striking Implement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    The act of swinging an object such as a hammer or a tennis racket involves the application of forces and torques in a manner that is intuitively obvious to the person performing the task, but is probably much less obvious to the average physics student. This article describes the basic mechanics of the problem.

  6. Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    The tropical belt has become wider over the past decades, but climate models fall short of capturing the full rate of the expansion. The latest analysis of the climate simulations suggests that a long-term swing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is the main missing cause.

  7. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  8. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  9. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  10. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  11. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  12. Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods radiate out from a center cap stand (like spokes on a bicycle) and hold 40 20-inch diameter wheels onto a rim bearing circular track on which they roll when swing span is opened and closed. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  13. 16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF END OF SWING SPAN (LEFT) AND SOUTH END OF NORTH STATIONARY SPAN REVEALING IRON SKID AND SWING BALANCE SUPPORT WHEEL. NOTE CHAIN USED TO HOLD BRIDGE IN PLACE - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  14. 26. Port side of engine room looking forward from aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Port side of engine room looking forward from aft bulkhead. This area contains mostly electrical equipment. Two single-cylinder steam-driven dynamos are located near the engine bed, one at right foreground, the other in background. At left in image are a motor-generator set installed to convert DC current (from dynamos) to AC current. Edge-on view of control panel appears near center of image. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  15. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  16. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave pose in aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two of Endeavour's busy team of astronauts share a rare moment of leisure in the aft flight deck captured by an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman, left, and F. Story Musgrave also are sharing three of the mission's five planned sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA). Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  17. Closeup view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an Aft Skirt being prepared for mating with sub assemblies in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent feature in this view are the six Thrust Vector Control System access ports, three per hydraulic actuator. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft crew compartment bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. Showing the airlock, the beam-truss attach structure supporting it and its attach points to the payload bay sill longerons. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view at ground level looking at the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note that the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pods and the Shuttle Main Engines are removed in this image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Closeup view of the payload bay side of the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the payload bay side of the aft fuselage bulkhead of the Orbiter Discovery. This image has a detailed portions of the Remote Manipulator System and the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System Pods. This photograph wa taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. General view looking aft from the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking aft from the starboard side of the mid fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view has a close-up view of the remote sensor boom and its retention mechanisms at its attach points to the starboard longeron. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  3. View looking aft along the starboard side of the midfuselage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking aft along the starboard side of the mid-fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the wing profile as it intersects with the fuselage. Also note in the foreground the panels protecting the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon leading edge of the wing. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view inside the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery showing the network of supply, distribution and feed lines to deliver fuel, oxidizer and other vital gasses and fluids to the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward showing Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) installed in positions one and three and an SSME on the process of being installed in position two. This photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Pitch angle of galactic spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.jp

    2014-06-01

    One of the key parameters that characterizes spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local N-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.

  7. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  8. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  9. Further development of the swinging-blade Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldoss, T. K.; Najjar, Y. S. H.

    Savonius rotor performance is improved by allowing both downwind and upwind rotor blades to swing back through an optimum angle. This will minimize the drag on the upwind blade and maximize the drag on the down-wind blade. A combination of 50 degrees upwind blade swing angle and 13.5 degrees downwind blade swing angle have been found experimentally to be the optimum swing angles that increased the rotor maximum power coefficient to about 23.5 percent compared with 18 percent with optimum upwind blade swing alone.

  10. a New Golf-Swing Robot Model Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Inooka, H.

    1998-10-01

    The performance of golf clubs and balls is generally evaluated by using golf-swing robots that conventionally have two or three joints with completely interrelated motion. This interrelation allows the user of this robot to specify only the initial posture and swing velocity of the robot and therefore the swing motion of this type of robot cannot be subtly adjusted to the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs. Consequently, golf-swing robots cannot accurately emulate advanced golfers, and this causes serious problems for the evaluation of golf club performance. In this study, a new golf-swing robot that can adjust its motion to both a specified value of swing velocity and the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs was analytically investigated. This robot utilizes the dynamic interference force produced by its swing motion and by shaft vibration and can therefore emulate advanced golfers and perform highly reliable evaluations of golf clubs.

  11. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  12. Movement variability in the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Langdown, Ben L; Bridge, Matt; Li, Francois-Xavier

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, golf biomechanics has focused upon achieving consistency in swing kinematics and kinetics, whilst variability was considered to be noise and dysfunctional. There has been a growing argument that variability is an intrinsic aspect of skilled motor performance and plays a functional role. Two types of variability are described: 'strategic shot selection' and 'movement variability'. In 'strategic shot selection', the outcome remains consistent, but the swing kinematics/kinetics (resulting in the desired ball flight) are free to vary; 'movement variability' is the changes in swing kinematics and kinetics from trial to trial when the golfer attempts to hit the same shot. These changes will emerge due to constraints of the golfer's body, the environment, and the task. Biomechanical research has focused upon aspects of technique such as elite versus non-elite kinematics, kinetics, kinematic sequencing, peak angular velocities of body segments, wrist function, ground reaction forces, and electromyography, mainly in the search for greater distance and clubhead velocity. To date very little is known about the impact of variability on this complex motor skill, and it has yet to be fully researched to determine where the trade-off between functional and detrimental variability lies when in pursuit of enhanced performance outcomes. PMID:22900407

  13. Proper swing technique and biomechanics of golf.

    PubMed

    Adlington, G S

    1996-01-01

    Golf is an alluring sport because there are many different ways for an individual to create good, effective golf swings. The key for teachers and players is to design good swings that are not physically debilitating. The human body certainly was not designed with golf in mind. That does not mean, however, that golf must be physically damaging. The current fixation on injury has more to do today with the type of player than the game itself. Many of the new players in golf today are older, generally between 30 and 55 years. They come to golf from other sports, such as tennis, jogging, basketball, baseball, and so on. The injuries we see today in golf have probably been brewing in other sports for many years. Golf is simply the current sport of choice, but it often is seen as the culprit for injury. This is all the more reason for continuing to educate players and teachers in the hope that they can create pain-free and injury-free golf swings. If injury prevention moves to the forefront of modern-day teaching, there will be an opportunity to change the way golf is taught and played. That is a mission well worth undertaking. PMID:8903706

  14. SRB attrition rate study of the aft skirt due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology was presented so that realistic attrition prediction could aid in selecting an optimum design option for minimizing the effects of updated loads on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt. The updated loads resulted in water impact attrition rates greater than 10 percent for the aft skirt structure. Adding weight to reinforce the aft skirt was undesirable. The refined method treats the occurrences of the load distribution probabilistically, radially and longitudinally, with respect to the critical structural response.

  15. Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view in engine bay three in the the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery. This view shows the engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the large plugged and capped orifices. Note the handwritten references on the thrust plate in proximity to the actuators that read E3 Pitch and E3 Yaw. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the aft section, port side, of the Orbiter Discovery from an elevated platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Note the removed Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System pod from the base of the vertical stabilizer the strongback ground-support equipment attached to the payload bay door. This view is also a good view of the leading edge and top surface of the Orbiter wing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking aft along the starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery where the forward section meets the mid-fuselage. Note the head of the jack stand and its mechanism to connect to the one of the forward hoist attach points of the orbiter. Also note the support structure of the service platforms. This view was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery on the starboard side looking forward. This view is of the attach surface for the Orbiter Maneuvering System/Reaction Control System (OMS/RCS) Pod. The OMS/RCS pods are removed for processing and reconditioning at another facility. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. 27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW FROM AFT OF MAIN HOISTING ENGINE WITH HOISTING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. NOTE MAIN HOISTING DRUM IS A STEP DRUM, WITH TWO DIAMETERS ON DRUM. WHEN BUCKET IS IN WATER THE CABLE IS ON THE SMALLER STEP, AS PICTURED, GIVING MORE POWER TO THE LINE. THE CABLE STEPS TO LARGER DIAMETER WHEN BUCKET IS OUT OF WATER, WHERE SPEED IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN POWER. SMALLER BACKING DRUM IN BACKGROUND. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 13. CLOSEUP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CLOSE-UP OF AFT BULKHEAD IN THE MAIN HOLD. HORIZONTAL ALUMINUM SCALE RESTING ON STEP IS FOUR FEET LONG. THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD IS MADE OF POURED CONCRETE AND HAS A CENTER DRAIN TO COLLECT WATER FROM MELTING ICE AND OTHER FLUIDS. THE DRAIN LED TO A SUMP CLEARED BY A BILGE PUMP WHICH PUMPED OVERBOARD. THE RECTANGULAR OPENING IN THE BULKHEAD WAS CUT TO ENABLE EASIER REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE AFTER THE EVELINA M. GOULART WAS ABANDONED. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  1. Closeup view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage looking forward along the approximate centerline of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the expansion nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and the Orbiter Maneuvering System. Also in the view is the orbiter's body flap with a protective covering over the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles on the surface facing the SSMEs. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Arm in Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and (MS) Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's Payload Bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from Endeavour's thrusters and movements of the RMS. The SPACEHAB-01 Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) is visible in the foreground with the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) payload liquid helium dewar assembly and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) only partially visible in the aft PLB shadows. The vertical stabilizer and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods are silhouetted against the Earth's surface.

  3. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  4. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  5. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  6. Hip and shoulder rotations during the golf swing of sub-10 handicap players.

    PubMed

    Burden, A M; Grimshaw, P N; Wallace, E S

    1998-02-01

    The motion of the shoulders, arms and club during the golf swing has often been explained using the 'double pendulum' model. Despite subsequent explanations for the actions of the distal segments of the body, the coordination of more proximal segments during the swing is less well understood. To ascertain the pattern of centre of mass motion and hip and shoulder rotations that result in a high clubhead speed at impact, the swing used in driving from the tee of eight low-handicap golfers was videotaped and analysed using three-dimensional techniques. The shoulders rotated in excess of 90 degrees during the backswing and, in 75% of the golfers, continued rotating away from the flag as the hips began turning back towards it. This sequential pattern of hip and shoulder rotation indicated that they conformed to the 'summation of speed' principle, which is hypothesized to result in a greater torque being applied to the club before impact. The speed of the drive was also benefited by the centre of mass shifting exclusively in the intended direction of ball flight during impact. PMID:9531005

  7. STS-99 Technicians work in Endeavour's aft compartment of the payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Technicians work in the aft compartment of Shuttle Endeavour's payload bay, where a new Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) will be installed. The original E-MEC in Endeavour became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. Before workers can begin E-MEC replacement efforts at the launch pad, cryogenic reactants had to be offloaded from the orbiter and Space Shuttle ordnance disconnected. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  8. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  9. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  10. ISAL 35mm NIKON camera mounted on aft flight deck onorbit station panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On aft flight deck, Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) bracket-mounted 35mm NIKON camera is attached to onorbit station control panel A8U. Camera lens is pointed out aft viewing window W10 and surrounded by window shade.

  11. 4. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING AFT TO FORWARD DOWN CENTERLINE WITH OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AFT PORT QUARTER AND ACROSS PIER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Fighting for the Profession: A History of AFT Higher Education. Item Number 36-0701

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document provides a history of the relationship between higher education faculty and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Highlights include the first AFT higher education local formed in 1918, the role played by the union in the expansion of the G.I. Bill following World War II, increased activism in the 1950s and 1960s to win…

  13. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... Instructions, Part B, paragraphs 6 and 7, of the ASB. (4) Thereafter, at intervals not to exceed 450 takeoffs... mm), replace the aft crosstube with an airworthy aft crosstube. (7) Within 3 months or on or...

  14. Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Cognitively inspired reinforcement learning architecture and its application to giant-swing motion control.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Matsuo, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Many algorithms and methods in artificial intelligence or machine learning were inspired by human cognition. As a mechanism to handle the exploration-exploitation dilemma in reinforcement learning, the loosely symmetric (LS) value function that models causal intuition of humans was proposed (Shinohara et al., 2007). While LS shows the highest correlation with causal induction by humans, it has been reported that it effectively works in multi-armed bandit problems that form the simplest class of tasks representing the dilemma. However, the scope of application of LS was limited to the reinforcement learning problems that have K actions with only one state (K-armed bandit problems). This study proposes LS-Q learning architecture that can deal with general reinforcement learning tasks with multiple states and delayed reward. We tested the learning performance of the new architecture in giant-swing robot motion learning, where uncertainty and unknown-ness of the environment is huge. In the test, the help of ready-made internal models or functional approximation of the state space were not given. The simulations showed that while the ordinary Q-learning agent does not reach giant-swing motion because of stagnant loops (local optima with low rewards), LS-Q escapes such loops and acquires giant-swing. It is confirmed that the smaller number of states is, in other words, the more coarse-grained the division of states and the more incomplete the state observation is, the better LS-Q performs in comparison with Q-learning. We also showed that the high performance of LS-Q depends comparatively little on parameter tuning and learning time. This suggests that the proposed method inspired by human cognition works adaptively in real environments. PMID:24296286

  16. Effect of AFT Rotor on the Inter-Rotor Flow of an Open Rotor Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaboch, Paul E.; Stephens, David B.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aft rotor on the inter-rotor flow field of an open rotor propulsion rig were examined. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) dataset that was acquired phase locked to the front rotor position has been phase averaged based on the relative phase angle between the forward and aft rotors. The aft rotor phase was determined by feature tracking in raw PIV images through an image processing algorithm. The effect of the aft rotor potential field on the inter-rotor flow were analyzed and shown to be in good agreement with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. It was shown that the aft rotor had no substantial effect on the position of the forward rotor tip vortex but did have a small effect on the circulation strength of the vortex when the rotors were highly loaded.

  17. 30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Engine controls and valve gear, looking aft on main (promenade) deck level. Threaded admission valve lift rods (two at immediate left of chronometer) permit adjustment of valve timing in lower and upper admission valves of cylinder (left rod controls lower valve, right rod upper valve). Valve rods are lifted by jaw-like "wipers" during operation. Exhaust valve lift rods and wipers are located to right of chronometer. Crank at extreme right drives valve wiper shaft when engaged to end of eccentric rod, shown under "Crank Indicator" dial. Pair of handles to immediate left of admission valve rods control condenser water valves; handles to right of exhaust valve rods control feedwater flow to boilers from pumps. Gauges indicate boiler pressure (left) and condenser vacuum (right); "Crank Indicator" on wall aids engineer in keeping engine crank off "dead-center" at stop so that engine may be easily restarted. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and port as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the left side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Closeup oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up oblique view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking forward and starboard as the last Space Shuttle Main Engine is being removed, it can be seen on the right side of the image frame. Note that one of the Orbiter Maneuvering System/ Reaction Control System has been removed while one of them remains. Also note that the body flap, below the engine positions has a protective covering to prevent damage to the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles. This image was taken inside the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. General view of the middeck looking aft and port. In ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the mid-deck looking aft and port. In this view you can clearly see the crew access hatch and the airlock hatch. The hose and ladder in the image are pieces of ground support equipment. The hose is part of the climate control apparatus used while orbiters are being processed. The ladder is used to access the inter-deck passage, leading to the flight deck, while the orbiter is in 1g (earth's gravity). A careful observer will notice a void in the wall near the base of the access ladder, this is the Waste Management Compartment with the Waste Management System, i.e. Space Potty, removed. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. 77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Swings, with several modifications to strengthen the standard. 77 FR 7011. In this document, the... JPMA- certified infant swings. ] C. Incident Data 1. Introduction The preamble to the NPR (77 FR 7012... strengthen the voluntary standard. See 77 FR 12182. Since the publication of this notice, ASTM has...

  2. 77 FR 7011 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... intended for use with infants from birth until a child is able to sit up unassisted.'' ASTM F 2088-11b also... unassisted; and Never place travel swings on an elevated surface. D. Incident Data 1. Introduction There have... until infant can hold head up unassisted.'' Infant swings with a seat back angle greater than 50...

  3. Malthus on long swings: the general case.

    PubMed

    Dooley, P C

    1988-02-01

    3 major assumptions provided the basis to Malthus' theory of population: food is necessary to human existence; passion between man and woman is necessary and will continue nearly in its present state; and the power of population is indefinitely greater than the earth's power to produce subsistence for humans. With this as his base, Malthus proposed the thesis that strong and constant forces need to hold the superior power of population over subsistence in check. The forces include both positive checks, e.g., infant mortality, and preventive checks, e.g., foregoing early marriage. Malthus evidently had a theory of long swings in mind because he began his essay questioning whether humankind will experience unlimited improvement or a state oscillating between happiness and misery. Waterman (1987) offers a new interpretation of Malthus' theory of long swings, concluding that "the Malthusian theory of oscillations' as sketched in the 'Essay on Population' may justly be represented by a zig-zag path of real wages." 2 questions arise: does the text literally mean what Waterman suggests; and is the text consistent with Malthus' general position. The quotation offered by Wasserman focuses on a special case that illustrates how oscillations might take place but fails to represent Malthus' general position. In any society the population's response to wages determines the "level" of subsistence. Due to the different living habits in each state, the subsistence level varies from state to state, and Malthus devotes much of the 1st "Essay" to discussing what determines the living habits and the subsistence level in different countries. In Malthus' theory of long swings, real wages do not follow a "zig-zag" path. This is due to the fact that neither the accumulation of capital nor the growth of population behaves as he proposes. Whenever the rate of profit is sufficiently attractive, capital accumulates, and the response of population to a change in wages depends on a complex of

  4. After-effects of using a weighted bat on subsequent swing velocity and batters' perceptions of swing velocity and heaviness.

    PubMed

    Otsuji, Tamiki; Abe, Masafu; Kinoshita, Hiroshita

    2002-02-01

    In baseball and softball, warm-up swings with a weighted bat have been believed to increase swing velocity when an ordinary bat is used in the subsequent competitive situation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of using a weighted bat on subsequent swing velocity and batters' perceptions of swing velocity and heaviness. Eight men in varsity softball and baseball hit a ball suspended from the ceiling 45 times (3 sets of 15 trials). For each set, the initial 5 trials were done using an ordinary 920-g wooden bat (Control condition), and the following 5 trials by a bat with an 800-g bat ring (Weighted condition), and the final 5 trials again by the ordinary bat (post-Weighted condition). Analysis of variance showed a significant decrease of 3.3% in the measured linear velocity of the bat prior to impact with the ball for the first swing of the post-Weighted condition compared with the Control condition. From the second swing the velocity returned to the level of the Control condition. Subjective judgment of the heaviness and velocity of swings for the Weighted and post-Weighted conditions by each participant showed that the ordinary bat felt lighter and swing speed felt faster for the post-Weighted condition. The advantage of the warm-up with a weighted bat was thus psychological and not biomechanical. PMID:11883550

  5. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  6. Noise reduction for model counterrotation propeller at cruise by reducing aft-propeller diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The forward propeller of a model counterrotation propeller was tested with its original aft propeller and with a reduced diameter aft propeller. Noise reductions with the reduced diameter aft propeller were measured at simulated cruise conditions. Reductions were as large as 7.5 dB for the aft-propeller passing tone and 15 dB in the harmonics at specific angles. The interaction tones, mostly the first, were reduced probably because the reduced-diameter aft-propeller blades no longer interacted with the forward propeller tip vortex. The total noise (sum of primary and interaction noise) at each harmonic was significantly reduced. The chief noise reduction at each harmonic came from reduced aft-propeller-alone noise, with the interaction tones contributing little to the totals at cruise. Total cruise noise reductions were as much as 3 dB at given angles for the blade passing tone and 10 dB for some of the harmonics. These reductions would measurably improve the fuselage interior noise levels and represent a definite cruise noise benefit from using a reduced diameter aft propeller.

  7. A simple model of a swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents a simple model of a swing meant for undergraduates’ educational experiments. The purpose of these experiments is the experimental study of physical principles of self-oscillations, free, forced and parametric oscillations. The model contains a pendulum. A coil with a movable steel core serves as its load. A neodymium magnet is placed at the lower end of the core. A magnetically operated sealed switch is stationed under the magnet at the equilibrium position of the pendulum. The switch is connected in series with the coil and a battery. If we displace the pendulum from the equilibrium position, the pendulum makes undamped oscillations. The system receives energy every time the core is drawn into the coil at the lower position of the pendulum.

  8. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat. PMID:26836969

  9. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  10. Aft segment dome-to-stiffener factory joint insulation void elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Since the detection of voids in the internal insulation of the dome-to-stiffener factory joint of the 15B aft segment, all aft segment dome-to-stiffener factory joints were x-rated and all were found to contain voids. Using a full-scale process simulation article (PSA), the objective was to demonstrate that the proposed changes in the insulation layup and vacuum bagging processes will greatly reduce or eliminate voids without adversely affecting the configuration of performance of the insulation which serves as a primary seal over the factory joint. The PSA-8 aft segment was insulated and cured using standard production processes.

  11. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  12. Brain networks governing the golf swing in professional golfers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Han, Joung Kyue; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Golf, as with most complex motor skills, requires multiple different brain functions, including attention, motor planning, coordination, calculation of timing, and emotional control. In this study we assessed the correlation between swing components and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Ten female golf players and 10 age-matched female controls were recruited. In order to determine swing consistency among participants, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean swing speed time and the SD of the mean swing angle were assessed over 30 swings. Functional brain connectivity was assessed by resting state functional MRI. Pro-golfers showed greater positive left cerebellum connectivity to the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and both frontal lobes compared to controls. The SD of play scores was positively correlated with the SD of the impact angle. Constant swing speed and back swing angle in professional golfers were associated with functional connectivity (FC) between the cerebellum and parietal and frontal lobes. In addition, the constant impact angle in professional golfers was associated with improved golf scores and additional FC of the thalamus. PMID:25761601

  13. Showing partial side view of swing bridge in open position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing bridge in open position. The operator's house is in the center of the truss bridge, directly over the center/pivot stone masonry pier. Note the two (2) center supports with the truss loads being delivered to the drum by a system of distributing girders. The swing bridge revolved on a cylindrical drum supported by rollers running on a circular track on the center/pivot pier. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  14. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  15. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  16. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  17. Solid rocket motor aft field joint flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, Jayant S.; Gibeling, Edward J.; Mcdonald, Henry

    1987-01-01

    An efficient Navier-Stokes analysis was successfully applied to simulate the complex flow field in the vicinity of a slot in a solid rocket motor with segment joints. The capability of the computer code to resolve the flow near solid surfaces without using a wall function assumption was demonstrated. In view of the complex nature of the flow field in the vicinity of the slot, this approach is considered essential. The results obtained from these calculations provide valuable design information, which would otherwise be extremely difficult to obtain. The results of the axisymmetric calculations indicate the presence of a region of reversed axial flow at the aft-edge of the slot and show the over-pressure in the slot to be only about 10 psi. The results of the asymmetric calculations indicate that a pressure asymmetry more than two diameters downstream of the slot has no noticeable effect on the flow field in the slot. They also indicate that the circumferential pressure differential caused in the slot due to failure of a 15 deg section of the castable inhibitor will be approximately 1 psi.

  18. Navier-Stokes computations of aft end flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; McDonald, H.; Shamroth, S. J.

    1982-05-01

    A Navier-Stokes code to solve the aft end flow field of missile type configurations is presented. The consistently split linearized block implicit method of McDonald and Briley is employed in modified form to handle L-shaped domains with sharp reentrant corners. Appropriate boundary conditions are applied for the supersonic flow in particular at the outer boundary so that waves generated within the flow field are allowed to pass out of the computational domain without reflecting back into it. An adaptive grid option has been incorporated into the code and has been exercised by following the shear layer in a model backstep problem. Results are presented for the supersonic turbulent flow over a nozzle boattail configuration with and without jet exhaust and the results are compared with experiment. Calculations of the 2-D turbulent supersonic flow over a right angle back step with shear layer reattachment on a 20 deg ramp are also shown, and compared with experiments. The computation shows the qualitative physical behavior of the flows and there is generally good agreement with the experimental velocity profiles through most of the free shear layer and the ramp reattachment zone.

  19. Closeup view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the thrust structure that supports the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). In this view, SSME number two position is on the left and SSME number three position is on the right. The thrust structure transfers the forces produce by the engines into and through the airframe of the orbiter. The thrust structure includes the SSMEs load reaction truss structure, engine interface fittings and the hydraulic-actuator support structure. The propellant feed lines are the plugged and capped orifices within the engine bays. Note that SSME position two is rotated ninety degrees from position three and one. This was needed to enable enough clearance for the engines to fit and gimbal. Note in engine bay three is a clear view of the actuators that control the gambling of that engine. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Starboard engine room, compartment C1; view aft showing triple expansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Starboard engine room, compartment C-1; view aft showing triple expansion engine, main throttle wheel, starting valves and cylinder drain manifold at center left. (056) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  2. 5. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 FROM AFT PORT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ALONGSIDE AND IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Framing detail at stern. 3/4 view looking aft towards stern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Framing detail at stern. 3/4 view looking aft towards stern logs, lifts, horn timber, framing and ceiling planks. Rudder shaft on horn timber. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  4. STS-33 MS Carter operates translation hand control (THC) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr operates translation hand control (THC) at the aft flight deck onorbit station while peering out overhead window W7. Carter's communications kit assembly headset microphone extends across his face.

  5. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 1: Aft Skirt analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, David M.; Stansberry, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Using the ANSYS finite element program, a global model of the aft skirt and a detailed nonlinear model of the failure region was made. The analysis confirmed the area of failure in both STA-2B and STA-3 tests as the forging heat affected zone (HAZ) at the aft ring centerline. The highest hoop strain in the HAZ occurs in this area. However, the analysis does not predict failure as defined by ultimate elongation of the material equal to 3.5 percent total strain. The analysis correlates well with the strain gage data from both the Wyle influence test of the original design aft sjirt and the STA-3 test of the redesigned aft skirt. it is suggested that the sensitivity of the failure area material strength and stress/strain state to material properties and therefore to small manufacturing or processing variables is the most likely cause of failure below the expected material ultimate properties.

  6. STS-43 Pilot Baker reviews checklist on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Pilot Michael A. Baker, wearing sunglasses, reviews a checklist on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. He is monitoring data associated with the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II) located in OV-104's payload bay (PLB) from his position in front of the aft flight deck viewing windows. Behind Baker are the closed circuit television (CCTV) monitors and above his head is overhead window W8.

  7. STS-41 MS Melnick experiments with VCS on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce E. Melnick, wearing a lightweight headset, experiments with the Voice Command System (VCS) at the onorbit station on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Melnick reads commands from a checklist which he holds in his hand to control OV-103's closed circuit television (CCTV) using his voice. Note the VCS display unit mounted in front of aft flight deck viewing window W10 and the CCTV display screens at Melnick's right.

  8. STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Jemison conducts AFTE in SLJ module on OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, wearing autogenic feedback training system 2 suit, conducts the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) in Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. AFTE's objective is to teach astronauts to use biofeedback rather than drugs to combat nausea and other effects of space motion sickness. Jemison's physical responses are monitored by sensors attached to the suit.

  9. Susquehanna River Bridge swing span. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Susquehanna River Bridge swing span. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 60.07. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 14. View of swing truss apex with major sway bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of swing truss apex with major sway bracing and bottom latticed strut members, with knee braces below. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  11. 12. WESTERN END OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING ROCKER BEARINGS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. WESTERN END OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING ROCKER BEARINGS AND LOCKING MECHANISM. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 60. VIEW SHOWING SWING SPAN CLEARING TRESTLE SPANS OF SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW SHOWING SWING SPAN CLEARING TRESTLE SPANS OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM BENEATH M STREET BRIDGE, January 17, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 98. George Newman Photographer. VIEW OF THE NEBRASKA SWING SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. George Newman Photographer. VIEW OF THE NEBRASKA SWING SPAN OPEN FOR RIVER PASSAGE. APRIL 13, 1945. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  14. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  15. 7. DETAIL OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING PLATE GIRDER CONSTRUCTION AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING PLATE GIRDER CONSTRUCTION AND PIVOT BEARING BELOW. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 13. General view of the stringer system, swing span (Span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. General view of the stringer system, swing span (Span G), showing also the floor beams and anti-sway bracing; looking NNW. (Harms) - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island Bridge, Fort Armstrong Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. Swing-Free Cranes via Input Shaping of Operator Commands

    SciTech Connect

    Groom, Kenneth N.; Parker, Gordon G.; Robinett, Rush D.; Leban, Frank

    1999-08-25

    This paper presents an open-loop control method for suppressing payload oscillation or swing caused by operator commanded maneuvers in rotary boom cranes and the method is experimentally verified on a one-sixteenth scale model of a Hagglunds shipboard crane. The crane configuration consists of a payload mass that swings like a spherical pendulum on the end of a lift-line which is attached to a boom capable of hub rotation (slewing) and elevation (luffing). Positioning of the payload is accomplished through the hub and boom angles and the load-line length. Since the configuration of the crane affects the excitation and response of the payload, the swing control scheme must account for the varying geometry of the system. Adaptive forward path command filters are employed to remove components of the command signal which induce payload swing.

  18. Analysis of human motions with arm constraint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-Jin; Prabhakaran, B

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates a quantization and clustering issue on human motion performance constrained by disabilities. In a longitudinal study of medical therapy on motion disorder, stages of patient disability condition change over time. We investigate four different stages of one arm constrained walking motions by restricting 0%, 10%, 16% and 22% of arm swing angles. For analysis we use One-way ANOVA and K-mean clustering to indentify the most significant features and to partition four different motion constrained groups. Our experimental result shows that all four arm constraints during walking motion are clustered with an average accuracy of 91.7% on two different feature conditions: a mixture of singular value decomposition (SVD) and power spectral density (PSD); and SVD only on selected gait cycles. The proposed method can be integrated with a ubiquitous system (using wearable sensors) for a remote distance patient monitoring system analysis. PMID:22255718

  19. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory. PMID:25435779

  20. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven M.; McGinnis, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key Points The hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer. It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer. It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories. Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact. The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory. PMID:25435779

  1. A swing driven by liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng

    Angular momentum in liquid crystals exists as flow, director reorientation, etc. However, it is hard to observe and measure angular momentum in liquid crystals by a direct mechanical approach. Torsion pendulum is a general tool to measure angular momentum by torque balance. Our torsion pendulum can harvest the angular momentum in liquid crystals to make it observable. The oscillation of the pendulum keeps increasing by constructively adding a small angular momentum of liquid crystals each period at the resonant frequency of the pendulum. Its similar to a swing driven by a force at its resonant frequency. For the torsion pendulum, a cage made of two aluminum discs, in which a liquid crystal cell is placed, is suspended between two thin tungsten wires. A gold mirror, which is a part of the optical lever system, is attached on one tungsten wire. As first demonstration, we fabricate a circular hybrid liquid crystal cell, which can induce concentric backflows to generate angular momentum. The alignment on the planar substrate is concentric and tangential. Due to the coupling between director rotation and flow, the induced backflow goes around the cell when we add electrical pulses between top and bottom substrates. The oscillation is observed by a position sensitive detector and analyzed on the basis of Eriksen-Leslie theory. With vacuum condition and synchronous driving system, the oscillation signal is improved. We demonstrate that this torsion pendulum can sensitively detect the angular momentum in liquid crystals.

  2. Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed.

    PubMed

    Schorah, David; Choppin, Simon; James, David

    2015-06-01

    In many sports, the maximum swing speed of a racket, club, or bat is a key performance parameter. Previous research in multiple sports supports the hypothesis of an inverse association between the swing speed and moment of inertia of an implement. The aim of this study was to rigorously test and quantify this relationship using a restricted swinging motion. Eight visually identical rods with a common mass but variable moment of inertia were manufactured. Motion capture technology was used to record eight participants' maximal effort swings with the rods. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to data that did not adhere to the prescribed movement pattern. The study found that for all participants, swing speed decreased with respect to moment of inertia according to a power relationship. However, in contrast to previous studies, the rate of decrease varied from participant to participant. With further analysis it was found that participants performed more consistently at the higher end of the moment of inertia range tested. The results support the inverse association between swing speed and moment of inertia but only for higher moment of inertia implements. PMID:25895860

  3. The coupling VIV analysis of SCRs with rigid swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Huang, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    With the development of deepwater oil and gas exploration, Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs) become preferred risers for resource production, import and export. Vortex induced vibration (VIV) is the key problem encountered in the design of SCRs. In this study, a new model, the rigid swing model, is proposed based on the consideration of large curvature of SCRs. The sag bend of SCRs is assumed as a rigid swing system around the axis from the hanging point to the touch down point (TDP) in the model. The torque, produced by the lift force and the swing vector, provides the driving torque for the swing system, and the weight of SCRs provides the restoring torque. The simulated response of rigid swing is coupled with bending vibration, and then the coupling VIV model of SCRs is studied in consideration of bending vibration and rigid motion. The calculated results indicate that the rigid swing has a magnitude equal to that of bending vibration, and the rigid motion affects the dynamic response of SCRs and can not be neglected in the VIV analysis.

  4. Swing-free transport of suspended loads. Summer research report

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-02-01

    Transportation of large objects using traditional bridge crane can induce pendulum motion (swing) of the object. In environments such as factory the energy contained in the swinging mass can be large and therefore attempts to move the mass onto target while still swinging can cause considerable damage. Oscillations must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Stopping the swing can be accomplished by moving the bridge in a manner to counteract the swing which sometimes can be done by skilled operator, or by waiting for the swing to damp sufficiently that the object can be moved to the target without risk of damage. One of the methods that can be utilized for oscillation suppression is input preshaping. The validity of this method depends on the exact knowledge of the system dynamics. This method can be modified to provide some degrees of robustness with respect to unknown dynamics but at the cost of the speed of transient response. This report describes investigations on the development of a controller to dampen the oscillations.

  5. An automatic swinging instrument for better neonatal growing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Hsing; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Chen, Yung-Jung; Yeh, Tsu-Fuh

    1997-08-01

    It is well known that a swing can help infants fall asleep easily. In conditions of deep sleep, infants can grow faster. But how and when to swing (including swing speed and amplitude) for better growth is a serious question. As of now, of concern is that there is no objective quantitative research concerning this topic, although there exist some qualitative studies in the literature. This project is directed to designing a swing system that can simulate a natural or forced swing vibration with a quiet close-loop magnetic driving technique. Both the frequency and amplitude of the system can be changed independently in the range of 0.4-1 Hz and 0.36°-3.6°, respectively. Therefore, the infant's quantitative physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalogram, energy consumption, sleep duration) can be measured to determine the best method of swinging. This system would help a lot of neonates, especially premature infants whose growth rate is much lower than it is in the mother's body.

  6. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  7. Dynamics of Non-steady Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Wada, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  8. DYNAMICS OF NON-STEADY SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Wada, Keiichi

    2013-01-20

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  9. Temperature Swings in a Hot Jupiter's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Weather variations in the atmosphere of a planet on a highly eccentric orbit are naturally expected to be extreme. Now, a study has directly measured the wild changes in the atmosphere of a highly eccentric hot Jupiter as it passes close to its host star.Diagram of the HD 80606 system. The inset images labeled AH show the temperature distribution of the planet at different stages as it swings around its star. [de Wit et al. 2016]Eccentric OpportunityFor a hot Jupiter a gas giant that orbits close to its host star the exoplanet HD 80606 b exhibits a fairly unusual path. Rather than having a circularized orbit, HD 80606 b travels on an extremely elliptic 111-day orbit, with an eccentricity of e ~ 0.93. Since the amount of flux HD 80606 b receives from its host varies by a factor of ~850 over the course of its orbit, it stands to reason that this planet must have extreme weather swings!Now a team of scientists led by Julien de Wit (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) has reanalyzed old observations of HD 80606 and obtained new ones using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The longer observing time and new data analysis techniques allowed the team to gain new insights into how the exoplanets atmosphere responds to changes in the stellar flux it receives during its orbit.Extreme VariationsBy measuring the infrared light coming from HD 80606, de Wit and collaborators modeled the planets temperature during 80 hours of its closest approach to its host star. This period of time included the ~20 hours in which most of the planets temperature change is expected to occur, as it approaches to a distance a mere 6 stellar radii from its host.The authors find that the layer of the atmosphere probed by Spitzer heats rapidly from 500K to 1400K (thats ~440F to a scalding 2000+F!) as the planet approaches periastron.The atmosphere then cools similarly quickly as the planet heads away from the star once more.Relative infrared brightness of HD 80606 b at 4.5 and 8 m. The dip marks where

  10. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In works of the author [1, 2] the mechanism has been offered and the scenario of formation of congelations and warming of the Earth and their inversion and asymmetric displays in opposite hemispheres has been described. These planetary thermal processes are connected with gravitational forced oscillations of the core-mantle system of the Earth, controlling and directing submission of heat in the top layers of the mantle and on a surface of the Earth. It is shown, that action of this mechanism should observed in various time scales. In particular significant changes of a climate should occur to the thousand-year periods, with the periods in tens and hundred thousand years. Thus excitation of system the core-mantle is caused by planetary secular orbital perturbations and by perturbations of the Earth rotation which as is known are characterized by significant amplitudes. But also in a short time scale the climate variations with the interannual and decade periods also should be observed, how dynamic consequences of the swing of the core-mantle system of the Earth with the same periods [3]. The fundamental phenomenon of secular polar drift of the core relatively to the viscous-elastic and changeable mantle [4] in last years has obtained convincing confirmations various geosciences. Reliable an attribute of influence of oscillations of the core on a variation of natural processes is their property of inversion when, for example, activity of process accrues in northern hemisphere and decreases in a southern hemisphere. Such contrast secular changes in northern and southern (N/S) hemispheres have been predicted on the base of geodynamic model [1] and revealed according to observations: from gravimetry measurements of a gravity [5]; in determination of a secular trend of a sea level, as global, and in northern and southern hemispheres [6, 7]; in redistribution of air masses [6, 8]; in geodetic measurements of changes of average radiuses of northern and

  11. Low speed test of the aft inlet designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, W. W.; Ybarra, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An approximately .25 scale model of a Tandem Fan nacelle designed for a Type A V/STOL aircraft configuration was tested in a 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. A 12 inch, tip driven, turbofan simulator was used to provide the suction source for the aft fan inlet. The front fan inlet was faired over for this test entry. Model variables consisted of a long aft inlet cowl, a short aft inlet cowl, a shaft simulator, blow-in door passages and diffuser vortex generators. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, inlet angle of attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocities from 0 to 240 knots, angles of attack from -10 to 40 degrees and inlet flow rates representative of throat Mach numbers of 0.1 to 0.6. High inlet performance and stable operation was verified at all design forward speed and angle of attack conditions. The short aft inlet configuration provided exceptionally high pressure recovery except at the highest combination of angle of attack and forward speed. The flow quality at the fan face was somewhat degraded by the addition of blow-in door passages to the long aft inlet configuration due to the pressure disturbances generated by the flow entering the diffuser through the auxiliary air passages.

  12. Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Blake M; Delp, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulations of the standing long jump were developed to gain insight into the mechanisms of enhanced performance due to arm motion. The activations that maximize standing long jump distance of a joint torque actuated model were determined for jumps with free and restricted arm movement. The simulated jump distance was 40 cm greater when arm movement was free (2.00 m) than when it was restricted (1.60 m). The majority of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was due to the 15% increase (3.30 vs. 2.86 m/s) in the take-off velocity of the center of gravity. Some of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was attributable to the ability of the jumper to swing the arms backwards during the flight phase to alleviate excessive forward rotation and position the body segments properly for landing. In restricted arm jumps, the excessive forward rotation was avoided by "holding back" during the propulsive phase and reducing the activation levels of the ankle, knee, and hip joint torque actuators. In addition, swinging the arm segments allowed the lower body joint torque actuators to perform 26 J more work in the free arm jump. However, the most significant contribution to developing greater take-off velocity came from the additional 80 J work done by the shoulder actuator in the jump with free arm movement. PMID:15992805

  13. Pressure swing permeation: Novel process for gas separation by membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Pan, C.Y.; Ivory, J.

    2000-04-01

    A novel process for gas separation, called pressure swing permeation, was investigated to elevate the relatively low permeate pressure by pressurization with high-pressure feed gas, thereby reducing or eliminating additional permeate compression costs where a pressurized permeate is required. This process uses two or more membrane modules and operates in a cyclic fashion, with each module repeatedly undergoing the sequential steps of feed admission and permeation, residual removal, permeate reception, permeate pressurization, and product withdrawal. The unsteady-state permeation associated with pressure swing permeation was studied parametrically, and a bench-scale unit compromising two hollow-fiber membrane modules in parallel was tested for H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the process. The permeate product at a pressure as high as the feed pressure can be produced without using a compressor. This is impossible with traditional steady-state processes where a pressure differential across the membrane must be maintained. The pressure swing permeation is analogous to pressure swing adsorption and has the potential to be synergistically integrated with the pressure swing adsorption process for enhanced separation of gases.

  14. Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Samuel R; Delp, Scott L

    2013-02-22

    Running is a bouncing gait in which the body mass center slows and lowers during the first half of the stance phase; the mass center is then accelerated forward and upward into flight during the second half of the stance phase. Muscle-driven simulations can be analyzed to determine how muscle forces accelerate the body mass center. However, muscle-driven simulations of running at different speeds have not been previously developed, and it remains unclear how muscle forces modulate mass center accelerations at different running speeds. Thus, to examine how muscles generate accelerations of the body mass center, we created three-dimensional muscle-driven simulations of ten subjects running at 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0m/s. An induced acceleration analysis determined the contribution of each muscle to mass center accelerations. Our simulations included arms, allowing us to investigate the contributions of arm motion to running dynamics. Analysis of the simulations revealed that soleus provides the greatest upward mass center acceleration at all running speeds; soleus generates a peak upward acceleration of 19.8m/s(2) (i.e., the equivalent of approximately 2.0 bodyweights of ground reaction force) at 5.0m/s. Soleus also provided the greatest contribution to forward mass center acceleration, which increased from 2.5m/s(2) at 2.0m/s to 4.0m/s(2) at 5.0m/s. At faster running speeds, greater velocity of the legs produced larger angular momentum about the vertical axis passing through the body mass center; angular momentum about this vertical axis from arm swing simultaneously increased to counterbalance the legs. We provide open-access to data and simulations from this study for further analysis in OpenSim at simtk.org/home/nmbl_running, enabling muscle actions during running to be studied in unprecedented detail. PMID:23246045

  15. Aft Body Closure: Predicted Strut Effects at M=2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Garritz, Javier A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the predicted M = 2.4 strut-interference effects on a closed aftbody with empennage for the TCA baseline model. The strut mounting technique was needed in order to assess the impact of aft-end shaping, i.e. open for a sting or closed to better represent a flight vehicle. However,this technique can potentially lead to unanticipated effects that are measured on the aft body. Therefore, a set of computations were performed in order to examine the closed aft body with and without strut present, at both zero and non-zero angles of sideslip (AOS). The work was divided into a computational task performed by Javier A. Garriz, using an inviscid (Euler) solver, and a monitoring/reporting task done by John E. Lamar. All this work was performed during FY98 at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  16. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft-tail configurations for 2 wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations were compared in tests on a general research model (generic fuselage without canopy, inlets, or vertical tails) at Mach 1.60 and 2.00 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two uncambered wing planforms (trapezoidal with 44 deg leading edge sweep and delta with 60 deg leading edge sweep) were tested for each configuration. The relative merits of the configurations were also determined theoretically, to evaluate the capabilities of a linear theory code for such analyses. The canard and aft tail configurations have similar measured values for lift curve slope, maximum lift drag ratio, and zero lift drag. The stability decrease as Mach number increases is greatest for the tailless configuration and least for the canard configuration. Because of very limited accuracy in predicting the aerodynamic parameter increments between configurations, the linear theory code is not adequate for determining the relative merits of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations.

  17. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  18. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  19. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  20. STS-35 MS Hoffman operates ASTRO-1 MPC on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman, wearing headset and monitoring closed circuit television (CCTV) display screen, operates the Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) manual pointing controller (MPC) on the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. MPC is used to position the instrument pointing system (IPS) and its three ultraviolet telescopes in OV-102's payload bay (PLB). Hoffman and other crewmembers were able to command the IPS to record astronomical data using the MPC. At Hoffman's left are the onorbit station control panels and the two aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10.

  1. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  2. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, Jeff; Ayala, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods Project is an example) to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element software code, known as Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress, is used to determine the reliability of a critical weld of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster aft skirt. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process. Also, analysis findings are compared with measured Space Shuttle flight data.

  3. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of the SRB Aft Skirt External Fitting Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.; Peck, J.; Ayala, S.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has funded several major programs (the PSAM Project is an example) to develop Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods and tools for engineers to apply in the design and assessment of aerospace hardware. A probabilistic finite element design tool, known as NESSUS, is used to determine the reliability of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt critical weld. An external bracket modification to the aft skirt provides a comparison basis for examining the details of the probabilistic analysis and its contributions to the design process.

  4. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  5. Rosetta Navigation at its Mars Swing-By

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budnik, Frank; Morley, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the navigation activities during Rosetta s Mars swing-by. It covers the Mars approach phase starting after a deterministic deep-space maneuver in September 2006, the swing-by proper on 25 February 2007, and ends with another deterministic deep-space maneuver in April 2007 which was also foreseen to compensate any navigation error. Emphasis is put on the orbit determination and prediction set-up and the evolution of the targeting estimates in the B-plane and their adjustments by trajectory correction maneuvers.

  6. Free-Swinging Failure Tolerance for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, James

    1997-01-01

    Under this GSRP fellowship, software-based failure-tolerance techniques were developed for robotic manipulators. The focus was on failures characterized by the loss of actuator torque at a joint, called free-swinging failures. The research results spanned many aspects of the free-swinging failure-tolerance problem, from preparing for an expected failure to discovery of postfailure capabilities to establishing efficient methods to realize those capabilities. Developed algorithms were verified using computer-based dynamic simulations, and these were further verified using hardware experiments at Johnson Space Center.

  7. Savonius rotor using swinging blades as an augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldos, T. K.

    The power output from a Savonius rotor can be improved by reducing the drag force on the up-wind blades. A new method of doing this is experimentally investigated in the present work. The method depends on allowing the rotor blades to swing back when they are on the upwind stroke. A high and real power augmentation may be achieved by the new system at an optimum angle of swing. The system is independent of wind direction, is simple to construct, and requires no additional accessories.

  8. Neuromechanical considerations for incorporating rhythmic arm movement in the rehabilitation of walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimstra, Marc D.; Thomas, Evan; Stoloff, Rebecca H.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Zehr, E. Paul

    2009-06-01

    We have extensively used arm cycling to study the neural control of rhythmic movements such as arm swing during walking. Recently rhythmic movement of the arms has also been shown to enhance and shape muscle activity in the legs. However, restricted information is available concerning the conditions necessary to maximally alter lumbar spinal cord excitability. Knowledge on the neuromechanics of a task can assist in the determination of the type, level, and timing of neural signals, yet arm swing during walking and arm cycling have not received a detailed neuromechanical comparison. The purpose of this research was to provide a combined neural and mechanical measurement approach that could be used to assist in the determination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for arm movement to assist in lower limb rehabilitation after stroke and spinal cord injury. Subjects performed three rhythmic arm movement tasks: (1) cycling (cycle); (2) swinging while standing (swing); and (3) swinging while treadmill walking (walk). We hypothesized that any difference in neural control between tasks (i.e., pattern of muscle activity) would reflect changes in the mechanical constraints unique to each task. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected simultaneously with force measurement at the hand and electromyography from the arms and trunk. All data were appropriately segmented to allow a comparison between and across conditions and were normalized and averaged to 100% movement cycle based on shoulder excursion. Separate mathematical principal components analysis of kinematic and neural variables was performed to determine common task features and muscle synergies. The results highlight important neural and mechanical features that distinguish differences between tasks. For example, there are considerable differences in the anatomical positions of the arms during each task, which relate to the moments experienced about the elbow and shoulder. Also, there are differences between

  9. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. PMID:26737153

  10. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  11. 14. LOOKING NW FROM EASTERN ABUTMENT, WITH SWING SPAN IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LOOKING NW FROM EASTERN ABUTMENT, WITH SWING SPAN IN OPEN POSITION. NOTE BUMPER ON CURVED RACK AT BOTTOM LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Stance and swing phase costs in human walking

    PubMed Central

    Umberger, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Leg swing in human walking has historically been viewed as a passive motion with little metabolic cost. Recent estimates of leg swing costs are equivocal, covering a range from 10 to 33 per cent of the net cost of walking. There has also been a debate as to whether the periods of double-limb support during the stance phase dominate the cost of walking. Part of this uncertainty is because of our inability to measure metabolic energy consumption in individual muscles during locomotion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic cost of walking using a modelling approach that allowed instantaneous energy consumption rates in individual muscles to be estimated over the full gait cycle. At a typical walking speed and stride rate, leg swing represented 29 per cent of the total muscular cost. During the stance phase, the double-limb and single-limb support periods accounted for 27 and 44 per cent of the total cost, respectively. Performing step-to-step transitions, which encompasses more than just the double-support periods, represented 37 per cent of the total cost of walking. Increasing stride rate at a constant speed led to greater double-limb support costs, lower swing phase costs and no change in single-limb support costs. Together, these results provide unique insight as to how metabolic energy is expended over the human gait cycle. PMID:20356877

  13. 50. VIEW LOOKING NORTHNORTHEAST ALONG MAIN CHANNEL FROM SWING SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST ALONG MAIN CHANNEL FROM SWING SPAN OF M STREET BRIDGE, December 3, 1934. PIERS OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE FLANK THE CHANNEL, I STREET BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  15. JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Chu, Paul; Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

  16. Towards a More Realistic Description of Swing Pumping Due to the Exchange of Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roura, P.; Gonzalez, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The pumping mechanism of a swing in a playground is due to the exchange of angular momentum from the rocking movement of the swinger to the swing oscillation around the point from which the swing is suspended. We describe the rocking events as square pulses of short duration. This choice, together with a simplified mechanical model for the…

  17. STS-56 MS1 Foale uses laser range finder on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale, positioned at overhead window W8, uses a laser range finder on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, during Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201) rendezvous operations. Partially visible outside W8 is the deployed remote manipulator system (RMS) and its closed circuit television (CCTV) camera.

  18. STS-32 Mission Specialist Ivins juggles camera equipment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Mission Specialist (MS) Marsha S. Ivins juggles camera equipment on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Ivins holds a 35mm NIKON camera with telephoto lens in her right hand and a 70mm HASSELBLAD with telephoto lens in her left hand. Behind her, velcroed to the payload station, is additional camera equipment and film.

  19. 28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS23G ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SONAR CONTROL ROOM - FORWARD LOOKING AFT SHOWING AN/SQS-23G DETECTING-RANGING SET, MARK & CONTROL PANEL, CAN-55134 RECORDER, SPEED INDICATOR, VARIOUS ALARMS AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CIRCUITS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 3. EXUSS HORNET CVS12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, EX-USS ORISKANY CV-34 RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO, EX-USS JERSEY BB-62 AND OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ACROSS PIER FROM HORNET. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  2. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE FROM BOW AFT SHOWING BILGE KEEL STABILIZERS ON HULL BOTTOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING AFT TOWARD WHEELHOUSE ERECTED IN THE 1940s. CREW MEMBER IS UNKNOWN. Original 3-1/2'x4-1/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  4. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... protect such installed engines from fires, were not envisioned in the development of the part 23 normal... fire extinguishing system for the engine on the model SF50 is required. Regulations requiring...

  5. 78 FR 35747 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Corporation. DATES: This special condition published on April 20, 2010 at 75 FR 20518 is withdrawn, effective... model SF50 certification project was granted an extension on September 19, 2011. Amendment 23-62 (76 FR...; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft Fuselage Mounted Engine; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal...

  6. STS-37 Pilot Cameron and MS Godwin work on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron and Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin pause from their work on aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, to pose for a picture. Cameron holds onto an onorbit station control panel while Godwin steadies herself by using the overhead window (W8) sill.

  7. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein celebrates birthday on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, wearing eye glasses, holds inflated plastic birthday cake during a celebration on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Two of the candles on the cake have collapsed as Brandenstein smiles and wonders whether to blow down the rest.

  8. Astronauts Walz and Newman in STS-51 Discovery's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Carl E. Walz (left) and James H. Newman are pictured on Discovery's aft flight deck near two experiments. Positioned in the window above Walz's head is the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B), while the High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy (HRSGS-A) experiment is deployed in the other window.

  9. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. A Tale of Two Approaches--The AFT, the NEA, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2005-01-01

    When President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law on January 8, 2002, neither the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) nor the National Education Association (NEA) was on record supporting the new legislation. What has transpired since the enactment of the statute is the story of the two organizations' different approaches…

  11. View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A21) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of dynamo room (compartment A-21) showing port ventilation fan; electrical generator is at left center of photograph. Platform for generator is at bottom center of photograph. Hatch for passing powder up from magazine is located just above the generator base. Frames support armored protective deck. (018) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Enabling a Better Aft Heat Shield Solution for Future Mars Science Laboratory Class Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary K.; Covington, Melmoth A.; Goldstein, Howard E.; Arnold, James O.; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    System studies are described that compare masses and estimated manufacturing costs of options for the as-flown Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aft body Thermal Light Weight Ablator (SLA) 561-V and its thickness was not optimized using the standard TPS Sizer Tool widely used for heat shield design. Use of the TPS sizing tool suggests that optimization of the SLA thickness could reduce the aft heat shield mass by 40 percent. Analysis of the predicted aft-shell aerothermodynamics suggests that the bulk of MSL class entry vehicle heat shields could incorporate Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI). AFRSI has a wellestablished record of relatively inexpensive manufacturing and flight certification based on its use on the lee side of the Space Shuttle. Runs with the TPS Sizer show that the AFRSI solution would be 60 percent lighter than the as-flown SLA. The issue of Reaction Control System (RCS) heating on the aft shell could be addressed by locally impregnating the AFRSI with silicone to enhance its robustness to short bursts ofheating. Stagnation point arcjet testing has shown that silicone impregnated AFRSI performs well at heat rates of 115 W/cm2 and 0.1 atmospheres for a duration of 40 seconds, far beyond conditions that are expected for MSL class vehicles. The paper concludes with a discussion of manufacturing processes for AFRSI, impregnation approaches and relative cost comparisons to the SLA solution.

  13. NEA/AFT Membership: The Critical Issues. EPI Series on Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Charlene K.; Lieberman, Myron

    This booklet, one in the Education Policy Institute series about teacher union issues, examines issues related to membership in the National Education Association (NEA) and American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Both unions aggressively strive to enroll more members or require teachers to pay agency fees. If teachers want to change union policy,…

  14. The Bargaining Table and Beyond: How the AFT Came to Support Labor-Management Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When he first came to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in 1973, reports Phil Kugler, there was no such thing as labor-management collaboration. It was a term he had never heard of, and no one used it. Back then, the focus was on supporting local unions in their struggles to win collective bargaining rights. At the time, teachers were…

  15. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  16. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M. Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  17. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  18. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  19. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  20. Internal Performance of a Fixed-Shroud Nonaxisymmetric Nozzle Equipped with an Aft-Hood Exhaust Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of a fixed-shroud nonaxisymmetric nozzle equipped with an aft-hood exhaust deflector. Model geometric parameters investigated included nozzle power setting, aft-hood deflector angle, throat area control with the aft-hood deflector deployed, and yaw vector angle. Results indicate that cruise configurations produced peak performance in the range consistent with previous investigations of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles. The aft-hood deflector produced resultant pitch vector angles that were always less than the geometric aft-hood deflector angle when the nozzle throat was positioned upstream of the deflector exit. Significant losses in resultant thrust ratio occurred when the aft-hood deflector was deployed with an upstream throat location. At each aft-hood deflector angle, repositioning the throat to the deflector exit improved pitch vectoring performance and, in some cases, substantially improved resultant thrust ratio performance. Transferring the throat to the deflector exit allowed the flow to be turned upstream of the throat at subsonic Mach numbers, thereby eliminating losses associated with turning supersonic flow. Internal throat panel deflections were largely unsuccessful in generating yaw vectoring.

  1. The yeast Aft2 transcription factor determines selenite toxicity by controlling the low affinity phosphate transport system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sampietro, María; Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Casas, Celia; Ariño, Joaquín; Herrero, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity. PMID:27618952

  2. Segmental and Kinetic Contributions in Vertical Jumps Performed with and without an Arm Swing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltner, Michael E.; Bishop, Elijah J.; Perez, Cassandra M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the contributions of the motions of the body segments to the vertical ground reaction force ([F.sub.z]), the joint torques produced by the leg muscles, and the time course of vertical velocity generation during a vertical jump, 15 men were videotaped performing countermovement vertical jumps from a force plate with and without an arm…

  3. Central resetting of neuromuscular steady states may underlie rhythmical arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Feldman, Anatol G; Levin, Mindy F

    2006-09-01

    Changing the steady-state configuration of the body or its segments may be an important function of central pattern generators for locomotion and other rhythmical movements. Thereby, muscle activation, forces, and movement may emerge following a natural tendency of the neuromuscular system to achieve the current steady-state configuration. To verify that transitions between different steady states occur during rhythmical movements, we asked standing subjects to swing one or both arms synchronously or reciprocally at approximately 0.8 Hz from the shoulder joints. In randomly selected cycles, one arm was transiently arrested by an electromagnetic device. Swinging resumed after some delay and phase resetting. During bilateral swinging, the nonperturbed arm often stopped before resuming swinging at a position that was close to either the extreme forward or the extreme backward arm position observed before the perturbation. Oscillations usually resumed when both arms arrived at similar extreme positions when a synchronous bilateral pattern was initially produced or at the opposite positions if the initial pattern was reciprocal. Results suggest that a central generator controls both arms as a coherent unit by producing transitions between its steady state (equilibrium) positions. By controlling these positions, the system may define the spatial boundaries of movement. At these positions, the system may halt the oscillations, resume them at a new phase (as observed in the present study), or initiate a new motor action. Our findings are relevant to locomotion and suggest that walking may also be generated by transitions between several equilibrium configurations of the body, possibly accomplished by modulation and gating of proprioceptive reflexes. PMID:16707712

  4. Gaining Confidence in Navigating Rosetta at Mars Swing-By

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crammn, Ruediger; Budnik, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Mars swing-by in the early morning of the 25th of February 2007 was one of the most critical events the Rosetta mission has experienced so far on its way to the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The closest approach took place at a distance of only 250 km from the planet s surface. Missing the optimal target would have translated into considerable fuel cost. In order to achieve confidence in operating through this highly critical mission phase, a navigation analysis exercise was carried out beforehand. This paper describes the purpose and the chosen approach for this preparatory Flight Dynamics activity. It presents and discusses results of the analysis. Emphasis is put on the question of what is needed to simulate a valuable data set representative for operations. The results of the navigation analysis are compared with real data obtained during swing-by operations.

  5. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  6. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  7. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  8. Role of arm motion in feet-in-place balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2015-09-18

    Although considerable arm movements have been observed at loss of balance, research on standing balance focused primarily on the ankle and hip strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm motion on feet-in-place balance recovery. Participants stood on a single force plate and leaned forward with a straight body posture. They were then released from three forward-lean angles and regained balance without moving their forefeet under arm-swing (AS) and arm-constrained (AC) conditions. Higher success rates and shorter recovery times were found with arm motion under moderate balance perturbations. Recovery time was significantly correlated with peak linear momentum of the arms. Circumduction arm motion caused initial shoulder extension (backward arm movement) to generate reaction forces to pull the body forward, but later forward linear momentum of the arms helped move the whole body backward to avoid forward falling. However, greater lean angles increased difficulty in balance recovery, making the influences of the arms less significant. Since arm motions were observed in all participants with significantly enhanced performance under moderate balance perturbation, it was concluded that moving the arms should also be considered (together with the ankles and hips) as an effective strategy for balance recovery. PMID:26209086

  9. Regulation of reaction forces during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    McNitt-Gray, J L; Munaretto, J; Zaferiou, A; Requejo, P S; Flashner, H

    2013-06-01

    During the golf swing, the reaction forces applied at the feet control translation and rotation of the body-club system. In this study, we hypothesized that skilled players using a 6-iron would regulate shot distance by scaling the magnitude of the resultant horizontal reaction force applied to the each foot with minimal modifications in force direction. Skilled players (n = 12) hit golf balls using a 6-iron. Shot distance was varied by hitting the ball as they would normally and when reducing shot distance using the same club. During each swing, reaction forces were measured using dual force plates (1200 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics were simultaneously captured (110 Hz). The results indicate that, on average, the peak resultant horizontal reaction forces of the target leg were significantly less than normal (5%, p < 0.05) when reducing shot distance. No significant differences in the orientation of the peak resultant horizontal reaction forces were observed. Resultant horizontal reaction force-angle relationships within leg and temporal relationships between target and rear legs during the swing were consistent within player across shot conditions. Regulation of force magnitude with minimal modification in force direction is expected to provide advantages from muscle activation, coordination, and performance points of view. PMID:23898685

  10. Rotational biomechanics of the elite golf swing: benchmarks for amateurs.

    PubMed

    Meister, David W; Ladd, Amy L; Butler, Erin E; Zhao, Betty; Rogers, Andrew P; Ray, Conrad J; Rose, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical factors that may influence golf swing power generation. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were examined in 10 professional and 5 amateur male golfers. Upper-torso rotation, pelvic rotation, X-factor (relative hip-shoulder rotation), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), S-factor (shoulder obliquity), and normalized free moment were assessed in relation to clubhead speed at impact (CSI). Among professional golfers, results revealed that peak free moment per kilogram, peak X-factor, and peak S-factor were highly consistent, with coefficients of variation of 6.8%, 7.4%, and 8.4%, respectively. Downswing was initiated by reversal of pelvic rotation, followed by reversal of upper-torso rotation. Peak X-factor preceded peak free moment in all swings for all golfers, and occurred during initial downswing. Peak free moment per kilogram, X-factor at impact, peak X-factor, and peak upper-torso rotation were highly correlated to CSI (median correlation coefficients of 0.943, 0.943, 0.900, and 0.900, respectively). Benchmark curves revealed kinematic and kinetic temporal and spatial differences of amateurs compared with professional golfers. For amateurs, the number of factors that fell outside 1-2 standard deviations of professional means increased with handicap. This study identified biomechanical factors highly correlated to golf swing power generation and may provide a basis for strategic training and injury prevention. PMID:21844613

  11. Trunk muscle activation during golf swing: Baseline and threshold.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. PMID:23816264

  12. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Tae; Chow, John W; Chae, Woen-Sik

    2012-06-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4-L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male collegiate golfers. Average EMG levels for different phases of golf swing were determined. An EMG-assisted optimization model was applied to compute the contact forces acting on the L4-L5. The results revealed a mean peak compressive load of over six times the body weight (BW) during the downswing and mean peak anterior and medial shear loads approaching 1.6 and 0.6 BW during the follow-through phases. The peak compressive load estimated in this study was high, but less than the corresponding value (over 8 BW) reported by a previous study. Average EMG levels of different muscles were the highest in the acceleration and follow-through phases, suggesting a likely link between co-contractions of paraspinal muscles and lumbar spinal loads. PMID:22900401

  13. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  14. Pricing of swing options: A Monte Carlo simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Kai-Siong

    We study the problem of pricing swing options, a class of multiple early exercise options that are traded in energy market, particularly in the electricity and natural gas markets. These contracts permit the option holder to periodically exercise the right to trade a variable amount of energy with a counterparty, subject to local volumetric constraints. In addition, the total amount of energy traded from settlement to expiration with the counterparty is restricted by a global volumetric constraint. Violation of this global volumetric constraint is allowed but would lead to penalty settled at expiration. The pricing problem is formulated as a stochastic optimal control problem in discrete time and state space. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which is based on piecewise linear concave approximation of value functions. This algorithm yields the value of the swing option under the assumption that the optimal exercise policy is applied by the option holder. We present a proof of an almost sure convergence that the algorithm generates the optimal exercise strategy as the number of iterations approaches to infinity. Finally, we provide a numerical example for pricing a natural gas swing call option.

  15. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  16. Swings of Science: From Complexity to Simplicity and Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pismen, L. M.

    Science brings order into unfathomable complexity of nature, exposing its simple underlying laws. New insights and new means of observation bring about, however, new questions, and the world picture becomes more complex again, until simplified on a still deeper level of understanding. The swinging motion from complexity to simplicity and back can be discerned in the evolution of religions, in the search for basic elements, in cosmology. We will follow this motion in more detail taking as examples more specific problems of contemporary science: turbulence, pattern formation and biological morphogenesis. In all cases, simplicity achieved by discerning simplified laws and generic scenarios at the heart of complex phenomena is broken again as they are studied in minute detail. In our time, the swing moves with staggering speed toward ever increased complexity. This does not mean that the reductionist scientific paradigm is abandoned: even simple laws can engender complex phenomenology; metaphysical offshoots appear, however, on fringes of science. We do not know whether the swing will ever turn around toward simplicity again.

  17. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  18. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  19. Shock Characteristics Measured Upstream of Both a Forward-Swept and an Aft-Swept Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Krupar, Martin J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Horvath, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    Three different types of diagnostic data-blade surface flow visualization, shroud unsteady pressure, and laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV)--were obtained on two fans, one forward-swept and one aft-swept, in order to learn more about the shocks which propagate upstream of these rotors when they are operated at transonic tip speeds. Flow visualization data are presented for the forward-swept fan operating at 13831 rpm(sub c), and for the aft-swept fan operating at 12500 and 13831 rpm(sub c) (corresponding to tip rotational Mach numbers of 1.07 and 1.19, respectively). The flow visualization data identify where the shocks occur on the suction side of the rotor blades. These data show that at the takeoff speed, 13831 rpm(sub c), the shocks occurring in the tip region of the forward-swept fan are further downstream in the blade passage than with the aft-swept fan. Shroud unsteady pressure measurements were acquired using a linear array of 15 equally-spaced pressure transducers extending from two tip axial chords upstream to 0.8 tip axial chords downstream of the static position of the tip leading edge of each rotor. Such data are presented for each fan operating at one subsonic and five transonic tip speeds. The unsteady pressure data show relatively strong detached shocks propagating upstream of the aft-swept rotor at the three lowest transonic tip speeds, and weak, oblique pressure disturbances attached to the tip of the aft-swept fan at the two highest transonic tip speeds. The unsteady pressure measurements made with the forward-swept fan do not show strong shocks propagating upstream of that rotor at any of the tested speeds. A comparison of the forward-swept and aft-swept shroud unsteady pressure measurements indicates that at any given transonic speed the pressure disturbance just upstream of the tip of the forward-swept fan is much weaker than that of the aft-swept fan. The LDV data suggest that at 12500 and 13831 rpm(sub c), the forward-swept fan swallowed the

  20. 17q24.2 microdeletions: a new syndromal entity with intellectual disability, truncal obesity, mood swings and hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Vergult, Sarah; Dauber, Andrew; Chiaie, Barbara Delle; Van Oudenhove, Elke; Simon, Marleen; Rihani, Ali; Loeys, Bart; Hirschhorn, Joel; Pfotenhauer, Jean; Phillips, John A; Mohammed, Shehla; Ogilvie, Caroline; Crolla, John; Mortier, Geert; Menten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Although microdeletions of the long arm of chromosome 17 are being reported with increasing frequency, deletions of chromosome band 17q24.2 are rare. Here we report four patients with a microdeletion encompassing chromosome band 17q24.2 with a smallest region of overlap of 713 kb containing five Refseq genes and one miRNA. The patients share the phenotypic characteristics, such as intellectual disability (4/4), speech delay (4/4), truncal obesity (4/4), seizures (2/4), hearing loss (3/4) and a particular facial gestalt. Hallucinations and mood swings were also noted in two patients. The PRKCA gene is a very interesting candidate gene for many of the observed phenotypic features, as this gene plays an important role in many cellular processes. Deletion of this gene might explain the observed truncal obesity and could also account for the hallucinations and mood swings seen in two patients, whereas deletion of a CACNG gene cluster might be responsible for the seizures observed in two patients. In one of the patients, the PRKAR1A gene responsible for Carney Complex and the KCNJ2 gene causal for Andersen syndrome are deleted. This is the first report of a patient with a whole gene deletion of the KCNJ2 gene. PMID:22166941

  1. 17q24.2 microdeletions: a new syndromal entity with intellectual disability, truncal obesity, mood swings and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Vergult, Sarah; Dauber, Andrew; Delle Chiaie, Barbara; Van Oudenhove, Elke; Simon, Marleen; Rihani, Ali; Loeys, Bart; Hirschhorn, Joel; Pfotenhauer, Jean; Phillips, John A; Mohammed, Shehla; Ogilvie, Caroline; Crolla, John; Mortier, Geert; Menten, Björn

    2012-05-01

    Although microdeletions of the long arm of chromosome 17 are being reported with increasing frequency, deletions of chromosome band 17q24.2 are rare. Here we report four patients with a microdeletion encompassing chromosome band 17q24.2 with a smallest region of overlap of 713 kb containing five Refseq genes and one miRNA. The patients share the phenotypic characteristics, such as intellectual disability (4/4), speech delay (4/4), truncal obesity (4/4), seizures (2/4), hearing loss (3/4) and a particular facial gestalt. Hallucinations and mood swings were also noted in two patients. The PRKCA gene is a very interesting candidate gene for many of the observed phenotypic features, as this gene plays an important role in many cellular processes. Deletion of this gene might explain the observed truncal obesity and could also account for the hallucinations and mood swings seen in two patients, whereas deletion of a CACNG gene cluster might be responsible for the seizures observed in two patients. In one of the patients, the PRKAR1A gene responsible for Carney Complex and the KCNJ2 gene causal for Andersen syndrome are deleted. This is the first report of a patient with a whole gene deletion of the KCNJ2 gene. PMID:22166941

  2. STS-46 Commander Shriver eats candy (M and Ms) on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Commander Loren J. Shriver, wearing a communications kit assembly headset and with his mouth open, pursues several floating chocolate-covered peanut candies (M and Ms) on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Shriver is positioned in front of overhead window W7. Outside the window the cloud-covered surface of the Earth and the Earth's limb are visible.

  3. STS-65 Pilot Halsell points camera out window on OV-102's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr uses a handheld HASSELBLAD camera at aft flight deck overhead window W8 to take Earth photographs while aboard the orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Part of Baja, California can be seen in the upper left quadrant of the photo. This photo was one of the first released by NASA following the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  4. Compartment A123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-123, ship's laundry view aft to forward. Large dial at left center appears to be a timer for controlling washing machine at lower right. Low, round machine to the left of the washer is a centrifuge used for spin drying laundry. Laundry was not part of original equipment but was added in the refurbishment of 1899. (024) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  6. STS-27 MS Mullane on aft flight deck with camera equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-27 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard M. Mullane is surrounded by cameras and Earth observation equipment on the aft flight deck. In the frame are the ARRIFLEX 16mm motion picture camera, a 70mm still camera, a 35mm still camera, a pair of glasses, and a pair of binoculars. Clouds over an ocean can be seen out overhead window W8 above Mullane. Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screens are visible behind Mullane.

  7. STS-43 Mission Specialist (MS) Adamson uses camera on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson points a 70mm HASSELBLAD camera out aft flight deck overhead window W8. Holding his position in the microgravity of space proves tricky. Notice that Adamson's feet are hooked around the commanders seat headrest. The onorbit station control panels appear above Adamson's head and the payload station with Development Test Ojective (DTO) 1208, Space Station Cursor Control Device Evaluation II and Advanced Applications, laptop computer at his back.

  8. Fabrication of the V-22 composite AFT fuselage using automated fiber placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing Helicopters and its subcontractors are working together under an Air Force Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC)-Manufacturing-Technology Large-Composite Primary Structure Fuselage program to develop and demonstrate new manufacturing techniques for producing composite fuselage skin and frame structures. Three sets of aft fuselage skins and frames have been fabricated and assembled, and substantial reductions in fabrication and assembly costs demonstrated.

  9. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  10. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Propellant grain dynamics in aft attach ring of shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for implementing simultaneously the temperature, dynamic strain, real modulus, and frequency properties of solid propellant in an unsymmetrical vibrating ring mode is presented. All dynamic parameters and sources are defined for a free vibrating ring-grain structure with initial displacement and related to a forced vibrating system to determine the change in real modulus. Propellant test data application is discussed. The technique was developed to determine the aft attach ring stiffness of the shuttle booster at lift-off.

  12. STS-33 crewmembers on OV-103's aft flight deck photograph Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 crewmembers are positioned on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, to record Earth observations. Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton views Earth through an overhead window before taking a picture. A second crewmember behind Thornton, holding viewfinder to his eye, records the scenery. The view was taken by a crewmember on the middeck looking up through the interdeck access hatch.

  13. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-01

    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe. PMID:26073230

  14. STS-33 Commander Gregory uses a NIKON 35mm camera on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Commander Frederick D. Gregory aims NIKON 35mm camera out aft flight deck viewing window W10 while onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gregory's profile is highlighted by sunlight shining through overhead window W8.

  15. SRM attrition rate study of the aft motor case segments due to water impact cavity collapse loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The attrition assessment of the aft segments of Solid Rocket Motor due to water impact requires the establishment of a correlation between loading occurrences and structural capability. Each discrete load case, as identified by the water impact velocities and angle, varies longitudinally and radially in magnitude and distribution of the external pressure. The distributions are further required to be shifted forward or aft one-fourth the vehicle diameter to assure minimization of the effect of test instrumentation location for the load determinations. The asymmetrical load distributions result in large geometric nonlinearities in structural response. The critical structural response is progressive buckling of the case. Discrete stiffeners have been added to these aft segments to aid in gaining maximum structural capability for minimum weight addition for resisting these loads. This report presents the development of the attrition assessment of the aft segments and includes the rationale for eliminating all assessable conservatisms from this assessment.

  16. Using probabilistic analysis to assess the reliability of predicted SRB aft-skirt stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic failure analysis is a tool to predict the reliability of a part or system. Probabalistic techniques were used to predict critical stresses which occur in the solid rocket booster aft-skirt during main engine buildup, immediately prior to lift-off. More than any other hold down post (HDP) load component, the Z loads are sensitive to variations in strains and calibration constants. Also, predicted aft-skirt stresses are strongly affected by HDP load variations. Therefore, the instrumented HDP are not effective load transducers for Z loads, and, when used with aft skirt stress indicator equations, yield estimates with large uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation proved to be a straight forward way of studying the overlapping effects of multiple parameters on predicted equipment performance. An advantage of probabilistic analysis is the degree of uncertainty of each parameter as stated explicitly by its probability distribution. It was noted, however, that the choice of parameter distribution had a large effect on the simulation results. Many times these distributions must be assumed. The engineer who is designing the part should be responsible for the choice of parameter distribution.

  17. Adaptive Aft Signature Shaping of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft Using Off-Body Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The design and optimization of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using the state-of-the- art o -body aerodynamics and sonic boom analysis has long been a challenging problem. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate an e ective geometry parameterization scheme and a numerical optimization approach for the aft shaping of a low-boom supersonic aircraft using o -body pressure calculations. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm that models the objective and constraints as response surface equations is used to drive the aft ground signature toward a ramp shape. The design objective is the minimization of the variation between the ground signature and the target signature subject to several geometric and signature constraints. The target signature is computed by using a least-squares regression of the aft portion of the ground signature. The parameterization and the deformation of the geometry is performed with a NASA in- house shaping tool. The optimization algorithm uses the shaping tool to drive the geometric deformation of a horizontal tail with a parameterization scheme that consists of seven camber design variables and an additional design variable that describes the spanwise location of the midspan section. The demonstration cases show that numerical optimization using the state-of-the-art o -body aerodynamic calculations is not only feasible and repeatable but also allows the exploration of complex design spaces for which a knowledge-based design method becomes less effective.

  18. Human Gait at Sea While Walking Fore-Aft vs. Athwart

    PubMed Central

    Haaland, Eric; Kaipust, Jeffrey; Wang, Yi; Stergiou, Nick; Stoffregen, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sea travel leads to well-known changes in gait, but these effects have not been evaluated using quantitative data obtained through controlled experiments. We obtained quantitative data on step-timing patterns as experienced maritime crewmembers walked on a ship at sea. METHODS Using a within-subjects design, crewmembers walked back and forth along straight line paths (11 m long) that were parallel with the ship’s long (i.e., fore-aft) and short (i.e., athwart) axes. Using contact switches attached to the feet, we measured temporal parameters of gait, including stride time, the variability of stride time, and the coefficient of variation. We also evaluated the temporal dynamics of stride times using detrended fluctuation analysis. RESULTS The variability of stride time differed between walking fore-aft (mean = 0.10 s) and walking athwart (mean = 0.28 s). The coefficient of variation also differed between walking fore-aft (mean = 11%) and walking athwart (mean = 43%). CONCLUSIONS We obtained direct evidence that ship motions in roll and pitch differentially affect the timing of stepping patterns in human gait. This novel finding motivates new research on quantitative parameters of gait at sea. PMID:25945659

  19. A 15degree sideview of the swing span bridge in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A 15-degree sideview of the swing span bridge in the open position, with the 364' - 0-1/2' swing span balanced on the center/pivot pier where the two (2) center supports deliver their loads onto a system of distributing girders, circular drum and rim bearing support wheels. The pier is circular and of stone masonry construction. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  20. Aft2, a novel transcription regulator, is required for iron metabolism, oxidative stress, surface adhesion and hyphal development in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Cheng, Xinxin; Yu, Qilin; Qian, Kefan; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Ruming; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transition and iron metabolism are closely relevant to Candida albicans pathogenicity and virulence. In our previous study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Aft2 plays an important role in ferric reductase activity and virulence. Here, we further explored the roles of C. albicans Aft2 in numerous cellular processes. We found that C. albicans Aft2 exhibited an important role in iron metabolism through bi-directional regulation effects on iron-regulon expression. Deletion of AFT2 reduced cellular iron accumulation under iron-deficient conditions. Furthermore, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were remarkably increased in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, which were thought to be responsible for the defective responses to oxidative stress. However, we found that over-expression of C. albicans AFT2 under the regulation of the strong PGK1 promoter could not effectively rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae aft1Δ mutant defects in some cellular processes, such as cell-wall assembly, ion homeostasis and alkaline resistance, suggesting a possibility that C. albicans Aft2 weakened its functional role of regulating some cellular metabolism during the evolutionary process. Interestingly, deletion of AFT2 in C. albicans increased cell surface hydrophobicity, cell flocculation and the ability of adhesion to polystyrene surfaces. In addition, our results also revealed that C. albicans Aft2 played a dual role in regulating hypha-specific genes under solid and liquid hyphal inducing conditions. Deletion of AFT2 caused an impaired invasive growth in solid medium, but an increased filamentous aggregation and growth in liquid conditions. Moreover, iron deficiency and environmental cues induced nuclear import of Aft2, providing additional evidence for the roles of Aft2 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:23626810

  1. Intelligent Power Swing Detection Scheme to Prevent False Relay Tripping Using S-Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Nor Z.; Abidin, Ahmad F.; Musirin, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Distance relay design is equipped with out-of-step tripping scheme to ensure correct distance relay operation during power swing. The out-of-step condition is a consequence result from unstable power swing. It requires proper detection of power swing to initiate a tripping signal followed by separation of unstable part from the entire power system. The distinguishing process of unstable swing from stable swing poses a challenging task. This paper presents an intelligent approach to detect power swing based on S-Transform signal processing tool. The proposed scheme is based on the use of S-Transform feature of active power at the distance relay measurement point. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is able to detect and discriminate the unstable swing from stable swing occurring in the system. To ascertain validity of the proposed scheme, simulations were carried out with the IEEE 39 bus system and its performance has been compared with the wavelet transform-based power swing detection scheme.

  2. A Three Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of a golf swing as performed by 84 male and one female amateur subjects of various skill levels. The analysis was performed using a variable full-body computer model of a human coupled with a flexible model of a golf club. Data to drive the model was obtained from subject swings recorded using a multi-camera motion analysis system. Model output included club trajectories, golfer/club interaction forces and torques, work and power, and club deflections. These data formed the basis for a statistical analysis of all subjects, and a detailed analysis and comparison of the swing characteristics of four of the subjects. The analysis generated much new data concerning the mechanics of the golf swing. It revealed that a golf swing is a highly coordinated and individual motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant. The study highlighted the importance of the wrists in generating club head velocity and orienting the club face. The trajectory of the hands and the ability to do work were the factors most closely related to skill level. Key Points Full-body model of the golf swing. Mechanical description of the golf swing. Statistical analysis of golf swing mechanics. Comparisons of subject swing mechanics PMID:24627665

  3. Wide range load controllable MCFC cycle with pressure swing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    Partial load efficiencies of a natural gas fuelled MCFC/GT system are calculated; the efficiencies of four systems are compared. A constant pressure air compressor is applied in system cases 1 and 2, whereas a pressure swing air compressor is provided in system cases 3 and 4. A gas cooler is integrated in the cathode gas recycling line of cases 2-4, and an anode recycling with sub-reformer is provided in case 4. The cathode pressure loss in the MCFC stack is kept below 3 kPa during the calculation procedure to avoid a leakage of cathode gas. The range of the power load is limited to 50-100% in the constant operating pressure system (cases 1 and 2), mainly because of the limited cathode gas pressure loss of 3 kPa. The range of the power load is enlarged to 20-100% in cases 3 and 4 by combining the pressure swing operation with gas cooling in the cathode recycling line. In system cases 3 and 4, the efficiency at the lowest load operation (approx. 20-30% load) remains over 35% HHV-CH 4, whereas the maximum efficiency is calculated to be 53% HHV-CH 4 in middle load operation; the efficiency of case 4 at 100% load is estimated to be 50% HHV-CH 4. The combination of the pressure swing operation and gas cooling in the cathode recycling line offers a high efficiency of the MCFC system in a wide range of loads.

  4. The acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise.

    PubMed

    Budnar, Ronald G; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W; McFarlin, Brian K; Vingren, Jakob L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise. Ten recreationally resistance trained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 175 ± 6 cm; body mass, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16 kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Blood samples were collected before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 15 (P15) and 30 minutes after exercise (P30) and analyzed for testosterone (T), immunoreactive growth hormone, cortisol (C), and lactate concentrations. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were measured at the end of each round. Testosterone was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) at IP than at PRE, P15, or P30 (PRE: 28 ± 3; IP: 32 ± 4; P15: 29 ± 3; P30: 27 ± 3 nmol·L). Growth hormone was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 0.1 ± 0.1; IP: 1.8 ± 1.2; P15: 2.1 ± 1.1; P30: 1.6 ± 1.3 μg·L). Cortisol was higher at IP and P15 than at PRE and P30 (PRE: 617 ± 266; IP: 894 ± 354; P15: 875 ± 243; P30: 645 ± 285 nmol·L). Lactate was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 1.1 ± 0.5; IP: 7.0 ± 3.0; P15: 4.0 ± 2.7; P30: 2.5 ± 1.8 mmol·L). Heart rate increased progressively from 57 ± 12 at PRE to 170 ± 10 at IP. The exercise protocol produced an acute increase in hormones involved in muscle adaptations. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide a good supplement to resistance training programs. PMID:24714543

  5. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    PubMed Central

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  6. Electromyography variables during the golf swing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Cabri, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review systematically the literature available on electromyographic (EMG) variables of the golf swing. From the 19 studies found, a high variety of EMG methodologies were reported. With respect to EMG intensity, the right erector spinae seems to be highly activated, especially during the acceleration phase, whereas the oblique abdominal muscles showed moderate to low levels of activation. The pectoralis major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of both sides showed their peak activity during the acceleration phase. High muscle activity was found in the forearm muscles, especially in the wrist flexor muscles demonstrating activity levels above the maximal voluntary contraction. In the lower limb higher muscle activity of the trail side was found. There is no consensus on the influence of the golf club used on the neuromuscular patterns described. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on average golf players, since most studies were executed on professional or low handicap golfers. Further EMG studies are needed, especially on lower limb muscles, to describe golf swing muscle activation patterns and to evaluate timing parameters to characterize neuromuscular patterns responsible for an efficient movement with lowest risk for injury. PMID:22542769

  7. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. PMID:26784706

  8. Hip Rotational Velocities During the Full Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Gulgin, Heather; Armstrong, Charles; Gribble, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Since labral pathology in professional golfers has been reported, and such pathology has been associated with internal/external hip rotation, quantifying the rotational velocity of the hips during the golf swing may be helpful in understanding the mechanism involved in labral injury. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the peak internal/external rotational velocities of the thigh relative to the pelvis during the golf swing. Fifteen female, collegiate golfers participated in the study. Data were acquired through high-speed three dimensional (3-D) videography using a multi-segment bilateral marker set to define the segments, while the subjects completed multiple repetitions of a drive. The results indicated that the lead hip peak internal rotational velocity was significantly greater than that of the trail hip external rotational velocity (p = 0.003). It appears that the lead hip of a golfer experiences much higher rotational velocities during the downswing than that of the trail hip. In other structures, such as the shoulder, an increased risk of soft tissue injury has been associated with high levels of rotational velocity. This may indicate that, in golfers, the lead hip may be more susceptible to injury such as labral tears than that of the trailing hip. Key points Lead hip of golfer experiences significantly higher rotational velocities than the trail hip. Golfers may be more susceptible to injuries on the lead hip. Clubhead velocities were consistent with elite female golfers. PMID:24149541

  9. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. PMID:26844651

  10. Swinging of two-domains vesicles in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallat, Annie; Tusch, Simon; Khelloufi, Kamel; Leonetti, Marc

    2014-11-01

    Giant lipid vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow at low shear rates tank tread (TT) at small viscosity ratio between the inner particle volume and the external fluid, and flip or tumble (T) at large viscosity ratio. The phase diagram of motion of red blood cells is however much more complex. Swinging superimposes to TT, cells wobble and roll rather than tumble with increasing shear rate and present a shear-rate driven transition between TT to T. These features are attributed to the shear elasticity and the non spherical stress-free shape of the cell membrane, which stores shear elastic energy as a function of the relative position of its elements. We have created vesicles with a phase diagram of motion comparable to that of red blood cells by preparing membranes with two lipids and cholesterol. These membranes present two domains separated by a contact line. The line has a tension energy that depends on its relative position on the vesicle. Similarly to red blood cells, two-domains vesicles swing and wobble. An analytical model where line tension energy is added to the Keller and Skalak's model fits our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. Our experiments and model shed light on the motion of deformable particles in shear flow.

  11. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm-3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm-3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  12. Hierarchical Porous Zeolite Structures for Pressure Swing Adsorption Applications.

    PubMed

    Besser, Benjamin; Tajiri, Henrique Akira; Mikolajczyk, Gerd; Möllmer, Jens; Schumacher, Thomas C; Odenbach, Stefan; Gläser, Roger; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-02-10

    Porous adsorbents with hierarchical structured macropores ranging from 1 to 100 μm are prepared using a combination of freeze casting and additional sacrificial templating of polyurethane foams, with a zeolite 13X powder serving as adsorbent. The pore system of the prepared monoliths features micropores assigned to the zeolite 13X particle framework, interparticular pores of ∼1-2 μm, lamellar pores derived from freeze casting of ∼10 μm, and an interconnected pore network obtained from the sacrificial templates ranging from around 100 to 200 μm with a total porosity of 71%. Gas permeation measurements show an increase in intrinsic permeability by a factor of 14 for monoliths prepared with an additional sacrificial templated foam compared to monoliths solely providing freeze casting pores. Cyclic CO2 adsorption and desorption tests where pressure swings between 8 and 140 kPa reveal constant working capacities over multiple cycles. Furthermore, the monoliths feature a high volumetric working capacity of ∼1.34 mmol/cm(3) which is competitive to packed beds made of commercially available zeolite 13X beads (∼1.28 mmol/cm(3)). Combined with the faster CO2 uptake showing an adsorption of 50% within 5-8 s (beads ∼10 s), the monoliths show great potential for pressure swing adsorption applications, where high volumetric working capacities, fast uptakes, and low pressure drops are needed for a high system performance. PMID:26760054

  13. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  14. STS-48 Commander Creighton on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Commander John O. Creighton, positioned under overhead window W8, interrupts an out-the-window observation to display a pleasant countenance for an electronic still camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  15. STS-48 Pilot Reightler on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Pilot Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr, positioned under overhead window W8, poses for an electronic still camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  16. STS-48 MS Brown on OV-103's aft flight deck poses for ESC photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown looks away from the portable laptop computer screen to pose for an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) photo on the aft flight deck of the earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Brown was working at the payload station before the interruption. Crewmembers were testing the ESC as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography. The digital image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and could be converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC is making its initial appearance on this Space Shuttle mission.

  17. Crystal structures of Boro-AFm and sBoro-AFt phases

    SciTech Connect

    Champenois, Jean-Baptiste; Cau Dit Coumes, Celine; Leroux, Fabrice; Mercier, Cyrille; Revel, Bertrand; Damidot, Denis

    2012-10-15

    Crystal structures of boron-containing AFm (B-AFm) and AFt (B-AFt) phases have been solved ab-initio and refined from X-ray powder diffraction. {sup 11}B NMR and Raman spectroscopies confirm the boron local environment in both compounds: three-fold coordinated in B-AFm corresponding to HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} species, and four-fold coordinated in B-AFt corresponding to B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} species. B-AFm crystallizes in the rhombohedral R3{sup Macron }c space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaHBO{sub 3}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O (4CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}1/2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}12.5H{sub 2}O, C{sub 4}AB{sub 1/2}H{sub 12.5}) general formulae with planar trigonal HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions weakly bonded at the centre of the interlayer region. One HBO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion is statistically distributed with two weakly bonded water molecules on the same crystallographic site. B-AFt crystallizes in the trigonal P3cl space group and has the 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}Ca(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}2Ca(B (OH){sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O (6CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}33H{sub 2}O, C{sub 6}AB{sub 2}H{sub 33}) general formulae with tetrahedral B (OH){sub 4}{sup -} anions located in the channel region of the structure. All tetrahedral anions are oriented in a unique direction, leading to a hexagonal c lattice parameter about half that of ettringite.

  18. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  19. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  20. Water impact laboratory and flight test results for the space shuttle solid rocket booster aft skirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kross, D. A.; Murphy, N. C.; Rawls, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of water impact tests was conducted using full-scale segment representations of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt structure. The baseline reinforced structural design was tested as well as various alternative design concepts. A major portion of the test program consisted of evaluating foam as a load attenuation material. Applied pressures and response strains were measured for impact velocities from 40 feet per second (ft/s) to 110 ft/s. The structural configurations, test articles, test results, and flight results are described.

  1. STS-65 Pilot Halsell cleans window on the aft flight deck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr cleans off overhead window W8. Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz looks on (photo's edge). A plastic toy dinosaur, velcroed in front of W9, also appears to be watching the housekeeping activity. A variety of onboard equipment including procedural checklists, a spotmeter, a handheld microphone, and charts are seen in the view. The two shared over fourteen days in Earth orbit with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  2. Portion of left hand SRB aft segment containing ET attach ring for 51-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two photographs show a portion of the left hand solid rocket booster (SRB) aft segment which contains the external tank (ET) attach ring for the 51-L mission resting on the ocean bottom in 210 feet of water approximately 23 miles east of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The photographs were take by the Deep Drone, a remotely controlled, unmanned U.S. Navy submersible. Photo 1 shows small fish below and to the left of the booster segment (10145); Photo two shows the opposite end of the segment. Visible from left are the clevis portion of the field joint and the external tank attach ring (10146).

  3. STS-45 MS and PLC Sullivan explains camera usage on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan, holding communications kit assembly unit and 70mm HASSELBLAD camera, explains camera usage and Earth observation procedures during a television downlink to the ground. Sullivan is on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Behind Sullivan are the onorbit station control panels with the payload station control panels at her left. The STS-45 crew put together a brief video 'tour' program to explain some of their inflight operations.

  4. The Effects of an Ergogenic Aid on Golf Swing Consistency and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John O.; Beitel, Patricia A.

    Golf experts suggest that a performer should attempt to swing the same way during each shot, changing clubs to alter the flight trajectory and distance of the ball. This study sought to determine if there was a difference in the development of golf skill and swing consistency between a control group and an experimental group using an ergogenic…

  5. What Research Tells the Golf Instructor about the Golf Swing and Putting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    The purpose of this survey was to clarify some misconceptions and challenge some common practices in teaching golf skills. Over 100 research studies in golf have been reviewed and summarized. The following categories relating to the golf swing were examined: (1) grip; (2) videotape; (3) electronic golf swing analyzer; (4) teaching methods; (5)…

  6. 42 CFR 447.280 - Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals). 447.280 Section 447.280 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services Swing-Bed Hospitals § 447.280 Hospital providers...

  7. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  8. Movement Variability in the Golf Swing: Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Movement variability in the golf swing has recently been identified as a priority for future research in golf science. Although this ubiquitous aspect of golf performance has featured in previous empirical investigations of the golf swing, it has tended to be subordinate and studied as an adjunct to other more conventional research questions.…

  9. Teaching Your Gymnasts to Swing. Biomechanics in Plain Talk for the Novice Coach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Laura J.

    1985-01-01

    The key to successful uneven parallel bar routines lies in the rhythm and continuity of movement which is ensured through the element of swing. Diagrams are offered to help illustrate how the biomechanical principles of torque and momentum are essential to learning and developing the mechanics of swing. (DF)

  10. Public Playground Equipment: Suggested Safety Requirements and Supporting Rationale for Swing Assemblies and Straight Slides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Bal; And Others

    This memorandum report proposes a safety standard to reduce the frequency and severity of children's impacts with the suspended members of swing assemblies and falls from slide surfaces, under conditions of normal use and reasonably foreseeable misuse. The standard applies to swings and straight slides intended for use as public playground…

  11. Feeding of swimming Paramecium with fore-aft asymmetry in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jana, Saikat; Giarra, Matthew; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2013-11-01

    Swimming behaviours and feeding efficiencies of Paramecium Multimicronucleatum with fore-aft asymmetric body shapes are studied experimentally and numerically. Among various possible swimming ways, ciliates typically exhibit only one preferred swimming directions in favorable conditions. Ciliates, like Paramecia, with fore-aft asymmetric shapes preferably swim towards the slender anterior while feeding fluid to the oral groove located at the center of the body. Since both feeding and swimming efficiencies are influenced by fluid motions around the body, it is important to reveal the fluid mechanics around a moving object. Experimentally, μ-PIV methods are employed to characterize the source-dipole streamline patterns and fluid motions around Paramecium. Numerical simulations by boundary element methods are also used to evaluate surface stresses and velocities, which give insights into the efficiencies of swimming and feeding depending on body asymmetry. It is concluded that a slender anterior and fat posterior increases the combined efficiency of swimming and feeding, which matches well with actual shapes of Paramecium. Discrepancies between experiments and simulations are also discussed.

  12. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  13. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-eulerian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  14. STS-43 TDRS-E / IUS in OV-104's PLB ASE aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During STS-43 the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite E (TDRS-E) atop the inertial upper stage (IUS) and positioned in the airborne support equipment (ASE) aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table with the forward frame ASE latch actuator released and umbilical cables separated is raised by the aft frame ASE electromechanical tilt actuator to a 58-degree deployment position. The scene is highlighted against the Earth's limb. In the foreground on the port side and mounted on a getaway special (GAS) adapter beam are (forward to aft) the two Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) GAS canisters (one with motorized door assembly (MDA)) and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) GAS canister. Along the starboard sill longeron is the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element II (SHARE-II).

  15. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  16. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  17. A springy pendulum could describe the swing leg kinetics of human walking.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunggwi; Park, Heewon; Park, Sukyung

    2016-06-14

    The dynamics of human walking during various walking conditions could be qualitatively captured by the springy legged dynamics, which have been used as a theoretical framework for bipedal robotics applications. However, the spring-loaded inverted pendulum model describes the motion of the center of mass (CoM), which combines the torso, swing and stance legs together and does not explicitly inform us as to whether the inter-limb dynamics share the springy legged dynamics characteristics of the CoM. In this study, we examined whether the swing leg dynamics could also be represented by springy mechanics and whether the swing leg stiffness shows a dependence on gait speed, as has been observed in CoM mechanics during walking. The swing leg was modeled as a spring-loaded pendulum hinged at the hip joint, which is under forward motion. The model parameters of the loaded mass were adopted from body parameters and anthropometric tables, whereas the free model parameters for the rest length of the spring and its stiffness were estimated to best match the data for the swing leg joint forces. The joint forces of the swing leg were well represented by the springy pendulum model at various walking speeds with a regression coefficient of R(2)>0.8. The swing leg stiffness increased with walking speed and was correlated with the swing frequency, which is consistent with previous observations from CoM dynamics described using the compliant leg. These results suggest that the swing leg also shares the springy dynamics, and the compliant walking model could be extended to better present swing leg dynamics. PMID:27020749

  18. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  19. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  20. 42 CFR 482.66 - Special requirements for hospital providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-term care services (âswing-bedsâ). 482.66 Section 482.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... providers of long-term care services (“swing-beds”). A hospital that has a Medicare provider agreement must... extended care services, as specified in § 409.30 of this chapter, and be reimbursed as a swing-bed...

  1. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  2. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-04-30

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  3. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  4. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-04-30

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization informationmore » in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.« less

  5. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  6. SELF-PERPETUATING SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    D'Onghia, Elena; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2013-03-20

    The causes of spiral structure in galaxies remain uncertain. Leaving aside the grand bisymmetric spirals with their own well-known complications, here we consider the possibility that multi-armed spiral features originate from density inhomogeneities orbiting within disks. Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we follow the motions of stars under the influence of gravity, and show that mass concentrations with properties similar to those of giant molecular clouds can induce the development of spiral arms through a process termed swing amplification. However, unlike in earlier work, we demonstrate that the eventual response of the disk can be highly non-linear, significantly modifying the formation and longevity of the resulting patterns. Contrary to expectations, ragged spiral structures can thus survive at least in a statistical sense long after the original perturbing influence has been removed.

  7. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  8. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  9. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  10. Kinematic analysis of arm and trunk movements in the gait of Parkinson's disease patients based on external signals.

    PubMed

    Son, Hohee; Kim, Eunjung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the role of external cues on arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation in Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 13 elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Subjects walked under four different conditions in a random order: no cue, visual cue, auditory cue, and combined cue. The auditory cue velocity consisted of a metronome beat 20% greater than the subject's general gait speed. For the visual cue condition, bright yellow colored strips of tape placed on the floor at intervals equal to 40% of each subject's height. A motion analysis system was used to measure arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation during walking. [Results] There was a significant difference in the kinematic variables (arm swing amplitude) between different cues, but there was not a significant difference in the kinematic variables with respect to the trunk rotation. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease are likely to focus attention on auditory cues. The measurement of arm and trunk kinematics during gait by auditory cues can increase the available methods for the analysis of complex motor programs in movement disorders. PMID:26834352

  11. Kinematic analysis of arm and trunk movements in the gait of Parkinson’s disease patients based on external signals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hohee; Kim, Eunjung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the role of external cues on arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation in Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 13 elderly patients with Parkinson’s disease. Subjects walked under four different conditions in a random order: no cue, visual cue, auditory cue, and combined cue. The auditory cue velocity consisted of a metronome beat 20% greater than the subject’s general gait speed. For the visual cue condition, bright yellow colored strips of tape placed on the floor at intervals equal to 40% of each subject’s height. A motion analysis system was used to measure arm swing amplitude and trunk rotation during walking. [Results] There was a significant difference in the kinematic variables (arm swing amplitude) between different cues, but there was not a significant difference in the kinematic variables with respect to the trunk rotation. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that patients with Parkinson’s disease are likely to focus attention on auditory cues. The measurement of arm and trunk kinematics during gait by auditory cues can increase the available methods for the analysis of complex motor programs in movement disorders. PMID:26834352

  12. Using swing resistance and assistance to improve gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Schmit, Brian D.; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A major characteristic of hemiplegic gait observed in individuals post-stroke is spatial and temporal asymmetry, which may increase energy expenditure and the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swing resistance/assistance applied to the affected leg on gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke. We recruited 10 subjects with chronic stroke who demonstrated a shorter step length with their affected leg in comparison to the non-affected leg during walking. They participated in two test sessions for swing resistance and swing assistance, respectively. During the adaptation period, subjects counteracted the step length deviation caused by the applied swing resistance force, resulting in an aftereffect consisting of improved step length symmetry during the post-adaptation period. In contrast, subjects did not counteract step length deviation caused by swing assistance during adaptation period and produced no aftereffect during the post-adaptation period. Locomotor training with swing resistance applied to the affected leg may improve step length symmetry through error-based learning. Swing assistance reduces errors in step length during stepping; however, it is unclear whether this approach would improve step length symmetry. Results from this study may be used to develop training paradigms for improving gait symmetry of stroke survivors. PMID:26066783

  13. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed. PMID:25995553

  14. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joong-chul; Lee, Sung-wan; Yeo, Yun-ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed. PMID:25995553

  15. Electromyographic analysis of the hip and knee during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Bechler, J R; Jobe, F W; Pink, M; Perry, J; Ruwe, P A

    1995-07-01

    As golf increases in popularity, more golfers seek the proper mechanics necessary for the perfect golf swing. Surprisingly little scientific work has been published on the contribution of the hip and knee muscles during the golf swing even though most professionals have recognized their vital contribution. Recent studies have described the electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the shoulder, back, and trunk during the golf swing. The purpose of this study was to describe the electrical muscle activity in seven hip and knee muscles of both the left (lead) and right (trail) leg in competitive golfers while performing the golf swing. Sixteen golfers were studied with indwelling electrodes and high-speed cinematography. The EMG was synchronized with the film to discern five phases of the golf swing. Means, SDs, and t-tests were done. The results revealed that the trail hip extensors and abductors in conjunction with the lead adductor magus initiated pelvic rotation during forward swing. The lead hamstrings maintained a flexed knee and provided a stable base on which pelvic rotation took place. The peak EMG muscle activity recorded in the hips and knees occurred in an earlier phase than that measured previously in the trunk and shoulder. This confirmed the sequential firing pattern of the hip and knee muscles that takes place during the competitive golf swing. Information gained from this study can be used by players and coaches to optimize performance and to minimize injury. PMID:7670971

  16. The effect of pitch type on ground reaction forces in the baseball swing.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab

    2011-11-01

    Coaches have identified the batter's weight shift as a critical component for promoting proper timing and balance in a baseball swing. Analysing the weight shift through maximum horizontal (Fx) and vertical (Fz) ground reaction forces (GRFs) of professional batters (N = 29; height = 185 +/- 6 cm; mass = 92 +/- 9 kg), the purpose of this study was to compare GRFs among swings against fastballs and changeups. General linear models were used to compare three conditions of interest: successful results against fastballs, successful results against changeups, and unsuccessful results against changeups. Batters had a similar loading mechanism and initial weight transfer from back foot to front foot regardless of pitch type, but peak front foot GRFx and GRFz occurred with significantly different magnitudes and at significantly different times, depending on the pitch type and hit result. Peak front foot GRFs were greater for successful swings against fastballs compared to both successful and unsuccessful swings against changeups. Peak front foot GRFs of unsuccessful swings against changeups occurred, on average, 15-20 ms earlier than successful swings against changeups and 30-35 ms earlier than successful swings against fastballs, quantifying how a changeup can disrupt the coordination of a hitter's weight shift. PMID:22303780

  17. Comparing predictive validity of four ballistic swing phase models of human walking.

    PubMed

    Selles, R W; Bussmann, J B; Wagenaar, R C; Stam, H J

    2001-09-01

    It is unclear to what extent ballistic walking models can be used to qualitatively predict the swing phase at comfortable walking speed. Different study findings regarding the accuracy of the predictions of the swing phase kinematics may have been caused by differences in (1) kinematic input, (2) model characteristics (e.g. the number of segments), and (3) evaluation criteria. In the present study, the predictive validity of four ballistic swing phase models was evaluated and compared, that is, (1) the ballistic walking model as originally introduced by Mochon and McMahon, (2) an extended version of this model in which heel-off of the stance leg is added, (3) a double pendulum model, consisting of a two-segment swing leg with a prescribed hip trajectory, and (4) a shank pendulum model consisting of a shank and rigidly attached foot with a prescribed knee trajectory. The predictive validity was evaluated by comparing the outcome of the model simulations with experimentally derived swing phase kinematics of six healthy subjects. In all models, statistically significant differences were found between model output and experimental data. All models underestimated swing time and step length. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between the output of the different models. The present study shows that although qualitative similarities exist between the ballistic models and normal gait at comfortable walking speed, these models cannot adequately predict swing phase kinematics. PMID:11506787

  18. Mechanical efficiency of limb swing during walking and running in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas; Marsh, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical determinants of the energy cost of limb swing is crucial for refining our models of locomotor energetics, as well as improving treatments for those suffering from impaired limb-swing mechanics. In this study, we use guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) as a model to explore whether mechanical work at the joints explains limb-swing energy use by combining inverse dynamic modeling and muscle-specific energetics from blood flow measurements. We found that the overall efficiencies of the limb swing increased markedly from walking (3%) to fast running (17%) and are well below the usually accepted maximum efficiency of muscle, except at the fastest speeds recorded. The estimated efficiency of a single muscle used during ankle flexion (tibialis cranialis) parallels that of the total limb-swing efficiency (3% walking, 15% fast running). Taken together, these findings do not support the hypothesis that joint work is the major determinant of limb-swing energy use across the animal's speed range and warn against making simple predictions of energy use based on joint mechanical work. To understand limb-swing energy use, mechanical functions other than accelerating the limb segments need to be explored, including isometric force production and muscle work arising from active and passive antagonist muscle forces. PMID:19228989

  19. Detailed view top of center/pivot pier. The swing span revolves ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detailed view top of center/pivot pier. The swing span revolves on a cylindrical drum, supported by 40 20-inch diameter steel wheels running on a circular track, the truss loads being delivered to the drum by a system of distributing girder. Note the circular gear anchored to the top pier. Two (2) powered pinion gears, electric driven, turn the swing span bridge on the 25'-5' diameter circular track as the wheels and drum rotate. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  20. Swing-free movement of simply suspended objects employing parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.C.; Robinett, R.D.; Petterson, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    An adaptive, swing-free trajectory planner for a gantry robot has been analytically developed and experimentally implemented on a commercial robot. A batch, nonlinear least square estimator (differential correction) is used to predict the initial conditions, mass, and frequency of the simply suspended object from a set of force sensor measurements. These parameters, in turn, are supplied to the swing-free trajectory planner to perform the maneuver. These algorithms have been implemented on a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot, and swing-free trajectories have been performed by the robot using the adaptive trajectory planner. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Technicians test OV-102's aft fuselage LRU hydrogen recirculation pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Donald C. Buckner, a Lockheed mechanical lead technician, installs an aft fuselage line replaceable unit (LRU) liquid hydrogen recirculation pump from Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102 into JSC's Thermochemical Test Area (TTA) Support Laboratory Bldg 350 test stand. Technicians ran the pump package through the battery of leak tests. Preliminary indications showed only minor, acceptable leakage from the package and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technicians have replaced a crushed seal on the prevalve of the main propulsion system they believe may have caused the STS-35 hydrogen leak. In addition to Buckner, (left to right) Larry Kilbourn, a Rockwell Service Center lead mechanical technician from Cape Canaveral, and John Dickerson, a quality inspector with EBASCO Services, also monitored the test at JSC. Photo taken by JSC photographer Benny Benavides.

  2. View of compartment A102 bread room from forward to AFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment A-102 bread room from forward to AFT. Wood slat decking and ceiling helps to provide adequate air circulation to aid in preservation of flour and baking supplies. Enclosed structure at right of photograph is a portion of the port side coffer dam. The coffer dam ia a partial inner hull to prevent flooding if the outer hull was breached. Originally the coffer dam was filled with water-resistant cellulose mad from corncobs. This material would swell with incoming water if the hull was breached and seal off the hole. Ordinary leakage kept the material wet and created ideal conditions for rot. The material was removed from the coffer dam. Ducts at right provide fresh air to the bread room. (09) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. STS-56 Commander Cameron uses SAREX on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing headset and headband equipped with penlight flashlight, uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Cameron, positioned just behind the pilots seat, talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of the pilots seat. The SAREX scan converter (a white box) is seen just above Cameron's head attached to overhead panel O9. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the JSC Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques. As on several previous missions, SAREX was used on this flight as an educational opportunity

  5. Aft-End Flow of a Large-Scale Lifting Body During Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fisher, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Free-flight tests of a large-scale lifting-body configuration, the X-38 aircraft, were conducted using tufts to characterize the flow on the aft end, specifically in the inboard region of the vertical fins. Pressure data was collected on the fins and base. Flow direction and movement were correlated with surface pressure and flight condition. The X-38 was conceived to be a rescue vehicle for the International Space Station. The vehicle shape was derived from the U.S. Air Force X-24 lifting body. Free-flight tests of the X-38 configuration were conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California from 1997 to 2001.

  6. STS-55 Pilot Henricks uses CTE equipment mounted on SL-D2 aft end cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned in front of an adjustable workstation mounted on the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aft end cone, conducts Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE). The STS-55 crew portrait (STS055(S)002) appears on the screen of the Macintosh portable computer. CTE will demonstrate real-time communication between the shuttle crew and the ground via a computer-based multimedia documentation file that includes text, graphics, and photos. CTE is expected to improve the effectiveness of on-orbit payload operations, returns from scientific investigations, crew interaction with the ground, and contingency maintenance tasks for systems and payloads. Also in the view and attached to the end cone are a fire extinguisher, a checklist, and an STS-37 extravehicular activity (EVA) photo of Mission Specialist (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross (STS037-18-032).

  7. Circumferential flow analysis at the aft field joint of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Whitesides, R. Harold; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Flow analyses have been performed to determine the nature of the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of the aft-most field joint of the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Specific objectives included the quantification of the circumferential pressure and velocity gradients at the joint location which might be caused by the non-uniform erosion of the rubber inhibitor which protrudes from the wall into the flow field. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations have been solved in conjunction with the conservation equation for the turbulence energy and the dissipation rate. The numerical predictions have been compared with the measurements from a 7.5 percent scale cold flow model of the redesigned solid rocket motor.

  8. A three-dimensional shock loss model applied to an aft-swept, transonic compressor rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Puterbaugh, S.L.; Copenhaver, W.W.; Hah, C.; Wennerstrom, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of a three-dimensional shock loss model used in transonic compressor rotor design is presented. The model was used during the design of an aft-swept, transonic compressor rotor. The demonstrated performance of the swept rotor, in combination with numerical results, is used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the model. The numerical results were obtained from a fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. The shock loss model was developed to account for the benefit gained with three-dimensional shock sweep. Comparisons with the experimental and numerical results demonstrated that shock loss reductions predicted by the model due to the swept shock induced by the swept leading edge of the rotor were exceeded. However, near the tip the loss model underpredicts the loss because the shock geometry assumed by the model remains swept in this region while the numerical results show a more normal shock orientation. The design methods and the demonstrated performance of the swept rotor are also presented. Comparisons are made between the design intent and measured performance parameters. The aft-swept rotor was designed using an inviscid axisymmetric streamline curvature design system utilizing arbitrary airfoil blading geometry. The design goal specific flow rate was 214.7 kg/s/m{sup 2} (43.98 lbm/sec/ft{sup 2}), the design pressure ratio goal was 2.042, and the predicted design point efficiency was 94.0. The rotor tip speed was 457.2 m/s (1,500 ft/sec). The design flow rate was achieved while the pressure ratio fell short by 0.07. Efficiency was 3 points below prediction, though at a very high 91%. At this operating condition the stall margin was 11%.

  9. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. II. Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHenry, M. Q.; Angelaki, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain binocular fixation on near targets during fore-aft translational disturbances, largely disjunctive eye movements are elicited the amplitude and direction of which should be tuned to the horizontal and vertical eccentricities of the target. The eye movements generated during this task have been investigated here as trained rhesus monkeys fixated isovergence targets at different horizontal and vertical eccentricities during 10 Hz fore-aft oscillations. The elicited eye movements complied with the geometric requirements for binocular fixation, although not ideally. First, the corresponding vergence angle for which the movement of each eye would be compensatory was consistently less than that dictated by the actual fixation parameters. Second, the eye position with zero sensitivity to translation was not straight ahead, as geometrically required, but rather exhibited a systematic dependence on viewing distance and vergence angle. Third, responses were asymmetric, with gains being larger for abducting and downward compared with adducting and upward gaze directions, respectively. As frequency was varied between 4 and 12 Hz, responses exhibited high-pass filter properties with significant differences between abduction and adduction responses. As a result of these differences, vergence sensitivity increased as a function of frequency with a steeper slope than that of version. Despite largely undercompensatory version responses, vergence sensitivity was closer to ideal. Moreover, the observed dependence of vergence sensitivity on vergence angle, which was varied between 2.5 and 10 MA, was largely linear rather than quadratic (as geometrically predicted). We conclude that the spatial tuning of eye velocity sensitivity as a function of gaze and viewing distance follows the general geometric dependencies required for the maintenance of foveal visual acuity. However, systematic deviations from ideal behavior exist that might reflect asymmetric processing of

  10. Fore-aft ground force adaptations to induced forelimb lameness in walking and trotting dogs.

    PubMed

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal force data were collected before and after a moderate lameness was induced. Peak, mean and summed braking and propulsive forces as well as the duration each force was exerted and the time to reach maximum force were evaluated for both the sound and the lame condition. Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, dogs maximize their double support phases when walking. Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. PMID:23300614

  11. Static internal performance of a thrust vectoring and reversing two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with an aft flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multifunction nozzle having some of the geometric characteristics of both two-dimensional convergent-divergent and single expansion ramp nozzles has been investigated in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The internal expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of two symmetrical flat surfaces of equal length, and the external expansion portion of the nozzle consisted of a single aft flap. The aft flap could be varied in angle independently of the upper internal expansion surface to which it was attached. The effects of internal expansion ratio, nozzle thrust-vector angle (-30 deg. to 30 deg., aft flap shape, aft flap angle, and sidewall containment were determined for dry and afterburning power settings. In addition, a partial afterburning power setting nozzle, a fully deployed thrust reverser, and four vertical takeoff or landing nozzle, configurations were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for the dry power nozzles and 7 for the afterburning power nozzles.

  12. Agreement between Vermont State Colleges and Vermont State Colleges Faculty Federation, AFT, VFT, Local 3180, AFL-CIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Commission on Higher Education.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Vermont State Colleges (VSC) and Vermont State Colleges Faculty Federation, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), is presented that covers the period from September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1988. The following 48 articles are included: definitions, recognition, management rights,…

  13. Water impact test of aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of water impact loads tests using aft skirt end ring, and mid ring segments of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are examined. Dynamic structural response data is developed and an evaluation of the model in various configurations is presented. Impact velocities are determined for the SRB with the larger main chute system. Various failure modes are also investigated.

  14. Do tidal or swing waves roughen planetary surfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    Surfaces of the terrestrial planets and their moons are far from being smooth. They are warped by several wavelengths and show a remarkable regularity: their roughness increases with the solar distance. Thus, if for Mercury the surface relief range does not exceed several km, for Mars it is already about 30 km. Earth's range is 20 km, Venus' one 14 km. Recently it was shown that this row of ranges reflects ratios of the tectonic granules radii of terrestrial planets [1, 2]. These radii related to unity of reduced planetary globes (in a geometrical model all planets are represented by even circles [2]) are as follows: Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2. It means that in the great planetary circles (equators) there are 32, 12, 8, and 4 tectonic granules (now they all are mapped by remote methods) and their numbers are inversely proportional to the orbital frequencies of the planets: higher frequency - smaller granule, and, vice versa, lower frequency - larger granule. In this planetary law is a firm confirmation of the main conceptual point of the wave planetology: "Orbits make structures" [3]. But how this happens? A basic reason lies in the keplerian elliptical orbits implying periodical changes of planetary bodies accelerations. Periodical slowing down and speeding up produce inertia-gravity waves warping any celestial body. In rotating bodies this wave warping is divided in four directions: two orthogonal and two diagonal. An interference of these directions produces tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting, subsiding, and neutral. Sizes and amplitudes of the blocks (granules) depend on the warping wavelengths and increase with the solar distance. Thus, a relief-forming potential and the actual relief range observed on the planets increase in this direction [1, 2, 4]. But the tidal forces diminish in this direction. That is why they cannot be a reason for the relief-forming potential. Having in mind a swinging action of planetary orbits on

  15. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench-scale. Natural gas upgrading systems have six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration has been initiated. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study. The project is on schedule and on budget. Task 4, a bench-scale demonstration of the ultra-fast TSA system is complete. Rapid thermal swing of an adsorbent bed using microchannels has been successfully demonstrated and the separation of a 70% methane and 30% nitrogen was purified to 92% methane. The bench-scale demonstration unit was small relative to the system dead volume for the initial phase of experiments and a purge step was added to sweep the dead volume prior to desorbing the bed and measuring purity. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system

  16. Motion perception during variable-radius swing motion in darkness.

    PubMed

    Rader, A A; Oman, C M; Merfeld, D M

    2009-10-01

    Using a variable-radius roll swing motion paradigm, we examined the influence of interaural (y-axis) and dorsoventral (z-axis) force modulation on perceived tilt and translation by measuring perception of horizontal translation, roll tilt, and distance from center of rotation (radius) at 0.45 and 0.8 Hz using standard magnitude estimation techniques (primarily verbal reports) in darkness. Results show that motion perception was significantly influenced by both y- and z-axis forces. During constant radius trials, subjects' perceptions of tilt and translation were generally almost veridical. By selectively pairing radius (1.22 and 0.38 m) and frequency (0.45 and 0.8 Hz, respectively), the y-axis acceleration could be tailored in opposition to gravity so that the combined y-axis gravitoinertial force (GIF) variation at the subject's ears was reduced to approximately 0.035 m/s(2) - in effect, the y-axis GIF was "nulled" below putative perceptual threshold levels. With y-axis force nulling, subjects overestimated their tilt angle and underestimated their horizontal translation and radius. For some y-axis nulling trials, a radial linear acceleration at twice the tilt frequency (0.25 m/s(2) at 0.9 Hz, 0.13 m/s(2) at 1.6 Hz) was simultaneously applied to reduce the z-axis force variations caused by centripetal acceleration and by changes in the z-axis component of gravity during tilt. For other trials, the phase of this radial linear acceleration was altered to double the magnitude of the z-axis force variations. z-axis force nulling further increased the perceived tilt angle and further decreased perceived horizontal translation and radius relative to the y-axis nulling trials, while z-axis force doubling had the opposite effect. Subject reports were remarkably geometrically consistent; an observer model-based analysis suggests that perception was influenced by knowledge of swing geometry. PMID:19625542

  17. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  18. Acquisition of Robotic Giant-swing Motion Using Reinforcement Learning and Its Consideration of Motion Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Naoki; Kawabe, Naoto; Hara, Masayuki; Toyoda, Nozomi; Yabuta, Tetsuro

    This paper argues how a compact humanoid robot can acquire a giant-swing motion without any robotic models by using Q-Learning method. Generally, it is widely said that Q-Learning is not appropriated for learning dynamic motions because Markov property is not necessarily guaranteed during the dynamic task. However, we tried to solve this problem by embedding the angular velocity state into state definition and averaging Q-Learning method to reduce dynamic effects, although there remain non-Markov effects in the learning results. The result shows how the robot can acquire a giant-swing motion by using Q-Learning algorithm. The successful acquired motions are analyzed in the view point of dynamics in order to realize a functionally giant-swing motion. Finally, the result shows how this method can avoid the stagnant action loop at around the bottom of the horizontal bar during the early stage of giant-swing motion.

  19. Haptic stabilization of posture: changes in arm proprioception and cutaneous feedback for different arm orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, E.; Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Postural sway during quiet stance is attenuated by actively maintained contact of the index finger with a stationary surface, even if the level of applied force (<1 N) cannot provide mechanical stabilization. In this situation, changes in force level at the fingertip lead changes in center of foot pressure by approximately 250 ms. These and related findings indicate that stimulation of the fingertip combined with proprioceptive information about the hand and arm can serve as an active sensor of body position relative to the point of contact. A geometric analysis of the relationship between hand and torso displacement during body sway led to the prediction that arm and hand proprioceptive and finger somatosensory information about body sway would be maximized with finger contact in the plane of body sway. Therefore, the most postural stabilization should be possible with such contact. To test this analysis, subjects touched a laterally versus anteriorly placed surface while in each of two stances: the heel-to-toe tandem Romberg stance that reduces medial-lateral stability and the heel-to-heel, toes-outward, knees-bent, "duck stance" that reduces fore-aft stability. Postural sway was always least with finger contact in the unstable plane: for the tandem stance, lateral fingertip contact was significantly more effective than frontal contact, and, for the duck stance, frontal contact was more effective than lateral fingertip contact. Force changes at the fingertip led changes in center of pressure of the feet by approximately 250 ms for both fingertip contact locations for both test stances. These results support the geometric analysis, which showed that 1) arm joint angles change by the largest amount when fingertip contact is maintained in the plane of greatest sway, and 2) the somatosensory cues at the fingertip provide both direction and amplitude information about sway when the finger is contacting a surface in the unstable plane.

  20. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: voice of the Dragon.

    PubMed

    Nakiboğlu, Güneş; Rudenko, Oleksii; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one's head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a "Hummer" and as a musical instrument, the "Voice of the Dragon." The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the sound generation mechanism. Velocity profile measurements reveal that the turbulent velocity profile developed in a corrugated pipe differs notably from the one of a smooth pipe. This velocity profile appears to have a crucial effect both on the non-dimensional whistling frequency (Strouhal number) and on the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations. Using a numerical model based on incompressible flow simulations and vortex sound theory, excellent predictions of the whistling Strouhal numbers are achieved. The model does not provide an accurate prediction of the amplitude. In the second part of the paper the sound radiation from a Hummer is discussed. The acoustic measurements obtained in a semi-anechoic chamber are compared with a theoretical radiation model. Globally the instrument behaves as a rotating (Leslie) horn. The effects of Doppler shift, wall reflections, bending of the tube, non-constant rotational speed on the observed frequency, and amplitude are discussed. PMID:22280698

  1. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Golden, Timothy Christopher; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard; Taylor, Fred William

    1999-01-01

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  2. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  3. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    PubMed

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries. PMID:24725790

  4. Mergers drive spin swings along the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Peirani, S.

    2014-11-01

    The close relationship between mergers and the reorientation of the spin for galaxies and their host dark haloes is investigated using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation (Horizon-AGN). Through a statistical analysis of merger trees, we show that spin swings are mainly driven by mergers along the filamentary structure of the cosmic web, and that these events account for the preferred perpendicular orientation of massive galaxies with respect to their nearest filament. By contrast, low-mass galaxies (Ms < 1010 M⊙ at redshift 1.5) having undergone very few mergers, if at all, tend to possess a spin well aligned with their filament. Haloes follow the same trend as galaxies but display a greater sensitivity to smooth anisotropic accretion. The relative effect of mergers on magnitude is qualitatively different for minor and major mergers: mergers (and diffuse accretion) generally increase the magnitude of the specific angular momentum, but major mergers also give rise to a population of objects with less specific angular momentum left. Without mergers, secular accretion builds up the specific angular momentum of galaxies but not that of haloes. It also (re)aligns galaxies with their filament.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory with Arm Extended, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like in Martian terrain, from a side aft angle.

    The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments onto selected rocks or soil targets and also to collect samples for analysis by other instruments. Near the base of the arm is a sample preparation and handling system designed to grind samples, such as rock cores or small pebbles, and distribute the material to analytical instruments.

    The mast, rising to about 2.1 meters (6.9 feet) above ground level, supports two remote-sensing instruments: the Mast Camera for stereo color viewing of surrounding terrain and material collected by the arm, and the ChemCam for analyzing the types of atoms in material that laser pulses have vaporized from rocks or soil targets up to about 9 meters (30 feet) away.

  6. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    PubMed

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain. PMID:27064175

  7. Distance Relaying with Power Swing Detection based on Voltage and Reactive Power Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ujjaval J.; Chothani, Nilesh G.; Bhatt, Praghnesh J.

    2016-02-01

    Sudden changes in loading or configuration of an electrical network causes power swing which may result in an unwanted tripping of the distance relay. Hence, it becomes utmost necessary to rapidly and reliably discriminate between actual fault and power swing conditions in order to prevent instability in power network due to mal operation of distance relay. This paper proposes a novel method for the discrimination between fault and power swing based on rate of change of voltage and reactive power measured at relay location. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by simulating series of power swing conditions in PSCAD/EMTDC® software for different disturbances such as change in mechanical power input to synchronous generator, tripping of parallel line due to fault and sudden application of heavy load. It is revealed that the distance relay gives successful tripping in case of different fault conditions and remains inoperative for power swing with the implementation of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, the proposed scheme has ability to distinguish the symmetrical and asymmetrical fault occurrence during power swing condition.

  8. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  9. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  10. G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Hui-Hui; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Qi; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We review the G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST. Two independent experiments have been completed and an improved experiment is in progress. The first G value was determined as 6.6699(7)×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 with a relative standard uncertainty (ur) of 105 ppm by using a long period torsion pendulum and two cylindrical source masses. Later, this result was corrected to be 6.6723(9)×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 with ur=130 ppm after considering the density distribution of the cylinders and the air buoyancy, which was 360 ppm larger than the previous value. In 2009, a new experiment by using a simple block pendulum and spherical source masses with more homogeneous density was carried out. A series of improvements were performed, and the G value was determined to be 6.67349(18)×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 with ur=26 ppm. To reduce the anelasticity of the torsion fibre, fused silica fibres with Q's of approximately 5×104 are used to measure G in the ongoing experiment. These fibres are coated with thin layers of germanium and bismuth in turn to reduce the electrostatic effect. Some other improvements include the gravity compensation, reduction of the coating layer effect, etc. The prospective uncertainty of the next G value is 20 ppm or lower. PMID:25202004

  11. G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Hui-Hui; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Qi; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun

    2014-10-13

    We review the G measurements with time-of-swing method at HUST. Two independent experiments have been completed and an improved experiment is in progress. The first G value was determined as 6.6699(7)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with a relative standard uncertainty (ur) of 105 ppm by using a long period torsion pendulum and two cylindrical source masses. Later, this result was corrected to be 6.6723(9)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with ur=130 ppm after considering the density distribution of the cylinders and the air buoyancy, which was 360 ppm larger than the previous value. In 2009, a new experiment by using a simple block pendulum and spherical source masses with more homogeneous density was carried out. A series of improvements were performed, and the G value was determined to be 6.67349(18)×10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with ur=26 ppm. To reduce the anelasticity of the torsion fibre, fused silica fibres with Q's of approximately 5×10(4) are used to measure G in the ongoing experiment. These fibres are coated with thin layers of germanium and bismuth in turn to reduce the electrostatic effect. Some other improvements include the gravity compensation, reduction of the coating layer effect, etc. The prospective uncertainty of the next G value is 20 ppm or lower. PMID:25202004

  12. Demonstration of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Dunham, Jonah; Straub-Lopez, Katie; Anerson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber

    2007-01-01

    Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is currently being investigated for removal and rejection of CO2 and heat from a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to a Martian environment. The metabolically-produced CO2 present in the vent loop gas is collected using a CO2 selective adsorbent that has been cooled via a heat exchanger to near CO2 sublimation temperatures (approx.195K) with liquid CO2 obtained from Martian resources. Once the adsorbent is fully loaded, fresh warm, moist vent loop (approx.300K) is used to heat the adsorbent via another heat exchanger. The adsorbent will then reject the collected CO2 to the Martian ambient. Two beds are used to achieve continuous CO2 removal by cycling between the cold and warm conditions for adsorbent loading and regeneration, respectively. Small experiments have already been completed to show that an adsorbent can be cycled between these PLSS operating conditions to provide adequate conditions for CO2 removal from a simulated vent loop. One of the remaining technical challenges is extracting enough heat from the vent loop to warm the adsorbent in an appreciable time frame to meet the required adsorb/desorb cycle. The other key technical aspect of the technology is employing liquid CO2 to achieve the appropriate cooling. A technology demonstrator has been designed, built and tested to investigate the feasibility of 1) warming the adsorbent using the moist vent loop, 2) cooling the adsorbent using liquid CO2, and 3) using these two methods in conjunction to successfully remove CO2 from a vent loop and reject it to Mars ambient. Both analytical and numerical methods were used to perform design calculations and trades. The demonstrator was built and tested. The design analysis and testing results are presented along with recommendations for future development required to increase the maturity of the technology.

  13. Hamstring Musculotendon Dynamics during Stance and Swing Phases of High Speed Running

    PubMed Central

    Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hamstring strain injuries are common in sports that involve high speed running. It remains uncertain whether the hamstrings are susceptible to injury during late swing phase, when the hamstrings are active and lengthening, or during stance, when contact loads are present. In this study we used forward dynamic simulations to compare hamstring musculotendon stretch, loading and work done during stance and swing phases of high speed running gait cycles. Methods Whole body kinematics, EMG activities and ground reactions were collected as 12 subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 80% to maximum (average of 7.8 m/s). Subject-specific simulations were then created using a whole body musculoskeletal model that included fifty-two Hill-type musculotendon units acting about the hip and knee. A computed muscle control algorithm was used to determine muscle excitation patterns that drove the limb to track measured hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics, with measured ground reactions applied to the limb. Results The hamstrings lengthened under load from 50% to 90% of the gait cycle (swing), and then shortened under load from late swing through stance. While peak hamstring stretch was invariant with speed, lateral hamstring (biceps femoris) loading increased significantly with speed, and was greatest during swing at the fastest speed. The biarticular hamstrings performed negative work on the system only during swing phase, with the amount of negative work increasing significantly with speed. Conclusion We concluded that the large inertial loads during high speed running appear to make the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase when compared to stance phase. This information is relevant for scientifically establishing effective muscle injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. PMID:20689454

  14. Low-speed stability and control characteristics of a transport model with aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A limited experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to explore the effects of aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprop installations on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a representative transport aircraft in a landing configuration. In general, the experimental results indicate that the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics for the aft-fuselage-mounted single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation pusher propeller configurations tested during this investigation are acceptable aerodynamically. For the single-rotation tractor configuration, the propeller-induced aerodynamics are significantly influenced by the interaction of the propeller slipstream with the pylon and nacelle. The stability characteristics for the counter-rotation pusher configuration are strongly influenced by propeller normal forces. The longitudinal and directional control effectiveness, engine-out characteristics, and ground effects are also presented. In addition, a tabulated presentation of all aerodynamic data presented in this report is included as an appendix.

  15. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage section located aft of the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    A 12-foot long Boeing 707 aft fuselage section with a tapering cross section was drop tested at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure structural, seat, and occupant response to vertical crash laods and to provide data for nonlinear finite element modeling. This was the final test in a series of three different transport fuselage sections tested under identical conditions. The test parameters at impact were: 20 ft/s velocity, and zero pitch, roll, and yaw. In addition, the test was an operational shock test of the data acquisition system used for the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a remotely piloted Boeing 720 that was crash tested at NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility on December 1, 1984. Post-test measurements of the crush showed that the front of the section (with larger diameter) crushed vertically approximately 14 inches while the rear crushed 18 inches. Analysis of the data traces indicate the maximum peak normal (vertical) accelerations at the bottom of the frames were approximately 109 G at body station 1040 and 64 G at body station 1120. The peak floor acceleration varied from 14 G near the wall to 25 G near the center where high frequency oscillations of the floor were evident. The peak anthropomorphic dummy pelvis normal (vertical) acceleration was 19 G's.

  16. Analysis of pressure blips in aft-finocyl solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacinto, M.; Favini, B.; Cavallini, E.

    2016-07-01

    Ballistic anomalies have frequently occurred during the firing of several solid rocket motors (SRMs) (Inertial Upper Stage, Space Shuttle Redesigned SRM (RSRM) and Titan IV SRM Upgrade (SRMU)), producing even relevant and unexpected variations of the SRM pressure trace from its nominal profile. This paper has the purpose to provide a numerical analysis of the following possible causes of ballistic anomalies in SRMs: an inert object discharge, a slag ejection, and an unexpected increase in the propellant burning rate or in the combustion surface. The SRM configuration under investigation is an aft-finocyl SRM with a first-stage/small booster design. The numerical simulations are performed with a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) unsteady model of the SRM internal ballistics, properly tailored to model each possible cause of the ballistic anomalies. The results have shown that a classification based on the head-end pressure (HEP) signature, relating each other the HEP shape and the ballistic anomaly cause, can be made. For each cause of ballistic anomalies, a deepened discussion of the parameters driving the HEP signatures is provided, as well as qualitative and quantitative assessments of the resultant pressure signals.

  17. Numerical Modelling of Staged Combustion Aft-Injected Hybrid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijsse, Jeff

    The staged combustion aft-injected hybrid (SCAIH) rocket motor is a promising design for the future of hybrid rocket propulsion. Advances in computational fluid dynamics and scientific computing have made computational modelling an effective tool in hybrid rocket motor design and development. The focus of this thesis is the numerical modelling of the SCAIH rocket motor in a turbulent combustion, high-speed, reactive flow framework accounting for solid soot transport and radiative heat transfer. The SCAIH motor is modelled with a shear coaxial injector with liquid oxygen injected in the center at sub-critical conditions: 150 K and 150 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.9), and a gas-generator gas-solid mixture of one-third carbon soot by mass injected in the annual opening at 1175 K and 460 m/s (Mach ≈ 0.6). Flow conditions in the near injector region and the flame anchoring mechanism are of particular interest. Overall, the flow is shown to exhibit instabilities and the flame is shown to anchor directly on the injector faceplate with temperatures in excess of 2700 K.

  18. Use of photostress to analyze behavior of an aft skirt test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, S. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Strains at twenty-one selected points in the critical lower weld region of a aft skirt of a solid rocket booster of the shuttle were measured using photoelastic coatings and stress separator gages. Data were taken at loads of 5, 14, 20, 28, 42, 56, and 70 percent of the design limit load. Results indicate that general yielding occurred in the weld metal and for a short distance outside the fusion boundaries on either side of the weld metal. The fusion boundaries did not yield at the 70 percent load. Slight non-linearity in the load strain curves were observed at several points above the 20 percent load level. Maximum measured strains occurred at points in the forged metal of the holddown post along a line 0.50 inches from the centerline of the weld. Maximum shearing strains within the area covered by the photoelastic coating occurred at points approximately 0.33 inches to the right of the weld centerline near points 6 and 7 and lying along a yellow vertical line extending from just below point 6 to point 11. Photoelastic coatings were shown to be an excellent method to provide the whole field strain distribution in the region of the critical weld and to enhance the overall understanding of the behavior of the welded joint.

  19. A parametric shell analysis of the shuttle 51-L SRB AFT field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Bowman, Lynn M.; Hughes, Robert M., IV; Jackson, Brian J.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Shuttle 51-L accident, an investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the failure. Investigators at the Langley Research Center focused attention on the structural behavior of the field joints with O-ring seals in the steel solid rocket booster (SRB) cases. The shell-of-revolution computer program BOSOR4 was used to model the aft field joint of the solid rocket booster case. The shell model consisted of the SRB wall and joint geometry present during the Shuttle 51-L flight. A parametric study of the joint was performed on the geometry, including joint clearances, contact between the joint components, and on the loads, induced and applied. In addition combinations of geometry and loads were evaluated. The analytical results from the parametric study showed that contact between the joint components was a primary contributor to allowing hot gases to blow by the O-rings. Based upon understanding the original joint behavior, various proposed joint modifications are shown and analyzed in order to provide additional insight and information. Finally, experimental results from a hydro-static pressurization of a test rocket booster case to study joint motion are presented and verified analytically.

  20. Masking of thresholds for the perception of fore-and-aft vibration of seat backrests.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The detection of a vibration may be reduced by the presence of another vibration: a phenomenon known as 'masking'. This study investigated how the detection of one frequency of vibration is influenced by vibration at another frequency. With nine subjects, thresholds for detecting fore-and-aft backrest vibration were determined (for 4, 8, 16, and 31.5-Hz sinusoidal vibration) in the presence of a masker vibration (4-Hz random vibration, 1/3-octave bandwidth at six intensities). The masker vibration increased thresholds for perceiving vibration at each frequency by an amount that reduced with increasing difference between the frequency of the sinusoidal vibration and the frequency of the masker vibration. The 4-Hz random vibration almost completely masked 4-Hz sinusoidal vibration, partially masked 8- and 16-Hz vibration, and only slightly masked 31.5-Hz vibration. The findings might be explained by the involvement of different sensory systems and different body locations in the detection of different frequencies of vibration. PMID:25959335

  1. Aircraft system aft telescope cavity configuration study for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The SOFIA Aircraft System (AS) Phase 1 Study was a broad-based study which addressed itself to satisfying technical and programmatic requirements by drawing from existing technology and applying cost-efficient commercial approaches to the aircraft modification. In this SOFIA AS Phase 2 Study, five critical areas of the aircraft were selected for more detailed investigation: forward pressure bulkhead, aft bulkhead, 'free' shell to bulkhead interface, shell cut-out to bulkhead interface, and flooring. The in-depth investigation of these areas upon a finite element model (FEM), with a fine grid model in areas of particular interest, is discussed. The FEM code used is called 'STRAP' and was developed by the engineering firm, Rasmussen and Associates. STRAP is NASTRAN compatible to within 1%. The loads applied to the model were approximated from known 747 envelope conditions. The areas of investigation, and a section through the fuselage is shown. The thrust of this investigation was to develop the design concepts conceived under phase 1 to the point where detailed design could be undertaken with a high level of confidence.

  2. Development of forward and aft separation bolts for the NASA Space Shuttle solid rocket booster separation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, H.; Williams, V.

    1979-01-01

    A program is underway to design, develop, fabricate, and qualify large high-load forward and aft separation bolts for the Space Shuttle; the bolts will serve as attachment between two solid rocket boosters and the external tank. This paper reviews bolt development, with emphasis on the scaling of components, the use of high strength maraging steel for the internal components, and the use of lead as a hydraulic fluid.

  3. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  4. Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

  5. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  6. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8) diameter fan, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Aft fan noise reduction techniques were investigated. The 1/3 octave band sound data were plotted with the following plots included: perceived noise level vs acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds; PWL vs frequency at 2 fan speeds; and sound pressure level vs frequency at 2 aft angles and 2 fan speeds. The source noise plots included: band pass filter sound pressure level vs acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds; and 2nd harmonic SPL acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds.

  7. A Swing Level Controlled Transmitter for Single-Ended Signaling with Center-Tapped Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Young-Chan

    A swing level controlled voltage-mode transmitter is proposed to support a stub series-terminated logic channel with center-tapped termination. This transmitter provides a swing level control to support the diagnostic mode and improve the signal integrity in the absence of the destination termination. By using the variable parallel termination, the proposed transmitter maintains the constant output impedance of the source termination while the swing level is controlled. Also, the series termination using an external resistor is used to reduce the impedance mismatch effect due to the parasitic components of the capacitor and inductor. To verify the proposed transmitter, the voltage-mode driver, which provides eight swing levels with the constant output impedance of about 50Ω, was implemented using a 70nm 1-poly 3-metal DRAM process with a 1.5V supply. The jitter reduction of 54% was measured with the swing level controlled voltage-mode driver in the absence of the destination termination at 1.6-Gb/s.

  8. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if <70 kg or 16 kg if >70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes. PMID:22580981

  9. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench scale. The project is on schedule and on budget. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement. The system has six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration will be initiated in the next fiscal year. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary

  10. Skill Analysis of the Wrist Release in the Golf Swings Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    This study analyzes the skill component of the wrist release in the golf swing by employing a three-dimensional dynamic model considering vibration of the club shaft. It is observed that professional and expert golfers relax their wrists in the swing motion as a "natural" or "late" release. Thus, the relationship between the timing of the wrist release and the shaft vibration is examined in this study. First, it is demonstrated that "natural release" at the zero-crossing point of the bending vibration of the shaft efficiently increases the head speed at impact. In the next step, the "late hitting" condition is imposed upon the model. It is demonstrated that "late hitting" could further improve the efficiency of the swing motion. Finally, the skill component in the wrist release for the long drive is experimentally verified by measuring the movement of the wrist and the dynamic deformation of the shaft during the downswing.

  11. High-speed measurement of nozzle swing angle of rocket engine based on monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yufu; Yang, Haijuan

    2015-02-01

    A nozzle angle measurement system based on monocular vision is proposed to achieve high-speed and non-contact angle measurement of rocket engine nozzle. The measurement system consists of two illumination sources, a lens, a target board with spots, a high-speed camera, an image acquisition card and a PC. A target board with spots was fixed on the end of rocket engine nozzle. The image of the target board moved along with the rocket engine nozzle swing was captured by a high-speed camera and transferred to the PC by an image acquisition card. Then a data processing algorithm was utilized to acquire the swing angle of the engine nozzle. Experiment shows that the accuracy of swing angle measurement was 0.2° and the measurement frequency was up to 500Hz.

  12. Evaluation of 7XXX-series aluminum alloys for the W87 aft support ring

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    The study showed that the tensile properties of both 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 decreased significantly after holding the alloys for any length of time at temperatures greater than 500/sup 0/F. After a 2-min hold at 575/sup 0/F, the yield strengths of 7075-T6 and 7050-T73651 were 217 MPa (31.5 ksi) and 245 MPa (35.6 ksi), respectively. There did not appear to be a significant difference in the mechanical properties between 7075-T6 and 7050-T6. Time at temperature appeared to be a critical parameter. Cycling the microstructure to 575/sup 0/F or above with no hold at temperature caused considerably less degradation in mechanical properties than a 2-min hold at temperature in all cases. Above 650/sup 0/F, both the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength of the alloys reached a minimum of around 310 MPa (45 ksi) and 138 MPa (20 ksi), respectively. Evidence of a continuous grain boundary film of eta phase precipitates was found in the 7075-T6 alloy after a typical 575/sup 0/F thermal cycle. The presence of this grain boundary precipitate indicated a potential sensitivity of this alloy to stress corrosion cracking. Although the general environment for the aft support ring is controlled, the ring is expected to be under tension after assembly and exposure to small amounts of water vapor will probably occur. The conditions of stress, moisture, and susceptible microstructure increase the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking.

  13. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Ring, David

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness. PMID:25207288

  14. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  15. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    PubMed

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance. PMID:24476744

  16. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  17. Free-Swinging Failure Tolerance for Robotic Manipulators. Degree awarded by Purdue Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, James

    1997-01-01

    Under this GSRP fellowship, software-based failure-tolerance techniques were developed for robotic manipulators. The focus was on failures characterized by the loss of actuator torque at a joint, called free-swinging failures. The research results spanned many aspects of the free-swinging failure-tolerance problem, from preparing for an expected failure to discovery of postfailure capabilities to establishing efficient methods to realize those capabilities. Developed algorithms were verified using computer-based dynamic simulations, and these were further verified using hardware experiments at Johnson Space Center.

  18. Uniform Plasmonic Response of Colloidal Ag Patchy Particles Prepared by Swinging Oblique Angle Deposition.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Layne; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-05-17

    The plasmonic property of Ag patchy particles fabricated using a colloid monolayer and oblique angle deposition shows significant variations due to the multidomain nature of the monolayer. A swinging oblique angle deposition method is proposed to create uniform patchy particles. Both numerical calculations and experiment show that when the swinging angle is larger than 90°, the resulting plasmonic patchy particles have similar morphology and demonstrate uniform optical response that does not depend on the monolayer domain orientation. These uniform patchy plasmonic particles have great potential for plasmonic-based applications. PMID:27128221

  19. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  20. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248