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Sample records for afterglow emission properties

  1. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Rol, Evert; Woosley, Stan; in'tZand, Jean J. M.; vanderHorst, Alexander; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby GRBs (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ib/c supernovae. For each event, we investigated its spectral and luminosity evolution and estimated the total energy budget based on the broadband observations. We discuss the properties of the four events in comparison to general burst population, and infer the physical parameters involved in creation of these nearby GRB-SN events

  2. Emission and afterglow properties of an expanding RF plasma with nonuniform neutral gas density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe some notable aspects of the light emission and afterglow properties in pulsed, high-density ( 1018-1020 m-3 ) argon inductively coupled discharges initiated following fast gas injection. The plasma was created in a long, narrow discharge tube and then expanded downstream of the radiofrequency (RF) antenna into a large chamber. Fast camera images of the expanding plasma revealed a multi-phase time-dependent emission pattern that did not follow the ion density distribution. Dramatic differences in visible brightness were observed between discharges with and without an externally applied magnetic field. These phenomena were studied by tracking excited state populations using passive emission spectroscopy and are discussed in terms of the distinction between ionizing and recombining phase plasmas. Additionally, a method is presented for inferring the unknown neutral gas pressure in the discharge tube from the time-dependent visible and infrared emission measured by a simple photodiode placed near the antenna. In magnetized discharges created with fast gas injection, the downstream ion density rose by Δni˜1018 m-3 in the first ˜100 μs after the RF power was turned off. The conditions conducive to this afterglow density rise are investigated in detail, and the effect is tentatively attributed to pooling ionization.

  3. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Woosley, S.E.; Patel, S.K.; Rol, E.; Zand, J.J.M.in't; a; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Strom, R.; /USRA, Huntsville /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht, Astron. Inst. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /NFRA, Dwingeloo

    2006-07-12

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ic supernovae, and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution, and estimate the total energy budget based upon broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and sub-relativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  4. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZand, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wuers, Ralph A. M. J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type Ic supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  5. GRB Off-Axis Afterglows and the Emission from the Accompanying Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathirgamaraju, A. K.; Duran, R. B. D.; Giannios, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    I will discuss the prospect of detecting orphan afterglows with upcoming radio surveys. Using simulations generated by the Afterglow Library and using data from 75 GRB afterglows. We also discuss how emission from SNe and other components affect our results.

  6. Emission spectrum of a sporadic fireball afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-07-01

    A mag. -11 fireball was imaged over southern Spain on April 14, 2013 at 22:35:49.8 ± 0.1s UTC. Its emission spectrum was also obtained. This event was assigned the SPMN code 140413 after the recording date. By the end of its atmospheric path, it exhibited a very bright flare which resulted in a persistent train whose spectrum was recorded. Here we present a preliminary analysis of this event and focus special attention on the evolution of the main emission lines in the spectrum of the afterglow. An array of low-lux CCD video devices (models 902H and 902H Ultimate from Watec Co.) operating from our stations at Sevilla and El Arenosillo was employed to record the SPMN140413 fireball. The operation of these systems is explained in [1,2]. Some of these are configured as spectrographs by attaching holographic diffraction gratings (1000 lines/mm) to the objective lens [3]. To calculate the atmospheric trajectory, radiant, and orbit we have employed our AMALTHEA software, which follows the planes intersection method [4]. The spectrum was analyzed with our CHIMET application [5]. The parent meteoroid impacted the atmosphere with an initial velocity of 28.9 ± 0.3 km/s and the fireball began at a height of 104.4 ± 0.5 km. The event ended at 80.7 ± 0.5 km above the ground level, with the main flare taking place at 83 ± 0.5 km. The calculated radiant and orbital parameters confirm the sporadic nature of the bolide. The calibrated emission spectrum shows that the most important contributions correspond to the Na I-1 (588.9 nm) and Mg I-2 (517.2 nm) multiplets. In the ultraviolet, the contribution from the H and K lines from Ca was also identified. As usual in meteor spectra, most of the lines correspond to Fe I. The train spectrum was recorded during about 0.12 seconds. This provided the evolution with time of the intensity of the emission lines in this signal. The contributions from Mg I, Na I, Ca I, Fe I, Ca II, and O I were identified in the afterglow, with the Na I-1

  7. The Ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to Afterglow and Afterglow Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Atteia, J. L.; Boër, M.; Coward, D. M.; De Pasquale, M.; Howell, E.; Klotz, A.; Oates, S.; Piro, L.

    2013-12-01

    The "ultra-long" gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ~4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of AV = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ~1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  8. The ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to afterglow and afterglow properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Coward, D. M.; Howell, E.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S.; Klotz, A.; Piro, L.

    2013-12-10

    The 'ultra-long' gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ∼4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of A{sub V} = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ∼1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglow and Prompt Emission Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2008-10-01

    Swift observations have revealed interesting but puzzling data that demand a rethink of the origins of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows. The chromatic breaks in X-ray/optical afterglow lightcurves stimulated several innovative suggestions, most invoking a non-forward-shock origin of the X-ray afterglows. The status of both the observational facts and the theoretical models is critically reviewed. Besides the late ``internal'' emission from a long-live central engine, most observed X-ray afterglows likely still include the contribution of the traditional forward shock component. The physical nature (e.g. energy dissipation mechanism, emission site, and radiation mechanism) of the GRB prompt emission is currently not identified. The motivations and issues of three proposed prompt emission sites are reviewed. Several independent methods, invoking prompt gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and GeV emission information, respectively, have been applied to constrain the unknown emission site. Tentative evidence suggests a large prompt emission radius. Finally, the implications of the broad band high quality data of the ``naked eye'' GRB 080319B for our understanding of the afterglow and prompt emission mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Japelj, J.; Kopač, D.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A. E-mail: andreja.gomboc@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2014-04-20

    We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and γ-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R {sub B} = ε{sub B,r}/ε{sub B,f} ∼ 2-10{sup 4}. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

  11. Effect of secondary emission on the argon plasma afterglow with large dust density

    SciTech Connect

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A.; Burmaka, G. P.; Stefanović, I.

    2015-02-15

    A zero-dimensional, space-averaged model for argon plasma afterglow with large dust density is developed. In the model, three groups of electrons in the plasma afterglow are assumed: (i) thermal electrons with Maxwellian distribution, (ii) energetic electrons generated by metastable-metastable collisions (metastable pooling), and (iii) secondary electrons generated at collisions of ions with the electrodes, which have sufficiently large negative voltages in the afterglow. The model calculates the time-dependencies for electron densities in plasma afterglow based on experimental decay times for metastable density and electrode bias. The effect of secondary emission on electron density in the afterglow is estimated by varying secondary emission yields. It is found that this effect is less important than metastable pooling. The case of dust-free plasma afterglow is considered also, and it is found that in the afterglow the effect of secondary emission may be more important than metastable pooling. The secondary emission may increase thermal electron density n{sub e} in dust-free and dusty plasma afterglows on a few ten percentages. The calculated time dependencies for n{sub e} in dust-free and dusty plasma afterglows describe well the experimental results.

  12. The Interpretation of the Multi-wavelength Afterglow Emission of Short GRB 140903A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-01-01

    GRB 140903A, a short duration γ-ray burst (SGRB) detected by Swift, is characterized by its long-lasting radio emission among SGRBs. In addition to the ∼ {10}6 s radio afterglow emission, the afterglow of GRB 140903A displays a plateau from 103 s to 7× {10}3 {{s}} in the X-rays. In this work, we attribute the X-ray plateau to the energy injection into the decelerating blast wave and then model the later radio/optical/X-ray afterglow emission within the standard fireball afterglow model. The afterglow emission has been well reproduced with reasonable physical parameters, including a jet half-opening angle of ∼0.05.

  13. Long afterglow properties of Zn2GeO4:Mn2+, Cr3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Yan; He, Yangyang; Dong, Bin; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Limei

    2015-04-01

    Zn2GeO4:Mn2+, Cr3+ phosphors were prepared by conventional solid state reaction and the photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Mn2+ activated Zn2GeO4 phosphors exhibited green emission at 533 nm due to the 4T1(4G) → 6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+ ions. With Cr3+ co-doping in Zn2GeO4 host, long afterglow characteristics were found from the same transition of Mn2+. The TL results revealed the presence of same traps in the phosphor, and the doping of Cr3+ ions deepened the VGe traps. The native defect VGe as a hole traps is responsible for the long afterglow emission in Zn2GeO4:Mn2+, Cr3+ phosphor. The possible mechanism of this phosphor has also been discussed.

  14. Comment on 'Shock-wave-induced enhancement of optical emission in nitrogen afterglow plasma'

    SciTech Connect

    Naidis, G. V.

    2007-01-15

    Sieffert et al. [Phys. Rev. E 72, 066402 (2005)] have recently presented experimental results on optical emission enhancement at the front of shockwaves propagating in nitrogen afterglow. They claim that their results point to local heating of electrons at the shock front. In this Comment it is shown that the observed emission enhancement can be explained on the basis of a commonly accepted model of nitrogen discharge and afterglow, so that the use of unfounded assumption of local electron heating is not required.

  15. GRB off-axis afterglows and the emission from the accompanying supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are likely produced in the shock that is driven as the GRB jet interacts with the external medium. Long-duration GRBs are also associated with powerful supernovae (SNe). We consider the optical and radio afterglows of long GRBs for both blasts viewed along the jet axis (`on-axis' afterglows) and misaligned observes (`off-axis' afterglows). Comparing the optical emission from the afterglow with that of the accompanying SN, using SN 1998bw as an archetype, we find that only a few per cent of afterglows viewed off-axis are brighter than the SN. For observable optical off-axis afterglows, the viewing angle is at most twice the half-opening angle of the GRB jet. Radio off-axis afterglows should be detected with upcoming radio surveys within a few hundred Mpc. We propose that these surveys will act as `radio triggers', and that dedicated radio facilities should follow-up these sources. Follow-ups can unveil the presence of the radio SN remnant, if present. In addition, they can probe the presence of a mildly relativistic component, either associated with the GRB jet or the SN ejecta, expected in these sources.

  16. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  17. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  18. Scintillation properties and applications of reduced-afterglow co-doped CsI:Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, V. V.; Gaysinskiy, V. B.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Miller, S. R.; Brecher, C.; Lempicki, A.; Bartram, R. H.

    2007-09-01

    While a wide variety of new scintillators are now available, CsI:Tl remains a highly desired material for medical and industrial applications due to its excellent properties, low cost, and easy availability. Despite its advantages, however, its use in high-speed imaging applications has been hindered by an undesirably high afterglow component in its scintillation decay. To address this specific issue and to make the material suitable for applications such as volumetric CT and high-speed radiography, we have discovered that codoping the material with certain dipositive rare earth ions is particularly effective for such afterglow suppression. We have extensively studied the manner in which one such ion, Eu 2+, alters the spectroscopic and kinetic properties of the scintillation, and have developed a coherent mathematical model consistent with the experimental results. Unfortunately, the beneficial effect of Eu 2+ appears to be restricted only to relatively short times (say <=200 ms) after the end of the excitation pulse. At longer times, the carriers whose diversion into deep traps is responsible for suppression of the short-term afterglow begin to escape those traps, resulting in enhancement of the low-level persistence on a time scale of seconds or minutes. What is needed is to provide some nonradiative means to annihilate the trapped carriers before their escape can enhance the low-level long-term emission. And, as predicted by the mathematical model, this is exactly what Sm 2+ does. In this paper we compare the respective effects of the two additives on the afterglow and hysteresis characteristics of the host CsI:Tl material system. We find that while Eu begins to exert its afterglow-suppressive effect sooner after termination of excitation, the influence of Sm lasts much longer. Moreover, the suppressive effect of the latter is always found, regardless of the conditions of excitation, and becomes more profound the greater the duration of the exciting pulse

  19. Shock-wave-induced enhancement of optical emission in nitrogen afterglow plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, N.; Ganguly, B.N.; Bletzinger, P.

    2005-12-15

    This paper reports measurements of optical emission enhancement at the shock front of Mach 1.5 to Mach 3.5 shockwaves propagating in the afterglow of a 0.75 Torr nitrogen glow discharge. Electrically-generated shocks pass through the afterglow and create noticeable enhancements of the B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}-A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} and C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}-B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g} transitions of nitrogen. Under our discharge conditions, the electron Debye length was approximately the same magnitude as the shock thickness; this allows the possibility of a space-charge region extending beyond the neutral shockwave discontinuity. Previous researchers have measured enhancement in the B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}-A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} optical emission at the shock front, but only in the active discharge. Fibers connected to photomultipler tubes measure the optical emission from the discharge. Laser deflection measures the shock velocity. The data reveals that the emission enhancement increases with Mach number, and also indicates that the emission enhancement decreases exponentially with time in the afterglow. Since the discharge voltage has already been shut off, the energy needed to create the emission enhancement cannot come from the power supply. We conclude that under our discharge conditions there is an increase in the already non-equilibrium energy of the electrons at the shock front via a shockwave-induced strong double layer.

  20. A complete sample of bright Swift Gamma-ray bursts: X-ray afterglow luminosity and its correlation with the prompt emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Sbarufatti, B.; Nava, L.; Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Parola, V. La; Perri, M.; Vergani, S. D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate whether there is any correlation between the X-ray afterglow luminosity and the prompt emission properties of a carefully selected sub-sample of bright Swift long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) nearly complete in redshift (˜90 per cent). Being free of selection effects (except flux limit), this sample provides the possibility to compare the rest frame physical properties of GRB prompt and afterglow emission in an unbiased way. The afterglow X-ray luminosities are computed at four different rest frame times (5 min, 1 h, 11 h and 24 h after trigger) and compared with the prompt emission isotropic energy Eiso, the isotropic peak luminosity Liso and the rest frame peak energy Epeak. We find that the rest frame afterglow X-ray luminosity do correlate with these prompt emission quantities, but the significance of each correlation decreases over time. This result is in agreement with the idea that the GRB X-ray light curve can be described as the result of a combination of different components whose relative contribution and weight change with time, with the prompt and afterglow emission dominating at early and late time, respectively. In particular, we found evidence that the plateau and the shallow decay phase often observed in GRB X-ray light curves are powered by activity from the central engine. The existence of the LX - Eiso correlation at late times (trf≥11h) suggests a similar radiative efficiency among different bursts with on average about 6 per cent of the total kinetic energy powering the prompt emission.

  1. Thermal emission in the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts from their interaction with supernova ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Wang, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Context. A thermal X-ray component is observed in the early afterglow of some gamma-ray bursts. Possible explanations include shockwave breakout, relativistic photosphere, or emission from cocoon. The difficulties of these models are discussed. Aims: We propose an alternative model that attributes such a thermal component to the interaction of the gamma-ray burst outflow with a baryonic material near the gamma-ray burst source. Methods: The analytic model is based on relativistic energy-momentum conservation and a diffusion model for photons. The kinematic and observational properties of the supernova ejecta after the interaction are derived. In particular, the temperature and the duration of the thermal emission are obtained. Results: The model is applied to a prototypical GRB 090618 and other gamma-ray bursts associated with supernovae having thermal emission in the early afterglow. The mass of the baryonic material is found to be a few 10-4M⊙, indicating that this material can be a small fraction of the supernova ejecta.

  2. Synthesis and afterglow properties of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuhui; Wang, Yuhua; Gong, Yu; Li, Yanqin

    2011-11-01

    The MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanophosphors with different particle sizes have been synthesized through a simple and inexpensive precipitate approach followed by a post-annealing process. The structure and morphology of the phosphor are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to XRD and TEM results, the particle size of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ could be controlled via changing the ratio of MgSO4/Al2O3, and the obtained samples possess regular morphology. The afterglow properties of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanophosphors as a function of particle sizes are investigated by afterglow decay curves. Compared with the bulk phosphor, the nanophosphors exhibit longer afterglow time and higher initial afterglow intensity. In nanophosphors, there exist numerous defects on their surfaces due to the large surface to volume ratio, which generally act as luminescent killers, while some of which, however, can probably act as traps beneficial for the generation of afterglow. In the nanosized MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor, the thermoluminescence results indeed indicate the existence of more traps which are introduced due to the large surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles and that the high temperature sintering process contributes to the longer afterglow in the nanophosphors.

  3. Multiwavelength Observations of GRB 110731A: GeV Emission From Onset to Afterglow

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; ...

    2013-01-09

    In this paper, we report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for whichmore » simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. Lastly, the observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet Γ ~ 500-550.« less

  4. Multiwavelength Observations of GRB 110731A: GeV Emission From Onset to Afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M.; Connaughton, V.; Foley, S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kann, D. A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Krühler, T.; Fukui, A.; Sako, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Oates, S. R.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Littlejohns, O.

    2013-01-09

    In this paper, we report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. Lastly, the observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet Γ ~ 500-550.

  5. Gamma-ray Burst Reverse Shock Emission in Early Radio Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, Lekshmi; Zhang, Bing

    2016-07-01

    Reverse shock (RS) emission from gamma-ray bursts is an important tool in investigating the nature of the ejecta from the central engine. If the magnetization of the ejecta is not high enough to suppress the RS, a strong RS emission component, usually peaking in the optical/IR band early on, would provide an important contribution to early afterglow light curve. In the radio band, synchrotron self-absorption may suppress early RS emission and also delay the RS peak time. In this paper, we calculate the self-absorbed RS emission in the radio band under different dynamical conditions. In particular, we stress that the RS radio emission is subject to self-absorption in both RSs and forward shocks (FSs). We calculate the ratio between the RS to FS flux at the RS peak time for different frequencies, which is a measure of the detectability of the RS emission component. We then constrain the range of physical parameters for a detectable RS, in particular the role of magnetization. We notice that unlike optical RS emission which is enhanced by moderate magnetization, moderately magnetized ejecta do not necessarily produce a brighter radio RS due to the self-absorption effect. For typical parameters, the RS emission component would not be detectable below 1 GHz unless the medium density is very low (e.g., n < 10-3 cm-3 for the interstellar medium and A * < 5 × 10-4 for wind). These predictions can be tested using the afterglow observations from current and upcoming radio facilities such as the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Low-Frequency Array, the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, and the Square Kilometer Array.

  6. Red Afterglow Properties of Eu3+ in CaMoO4 Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Feng-Wen; Hu, Yi-Hua; Wu, Hao-Yi; Ju, Gui-Fang

    2011-10-01

    Eu3+ doped CaMoO4 phosphors were synthesized by using the solid state reaction method. The x-ray diffraction shows that all the patterns of the obtained samples are indexed to the sheelite structure. Red afterglow originating from the 5D0-7FJ (J = 0,1,2,3,4) transitions of Eu3+ was observed after the samples were excited by 254 nm and the optimal Eu3+ concentration in the CaMoO4 matrix was experimentally determined to be 0.50%. A possible explanation of this afterglow property is also discussed.

  7. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Pozanenko, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E. E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  8. Plastic Damping of Alfvén Waves in Magnetar Flares and Delayed Afterglow Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyu; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetar flares generate Alfvén waves bouncing in the closed magnetosphere with energy up to ∼ {10}46 erg. We show that on a timescale of 10 ms the waves are transmitted into the star and form a compressed packet of high energy density. This packet strongly shears the stellar crust and initiates a plastic flow, heating the crust and melting it hundreds of meters below the surface. A fraction of the deposited plastic heat is eventually conducted to the stellar surface, contributing to the surface afterglow months to years after the flare. A large fraction of heat is lost to neutrino emission or conducted into the core of the neutron star.

  9. VERY HIGH ENERGY gamma-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Wei, D. M.; Tam, P. H.; Wagner, S. J.; Behera, B. E-mail: phtam@lsw.uni-heidelberg.d

    2009-09-20

    The synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from gamma-ray burst (GRB) forward shock can extend to the very high energy (VHE; E{sub {gamma}} > 100 GeV) range. Such high energy photons are rare and are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background before reaching us. In this work, we discuss the prospect to detect these VHE photons using the current ground-based Cherenkov detectors. Our calculated results are consistent with the upper limits obtained with several Cherenkov detectors for GRB 030329, GRB 050509B, and GRB 060505 during the afterglow phase. For five bursts in our nearby GRB sample (except for GRB 030329), current ground-based Cherenkov detectors would not be expected to detect the modeled VHE signal. Only for those very bright and nearby bursts like GRB 030329, detection of VHE photons is possible under favorable observing conditions and a delayed observation time of {approx}<10 hr.

  10. THE PROPERTIES OF THE 2175 A EXTINCTION FEATURE DISCOVERED IN GRB AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Watson, Darach; Eliasdottir, Ardis; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Kruehler, Thomas; Leloudas, Giorgos; Schady, Patricia; Greiner, Jochen; Jakobsson, Pall; Thoene, Christina C.; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Bloom, Joshua E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk

    2012-07-01

    The unequivocal, spectroscopic detection of the 2175 A bump in extinction curves outside the Local Group is rare. To date, the properties of the bump have been examined in only two gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows (GRB 070802 and GRB 080607). In this work, we analyze in detail the detections of the 2175 Angstrom-Sign extinction bump in the optical spectra of two further GRB afterglows: GRB 080605 and 080805. We gather all available optical/near-infrared photometric, spectroscopic, and X-ray data to construct multi-epoch spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for both GRB afterglows. We fit the SEDs with the Fitzpatrick and Massa model with a single or broken power law. We also fit a sample of 38 GRB afterglows, known to prefer a Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-type extinction curve, with the same model. We find that the SEDs of GRB 080605 and GRB 080805 at two epochs are fit well with a single power law with a derived extinction of A{sub V} = 0.52{sup +0.13}{sub -0.16} and 0.50{sup +0.13}{sub -0.10}, and 2.1{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} and 1.5 {+-} 0.2, respectively. While the slope of the extinction curve of GRB 080805 is not well constrained, the extinction curve of GRB 080605 has an unusual very steep far-UV rise together with the 2175 A bump. Such an extinction curve has previously been found in only a small handful of sightlines in the Milky Way. One possible explanation of such an extinction curve may be dust arising from two different regions with two separate grain populations, however we cannot distinguish the origin of the curve. We finally compare the four 2175 A bump sightlines to the larger GRB afterglow sample and to Local Group sightlines. We find that while the width and central positions of the bumps are consistent with what is observed in the Local Group, the relative strength of the detected bump (A{sub bump}) for GRB afterglows is weaker for a given A{sub V} than for almost any Local Group sightline. Such dilution of the bump strength may offer tentative

  11. Soft X-ray emission lines in the afterglow spectrum of GRB 011211: A detailed XMM-Newton analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Watson, D.; Osborne, J. P.; Pounds, K. A.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2003-05-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the X-ray afterglow of the Gamma Ray Burst GRB 011211, originally detected by Beppo-SAX on 11th December 2001. The early afterglow spectrum obtained by XMM-Newton, observed 11 hours after the initial burst, appeared to reveal decaying H-like Kalpha emission lines of Mg, Si, S, Ar and Ca, arising in enriched material with an outflow velocity of order 0.1c (Reeves et al. \\cite{Reeves2002}). This was attributed to matter ejected from a massive stellar progenitor occurring shortly before the burst itself. Here, we present a detailed re-analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC observations of GRB 011211. In particular, we show that the detection of the soft X-ray line emission appears robust, regardless of detector background, calibration, spectral binning, or the spectral model that is assumed. We demonstrate that thermal emission, from an optically thin plasma, is the most plausible model that can account for the soft X-ray emission, which appears to be the case for at least two burst afterglow spectra observed by XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum of GRB 011211 appears to evolve with time after the first 10 ks of the XMM-Newton observation as the Si and S emission lines are only detected during the first 10 ks of observation. The observations suggest that thermal emission is present during the early afterglow spectrum, whilst a power-law component dominates the latter stages. Finally we estimate the mass of the ejected material in GRB 011211 to be of the order 4-20 solar masses.

  12. THE ROLE OF NEWLY BORN MAGNETARS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST X-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION: ENERGY INJECTION AND INTERNAL EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yunwei; Cheng, K. S.; Cao Xiaofeng E-mail: hrspksc@hkucc.hku.h

    2010-05-20

    Swift observations suggest that the central compact objects of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) could be newly born millisecond magnetars. Therefore, considering the spin evolution of the magnetars against r-mode instability, we investigate the role of magnetars in GRB X-ray afterglow emission. Besides modifying the conventional energy injection model, we pay particular attention to the internal X-ray afterglow emission, whose luminosity is assumed to track the magnetic dipole luminosity of the magnetars with a certain fraction. Following a comparison between the model and some selected observational samples, we suggest that some so-called canonical X-ray afterglows including the shallow decay, normal decay, and steeper-than-normal decay phases could be internally produced by the magnetars (possibly through some internal dissipations of the magnetar winds), while the (energized) external shocks are associated with another type of X-ray afterglows. If this is true, then from those internal X-ray afterglows we can further determine the magnetic field strengths and the initial spin periods of the corresponding magnetars.

  13. THERMAL EMISSIONS SPANNING THE PROMPT AND THE AFTERGLOW PHASES OF THE ULTRA-LONG GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R. E-mail: arrao@tifr.res.in

    2015-07-01

    GRB 130925A is an ultra-long gamma-ray burst (GRB), and it shows clear evidence for thermal emission in the soft X-ray data of the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT; ∼0.5 keV), lasting until the X-ray afterglow phase. Due to the long duration of the GRB, the burst could be studied in hard X-rays with high-resolution focusing detectors (NuSTAR). The blackbody temperature, as measured by the Swift/XRT, shows a decreasing trend until the late phase (Piro et al.) whereas the high-energy data reveal a significant blackbody component during the late epochs at an order of magnitude higher temperature (∼5 keV) compared to contemporaneous low energy data (Bellm et al.). We resolve this apparent contradiction by demonstrating that a model with two black bodies and a power law (2BBPL) is consistent with the data right from the late prompt emission to the afterglow phase. Both blackbodies show a similar cooling behavior up to late times. We invoke a structured jet, having a fast spine and a slower sheath layer, to identify the location of these blackbodies. Independent of the physical interpretation, we propose that the 2BBPL model is a generic feature of the prompt emission of all long GRBs, and the thermal emission found in the afterglow phase of different GRBs reflects the lingering thermal component of the prompt emission with different timescales. We strengthen this proposal by pointing out a close similarity between the spectral evolutions of this GRB and GRB 090618, a source with significant wide band data during the early afterglow phase.

  14. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, tau, for the standard Swift energy bands 50 - 100 keV and 100 - 200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso) (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift GRBs taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, L(sub x), of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical XRT GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T(sub brk). We also present the L(sub x) - T(sub brk) relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (rho = -0.65 for the L(sub iso) - tao and rho = -0.88 for the L(sub x) -T(sub brk) relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power law indices (-1.19 +/- 0.17 for L(sub iso) - tau and -1.10 +/- 0.03 for L(sub x) - T(sub brk)). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although tau and T(sub brk) represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L(sub iso) - tao) extrapolates into the second one for timescales tau similar to T(sub brk) This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  15. Gamma Ray Burst afterglow and prompt-afterglow relations: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Del Vecchio, R.

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism responsible for the afterglow emission of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and its connection to the prompt γ-ray emission is still a debated issue. Relations between intrinsic properties of the prompt or afterglow emission can help to discriminate between plausible theoretical models of GRB production. Here we present an overview of the afterglow and prompt-afterglow two parameter relations, their physical interpretations, their use as redshift estimators and as possible cosmological tools. A similar task has already been correctly achieved for Supernovae (SNe) Ia by using the peak magnitude-stretch relation, known in the literature as the Phillips relation (Phillips 1993). The challenge today is to make GRBs, which are amongst the farthest objects ever observed, standardizable candles as the SNe Ia through well established and robust relations. Thus, the study of relations amongst the observable and physical properties of GRBs is highly relevant together with selection biases in their physical quantities. Therefore, we describe the state of the art of the existing GRB relations, their possible and debated interpretations in view of the current theoretical models and how relations are corrected for selection biases. We conclude that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for selection effects can GRB relations be used to discriminate among the theoretical models responsible for the prompt and afterglow emission and to estimate cosmological parameters.

  16. The X-shooter sample of GRB afterglow spectra: Properties of the absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Since its commissioning at ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2009, the X-shooter spectrograph has become the reference instrument in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectroscopy. During this time our collaboration has collected more than 70 spectra of GRB afterglows, with redshifts ranging from 0.06 to 6.3. Thanks to their extreme luminosity and simple intrinsic shape, GRB spectra are optimal tools for the study of galactic environments at basically any redshift. Being produced by the death of short-lived massive stars, they are also tracers of star formation.I will present the sample of absorption spectral features identified in X-shooter's GRB spectra describing observation and analysis techniques. The different features are compared with the characteristics of the explosion (duration, spectral shape, energetics, etc.) and with the properties of the host galaxy (mass, age, etc.) to improve our understanding of the nature of the explosions and how they interact with their environments. Using the large redshift range of the spectra collection we perform studies of the evolution of GRB environments across the history of the Universe and their relation with the evolution of star formation.

  17. Prompt and Afterglow Emmision Properties of Gamma-ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZant, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type IC supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic out8ows appears to have a sigruficantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fracti

  18. Afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts - I. Pair-enriched ambient medium and radiative blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Sironi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2013-08-01

    Forward shocks caused by the interaction between a relativistic blast wave and the circumburst medium are thought to be responsible for the afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We consider the hydrodynamics of a spherical relativistic blast wave expanding into the surrounding medium and we generalize the standard theory in order to account for several effects that are generally ignored. In particular, we consider the role of adiabatic and radiative losses in the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock, under the assumption that the cooling losses are fast. Our model can describe adiabatic, fully radiative and semiradiative blast waves, and can describe the effects of a time-varying radiative efficiency. The equations we present are valid for arbitrary density profiles, and also for a circumburst medium enriched with electron-positron pairs. The presence of pairs enhances the fraction of shock energy gained by the leptons, thus increasing the importance of radiative losses. Our model allows us to study whether the high-energy (>0.1 GeV) emission in GRBs may originate from afterglow radiation. In particular, it is suitable to test whether the fast decay of the high-energy light curve observed in several Fermi Large Area Telescope GRBs can be ascribed to an initial radiative phase, followed by the standard adiabatic evolution.

  19. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 130427A ESTABLISH A SINGLE COMPONENT SYNCHROTRON AFTERGLOW ORIGIN FOR THE LATE OPTICAL TO MULTI-GEV EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kouveliotou, C.; Racusin, J. L.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J. E.; Zhang, W. W.; Bellm, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Vianello, G.; Oates, S.; Fryer, C. L.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Dermer, C. D.; Hailey, C. J.; Melandri, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mundell, C. G.; Stern, D. K. E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il

    2013-12-10

    GRB 130427A occurred in a relatively nearby galaxy; its prompt emission had the largest GRB fluence ever recorded. The afterglow of GRB 130427A was bright enough for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) to observe it in the 3-79 keV energy range long after its prompt emission (∼1.5 and 5 days). This range, where afterglow observations were previously not possible, bridges an important spectral gap. Combined with Swift, Fermi, and ground-based optical data, NuSTAR observations unambiguously establish a single afterglow spectral component from optical to multi-GeV energies a day after the event, which is almost certainly synchrotron radiation. Such an origin of the late-time Fermi/Large Area Telescope >10 GeV photons requires revisions in our understanding of collisionless relativistic shock physics.

  20. NuSTAR observations of GRB 130427A establish a single component synchrotron afterglow origin for the late optical to multi-GEV emission

    DOE PAGES

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, J.; Racusin, J. L.; ...

    2013-11-21

    Here, GRB 130427A occurred in a relatively nearby galaxy; its prompt emission had the largest GRB fluence ever recorded. The afterglow of GRB 130427A was bright enough for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) to observe it in the 3-79 keV energy range long after its prompt emission (~1.5 and 5 days). This range, where afterglow observations were previously not possible, bridges an important spectral gap. Combined with Swift, Fermi, and ground-based optical data, NuSTAR observations unambiguously establish a single afterglow spectral component from optical to multi-GeV energies a day after the event, which is almost certainly synchrotron radiation. Suchmore » an origin of the late-time Fermi/Large Area Telescope >10 GeV photons requires revisions in our understanding of collisionless relativistic shock physics.« less

  1. NuSTAR observations of GRB 130427A establish a single component synchrotron afterglow origin for the late optical to multi-GEV emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, J.; Racusin, J. L.; Bellm, E.; Vianello, G.; Oates, S.; Fryer, C. L.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dermer, C. D.; Gehrels, N.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Melandri, A.; McEnery, J. E.; Mundell, C. G.; Stern, D. K.; Tagliaferri, G.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-11-21

    Here, GRB 130427A occurred in a relatively nearby galaxy; its prompt emission had the largest GRB fluence ever recorded. The afterglow of GRB 130427A was bright enough for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) to observe it in the 3-79 keV energy range long after its prompt emission (~1.5 and 5 days). This range, where afterglow observations were previously not possible, bridges an important spectral gap. Combined with Swift, Fermi, and ground-based optical data, NuSTAR observations unambiguously establish a single afterglow spectral component from optical to multi-GeV energies a day after the event, which is almost certainly synchrotron radiation. Such an origin of the late-time Fermi/Large Area Telescope >10 GeV photons requires revisions in our understanding of collisionless relativistic shock physics.

  2. Afterglows from precursors in gamma-ray bursts. Application to the optical afterglow of GRB 091024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Burlon, D.

    2014-12-01

    About 15 per cent of gamma-ray bursts have precursors, i.e. emission episodes preceding the main event, whose spectral and temporal properties are similar to the main emission. We propose that precursors have their own fireball, producing afterglow emission due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy via external shock. In the time lapse between the precursor and the main event, we assume that the central engine is not completely turned off, but it continues to eject relativistic material at a smaller rate, whose emission is below the background level. The precursor fireball generates a first afterglow by the interaction with the external circumburst medium. Matter injected by the central engine during the `quasi-quiescent' phase replenishes the external medium with material in relativistic motion. The fireball corresponding to the main prompt emission episode rams into this moving material, producing a second afterglow, and finally catches up and merges with the first precursor fireball. We test this scenario over GRB 091024, an event with a precursor in the prompt light curve and two well-defined bumps in the optical afterglow, obtaining an excellent agreement with the existing data.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL EMISSION. III. BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTIONS AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xianggao; Liang Enwei; Li Liang; Lu Ruijing; Wei Jianyan; Zhang Bing

    2013-09-10

    We continue our systematic statistical study on optical afterglow data of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the apparent magnitude distributions of early optical afterglows at different epochs (t = 10{sup 2} s, 10{sup 3} s, and 1 hr) for the optical light curves of a sample of 93 GRBs (the global sample) and for sub-samples with an afterglow onset bump or a shallow decay segment. For the onset sample and shallow decay sample we also present the brightness distribution at the peak time t{sub p} and break time t{sub b}, respectively. All the distributions can be fit with Gaussian functions. We further perform Monte Carlo simulations to infer the luminosity function of GRB optical emission at the rest-frame time 10{sup 3} s, t{sub p}, and t{sub b}. Our results show that a single power-law luminosity function is adequate to model the data with indices -1.40 {+-} 0.10, -1.06 {+-} 0.16, and -1.54 {+-} 0.22. Based on the derived rest-frame 10{sup 3} s luminosity function, we generate the intrinsic distribution of the R-band apparent magnitude M{sub R} at the observed time 10{sup 3} s post-trigger, which peaks at M{sub R} = 22.5 mag. The fraction of GRBs whose R-band magnitude is fainter than 22 mag and 25 mag and at the observer time 10{sup 3} s are {approx}63% and {approx}25%, respectively. The detection probabilities of the optical afterglows with ground-based robotic telescopes and the UV-Optical Telescope on board Swift are roughly consistent with that inferred from this intrinsic M{sub R} distribution, indicating that the variations of the dark GRB fraction among the samples with different telescopes may be due to the observational selection effect, although the existence of an intrinsically dark GRB population cannot be ruled out.

  4. Early GRB afterglows from reverse shocks in ultra-relativistic long-lasting winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2017-08-01

    We develop a model of early GRB afterglows with the dominant X-ray contribution from the reverse shock (RS) propagating in highly relativistic magnetized wind of a long-lasting central engine. The model reproduces, in a fairly natural way, the overall trends and yet allows for variations in the temporal and spectral evolution of early optical and X-ray afterglows. The high energy and the optical synchrotron emission from the RS particles occurs in the fast cooling regime; the resulting synchrotron power is a large fraction of the wind luminosity. Thus, plateaus - parts of afterglow light curves that show slowly decreasing spectral power - are a natural consequence of the RS emission. Contribution from the forward shock (FS) is negligible in the X-rays, but in the optical both FS and RS contribute similarly. RS emission in the X-rays and combined FS and RS emission in the optical can explain many of puzzling properties of early GRB afterglows.

  5. [Effect of different excitation monitoring wavelengths on emission spectrum of red long afterglow phosphor Sr3Al2O6 : Eu2+, Dy3+].

    PubMed

    Cui, Cai-e; Li, Jian; Huang, Ping; Liang, Li-ping; Wu, Yin-lan

    2012-01-01

    The Eu2+ and Dy3+ ion co-doped Sr3Al2O6 phosphor powders with long afterglow were prepared with high temperature solid-state reaction. The phase and the spectra properties of the material were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. It was found that the sample is composed of pure Sr3Al2O6 phase. Furthermore, the emission peak of 537 nm under 360 nm excitation and that of 590 nm excited by 468 nm-light were obtained, respectively, and it is more interesting that the emission peaks were at 537 and 590 nm under 394 nm excitation. The effects of different excitation wavelengths on the emission spectrum were explained reasonably by the effect of nephelauxetic effect and crystal field. It revealed that the two types of luminescence with different color were caused by the differences of the center of gravity of the 5d excited state energy level and the split range of 5d energy level.

  6. THERMAL EMISSION IN THE EARLY X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: FOLLOWING THE PROMPT PHASE TO LATE TIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Friis, Mette; Watson, Darach E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk

    2013-07-01

    Thermal radiation, peaking in soft X-rays, has now been detected in a handful of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and has to date been interpreted as shock break-out of the GRB's progenitor star. We present a search for thermal emission in the early X-ray afterglows of a sample of Swift bursts selected by their brightness in X-rays at early times. We identify a clear thermal component in eight GRBs and track the evolution. We show that at least some of the emission must come from highly relativistic material since two show an apparent super-luminal expansion of the thermal component. Furthermore, we determine very large luminosities and high temperatures for many of the components-too high to originate in a supernova shock break-out. Instead, we suggest that the component may be modeled as late photospheric emission from the jet, linking it to the apparently thermal component observed in the prompt emission of some GRBs at gamma-ray and hard X-ray energies. By comparing the parameters from the prompt emission and the early afterglow emission, we find that the results are compatible with the interpretation that we are observing the prompt quasi-thermal emission component in soft X-rays at a later point in its evolution.

  7. Using Swift observations of prompt and afterglow emission to classify GRBs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paul T; Willingale, Richard

    2007-05-15

    We present an analysis of early Burst Alert Telescope and X-ray Telescope data for 107 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite. We use these data to examine the behaviour of the X-ray light curve and propose a classification scheme for GRBs based on this behaviour. As found for previous smaller samples, the earliest X-ray light curve can be well described by an exponential, which relaxes into a power-law, often with flares superimposed. The later emission is well fit using a similar functional form and we find that these two functions provide a good description of the entire X-ray light curve. For the prompt emission, the transition time between the exponential and the power-law gives a well-defined time-scale, Tp, for the burst duration. We use Tp, the spectral index of the prompt emission, betap, and the prompt power-law decay index, alphap, to define four classes of burst: short, slow, fast and soft. Bursts with slowly declining emission have spectral and temporal properties similar to the short bursts despite having longer durations. Some of these GRBs may therefore arise from similar progenitors including several types of binary system. Short bursts tend to decline more gradually than longer duration bursts and hence emit a significant fraction of their total energy at times greater than Tp. This may be due to differences in the environment or the progenitor for long, fast bursts.

  8. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wako, A. H.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6-5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0-7F1 and 5D0-7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3

  9. Conical fireballs, cannonballs, and jet breaks in the afterglows of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2013-10-01

    The jet break in the X-ray afterglow of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) appears to be correlated to other properties of the X-ray afterglow and the prompt gamma ray emission, but the correlations are at odds with those predicted by the conical fireball (FB) model of GRBs. They are in good agreement, however, with those predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs.

  10. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) < 1.33 × 10-8 m-2 s-1. Differential flux upper limits as function of the photon energy were derived and used to constrain the intrinsic high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  11. On the anomalous afterglow seen in a chameleon afterglow search

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Baumbaugh, Alan; Chou, Aaron S.; Tomlin, Ray; Upadhye, Amol; /Argonne, PHY

    2012-05-01

    We present data from our investigation of the anomalous orange-colored afterglow that was seen in the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search (CHASE). These data include information about the broadband color of the observed glow, the relationship between the glow and the temperature of the apparatus, and other data taken prior to, and during the science operations of CHASE. While differing in several details, the generic properties of the afterglow from CHASE are similar to luminescence seen in some vacuum compounds. Contamination from this, or similar, luminescent signatures will likely impact the design of implementation of future experiments involving single photon detectors and high intensity light sources in a cryogenic environment.

  12. On the Early-Time X-Ray Spectra of Swift Afterglows. I. Evidence for Anomalous Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. R.

    2007-02-01

    We have conducted a thorough and blind search for emission lines in >70 Swift X-ray afterglows of total exposure ~107 s. We find that most afterglows are consistent with pure power laws plus extinction. Significant outliers to the population exist at the 5%-10% level and have anomalously soft, possibly thermal spectra. Four bursts are singled out via possible detections of two to five lines: GRB 060218, GRB 060202, GRB 050822, and GRB 050714B. Alternatively, a blackbody model with kT~0.1-0.5 keV can describe the soft emission in each afterglow. The most significant soft-component detections in the full data set of ~2000 spectra correspond to GRB 060218/SN 2006aj, with line significances ranging up to ~20 σ. A thermal plasma model fit to the data indicates that the flux is primarily due to L-shell transitions of Fe at roughly solar abundance. We associate (>4 σ significant) line triggers in the three other events with K-shell transitions in light metals. We favor a model where the possible line emission in these afterglows arises from the mildly relativistic cocoon of matter surrounding the GRB jet as it penetrates and exits the surface of the progenitor star. The emitting material in each burst is at a similar distance ~1012-1013 cm, a similar density ~1017 cm-3, and subject to a similar flux of ionizing radiation. The lines may correlate with the X-ray flaring. For the blackbody interpretation, the soft flux may arise from breakout of the GRB shock or plasma cocoon from the progenitor stellar wind, as recently suggested for GRB 060218 (Campana et al. 2006). Due to the low z of GRB 060218, bursts faint in gamma rays with fluxes dominated by this soft X-ray component could outnumber classical GRBs 100 to 1.

  13. On the Lack of a Radio Afterglow from Some Gamma-Ray Bursts - Insight into Their Progenitors?

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2017-02-07

    We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 1052 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, but amore » reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. Lastly, we discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.« less

  14. On the lack of a radio afterglow from some gamma-ray bursts - insight into their progenitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole M.; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 1052 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, but a reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. We discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.

  15. Systematic comparison of saturation effects and afterglow properties of Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor excited by alpha and beta ionizing sources and UV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havasi, Viktor; Tátrai, Dávid; Szabó, Gábor; Sipos, György; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    This study reports on the radioactive- and photo-charging effects related afterglow properties of the long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25:Eu, Dy phosphor (SAED). Saturation and oversaturation behavior, trapping and de-trapping sequences, decay profiles and resistivity of SAED to alpha, beta and UV excitations are detailed. Thermoluminescence and afterglow measurements were performed on SAED subjected to different irradiation dose/time. In order to determine the saturation point of SAED, phosphors were charged by 0.5-800 Gy dose using radioactive alpha and beta sources and for 0.02-900 min by near UV light. By radioactive excitations only a saturation tendency was observed, whereas clear indication of oversaturation was found for photo-charging. Different saturation tendencies were also observed as a function of average SAED particle size due to the different penetration depth and efficiency of the excitation radiations. A uniform de-trapping sequence, but an opposite trapping sequence was found for ionizing radiation and for UV charging due to secondary excitation effects of high-energy irradiation. After the saturation point, a slight reduction of charge carrier concentration and PL intensity were observed. This was evidenced by the shifting dominant components of the modeled afterglow and TL curves. Repeated charging by ionizing radiation does not effected the afterglow properties of SAED adversely. On the other hand, thermal exposure up to 350 °C reduced photoluminescence intensity even in inert atmosphere.

  16. Enhanced afterglow property of BaAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors by adding Li2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junfeng; Fan, Dongxiao; Niu, Bingbing; Lan, Xuena

    BaAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors with a good long lasting property can be easily obtained via a solid state reaction assisted with Li2CO3. The influence of Li2CO3 quantity on the lattice structure of BaAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors, their photoluminescence (PL) property, and decaying process was studied by XRD, PL, and afterglow decay measurement, respectively. The results show that incorporating Li2CO3 in preparing process would obviously affect their lattice structure, accompanied by the variation of their luminescent property. With the increase of Li2CO3, their fluorescence property would gradually increase, at m=0.04 (Ba0.96Al2O4:Eu0.012+,Dy0.033+ṡmLi2CO3) reach their maximum emission intensity, and then decrease; but their phosphorescence property would continue to strengthen whether in brightness and decaying time up to m=0.07, and then decrease.

  17. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  18. DISCOVERY OF RADIO AFTERGLOW FROM THE MOST DISTANT COSMIC EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Poonam; Frail, Dale A.; Fox, Derek; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Harrsion, Fiona; Kasliwal, Mansi; Berger, Edo; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bock, Douglas C.-J.

    2010-03-20

    We report on the discovery of radio afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB 090423, which exploded at a redshift of 8.3, making it the object with the highest known redshift in the universe. By combining our radio measurements with existing X-ray and infrared observations, we estimate the kinetic energy of the afterglow, the geometry of the outflow, and the density of the circumburst medium. Our best-fit model suggests a quasi-spherical, high-energy explosion in a low, constant-density medium. GRB 090423 had a similar energy release to the other well-studied high redshift GRB 050904 (z = 6.26), but their circumburst densities differ by 2 orders of magnitude. We compare the properties of GRB 090423 with a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at moderate redshifts. We find that the high energy and afterglow properties of GRB 090423 are not sufficiently different from other GRBs to suggest a different kind of progenitor, such as a Population III (Pop III) star. However, we argue that it is not clear that the afterglow properties alone can provide convincing identification of Pop III progenitors. We suggest that the millimeter and centimeter radio detections of GRB 090423 at early times contained emission from the reverse shock. If true, this may have important implications for the detection of high-redshift GRBs by the next generation of radio facilities.

  19. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.

  20. Afterglow emission from xenon, krypton, and argon dimers in nanosecond volume discharge at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2006-10-01

    The emission characteristics of plasma of a volume discharge initiated by electron avalanche beams in heavy inert gases at pressures up to 1.5 bar have been studied. It is established that more than 90% of the energy radiated in the wavelength range from 120 to 850 nm is emitted from xenon, krypton, and argon dimers. In the case of excited xenon plasma, an output radiation power of ˜300 kW and an energy of 45 mJ per cubic centimeter were obtained.

  1. Detailed afterglow modelling and host galaxy properties of the dark GRB 111215A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Levan, A. J.; Pooley, G. G.; Wiersema, K.; Krühler, T.; Perley, D. A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Strom, R. G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Xu, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.

    2015-02-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 111215A was bright at X-ray and radio frequencies, but not detected in the optical or near-infrared (nIR) down to deep limits. We have observed the GRB afterglow with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Arcminute Microkelvin Imager at radio frequencies, with the William Herschel Telescope and Nordic Optical Telescope in the nIR/optical, and with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have combined our data with the Swift X-Ray Telescope monitoring, and radio and millimetre observations from the literature to perform broad-band modelling, and determined the macro- and microphysical parameters of the GRB blast wave. By combining the broad-band modelling results with our nIR upper limits we have put constraints on the extinction in the host galaxy. This is consistent with the optical extinction we have derived from the excess X-ray absorption, and higher than in other dark bursts for which similar modelling work has been performed. We also present deep imaging of the host galaxy with the Keck I telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which resulted in a well-constrained photometric redshift, giving credence to the tentative spectroscopic redshift we obtained with the Keck II telescope, and estimates for the stellar mass and star formation rate of the host. Finally, our high-resolution HST images of the host galaxy show that the GRB afterglow position is offset from the brightest regions of the host galaxy, in contrast to studies of optically bright GRBs.

  2. GRB 091208B: FIRST DETECTION OF THE OPTICAL POLARIZATION IN EARLY FORWARD SHOCK EMISSION OF A GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, T.; Chiyonobu, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Komatsu, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Nagae, O.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Tanaka, H.; Yamanaka, M.; Toma, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Mizuno, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Uemura, M.; Inoue, T.; Yamashita, T.; Nakaya, H.; and others

    2012-06-10

    We report that the optical polarization in the afterglow of GRB 091208B is measured at t = 149-706 s after the burst trigger, and the polarization degree is P = 10.4( {+-} 2.5%. The optical light curve at this time shows a power-law decay with index -0.75 {+-} 0.02, which is interpreted as the forward shock synchrotron emission, and thus this is the first detection of the early-time optical polarization in the forward shock (rather than that in the reverse shock reported by Steele et al.). This detection disfavors the afterglow model in which the magnetic fields in the emission region are random on the plasma skin depth scales, such as those amplified by the plasma instabilities, e.g., Weibel instability. We suggest that the fields are amplified by the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, which would be tested by future observations of the temporal changes of the polarization degrees and angles for other bursts.

  3. Implications from the Upper Limit of Radio Afterglow Emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A γ-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observation only placed an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we perform a detailed constraint on the afterglow parameters for the FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 system. We find that for the commonly used microphysics shock parameters (e.g., {ε }e=0.1, {ε }B=0.01, and p = 2.3), if the fast radio burst (FRB) is indeed cosmological as inferred from its measured dispersion measure (DM), the ambient medium number density should be ≤slant {10}-3 {{cm}}-3, which is the typical value for a compact binary merger environment but disfavors a massive star origin. Assuming a typical ISM density, one would require that the redshift of the FRB be much smaller than the value inferred from DM (z\\ll 0.1), implying a non-cosmological origin of DM. The constraints are much looser if one adopts smaller {ε }B and {ε }e values, as observed in some gamma-ray burst afterglows. The FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 association remains plausible. We critically discuss possible progenitor models for the system.

  4. Early GRB Afterglows from Reverse Shocks in Ultra-relativistic, Long-lasting Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Camilo Jaramillo, Juan

    2017-02-01

    We develop a model of early Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows with dominant X-ray contribution from the reverse shock (RS) propagating in highly relativistic (Lorentz factor γw ∼ 106) magnetized wind of a long-lasting central engine. The model reproduces, in a fairly natural way, the overall trends and yet allows for variations in the temporal and spectral evolution of early optical and X-ray afterglows. The high energy and the optical synchrotron emission from the RS particles occurs in the fast cooling regime; the resulting synchrotron power Ls is a large fraction of the wind luminosity, {L}s≈ {L}w/\\sqrt{1+{σ }w} (Lw and σw are wind power and magnetization). Thus, plateaus—parts of afterglow light curves that show slowly decreasing spectral power—are a natural consequence of the RS emission. Contribution from the forward shock (FS) is negligible in the X-rays, but in the optical both FS and RS contribute similarly: FS optical emission is in the slow cooling regime, producing smooth components, while RS optical emission is in the fast cooling regime, and thus can both produce optical plateaus and account for fast optical variability correlated with the X-rays, e.g., due to changes in the wind properties. We discuss how the RS emission in the X-rays and combined FS and RS emission in the optical can explain many puzzling properties of early GRB afterglows.

  5. Polarization Evolution of the Afterglow of GRB 030329

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The association of a supernova with GRB 030329l strongly supports the collapsar model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because of their cosmological distances. Their existence is conjectured based on breaks in GRB afterglow light curves and the theoretical desire to reduce the GRB energy requirements. Temporal evolution of polarization may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization (approx. 1-3%) has been reported for a few bursts, but the temporal evolution of polarization properties could not be established. Here, we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB 030329 with high signal-to-noise and high sampling frequency. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the percent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB 02120618. Our results suggest a different structure and origin of the magnetic field in the prompt vs. afterglow emission regions.

  6. Polarization Evolution of the Afterglow of GRB 030329

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The association of a supernova with GRB 030329l strongly supports the collapsar model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because of their cosmological distances. Their existence is conjectured based on breaks in GRB afterglow light curves and the theoretical desire to reduce the GRB energy requirements. Temporal evolution of polarization may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization (approx. 1-3%) has been reported for a few bursts, but the temporal evolution of polarization properties could not be established. Here, we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB 030329 with high signal-to-noise and high sampling frequency. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the percent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB 02120618. Our results suggest a different structure and origin of the magnetic field in the prompt vs. afterglow emission regions.

  7. GLAST Prospects for Swift-Era Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, L.J.; Meszaros, P.; /Penn State U.

    2011-11-23

    We calculate the GeV spectra of gamma-ray burst afterglows produced by inverse Compton scattering of these objects sub-MeV emission. We improve on earlier treatments by using refined afterglow parameters and new model developments motivated by recent Swift observations. We present time-dependent GeV spectra for standard, constant-parameter models, as well as for models with energy injection and with time-varying parameters, for a range of burst parameters. We evaluate the limiting redshift to which such afterglows can be detected by the GLAST Large Area Telescope, as well as by AGILE.

  8. Observational Signatures of High-Energy Emission during the Shallow Decay Phase of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.; Liu, X. W.; Dai, Z. G.

    2007-12-01

    The widely existing shallow decay phase of the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is generally accepted to be due to long-lasting energy injection. The outflows carrying the injecting energy, based on the component that is dominant in energy, fall into two possible types: baryon-dominated and lepton-dominated ones. The former type of outflow could be ejecta that is ejected during the prompt phase of a GRB and consists of a series of baryonic shells with a distribution of Lorentz factors, and the latter type could be an electron-positron pair wind that is driven by the postburst central engine. We here provide a unified description for the dynamics of fireballs based on these two types of energy injection and calculate the corresponding high-energy photon emission by considering synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering (including synchrotron self-Compton and combined inverse Compton) of electrons. We find that, in the two energy-injection models, there is a plateau (even a hump) in high-energy light curves during the X-ray shallow decay phase. In particular, a considerable fraction of the injecting energy in the lepton-dominated model can be shared by the long-lasting reverse shock since it is relativistic. Furthermore, almost all of the energy of the reverse shock is carried by leptons, and thus, the inverse Compton emission is enhanced dramatically. Therefore, this model predicts more significant high-energy afterglow emission than the baryon-dominated model. We argue that these observational signatures would be used to discriminate between different energy-injection models in the upcoming Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) era.

  9. The late X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Willingale, Richard; O'Brien, Paul T

    2007-05-15

    We have developed a functional fit which can be used to represent the entire temporal decay of the X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The fit delineates and parameterizes well-defined phases for the decay: the prompt emission; an initial steep decay; a shallow plateau phase; and finally, a powerlaw afterglow. For 20% of GRBs, the plateau phase is weak, or not seen, and the initial powerlaw decay becomes the final afterglow.We compare the temporal decay parameters and X-ray spectral indices for 107 GRBs discovered by Swift with the expectations of the standard fireball model including a search for possible jet breaks. For approximately 50% of GRBs, the observed afterglow is in accord with the model, but for the rest the temporal and spectral properties are not as expected. We identify a few possible jet breaks, but there are many examples where such breaks are predicted but are absent. We also find that the start time of the final afterglow decay, Ta, is associated with the peak of the prompt gamma-ray emission spectrum, Epeak, just as optical jet-break times, tj, are associated with Epeak in the Ghirlanda relation.

  10. ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF LATE INTERNAL DISSIPATION FOR SHALLOW-DECAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION AND ASSOCIATED HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SIGNALS

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-05-10

    The origin of the shallow-decay emission during early X-ray afterglows has been an open issue since the launch of the Swift satellite. One of the appealing models is the late internal dissipation model, where X-ray emission during the shallow-decay phase is attributed to internal dissipation, analogous to the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss possible scenarios of the late prompt emission, such as late internal shocks, magnetic reconnection, and photospheric dissipation. We also consider the consequences of late dissipation and a two-component (early and late) jet model for the high-energy (GeV-TeV) emission. We study not only synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the early and late jets but also external inverse-Compton (EIC) emission, which is naturally predicted in the late dissipation model. For the latter, we perform numerical calculations taking into account the equal-arrival-time surface of EIC photons and show that the EIC component typically has a peak at {approx}1-100 GeV which may dominate over the SSC components. We demonstrate that very high energy gamma rays from both these components are detectable for nearby and/or energetic gamma-ray bursts, with current and future Cherenkov detectors such as MAGIC, VERITAS, CTA, and HAWC, and possibly Fermi. Although the expected event rate would not be large, detections should be useful as a test of the model. Multi-wavelength observations using both the ground-based telescopes and the Swift and/or Fermi satellites are also important to constrain the models.

  11. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  12. Central engine afterglow of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi; Wei, Da-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Before 2004, nearly all GRB afterglow data could be understood in the context of the external shocks model. This situation has changed in the past two years, when it became clear that some afterglow components should be attributed to the activity of the central engine; i.e., the central engine afterglow. We review here the afterglow emission that is directly related to the GRB central engine. Such an interpretation proposed by Katz, Piran & Sari, peculiar in pre-Swift era, has become generally accepted now.

  13. Observation on long afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Haoyi; Hu, Yihua; Kang, Fengwen; Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ju, Guifang; Mu, Zhongfei

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} is observed in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. The main emission of the afterglow is ascribed to the {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 6}. Emission due to {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} is weak. The cross-relaxation dominate the afterglow emission and it enhances the transition from {sup 5}D{sub 4} whereas from {sup 5}D{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A green long afterglow is observed from Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two traps which may have a strong influence on the afterglow properties are revealed by TL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism model based on energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} followed by cross-relaxation is proposed. -- Abstract: The Tb{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphors are synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that small amount of Tb{sup 3+} does not have a significant influence on the structure of CaWO{sub 4}. A broad absorption band of the WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group is observed from photoluminescence and the energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} ions induces the f-f transition. The cross-relaxation between two adjacent Tb{sup 3+} ions weakens {sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions and enhances the {sup 5}D{sub 4}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions, leading to a green long afterglow of the phosphors. The thermoluminescence curves centered around 75 Degree-Sign C reveal the trap depth for afterglow generation is about 0.74-0.77 eV. The optimum Tb{sup 3+} concentration for afterglow properties is about 1%. A deep hole trap is induced when Tb{sup 3+} concentration exceeds 1% and it suppresses the thermoluminescence and the decay properties.

  14. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the physics of Gamma Ray Bursts probed through their radio afterglow emission. Even though radio band is the least explored of the afterglow spectrum, it has played an important role in the progress of GRB physics, specifically in confirming the hypothesized relativistic effects. Currently radio astronomy is in the beginning of a revolution. The high sensitive Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is being planned, its precursors and pathfinders are about to be operational, and several existing instruments are undergoing upgradation. Thus, the afterglow results from detection statistics and follow up programs are expected to improve in the coming years. We list a few avenues unique to radio band which if explored to full potential have the promise to greatly contribute to the future of GRB physics.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. • Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550–700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  16. Multiwavelength detectability of Pop III GRBs from afterglow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, D.; Coward, D.

    2017-05-01

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from Population III (Pop III) stars could reveal the formation history and properties of these first generation stars. Through detailed simulation, we predict the prospects of detecting these afterglows with a range of established, existing and upcoming telescopes across the spectrum from radio waves to X-rays. The simulations show that the afterglow light curves of Pop III GRBs at high redshift (≳8) are very similar to those of Pop I/II GRBs at lower redshift (˜2), with the distinction that Lyα absorption at Pop III redshifts removes any optical [and some near-infrared (NIR)] component. We calculate that within a single field of view (FOV) of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope there will be on average four detectable Pop III GRB afterglows. This is the product of ASKAP's large FOV and excellent sensitivity at wavelengths where the afterglows are very long-lasting. We show that the exceptional sensitivity of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near-InfraRed Camera will make this the optimal instrument for afterglow follow-up and redshift measurement, while JWST Near-InfraRed Spectrograph will be able to detect the absorption features of Pop III-enriched environments in 70 per cent of directed Pop III GRB afterglows. We also find that the Atacama Large Millimetre Array is very poorly suited to observe these afterglows, and that the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma 4 yr all-sky X-ray survey has a 12 per cent chance of detecting an orphan Pop III GRB afterglow. The optimal strategy for detecting, identifying and studying Pop III GRB afterglows is to have JWST attempt NIR photometry of afterglows with a detected radio component but no detected optical component.

  17. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  18. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  19. Afterglow model for the radio emission from the jetted tidal disruption candidate Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Giannios, Dimitrios; Mimica, Petar

    2012-03-01

    The recent transient event Swift J1644+57 has been interpreted as emission from a collimated relativistic jet, powered by the sudden onset of accretion on to a supermassive black hole following the tidal disruption of a star. Here we model the radio-microwave emission as synchrotron radiation produced by the shock interaction between the jet and the gaseous circumnuclear medium (CNM). At early times after the onset of the jet (t≲ 5-10 d) a reverse shock propagates through and decelerates the ejecta, while at later times the outflow approaches the Blandford-McKee self-similar evolution (possibly modified by additional late energy injection). The achromatic break in the radio light curve of Swift J1644+57 is naturally explained as the transition between these phases. We show that the temporal indices of the pre- and post-break light curve are consistent with those predicted if the CNM has a wind-type radial density profile n∝r-2. The observed synchrotron frequencies and self-absorbed flux constrain the fraction of the post-shock thermal energy in relativistic electrons ɛe≈ 0.03-0.1, the CNM density at 1018 cm n18≈ 1-10 cm-3 and the initial Lorentz factor Γj≈ 10-20 and opening angle ? of the jet. Radio modelling thus provides robust independent evidence for a narrowly collimated outflow. Extending our model to the future evolution of Swift J1644+57, we predict that the radio flux at low frequencies (ν≲ few GHz) will begin to brighten more rapidly once the characteristic frequency νm crosses below the radio band after it decreases below the self-absorption frequency on a time-scale of months (indeed, such a transition may already have begun). Our results demonstrate that relativistic outflows from tidal disruption events provide a unique probe of the conditions in distant, previously inactive galactic nuclei, complementing studies of normal active galactic nuclei.

  20. Nonlinear Particle Acceleration and Thermal Particles in GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Donald C.; Ellison, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2017-02-01

    The standard model for GRB afterglow emission treats the accelerated electron population as a simple power law, N(E)\\propto {E}-p for p≳ 2. However, in standard Fermi shock acceleration, a substantial fraction of the swept-up particles do not enter the acceleration process at all. Additionally, if acceleration is efficient, then the nonlinear back-reaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure modifies the shape of the nonthermal tail of the particle spectra. Both of these modifications to the standard synchrotron afterglow impact the luminosity, spectra, and temporal variation of the afterglow. To examine the effects of including thermal particles and nonlinear particle acceleration on afterglow emission, we follow a hydrodynamical model for an afterglow jet and simulate acceleration at numerous points during the evolution. When thermal particles are included, we find that the electron population is at no time well fitted by a single power law, though the highest-energy electrons are; if the acceleration is efficient, then the power-law region is even smaller. Our model predicts hard–soft–hard spectral evolution at X-ray energies, as well as an uncoupled X-ray and optical light curve. Additionally, we show that including emission from thermal particles has drastic effects (increases by factors of 100 and 30, respectively) on the observed flux at optical and GeV energies. This enhancement of GeV emission makes afterglow detections by future γ-ray observatories, such as CTA, very likely.

  1. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-09-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array.

  2. Comparison of Three Afterglow Morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D; Rossi, E; Lazzati, D

    2003-12-23

    Herein we compare three functional families for afterglow morphologies: the homogeneous afterglow with constant shock surface energy density, the structured afterglow for which the energy density decays as a power-law as a function of viewer angle, and the gaussian afterglow which has an exponential decay of energy density with viewer angle. We simulate observed lightcurves and polarization curves for each as seen from a variety of observer vantage points. We find that the homogeneous jet is likely inconsistent with observations and suggest that the future debate on the structure of afterglow jets will be between the other two candidates.

  3. FERMI AND SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW POPULATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Racusin, J. L.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.; Sakamoto, T.; Troja, E.; Vasileiou, V.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; Koch, S.; Roming, P.; Swenson, C.; Piran, T.; Wanderman, D.; Virgili, F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-10

    The new and extreme population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows several new features in high-energy gamma rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last six years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT-detected GRBs and the well-studied, fainter, and less energetic GRBs detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  4. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith I.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  5. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; de Pasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multiwavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  6. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  7. Methodology in the Afterglow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofsess, Brooke Anne

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation study seeks to understand how artist-teacher renewal may be nurtured through aesthetic experiential play in a Masters of Art Education degree program, and beyond, as my former students/participants and myself experience finding ourselves in its afterglow. "Aesthetic experiential play" could be described as a playful,…

  8. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  9. Dust extinctions for an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, S.; Melandri, A.; Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gomboc, A.; Jin, Z. P.; Krühler, T.; Malesani, D.; Nava, L.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we compute rest-frame extinctions for the afterglows of a sample of Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) complete in redshift. The selection criteria of the sample are based on observational high-energy parameters of the prompt emission and therefore our sample should not be biased against dusty sight-lines. It is therefore expected that our inferences hold for the general population of GRBs. Our main result is that the optical/near-infrared extinction of GRB afterglows in our sample does not follow a single distribution. 87 per cent of the events are absorbed by less than 2 mag, and 50 per cent suffer from less than 0.3-0.4 mag extinction. The remaining 13 per cent of the afterglows are highly absorbed. The true percentage of GRB afterglows showing high absorption could be even higher since a fair fraction of the events without reliable redshift measurement are probably part of this class. These events may be due to highly dusty molecular clouds/star-forming regions associated with the GRB progenitor or along the afterglow line of sight, and/or due to massive dusty host galaxies. No clear evolution in the dust extinction properties is evident within the redshift range of our sample, although the largest extinctions are at z ˜ 1.5-2, close to the expected peak of the star formation rate. Those events classified as dark are characterized, on average, by a higher extinction than typical events in the sample. A correlation between optical/near-infrared extinction and hydrogen-equivalent column density based on X-ray studies is shown, although the observed NH appears to be well in excess compared to those observed in the Local Group. Dust extinction does not seem to correlate with GRB energetics or luminosity.

  10. Molecular chemiluminescence from Mercury halides excited in an atmospheric-pressure active-nitrogen afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.W.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    It is demonstrated that an atmospheric-pressure, active-nitrogen (APAN) afterglow can be used as an excitation source for HgCl/sub 2/, HgBr/sub 2/, and HgI/sub 2/ introduced into the afterglow. The emission spectra obtained upon the introductiion of HgCl/sub 2/, HgBr/sub 2/, and HgI/sub 2/ vapors into the APAN afterglow are presented. (AIP)

  11. MAGIC observation of the GRB 080430 afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Los Reyes, R.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, M.; de Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; de Ugarte-Postigo, A.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2010-07-01

    Context. Gamma-ray bursts are cosmological sources emitting radiation from the gamma-rays to the radio band. Substantial observational efforts have been devoted to the study of gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase, i.e. the initial burst of high-energy radiation, and during the long-lasting afterglows. In spite of many successes in interpreting these phenomena, there are still several open key questions about the fundamental emission processes, their energetics and the environment. Aims: Independently of specific gamma-ray burst theoretical recipes, spectra in the GeV/TeV range are predicted to be remarkably simple, being satisfactorily modeled with power-laws, and therefore offer a very valuable tool to probe the extragalactic background light distribution. Furthermore, the simple detection of a component at very-high energies, i.e. at ~100 GeV, would solve the ambiguity about the importance of various possible emission processes, which provide barely distinguishable scenarios at lower energies. Methods: We used the results of the MAGIC telescope observation of the moderate resdhift (z ~ 0.76) GRB 080430 at energies above about 80 GeV, to evaluate the perspective for late-afterglow observations with ground based GeV/TeV telescopes. Results: We obtained an upper limit of F95% CL = 5.5 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 for the very-high energy emission of GRB 080430, which cannot set further constraints on the theoretical scenarios proposed for this object also due to the difficulties in modeling the low-energy afterglow. Nonetheless, our observations show that Cherenkov telescopes have already reached the required sensitivity to detect the GeV/TeV emission of GRBs at moderate redshift (z ≲ 0.8), provided the observations are carried out at early times, close to the onset of their afterglow phase.

  12. Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-15

    The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

  13. Spectral Energy Distributions and Light Curves of GRB 990123 and its Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Band, D.; VanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Preece, R. D.; Bremer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of the 'fireball' model currently believed to explain the prompt gamma-ray and afterglow emissions of gamma-ray bursts. On January 23 a gamma-ray burst (GRB) occurred for which for the first time prompt optical emission was detected. We here report the results of gamma-ray, optical/infrared, sub-mm, mm and radio observations of this burst and its afterglow, which indicate that the prompt and afterglow emissions from GRB 990123 are associated with three distinct regions in the fireball. The afterglow synchrotron spectrum one day after the burst has a much lower peak frequency than those of previous bursts; this explains the short-lived nature of the radio emission, which is not expected to reappear. We suggest that such differences reflect variations in the magnetic-field strengths in the afterglow emitting regions.

  14. Spectral Energy Distributions and Light Curves of GRB 990123 and its Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Band, D.; VanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Preece, R. D.; Bremer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of the 'fireball' model currently believed to explain the prompt gamma-ray and afterglow emissions of gamma-ray bursts. On January 23 a gamma-ray burst (GRB) occurred for which for the first time prompt optical emission was detected. We here report the results of gamma-ray, optical/infrared, sub-mm, mm and radio observations of this burst and its afterglow, which indicate that the prompt and afterglow emissions from GRB 990123 are associated with three distinct regions in the fireball. The afterglow synchrotron spectrum one day after the burst has a much lower peak frequency than those of previous bursts; this explains the short-lived nature of the radio emission, which is not expected to reappear. We suggest that such differences reflect variations in the magnetic-field strengths in the afterglow emitting regions.

  15. Gamma ray burst outflows and afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsony, Brian J.

    2008-08-01

    We carry out a theoretical investigation of jet propagation in Gamma Ray Bursts and examine the jitter radiation mechanism as a means of producing prompt and afterglow emission. We study the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in collapsars and examine the effects of viewing angle on the subsequent gamma ray bursts. Our simulations allow us to single out three phases in the jet evolution: a precursor phase in which relativistic material turbulently shed from the head of the jet first emerges from the star; a shocked jet phase where a fully shocked jet of material is emerging; and an unshocked jet phase where the jet consists of a free-streaming, unshocked core surrounded by a thin boundary layer of shocked jet material. We also carry out a series of simulations with central engines that vary on long time periods comparable to the breakout time of the jet, on short time periods (0.1s) much less than the breakout time, and finally that decay as a power law at late times. We conclude that rapid variability seen in prompt GRB emission, as well as shallow decays and flares seen in the X-ray afterglow, can be caused by central engine variability. Finally, we present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock- generated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that jitter and synchrotron afterglows can be distinguished from each other with good quality observations. However, it is unlikely that the difference can explain the peculiar behavior of several recent observations, such as flat X-ray slopes and uncorrelated optical and X-ray behavior.

  16. Testing an unifying view of Gamma Ray Burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2011-04-01

    Four years after the launch the Swift satellite the nature of the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) broadband afterglow behaviour is still an open issue. The standard external shock fireball model cannot easily explain the combined temporal and spectral properties of optical to X-ray afterglows. We analysed the rest frame de-absorbed and K-corrected optical and X-ray light curves of a sample of 33 GRBs with known redshift and optical extinction at the host frame. We modelled their broadband behaviour as the sum of the standard forward shock emission due to the interaction of a fireball with the circum-burst medium and an additional component. This description provides a good agreement with the observed light curves despite their complexity and diversity and can also account for the lack of achromatic late times jet breaks and the presence of chromatic breaks in several GRBs lightcurves. In order to test the predictions of such modelling we analysed the X-ray time resolved spectra searching for possible spectral breaks within the observed XRT energy band, finding seven GRBs showing such a break. The optical to X-ray SED evolution of these GRBs are consistent with what expected by our interpretation.

  17. The Onset of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Zhang, Bing

    2007-02-01

    We discuss the reference time t0 of afterglow light curves in the context of the standard internal-external shock model. The decay index of early afterglow is very sensitive to the reference time one chooses. In order to understand the nature of early afterglow, it is essential to take a correct reference time. Our simple analytic model provides a framework for understanding special relativistic effects involved in early afterglow phase. We evaluate light curves of reverse shock emission as well as those of forward shock emission, based on full hydrodynamic calculations. We show that the reference time does not shift significantly even in the thick-shell case. For external shock emission components, measuring times from the beginning of the prompt emission is a good approximation and it does not cause an early steep decay. In the thin-shell case, the energy transfer time from fireball ejecta to ambient medium typically extends to thousands of seconds. This might be related to the shallow decay phases observed in early X-ray afterglow at least for some bursts.

  18. Seven-year Collection of Well-monitored Fermi -LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    DOE PAGES

    Panaitescu, Alin-Daniel

    2017-02-27

    Here we present the light curves and spectra of 24 afterglows that have been monitored by Fermi-LAT at 0.1–100 GeV over more than a decade. All light curves (except 130427) are consistent with a single power law starting from their peaks, which occur in most cases before the burst end. The light curves display a brightness–decay rate correlation, with all but one (130427) of the bright afterglows decaying faster than the dimmer afterglows. We attribute this dichotomy to the quick deposition of relativistic ejecta energy in the external shock for the brighter/faster-decaying afterglows and to an extended energy injection inmore » the afterglow shock for the dimmer/slower-decaying light curves. The spectra of six afterglows (090328, 100414, 110721, 110731, 130427, 140619B) indicate the existence of a harder component above a spectral dip or ankle at energies of 0.3–3 GeV, offering evidence for inverse-Compton emission at higher energies and suggesting that the harder power-law spectra of five other LAT afterglows (130327B, 131231, 150523, 150627, 160509) could also be inverse-Compton, while the remaining, softer LAT afterglows should be synchrotron emission. Finally, marginal evidence for a spectral break and softening at higher energies is found for two afterglows (090902B and 090926).« less

  19. Afterglow Study of ZnS:Cu,Co Water-soluble Nanoparticles and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2011-03-01

    ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow particles with average size of 4 nm have been prepared by using simple wet chemistry method. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the nanoparticles shows a cubic zinc blende structure as the synthesis temperature is low comparing with solid state reactions. The nanoparticles have two photoluminescence emission peaks. The blue emission is from sulfur defects (vacancies), while the green emission is from Cu 2+ luminescent center which also contributes to the particle's afterglow. The presence of co-dopant Co 2+ is critical to perform the afterglow of these nanoparticles. The afterglow intensity and decay vary on different Cu 2+ and Co 2+ doping levels. Further conjugation of ZnS:Cu,Co nanoparticles and photosensitizers presents a new method for deep cancer treatment in photodynamic therapy. The successful afterglow observation from water-soluble nanoparticles may find many new applications in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  20. Study of argon-oxygen flowing afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon-oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon-oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  1. Chameleon induced atomic afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare

    2010-11-01

    The chameleon is a scalar field whose mass depends on the density of its environment. Chameleons are necessarily coupled to matter particles and will excite transitions between atomic energy levels in an analogous manner to photons. When created inside an optical cavity by passing a laser beam through a constant magnetic field, chameleons are trapped between the cavity walls and form a standing wave. This effect will lead to an afterglow phenomenon even when the laser beam and the magnetic field have been turned off, and could be used to probe the interactions of the chameleon field with matter.

  2. The Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Modeling Project: Foundational Statistics and Absorption & Extinction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, Adam Somers

    The Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) Afterglow Modeling Project (AMP) will model, in a statistically sound and self-consistent way, every GRB afterglow observed since the first detection in 1997, using all available radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray data. The result will be a catalog of fitted empirical model parameters describing the intrinsic afterglow emission, and extinction due to dust and absorption due to gas along the line of sight to the GRB. This ever-growing catalog of fitted model parameters will allow us to infer the astrophysical properties of GRBs and their environments, and to explore their variety and evolution over the history of the universe. First, I present a new, broadly applicable statistical technique, the TRF statistic, for fitting model distributions to data in two dimensions, where the data have intrinsic uncertainties in both dimensions, and extrinsic scatter in both dimensions that is greater than can be accounted for by the intrinsic uncertainties alone. I demonstrate the properties of the TRF statistic, which is invertible but not scalable, and present an algorithm for obtaining an optimum scale for fits to a given data set. I then apply the TRF statistic to observations of interstellar extinction of stars along various Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud lines of sight, and to observations of Lyalpha forest flux deficits in quasars, to construct a comprehensive empirical model for extinction due to interstellar dust in the source frame and in the Milky Way, and absorption due to gas in the source frame and in the intergalactic medium. Combined with theoretical models of synchrotron emission from GRB jets, the resulting parameterization provides a framework for modeling the observed emission from most GRB afterglows. Furthermore, the extinction and absorption models are broadly applicable, in that they may be used to model observations of any extragalactic point source of radiation. Finally, I describe the results of model fitting to

  3. X-ray flares in early GRB afterglows.

    PubMed

    Burrows, D N; Falcone, A; Chincarini, G; Morris, D; Romano, P; Hill, J E; Godet, O; Moretti, A; Krimm, H; Osborne, J P; Racusin, J; Mangano, V; Page, K; Perri, M; Stroh, M

    2007-05-15

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) has discovered that flares are quite common in early X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), being observed in roughly 50% of afterglows with prompt follow-up observations. The flares range in fluence from a few per cent to approximately 100% of the fluence of the prompt emission (the GRB). Repetitive flares are seen, with more than four successive flares detected by the XRT in some afterglows. The rise and fall times of the flares are typically considerably smaller than the time since the burst. These characteristics suggest that the flares are related to the prompt emission mechanism, but at lower photon energies. We conclude that the most likely cause of these flares is late-time activity of the GRB central engine.

  4. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich GRBs Observed by Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Cummings, J.; Krimm, H.; Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Barbier, L.; Fenimore, E.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Sato, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and discuss the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2005 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) and conventional classical gamma-ray bursts (C-GRBs)observed during the same period. We confirm the correlation between Epeak and fluence noted by others and find further evidence that XRFs and C-GRBs form a continuum. We also confirmed that our known redshift samples are consistent with the correlation between the peak energy (Epeak) and the isotropic radiated energy (Eiso), so called the Epeak-Eiso relation. The spectral properties of X-ray afterglows are similar to those of gamma-ray burst afterglows, but the temporal properties of the two classes are quite different. We found that the light curves of C-GRBs afterglow show a break to steeper indices (shallow-to-steep break) at much earlier times than do XRF afterglows. Moreover, the overall luminosity of X-ray afterglows of XRFs are systematically smaller by a factor of two or more compared with that of C-GRBs. These distinct differences in the X-ray afterglow between XRFs and C-GRBs are key to understanding not only a mysterious shallow-to-steep phase in the X-ray afterglow but also the unique nature of XRFs.

  5. POPULATION III GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS: CONSTRAINTS ON STELLAR MASSES AND EXTERNAL MEDIUM DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter; Sakamoto, Takanori E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu

    2011-04-20

    Population (Pop.) III stars are theoretically expected to be prominent around redshifts z {approx} 20, consisting of mainly very massive stars with M{sub *} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun}, though there is no direct observational evidence for these objects. They may produce collapsar gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with jets driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes, whose total isotropic-equivalent energy could be as high as E{sub iso} {approx}> 10{sup 57} erg over a cosmological-rest-frame duration of t{sub d} {approx}> 10{sup 4} s, depending on the progenitor mass. Here, we calculate the afterglow spectra of such Pop. III GRBs based on the standard external shock model and show that they will be detectable with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)/XRT and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments. We find that in some cases a spectral break due to electron-positron pair creation will be observable in the LAT energy range, which can put constraints on the ambient density of the pre-collapse Pop. III star. Thus, high-redshift GRB afterglow observations could be unique and powerful probes of the properties of Pop. III stars and their environments. We examine the trigger threshold of the BAT instrument in detail, focusing on the image trigger system, and show that the prompt emission of Pop. III GRBs could also be detected by BAT. Finally we briefly show that the late-time radio afterglows of Pop. III GRBs for typical parameters, despite the large distances, can be very bright: {approx_equal} 140 mJy at 1 GHz, which may lead to a constraint on the Pop. III GRB rate from the current radio survey data, and {approx_equal} 2.4 mJy at 70 MHz, which implies that Pop. III GRB radio afterglows could be interesting background source candidates for 21 cm absorption line detections.

  6. PAHFIT: Properties of PAH Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.; Draine, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    PAHFIT is an IDL tool for decomposing Spitzer IRS spectra of PAH emission sources, with a special emphasis on the careful recovery of ambiguous silicate absorption, and weak, blended dust emission features. PAHFIT is primarily designed for use with full 5-35 micron Spitzer low-resolution IRS spectra. PAHFIT is a flexible tool for fitting spectra, and you can add or disable features, compute combined flux bands, change fitting limits, etc., without changing the code. PAHFIT uses a simple, physically-motivated model, consisting of starlight, thermal dust continuum in a small number of fixed temperature bins, resolved dust features and feature blends, prominent emission lines (which themselves can be blended with dust features), as well as simple fully-mixed or screen dust extinction, dominated by the silicate absorption bands at 9.7 and 18 microns. Most model components are held fixed or are tightly constrained. PAHFIT uses Drude profiles to recover the full strength of dust emission features and blends, including the significant power in the wings of the broad emission profiles. This means the resulting feature strengths are larger (by factors of 2-4) than are recovered by methods which estimate the underlying continuum using line segments or spline curves fit through fiducial wavelength anchors.

  7. GRB 090902B: AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C.; McKay, T. A.; Swenson, C. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kleiser, I. K. W.; Guidorzi, C.; Wiersema, K.; Malesani, D.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Kobayashi, S.; Melandri, A.; Mottram, C. J.; Gomboc, A.; Ilyin, I.; Jakobsson, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levan, A. J.

    2010-05-01

    The optical-infrared afterglow of the Large Area Telescope (LAT)-detected long-duration burst, GRB 090902B, has been observed by several instruments. The earliest detection by ROTSE-IIIa occurred 80 minutes after detection by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, revealing a bright afterglow and a decay slope suggestive of a reverse shock origin. Subsequent optical-IR observations followed the light curve for 6.5 days. The temporal and spectral behavior at optical-infrared frequencies is consistent with synchrotron fireball model predictions; the cooling break lies between optical and XRT frequencies {approx}1.9 days after the burst. The inferred electron energy index is p = 1.8 {+-} 0.2, which would however imply an X-ray decay slope flatter than observed. The XRT and LAT data have similar spectral indices and the observed steeper value of the LAT temporal index is marginally consistent with the predicted temporal decay in the radiative regime of the forward shock model. Absence of a jet break during the first 6 days implies a collimation-corrected {gamma}-ray energy E{sub {gamma}} > 2.2 x 10{sup 52} erg, one of the highest ever seen in a long-duration gamma-ray bursts. More events combining GeV photon emission with multiwavelength observations will be required to constrain the nature of the central engine powering these energetic explosions and to explore the correlations between energetic quanta and afterglow emission.

  8. ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles: synthesis, luminescence and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2010-09-24

    Cu(2+) and Co(2+) co-doped zinc sulfide water-soluble nanoparticles (ZnS:Cu,Co) were prepared and their afterglow luminescence was observed and reported for the first time. The nanoparticles have a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 4 nm as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In the photoluminescence, two emission peaks are observed at 470 and 510 nm. However, in the afterglow, only one peak is observed at around 525 nm. The blue emission at 470 nm is from surface states and the green emission at 525 nm is from Cu(2+). This means that Cu(2+) is responsible for the afterglow from the nanoparticles, while the co-doping of Co(2+) is critical for the afterglow because no afterglow could be seen without co-doping with Co(2+). The successful observation of the afterglow from water-soluble nanoparticles may open up new applications of afterglow phosphors in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  9. ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles: synthesis, luminescence and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Cu2 + and Co2 + co-doped zinc sulfide water-soluble nanoparticles (ZnS:Cu,Co) were prepared and their afterglow luminescence was observed and reported for the first time. The nanoparticles have a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 4 nm as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In the photoluminescence, two emission peaks are observed at 470 and 510 nm. However, in the afterglow, only one peak is observed at around 525 nm. The blue emission at 470 nm is from surface states and the green emission at 525 nm is from Cu2 + . This means that Cu2 + is responsible for the afterglow from the nanoparticles, while the co-doping of Co2 + is critical for the afterglow because no afterglow could be seen without co-doping with Co2 + . The successful observation of the afterglow from water-soluble nanoparticles may open up new applications of afterglow phosphors in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  10. CALORIMETRY OF GRB 030329: SIMULTANEOUS MODEL FITTING TO THE BROADBAND RADIO AFTERGLOW AND THE OBSERVED IMAGE EXPANSION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Mesler, Robert A.; Pihlstroem, Ylva M.

    2013-09-01

    We perform calorimetry on the bright gamma-ray burst GRB 030329 by fitting simultaneously the broadband radio afterglow and the observed afterglow image size to a semi-analytic MHD and afterglow emission model. Our semi-analytic method is valid in both the relativistic and non-relativistic regimes, and incorporates a model of the interstellar scintillation that substantially effects the broadband afterglow below 10 GHz. The model is fitted to archival measurements of the afterglow flux from 1 day to 8.3 yr after the burst. Values for the initial burst parameters are determined and the nature of the circumburst medium is explored. Additionally, direct measurements of the lateral expansion rate of the radio afterglow image size allow us to estimate the initial Lorentz factor of the jet.

  11. Seven-year Collection of Well-monitored Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the light curves and spectra of 24 afterglows that have been monitored by Fermi-LAT at 0.1–100 GeV over more than a decade. All light curves (except 130427) are consistent with a single power law starting from their peaks, which occur in most cases before the burst end. The light curves display a brightness–decay rate correlation, with all but one (130427) of the bright afterglows decaying faster than the dimmer afterglows. We attribute this dichotomy to the quick deposition of relativistic ejecta energy in the external shock for the brighter/faster-decaying afterglows and to an extended energy injection in the afterglow shock for the dimmer/slower-decaying light curves. The spectra of six afterglows (090328, 100414, 110721, 110731, 130427, 140619B) indicate the existence of a harder component above a spectral dip or ankle at energies of 0.3–3 GeV, offering evidence for inverse-Compton emission at higher energies and suggesting that the harder power-law spectra of five other LAT afterglows (130327B, 131231, 150523, 150627, 160509) could also be inverse-Compton, while the remaining, softer LAT afterglows should be synchrotron emission. Marginal evidence for a spectral break and softening at higher energies is found for two afterglows (090902B and 090926).

  12. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2008-01-01

    The 'Supercritical Pile' is a very economical gamma ray burst (GRB) model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at an energy sim 1 MeV. We extend this model to include also the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow the spectral and temporal features of this model into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have begun to explore. In particular, one can this way obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the nu F spectra. Furthermore, the existence of a kinematic threshold in this model provides for a operational distinction of the prompt and afterglow GRB stages; in fact, the afterglow stage sets in when the RBW Lorentz factor cannot anymore fulfill the kinematic condition for pair formation in the photon - proton pair production reactions that constitute the fundamental process for the dissipation of the blast wave kinetic energy. We present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  13. Optical and X-Ray Afterglows in the Cannonball Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rújula, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Cannonball Model is based on the hypothesis that GRBs and their afterglows are made in supernova explosions by relativistic ejecta similar to the ones observed in quasars and microquasars. Its predictions are simple, and analytical in fair approximations. The model describes well the properties of the γ-rays of GRBs. It gives a very simple and extremely successful description of the optical and X-ray afterglows of all GRBs of known redshift. The only problem the model has, so far, is that it is contrary to staunch orthodox beliefs.

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Afterglows: a Multi-Wavelength Study in the Swift Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are generally followed by long-lasting low-frequency afterglow emission, are short and intense pulses of gamma-rays observed from the sky in arbitrary directions. In order to observe the multi-wavelength emission at the early afterglow phase and even the prompt emission phase, NASA launched the Swift satellite on Nov. 20th 2004. Swift can localize GRBs within about 10 seconds. A brief review on the recent progress in observations and theories in the Swift era is given in Chapter 1. This paper focuses on the features of the early afterglows and the multi-wavelength prompt emission. In Chapters 2 and 3, we try to explain the shallow-decaying X-ray afterglows and X-ray flares, both of which are unaccountable in the standard afterglow model. (1) It is widely accepted that the shallow decay phase indicates a continuous energy injection into the GRB blast wave, and this energy could be released from the central engine after the burst. Based on the knowledge of the evolution of a pulsar wind, we argue that the injected flow interacting with the GRB blast wave is an ultra-relativistic kinetic-energy flow (i.e., wind) rather than pure electromagnetic waves. Therefore, a relativistic wind bubble (RWB) including a pair of shocks will be formed. Our numerical calculations and the fitting results show that the emission from an RWB can well account for the X-ray shallow decay phase. (2) For the X-ray flares that are attributed to some intermediate late activities of the central engine, we analyze the detailed dynamics of late internal shocks which directly produce the flare emission. Comparing the theoretical results with the lower limits of the observational luminosities and the profiles of the flare light curves, we find some constraints on the properties of the pre-collision shells, which are directly determined by the central object. In Chapter 4, we investigate the high-energy afterglow emission during the shallow decay phase in two models, i

  15. The Nature of the Most Extreme Cosmic Explosions: Broadband Studies of Fermi LAT GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Lauren; Troja, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the five years since its launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has revealed a population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that are among the most energetic explosions ever observed. While typical GRB afterglows are observed from radio to X-rays, afterglows of Fermi LAT GRBs are detected up to GeV energies, challenging our understanding of GRB emission mechanisms and central engines. There are now a significant number of LAT-detected GRBs with multi-wavelength afterglow data and measured redshifts that allow us to investigate potential correlations between this high-energy (> 100 MeV) emission and the afterglow parameters and determine if any particular conditions (e.g., weak magnetic field or low density medium) must be met by the progenitor system in order to generate the bright GeV emission. We developed an afterglow fitting code to model and fit the broadband afterglow data in counts space, allowing us to directly test the model predictions on the observed data. The uncertainties in our results were derived using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. Here we present the preliminary results of our study of the population of Fermi LAT-detected GRBs.

  16. The local dissociation phenomenon in a nitrogen afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levaton, J.; Amorim, J.; Ricard, A.

    2012-12-01

    We used the optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic to study the nitrogen afterglow of a pure N2 flowing dc discharge operating under particular experimental conditions to facilitate the simultaneous occurrence of the pink afterglow (PA) and the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow. The PA is a special kind of nitrogen plasma occurring outside the direct influence of an external electric field. The phenomenon results from the flux of energy, introduced in the nitrogen molecules by the electrons in the discharge region, from the lower to the higher N_{2}(X\\,^1\\Sigma _g^+ ) vibrational levels due to vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) exchange reactions. We studied the following set of experimental conditions: discharge electric current (I = 15-50 mA), gas pressure (p = 200-1070 Pa) and gas flow rate (Q = 400-1000 sccm). The emissions of the first positive system of the nitrogen molecules were monitored from the end of the discharge down to the end of the post-discharge tube. A kinetic numerical model developed to investigate the nitrogen afterglow generated a calibrating factor for the 580.4 nm band in such a way that the relative density of the N(4S) atoms could be measured along the afterglow. The experimental results indicated that N(4S) atoms are created locally in the afterglow producing atomic density profiles that follow the behaviour of the other species studied experimentally in the PA, such as N_{2}(A\\,^3\\Sigma _u^+ ) , N2(B 3Πg), N2(C 3Πu), N_2^+ (X\\,^2\\Sigma _g^+ ) , N_2^+ (B\\,^2\\Sigma _u^+ ) , N+, N_3^+ , N_4^+ , N(2D) and N(2P). The numerical model was also used to fit the N2(B 3Πg), N_2^+ (B\\,^2\\Sigma _u^+ ) and the N(4S) experimental density profiles and to evaluate the participation of several kinetic pathways capable of producing local dissociation in the N2 afterglow. It was found that the dominant dissociation channel in the PA is the reaction N_2 (a'\\,^1\\Sigma _u^- )+N_2 (X\\,^1\\Sigma _g^+ ,v>4)\\to N(^4S)+N(^4

  17. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  18. GEMINI SPECTROSCOPY OF THE SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130603B AFTERGLOW AND HOST GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Cucchiara, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Cardwell, A.; Turner, J.; Bloom, J. S.; Cobb, B. E.

    2013-11-10

    We present early optical photometry and spectroscopy of the afterglow and host galaxy of the bright short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B discovered by the Swift satellite. Using our Target of Opportunity program on the Gemini South telescope, our prompt optical spectra reveal a strong trace from the afterglow superimposed on continuum and emission lines from the z = 0.3568 ± 0.0005 host galaxy. The combination of a relatively bright optical afterglow (r' = 21.52 at Δt = 8.4 hr), together with an observed offset of 0.''9 from the host nucleus (4.8 kpc projected distance at z = 0.3568), allow us to extract a relatively clean spectrum dominated by afterglow light. Furthermore, the spatially resolved spectrum allows us to constrain the properties of the explosion site directly, and compare these with the host galaxy nucleus, as well as other short-duration GRB host galaxies. We find that while the host is a relatively luminous (L∼0.8 L{sup *}{sub B}), star-forming (SFR = 1.84 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxy with almost solar metallicity, the spectrum of the afterglow exhibits weak Ca II absorption features but negligible emission features. The explosion site therefore lacks evidence of recent star formation, consistent with the relatively long delay time distribution expected in a compact binary merger scenario. The star formation rate (SFR; both in an absolute sense and normalized to the luminosity) and metallicity of the host are both consistent with the known sample of short-duration GRB hosts and with recent results which suggest GRB 130603B emission to be the product of the decay of radioactive species produced during the merging process of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary ({sup k}ilonova{sup )}. Ultimately, the discovery of more events similar to GRB 130603B and their rapid follow-up from 8 m class telescopes will open new opportunities for our understanding of the final stages of compact-objects binary systems and provide crucial information

  19. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A.

    PubMed

    Wiersema, K; Covino, S; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Götz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; di Serego Alighieri, S; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Fariña, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovsky, V; Willingale, R

    2014-05-08

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets.

  20. Polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the synchrotron self-Compton process from a highly relativistic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2017-04-01

    Linear polarization has been observed in both the prompt phase and afterglow of some bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Polarization in the prompt phase spans a wide range, and may be as high as ≳ 50%. In the afterglow phase, however, it is usually below 10%. According to the standard fireball model, GRBs are produced by synchrotron radiation and Compton scattering process in a highly relativistic jet ejected from the central engine. It is widely accepted that prompt emissions occur in the internal shock when shells with different velocities collide with each other, and the magnetic field advected by the jet from the central engine can be ordered on a large scale. On the other hand, afterglows are often assumed to occur in the external shock when the jet collides with interstellar medium, and the magnetic field produced by the shock through, for example, Weibel instability, is possibly random. In this paper, we calculate the polarization properties of the synchrotron self-Compton process from a highly relativistic jet, in which the magnetic field is randomly distributed in the shock plane. We also consider the generalized situation where a uniform magnetic component perpendicular to the shock plane is superposed on the random magnetic component. We show that it is difficult for the polarization to be larger than 10% if the seed electrons are isotropic in the jet frame. This may account for the observed upper limit of polarization in the afterglow phase of GRBs. In addition, if the random and uniform magnetic components decay with time at different speeds, then the polarization angle may change 90° during the temporal evolution. Supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (106112016CDJCR301206), National Natural Science Fund of China (11375203, 11603005), and Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF181CJ1)

  1. Study of argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V.; Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the reaction kinetics in argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure argon was created in quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 60 W. The nitrogen was added into the afterglow at the distance of 9 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. The argon spectral lines and after nitrogen addition also nitrogen second positive system (SPS) were identified in the spectra. The measurement of spatial dependence of SPS intensity showed a very slow decay of the intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the nitrogen concentration. In order to explain this behavior a kinetic model for reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that C {sup 3}Π{sub u} state of molecular nitrogen, which is the upper state of SPS emission, is produced by excitation transfer from argon metastables to nitrogen molecules. However, the argon metastables are also produced at Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ion recombination with electrons and this limits the decay of argon metastable concentration and it results in very slow decay of SPS intensity.

  2. The SEDs and host galaxies of the dustiest GRB afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krühler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Savaglio, S.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Gruber, D.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Küpcü-Yoldaş, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Pierini, D.; Rau, A.; Rossi, A.; Nardini, M.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A. C.

    2011-10-01

    Context. The afterglows and host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer unique opportunities to study star-forming galaxies in the high-z Universe. Until recently, however, the information inferred from GRB follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows, biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Aims: Here we present afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction (AVGRB ≳ 1 mag) along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry, and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies, and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. Methods: This work is based on GROND optical/NIR and Swift/XRT X-ray observations of the afterglows, and multi-color imaging for eight GRB hosts. The afterglow and galaxy spectral energy distributions yield detailed insight into physical properties such as the dust and metal content along the GRB sight-line and galaxy-integrated characteristics such as the host's stellar mass, luminosity, color-excess, and star-formation rate. Results: For the eight afterglows considered in this study, we report for the first time the redshift of GRB 081109 (z = 0.9787 ± 0.0005), and the visual extinction towards GRBs 081109 (AVGRB = 3.4-0.3+0.4 mag) and 100621A (AVGRB = 3.8±0.2 mag), which are among the largest ever derived for GRB afterglows. Combined with non-extinguished GRBs, there is a strong anti-correlation between the afterglow's metal-to-dust ratio and visual extinction. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder (⟨ (R - K)AB ⟩ ~ 1.6 mag), more luminous (⟨ L ⟩ ~ 0.9 L∗), and massive (⟨ log M∗ [M⊙] ⟩ ~ 9.8) than the hosts of optically-bright events. Hence, we probe a different galaxy population, suggesting that previous host samples miss most of the

  3. The SEDs and Host Galaxies of the Dustiest GRB Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruhler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Savaglio, S.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Gruber, D.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, E.; Pierini, D.; Rau, A.; Rossi, A.; Nardini, M.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    The afterglows and host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer unique opportunities to study star-forming galaxies in the high-z Universe, Until recently, however. the information inferred from GRB follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows. biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Aims. Here we present afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) approx > 1 mag) along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies. and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. Methods. This work is based on GROND optical/NIR and Swift/XRT X-ray observations of the afterglows, and multi-color imaging for eight GRB hosts. The afterglow and galaxy spectral energy distributions yield detailed insight into physical properties such as the dust and metal content along the GRB sight-line as well as galaxy-integrated characteristics like the host's stellar mass, luminosity. color-excess and star-formation rate. Results. For the eight afterglows considered in this study we report for the first time the redshift of GRBs 081109 (z = 0.97S7 +/- 0.0005). and the visual extinction towards GRBs 0801109 (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.4(sup +0.4) (sub -0.3) mag) and l00621A (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 mag), which are among the largest ever derived for GRB afterglows. Combined with non-extinguished GRBs. there is a strong anti-correlation between the afterglow's metals-to-dust ratio and visual extinction. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder(((R - K)(sub AB)) approximates 1.6 mag), more luminous ( approximates 0.9 L (sup *)) and massive ((log M(sup *) [M(solar]) approximates 9.8) than the hosts of optically-bright events. We hence probe

  4. GRB Orphan Afterglows in Present and Future Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Burlon, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Bernardini, M. G.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Melandri, A.; Murphy, T.; Nava, L.; Vergani, S. D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2014-05-01

    Orphan Afterglows (OA) are slow transients produced by Gamma Ray Bursts seen off-axis that become visible on timescales of days/years at optical/NIR and radio frequencies, when the prompt emission at high energies (X and γ rays) has already ceased. Given the typically estimated jet opening angle of GRBs θjet ~ 3°, for each burst pointing to the Earth there should be a factor ~ 700 more GRBs pointing in other directions. Despite this, no secure OAs have been detected so far. Through a population synthesis code we study the emission properties of the population of OA at radio frequencies. OAs reach their emission peak on year-timescales and they last for a comparable amount of time. The typical peak fluxes (which depend on the observing frequency) are of few μJy in the radio band with only a few OA reaching the mJy level. These values are consistent with the upper limits on the radio flux of SN Ib/c observed at late times. We find that the OA radio number count distribution has a typical slope - 1.7 at high fluxes and a flatter ( - 0.4) slope at low fluxes with a break at a frequency-dependent flux. Our predictions of the OA rates are consistent with the (upper) limits of recent radio surveys and archive searches for radio transients. Future radio surveys like VAST/ASKAP at 1.4 GHz should detect ~ 3 × 10- 3 OA deg- 2 yr- 1, MeerKAT and EVLA at 8.4 GHz should see ~ 3 × 10- 1 OA deg- 2 yr- 1. The SKA, reaching the μJy flux limit, could see up to ~ 0.2 - 1.5 OA deg- 2 yr- 1. These rates also depend on the duration of the OA above a certain flux limit and we discuss this effect with respect to the survey cadence.

  5. Cryogenic emissivity properties of Ball Infrared Black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Randy; Renbarger, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) developed a unique thermal control coating named Ball InfraRed BlackTM (BIRBTM). The coating generates a highly diffuse surface with a large effective surface area ideal for thermal radiative applications. Independent testing demonstrates excellent emissivity properties across the cryogenic region, especially at temperatures <50K where other products tend to roll off. Emissivity in this region exceeds that of other commercially available thermal control coatings. The proprietary coating was developed for use on spacecraft thermal radiators, but also has application to terrestrial cryogenic and vacuum systems. The coating is qualified for spaceflight, demonstrating outstanding adhesion after thermal cycling and vibration testing. Critical material properties for BIRBTM are characterized. BIRBTM is durable and cleanable with proper handling. BIRBTM has the additional benefit of being static-dissipative, making it ideal for direct exposure to the space environment. Additionally, contamination control properties are optimized, achieving low total outgassing rates and demonstrating particle cleanliness to meet stringent requirements for optical instruments. Thermal systems realize enhanced performance and/or substantial mass savings by applying BIRBTM to the radiator surface. To date, BIRBTM has been applied to several large cryogenic radiators for use on space-based thermal control systems.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Flares in GRB Afterglow Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliani, Z.; Vlasis, A.; Keppens, R.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate numerically the various evolutionary phases in the interaction of relativistic shells with its surrounding cold interstellar medium (ISM) and shell-shell interaction. We do this for 1D. This is relevant for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the observed flares, and we demonstrate that, thanks to the AMR strategy, we resolve the internal structure of the shocked shell and ISM matter and shell-shell matter, which will leave its imprint on the GRB afterglow. Also, we perform high resolution numerical simulations of late collisions between two ultra-relativistic shells in order to explore the flares in the afterglow phase of GRB. We examine the case where a cold uniform shell collides with a self-similar Blandford and McKee shell in a constant density environment and consider cases with different Lorentz factor and energy for the uniform shell. We produce the corresponding on-axis light curves and emission images for the afterglow phase and examine the occurrence of optical and radio flares assuming a spherical explosion and a hard-edged jet scenario. For our simulations we use the Adaptive Mesh Refinement version of the Versatile Advection Code (AMRVAC) coupled to a linear radiative transfer code to calculate synchrotron emission. We find steeply rising flare like behavior for small jet opening angles and more gradual rebrightenings for large opening angles. Synchrotron self-absorption is found to strongly influence the onset and shape of the radio flare.

  7. GRB 110715A: the peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Hancock, P. J.; Jóhannesson, G.; Murphy, Tara; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Kann, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Oates, S. R.; Japelj, J.; Thöne, C. C.; Lundgren, A.; Perley, D. A.; Malesani, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hu, Y.-D.; Jelínek, M.; Jeong, S.; Kamble, A.; Klose, S.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Llorente, A.; Martín, S.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Rossi, A.; Schady, P.; Sparre, M.; Sudilovsky, V.; Tello, J. C.; Updike, A.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.-B.

    2017-02-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 s after the burst and extending up to 74 d later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use the optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift z = 0.8225, which reveal a host-galaxy environment with low ionization, column density, and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broad-band afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best-fitting parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the relativistic shock propagates. We fitted our data with a variety of models, including different density profiles and energy injections. Although the general behaviour can be roughly described by these models, none of them are able to fully explain all data points simultaneously. GRB 110715A shows the complexity of reproducing extensive multiwavelength broad-band afterglow observations, and the need of good sampling in wavelength and time and more complex models to accurately constrain the physics of GRB afterglows.

  8. Hidden in the light: Magnetically induced afterglow from trapped chameleon fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, Holger; Mota, David F.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-01-15

    We propose an afterglow phenomenon as a unique trace of chameleon fields in optical experiments. The vacuum interaction of a laser pulse with a magnetic field can lead to a production and subsequent trapping of chameleons in the vacuum chamber, owing to their mass dependence on the ambient matter density. Magnetically induced reconversion of the trapped chameleons into photons creates an afterglow over macroscopic timescales that can conveniently be searched for by current optical experiments. We show that the chameleon parameter range accessible to available laboratory technology is comparable to scales familiar from astrophysical stellar energy-loss arguments. We analyze quantitatively the afterglow properties for various experimental scenarios and discuss the role of potential background and systematic effects. We conclude that afterglow searches represent an ideal tool to aim at the production and detection of cosmologically relevant scalar fields in the laboratory.

  9. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  10. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ∼30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (∼95%) or optical (∼70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  11. Temporal Variation in the Abundance of Excited Fe+ Near a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2006-09-01

    Excited Si+ and Fe+ species are routinely observed in the host environment of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows but are not commonly seen in other extragalactic locations. Their presence signals unusual properties in the gaseous environment of these GRB hosts that arise either as a result of the intense ionizing radiation of the afterglow or through collision excitation in a dense cloud. In particular, the photon pumping scenario has explicit expectations for temporal variation in the strength of the excited lines, owing to the decline in the ionizing flux of the GRB afterglow. We analyze afterglow spectra of GRB 020813 obtained in two epochs ~16 hr apart and examine transitions from the first excited state of Fe+ at J=7/2 in these two sets of data. We report a significant decline by at least a factor of 5 in the equivalent width of the Fe II λ2396 transition, the strongest from the J=7/2 state. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis and determine that this temporal variation is present at more than 3 σ level of significance. This observation represents the first detection in the temporal variation of the excited Fe+ states in the GRB host interstellar medium, a direct influence of the burst itself on its environment. We further estimate that the Fe+ gas resides 50-100 pc from the afterglow, based on the afterglow light curve and the presence and absence of the excited Fe II λ2396 in the two-epoch observations.

  12. Analysis of neutral active particle loss in afterglow in krypton at 2.6 mbar pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Ristic, Goran S.; Pejovic, Milic M.

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the surface recombination and/or de-excitation of neutral active particles in two different volume krypton-filled tubes at pressure of 2.6 mbar with 1 ppm oxygen impurities. The analysis was performed on the basis of secondary electron emission from the cathode induced by positive ions and neutral active particles using the experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay mean value t{sub d} as a function of afterglow period {tau} ('memory curve'). It was shown that the main channel of neutral active particles' loss in afterglow is their recombination and/or de-excitation on the bulb walls. The loss rate increases with the increase of available wall surface per unit of gas volume. It was also shown that in early afterglow (15 ms for the tube with smaller bulb volume and 30 ms for the tube with bigger bulb volume) positive ions are formed in the mutual collisions of neutral active particles, and these ions dominantly influence the secondary electron emission from the cathode. In late afterglow (to 30 s for the tube with smaller bulb volume and to 150 s for the tube with bigger bulb volume) neutral active particles have dominant role in secondary electron emission from the cathode. The probability for this process decreases with the increase of afterglow period as a consequence of the decrease of the concentration of neutral active particles in gas, and this probability is smaller for the tube with smaller bulb volume. The influence of additional electron yield in the electrode gap caused by gamma radiation on breakdown initiation is also analyzed. It is shown that the influence of the neutral active particles in the process of secondary electron emission in the case of gamma radiation is also significant in both early and late afterglow.

  13. The potential for detecting gamma-ray burst afterglows from population III stars with the next generation of infrared telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, D.; Coward, D. M.; Zadnik, M. G.

    2013-12-10

    We investigate the detectability of a proposed population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of Population III (Pop III) stars. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will be able to observe the late time infrared afterglows. We have developed a new method to calculate their detectability, which takes into account the fundamental initial mass function and formation rates of Pop III stars, from which we find the temporal variability of the afterglows and ultimately the length of time JWST and SPICA can detect them. In the range of plausible Pop III GRB parameters, the afterglows are always detectable by these instruments during the isotropic emission, for a minimum of 55 days and a maximum of 3.7 yr. The average number of detectable afterglows will be 2.96× 10{sup –5} per SPICA field of view (FOV) and 2.78× 10{sup –6} per JWST FOV. These are lower limits, using a pessimistic estimate of Pop III star formation. An optimal observing strategy with SPICA could identify a candidate orphan afterglow in ∼1.3 yr, with a 90% probability of confirmation with further detailed observations. A beamed GRB will align with the FOV of the planned GRB detector Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope once every 9 yr. Pop III GRBs will be more easily detected by their isotropic emissions (i.e., orphan afterglows) rather than by their prompt emissions.

  14. Perspectives of observing the color indices of optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts with ESA Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, René; Pizzichini, Graziella

    2017-10-01

    We propose a strategy for detecting and analyzing optical afterglows (OAs) of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) without the need to obtain their light curves. This approach is useful for the Gaia satellite, which provides sampled optical ultra-low-dispersion spectroscopic observations of the sky. For this purpose, we show that most OAs of long GRBs display specific values of some of their color indices, representing synchrotron emission of the jet. They are stable in time during the event. These indices, which can be determined from the spectra, are very similar for the ensemble of OAs with redshift z < 3.5 and display a strong clustering in some color-color diagrams. These indices also enable to constrain the properties of the local interstellar medium of GRBs. The long-lasting mapping of the sky with the Gaia instruments also gives us a hope to search for the so-called orphan afterglows, which, according to some authors, can be considerably more numerous than OAs of the observed GRBs. We also show how to resolve OAs from other transients in the Gaia data. The color indices and the properties of the quiescent sources (host galaxies of OAs detectable later by the large ground-based telescopes at the co-ordinates of the OA determined by Gaia) would tell us which one, among transients detected by Gaia, is a GRB OA.

  15. Perspectives of observing the color indices of optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts with ESA Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, René; Pizzichini, Graziella

    2017-08-01

    We propose a strategy for detecting and analyzing optical afterglows (OAs) of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) without the need to obtain their light curves. This approach is useful for the Gaia satellite, which provides sampled optical ultra-low-dispersion spectroscopic observations of the sky. For this purpose, we show that most OAs of long GRBs display specific values of some of their color indices, representing synchrotron emission of the jet. They are stable in time during the event. These indices, which can be determined from the spectra, are very similar for the ensemble of OAs with redshift z < 3.5 and display a strong clustering in some color-color diagrams. These indices also enable to constrain the properties of the local interstellar medium of GRBs. The long-lasting mapping of the sky with the Gaia instruments also gives us a hope to search for the so-called orphan afterglows, which, according to some authors, can be considerably more numerous than OAs of the observed GRBs. We also show how to resolve OAs from other transients in the Gaia data. The color indices and the properties of the quiescent sources (host galaxies of OAs detectable later by the large ground-based telescopes at the co-ordinates of the OA determined by Gaia) would tell us which one, among transients detected by Gaia, is a GRB OA.

  16. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Lili

    2007-01-01

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  17. Statistical properties of ionospheric stimulated electromagnetic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, R. L.; Carozzi, T. D.; Norin, L.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Thidé, B.

    2006-08-01

    We have analysed the statistical properties of the stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) spectral features in the steady state, reached after a long period of continuous HF pumping of the ionosphere in experiments performed at the Sura ionospheric radio research facility in Russia. Using a digital filter bank method, we have been able to analyse complex valued signals within narrow frequency bands. Each of the SEE spectral features are thereby separated into a number of narrow spectral components. Statistical tests were performed for all these spectral components and the distributions of the spectral amplitudes and phases were evaluated. Also, a test for sinusoidal components was performed. These tests showed that all observed SEE features were indistinguishable from coloured Gaussian noise. The test results exclude that the SEE features can be the result of a single isolated coherent process, but does not rule out that there could be many statistically independent parametric wave-wave processes taking place simultaneously at various parts of the HF-pumped ionosphere, as long as the superposition from all these is incoherent. Furthermore, from the test results, we cannot exclude the possibility that the waveforms of some, or all, of the SEE features may be chaotic.

  18. Radio afterglows of a complete sample of bright Swift GRBs: predictions from present days to the SKA era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Burlon, D.; Campana, S.; Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Nava, L.; Prandoni, I.; Sironi, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Wolter, A.

    2013-11-01

    Radio observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) afterglows are fundamental in providing insights into their physics and environment, and in constraining the true energetics of these sources. Nonetheless, radio observations of GRB afterglows are presently sparse in the time/frequency domain. Starting from a complete sample of 58 bright Swift long bursts (BAT6), we constructed a homogeneous sub-sample of 38 radio detections/upper limits which preserves all the properties of the parent sample. One half of the bursts have detections between 1 and 5 d after the explosion with typical fluxes F ≳ 100 μJy at 8.4 GHz. Through a Population SYnthesis Code coupled with the standard afterglow Hydrodynamical Emission model, we reproduce the radio flux distribution of the radio sub-sample. Based on these results, we study the detectability in the time/frequency domain of the entire long GRB population by present and future radio facilities. We find that the GRBs that typically trigger Swift can be detected at 8.4 GHz by Jansky Very Large Array within few days with modest exposures even at high redshifts. The final Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially observe the whole GRB population provided that there will be a dedicated GRB gamma-ray detector more sensitive than Swift. For a sizeable fraction (50 per cent) of these bursts, SKA will allow us to perform radio calorimetry, after the trans-relativistic transition (occurring ˜100 d), providing an estimate of the true (collimation corrected) energetics of GRBs.

  19. Spectral evolution and the onset of the X-ray GRB afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Willingale, R.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2011-08-01

    Based on light curves from the Swift Burst Analyser, we investigate whether a `dip' feature commonly seen in the early-time hardness ratios of Swift-XRT data could arise from the juxtaposition of the decaying prompt emission and rising afterglow. We are able to model the dip as such a feature, assuming the afterglow rises as predicted by Sari and Piran [1]. Using this model we measure the initial bulk Lorentz factor of the fireball. For a sample of 23 GRBs we find a median value of Γ0 = 225, assuming a constant-density circumburst medium; or Γ0 = 93 if we assume a wind-like medium.

  20. The puzzling afterglow of GRB 050721: a rebrightening seen in the optical but not in the X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, L. A.; Romano, P.; Testa, V.; D'Elia, V.; Guetta, D.; Torii, K.; Malesani, D.

    2007-08-21

    We present here the analysis of the early and late multiwavelength afterglow emission, as observed by Swift a small robotic telescope, and the VLT. We compare early observations with late afterglow observations obtained with Swift and the VLT and we observe an intense rebrightening in the optical band at about one day after the burst which is not present in the X-ray band. The lack of detection in X-ray of such a strong rebrightening at lower energies may be described with a variable external density profile. In such a scenario, the combined X-ray and optical observations allow us to derive that the matter density located at {approx} 1017 cm from the burst is about a factor of 10 higher than in the inner region. This is the first time in which a rebrightening has been observed in the optical afterglow of a GRB that is clearly absent in the X-ray afterglow.

  1. Dust Cloud Dynamics in Complex Plasma Afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Layden, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    Experimental observations of dust cloud dynamics in a RF discharge afterglow are presented. Image analysis is used to extract information from videos taken of the plasma. Estimations of the mean confining electric field have been made for different experimental conditions using a model for the contraction of the dust cloud. Dust particle trajectories in the late afterglow evidence the co-existence of positively and negatively charged dust particles.

  2. Radiation properties and emissivity parameterization of high level thin clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.-L. C.

    1984-01-01

    To parameterize emissivity of clouds at 11 microns, a study has been made in an effort to understand the radiation field of thin clouds. The contributions to the intensity and flux from different sources and through different physical processes are calculated by using the method of successive orders of scattering. The effective emissivity of thin clouds is decomposed into the effective absorption emissivity, effective scattering emissivity, and effective reflection emissivity. The effective absorption emissivity depends on the absorption and emission of the cloud; it is parameterized in terms of optical thickness. The effective scattering emissivity depends on the scattering properties of the cloud; it is parameterized in terms of optical thickness and single scattering albedo. The effective reflection emissivity follows the similarity relation as in the near infrared cases. This is parameterized in terms of the similarity parameter and optical thickness, as well as the temperature difference between the cloud and ground.

  3. Afterglow of a microwave microstrip plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; White, Allen; Broekaert, José A. C.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced plasma that was previously used for optical emission spectrometry has been repurposed as an afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry. This compact microwave discharge, termed the microstrip plasma (MSP), is operated at 20-50 W and 2.45 GHz in helium at a flow of 300 mL/min. The primary background ions present in the afterglow are ionized and protonated water clusters. An exponential dilution chamber was used to introduce volatile organic compounds into the MSP afterglow and yielded limits of detection in the 40 ppb to 7 ppm range (v/v). A hydride-generation system was also utilized for detection of volatile hydride-forming elements (arsenic, antimony, tin) in the afterglow and produced limits of detection in the 10-100 ppb range in solution. The MSP afterglow was found capable of desorption and ionization of analyte species directly from a solid substrate, suggesting its use as an ion source for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  4. The Influence of Fuelbed Physical Properties on Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Lincoln, E.; Baker, S. P.; Richardson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from biomass fires can significantly degrade regional air quality and therefore are of major concern to air regulators and land managers in the U.S. and Canada. Accurately estimating emissions from different fire types in various ecosystems is crucial to predicting and mitigating the impact of fires on air quality. The physical properties of ecosystems' fuelbeds can heavily influence the combustion processes (e.g. flaming or smoldering) and the resultant emissions. However, despite recent progress in characterizing the composition of biomass smoke, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the linkage between basic fuelbed physical properties and emissions. In laboratory experiments we examined the effects of fuelbed properties on combustion efficiency (CE) and emissions for an important fuel component of temperate and boreal forests - conifer needles. The bulk density (BD), depth (DZ), and moisture content (MC) of Ponderosa Pine needle fuelbeds were manipulated in 75 burns for which gas and particle emissions were measured. We found CE was negatively correlated with BD, DZ and MC and that the emission factors of species associated with smoldering combustion processes (CO, CH4, particles) were positively correlated with these fuelbed properties. The study indicates the physical properties of conifer needle fuelbeds have a significant effect on CE and hence emissions. However, many of the emission models used to predict and manage smoke impacts on air quality assume conifer litter burns by flaming combustion with a high CE and correspondingly low emissions of CO, CH4, particles, and organic compounds. Our results suggest emission models underestimate emissions from fires involving a large component of conifer needles. Additionally, our findings indicate that laboratory studies of emissions should carefully control fuelbed physical properties to avoid confounding effects that may obscure the effects being tested and lead to erroneous interpretations.

  5. Discovery of a tight correlation among the prompt emission properties of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmani, C.; Ghisellini, G.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2006-07-01

    We report the discovery of a correlation among three prompt emission properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These are the isotropic peak luminosity Liso, the peak energy (in νLν) of the time-integrated prompt emission spectrum Epk, and the `high signal' time-scale T0.45, previously used to characterize the variability behaviour of bursts. In the rest frame of the source, the discovered correlation reads Liso ~ E1.62pkT-0.490.45. We find other strong correlations, but at the cost of increasing the number of variables, involving the variability and the isotropic energy of the prompt emission. With respect to the other tight correlations found in GRBs (i.e. between the collimation corrected energy Eγ and Epk, the so-called Ghirlanda correlation, and the phenomenological correlation among the isotropic emitted energy Eiso,Epk and the jet break time tbreak), the newly found correlation does not require any information from the afterglow phase of the bursts, nor any model-dependent assumption. In the popular scenario in which we are receiving beamed radiation originating in a fireball pointing at us, the discovered correlation preserves its form in the comoving frame. This helps to explain the small scatter of the correlation and underlines the role of the local brightness (i.e. the brightness of the visible fraction of the fireball surface). This correlation has been found with a relatively small number of objects and it is hard to establish if any selection bias affects it. Its connection with the prompt local brightness is promising, but a solid physical understanding is still to be found. Despite all that, we find that some properties of the correlation, which we discuss, support its true existence, and this has important implications for the GRB physics. Furthermore, it is possible to use such correlation as an accurate redshift estimator, and, more importantly, its tightness will allow us to use it as a tool to constrain the cosmological parameters.

  6. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; de Almeida, U. B.; Barrio, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. B.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Fidalgo, D. C.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Mendez, C. D.; Doert, M.; Dominguez, A.; Prester, D. D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Lopez, R. J. G.; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. G.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovic, N.; Munoz, A. G.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krahenbuhl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. L.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Lopez-Coto, R.; Lopez, M.; Lopez-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martinez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldon, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. P.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribo, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. R.; Rugamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzic, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Bouvier, A.; Hayashida, M.; Tajima, H.; Longo, F.

    2013-12-09

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known since the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope observations during the 1990s and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. Our results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy (VHE) photons (E > 30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z = 1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blastwave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. We obtained results compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the VHE range.

  7. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksic, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2013-12-09

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known since the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope observations during the 1990s and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. Our results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart ofmore » GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy (VHE) photons (E > 30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z = 1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blastwave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. We obtained results compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the VHE range.« less

  8. ON THE ORIGIN OF > 10 GeV PHOTONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangyu; Liu Ruoyu; Lemoine, Martin

    2013-07-10

    Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbulence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the microturbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation, in which the scattering mean free path is equal to the particle Larmor radius, breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase cannot be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circumburst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.

  9. Short Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, A.

    2009-03-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly relativistic jets ejected in core-collapse supernova (SN) explosions. The origin of short hard gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) has not been established. They may be produced by highly relativistic jets ejected in various processes: mergers of compact stellar objects, large-mass accretion episodes onto compact stars in close binaries or onto intermediate-mass black holes in dense stellar regions, phase transition in compact stars. Natural environments of such events are the dense cores of globular clusters, super star clusters and young SN remnants. We have used the cannonball model of GRBs to analyze all Swift SHBs with a well-sampled X-ray afterglow. We show that their prompt gamma-ray emission can be explained by inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of the progenitor's glory light and their extended soft emission component by either ICS of high-density radiation or synchrotron radiation (SR) in the high-density medium within the star cluster. The mechanism generating their afterglow is SR outside the cluster. No associated SN could be detected in the low luminosity nearby GRBs 060614 and 060505. We interpret them as SHBs seen relatively far off-axis.

  10. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V. Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2014-10-21

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems – the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 {sup 3}P{sub 1}), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −6} was determined from the experimental data. Also

  11. Investigating the Impact of Optical Selection Effects on Observed Rest-frame Prompt GRB Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, D.; Heussaff, V.; Dezalay, J.-P.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Dornic, D.

    2016-11-01

    Measuring gamma-ray burst (GRB) properties in their rest frame is crucial for understanding the physics at work in GRBs. This can only be done for GRBs with known redshifts. Since redshifts are usually measured from the optical spectrum of the afterglow, correlations between prompt and afterglow emissions may introduce biases into the distribution of the rest-frame properties of the prompt emission, especially considering that we measure the redshift of only one-third of Swift GRBs. In this paper, we study the optical flux of GRB afterglows and its connection to various intrinsic properties of GRBs. We also discuss the impact of the optical selection effect on the distribution of rest-frame prompt properties of GRBs. Our analysis is based on a sample of 90 GRBs with good optical follow-up and well-measured prompt emission. Seventy-six of them have a measure of redshift and 14 have no redshift. We compare the rest-frame prompt properties of GRBs with different afterglow optical fluxes in order to check for possible correlations between the promt properties and the optical flux of the afterglow. The optical flux is measured two hours after the trigger, which is a typical time for the measure of the redshift. We find that the optical flux of GRB afterglows in our sample is mainly driven by their optical luminosity and depends only slightly on their redshift. We show that GRBs with low and high afterglow optical fluxes have similar E {}{{pi}}, E {}{{iso}}, and L {}{{iso}}, indicating that the rest-frame distributions computed from GRBs with a redshift are not significantly distorted by optical selection effects. However, we found that the {T}90{rest} distribution is not immune to optical selection effects, which favor the selection of GRBs with longer durations. Finally, we note that GRBs well above the E {}{{pi}}-E {}{{iso}} relation have lower optical fluxes and we show that optical selection effects favor the detection of GRBs with bright optical afterglows located

  12. Self-organized criticality in X-ray flares of gamma-ray-burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.

    2013-08-01

    X-ray flares detected in nearly half of gamma-ray-burst (GRB) afterglows are one of the most intriguing phenomena in high-energy astrophysics. All of the observations indicate that the central engines of bursts, after the gamma-ray emission has ended, still have long periods of activity, during which energetic explosions eject relativistic materials, leading to late-time X-ray emission. It is thus expected that X-ray flares provide important clues as to the nature of the central engines of GRBs, and more importantly, unveil the physical mechanism of the flares themselves, which has so far remained mysterious. Here we report statistical results of X-ray flares of GRBs with known redshifts, and show that X-ray flares and solar flares share three statistical properties: power-law frequency distributions for energies, durations and waiting times. All of the distributions can be well understood within the physical framework of a self-organized criticality (SOC) system. The statistical properties of X-ray flares of GRBs are similar to solar flares, and thus both can be attributed to a SOC process. Both types of flares may be driven by a magnetic reconnection process, but X-ray flares of GRBs are produced in ultra-strongly magnetized millisecond pulsars or long-term hyperaccreting disks around stellar-mass black holes.

  13. Radio Observations Of GRB 100418a: Test Of An Energy Injection Model Explaining Long-Lasting GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Aquib; Chandra, P.; Miller-Jones, J.; Tingay, S.; Taylor, G. B.; Frail, D. A.; Wang, Z.; Reynolds, C.; Phillips, C.

    2014-01-01

    I will highlight the results of our radio observational campaign on GRB 100418a, for which the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Very Large Array (VLA) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) were used. GRB 100418a was a peculiar GRB with unusual X-ray and optical afterglow profiles featuring a plateau phase with a very shallow rise. This observed plateau phase was believed to be due to a continued energy injection mechanism, which powered the forward shock, giving rise to an unusual and long-lasting afterglow. The radio afterglow of GRB 100418a was detectable several weeks after the prompt emission. We conducted long-term monitoring observations of the afterglow and attempted to test the energy injection model advocating that the continuous energy injection is due to shells of material moving at a wide range of Lorentz factors. We obtained an upper limit of γ < 7 for the expansion rate of the GRB 100418a radio afterglow, indicating that the range-of-Lorentz factor model could only be applicable for relatively slow moving ejecta. A preferred explanation could be that continued activity of the central engine may have powered the long-lasting afterglow.

  14. Radio observations of GRB 100418a: Test of an energy injection model explaining long-lasting GRB afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Moin, A.; Wang, Z.; Chandra, P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Tingay, S. J.; Reynolds, C.; Taylor, G. B.; Frail, D. A.; Phillips, C. J.

    2013-12-20

    We present the results of our radio observational campaign of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100418a, for which we used the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Very Large Array, and the Very Long Baseline Array. GRB 100418a was a peculiar GRB with unusual X-ray and optical afterglow profiles featuring a plateau phase with a very shallow rise. This observed plateau phase was believed to be due to a continued energy injection mechanism that powered the forward shock, giving rise to an unusual and long-lasting afterglow. The radio afterglow of GRB 100418a was detectable several weeks after the prompt emission. We conducted long-term monitoring observations of the afterglow and attempted to test the energy injection model advocating that the continuous energy injection is due to shells of material moving at a wide range of Lorentz factors. We obtained an upper limit of γ < 7 for the expansion rate of the GRB 100418a radio afterglow, indicating that the range-of-Lorentz factor model could only be applicable for relatively slow-moving ejecta. A preferred explanation could be that continued activity of the central engine may have powered the long-lasting afterglow.

  15. Constraints on an Optical Afterglow and on Supernova Light Following the Short Burst GRB 050813

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrero, P.; Sanchez, S. F.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Greiner, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Henden, A. A.; Moller, P.; Palazzi, E.; Rau, A.; Stecklum, B.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Fynbok J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Masetti, N.; Pian, E.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We report early follow-up observations of the error box of the short burst 050813 using the telescopes at Calar Alto and at Observatorio Sierra Nevada (OSN), followed by deep VLT/FORS2 I-band observations obtained under very good seeing conditions 5.7 and 11.7 days after the event. No evidence for a GRB afterglow was found in our Calar Alto and OSN data, no rising supernova component was detected in our FORS2 images. A potential host galaxy can be identified in our FORS2 images, even though we cannot state with certainty its association with GRB 050813. IN any case, the optical afterglow of GRB 050813 was very faint, well in agreement with what is known so far about the optical properties of afterglows of short bursts. We conclude that all optical data are not in conflict with the interpretation that GRB 050813 was a short burst.

  16. Synthesis of ZnS:Ag,Co water-soluble blue afterglow nanoparticles and application in photodynamic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Zou, Xiaoju; Hossu, Marius; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Silver and cobalt co-doped ZnS (ZnS:Ag,Co) water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles were synthesized using a wet chemistry method followed by aging at room temperature. The nanoparticles had a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of approximately 4 nm and emitted a blue fluorescence emission centered at 441 nm due to radiative transitions from surface defects to Ag+ luminescent centers. Intense afterglow emission peaking at 475 nm from the obtained nanoparticles was observed and was red-shifted compared to the fluorescence emission peak. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a large increase of O/S ratio, indicating a surface oxidation process during aging. The S vacancies produced accordingly may contribute to form more electron traps and enhance afterglow. The ZnS:Ag,Co afterglow nanoparticles have a very low dark-toxicity and are applied as a light source for photodynamic therapy activation by conjugating with protoporphyrin together. Our preliminary study has shown that the ZnS:Ag,Co afterglow nanoparticles can significantly reduce the x-ray dosage used in activation and thus may be a very promising candidate for future x-ray excited photodynamic therapy in deep cancer treatment.

  17. Early afterglows from radially structured outflows and the application to X-ray shallow decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Lu, Tan

    2009-08-01

    In the fireball model, it is more physically realistic that gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta have a range of bulk Lorentz factors (assuming M α -S). The low Lorentz factor part of the ejecta will catch up with the high Lorentz factor part when the latter is decelerated by the surrounding medium to a comparable Lorentz factor. Such a process will develop a long-lasting weak reverse shock until the whole ejecta are shocked. Meanwhile, the forward shocked materials are gradually supplied with energy from the ejecta that are catching-up, and thus the temporal decay of the forward shock emission will be slower than that without an energy supply. However, the reverse shock may be strong. Here, we extend the standard reverse-forward shock model to the case of radially nonuniform ejecta. We show that this process can be classified into two cases: the thick shell case and the thin shell case. In the thin shell case, the reverse shock is weak and the temporal scaling law of the afterglow is the same as that in Sari & Mészáros (2000). However, in the thick shell case, the reverse shock is strong and thus its emission dominates the afterglow in the high energy band. Our results also show slower decaying behavior of the afterglow due to the energy supply by low Lorentz factor materials, which may help the understanding of the plateau observed in the early optical and X-ray afterglows.

  18. A statistical comparison of the optical/UV and X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts using the Swift Ultraviolet Optical and X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, S. R.; Page, M. J.; Schady, P.; de Pasquale, M.; Evans, P. A.; Page, K. L.; Chester, M. M.; Curran, P. A.; Koch, T. S.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Roming, P. W. A.; Siegel, M. H.; Zane, S.; Nousek, J. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present the systematic analysis of the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) light curves for a sample of 26 Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By comparing the optical/UV and X-ray light curves, we found that they are remarkably different during the first 500 s after the Burst Alert Telescope trigger, while they become more similar during the middle phase of the afterglow, i.e. between 2000 and 20 000 s. If we take literally the average properties of the sample, we find that the mean temporal indices observed in the optical/UV and X-rays after 500 s are consistent with a forward-shock scenario, under the assumptions that electrons are in the slow cooling regime, the external medium is of constant density and the synchrotron cooling frequency is situated between the optical/UV and X-ray observing bands. While this scenario describes well the averaged observed properties, some individual GRB afterglows require different or additional assumptions, such as the presence of late energy injection. We show that a chromatic break (a break in the X-ray light curve that is not seen in the optical) is present in the afterglows of three GRBs and demonstrate evidence for chromatic breaks in a further four GRBs. The average properties of these breaks cannot be explained in terms of the passage of the synchrotron cooling frequency through the observed bands, nor a simple change in the external density. It is difficult to reconcile chromatic breaks in terms of a single component outflow and instead, more complex jet structure or additional emission components are required.

  19. Optical Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pian, Elena

    2007-10-01

    The advent of the Swift mission for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in late 2004 has more than doubled the existing sample of detected optical counterparts. The rapid dissemination of the accurate BAT and XRT localizations has allowed ground-based telescopes, especially the automatic ones, to slew timely to the GRB positions and to scan them efficiently in search of an afterglow. For about 25% of the Swift GRBs, the onboard UVOT instrument has also provided an early counterpart detection in the optical, and occasionally in the near-UV. There are now about 200 detected GRB optical afterglows, of which nearly 100 have a redshift measurement. I will review here some of the highlights in this field during the Swift era, with particular emphasis on the early (minutes to hours after explosion) optical light curves, on the afterglows of short GRBs, and on the supernova-GRB connection.

  20. GRB afterglows in the nonrelativistic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lu, T.

    2008-10-01

    When discussing the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts analytically, it is usually assumed that the external shock is always ultra-relativisitc, with the bulk Lorentz factor much larger than 1. However, we show that the deceleration of the external shock is actually very quick. The afterglow may typically enter the nonrelativistic phase in several days to teens of days, and may even enter the deep Newtonian phase in tens of days to several months. One thus should be careful in using those familiar analytical expressions that are derived only under the ultra-relativistic assumption. To explain the observed afterglows that typically last for a few weeks to several months, we need to consider the dynamics and radiation in the nonrelativisitic phase.

  1. From Engine to Afterglow: Collapsars Naturally Produce Top-heavy Jets and Early-time Plateaus in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that the steep decay and long plateau in the early phases of gamma-ray burst X-ray afterglows are naturally produced in the collapsar model, by a means ultimately related to the dynamics of relativistic jet propagation through a massive star. We present two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations that start from a collapsar engine and evolve all the way through the late afterglow phase. The resultant outflow includes a jet core that is highly relativistic after breaking out of the star, but becomes baryon loaded after colliding with a massive outer shell, corresponding to mass from the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor star which became trapped in front of the jet core at breakout. The prompt emission produced before or during this collision would then have the signature of a high Lorentz factor jet, but the afterglow is produced by the amalgamated post-collision ejecta that has more inertia than the original highly relativistic jet core and thus has a delayed deceleration. This naturally explains the early light curve behavior discovered by Swift, including a steep decay and a long plateau, without invoking late-time energy injection from the central engine. The numerical simulation is performed continuously from engine to afterglow, covering a dynamic range of over 10 orders of magnitude in radius. Light curves calculated from the numerical output demonstrate that this mechanism reproduces basic features seen in early afterglow data. Initial steep decays are produced by internal shocks, and the plateau corresponds to the coasting phase of the outflow.

  2. FROM ENGINE TO AFTERGLOW: COLLAPSARS NATURALLY PRODUCE TOP-HEAVY JETS AND EARLY-TIME PLATEAUS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I. E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu

    2015-06-20

    We demonstrate that the steep decay and long plateau in the early phases of gamma-ray burst X-ray afterglows are naturally produced in the collapsar model, by a means ultimately related to the dynamics of relativistic jet propagation through a massive star. We present two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations that start from a collapsar engine and evolve all the way through the late afterglow phase. The resultant outflow includes a jet core that is highly relativistic after breaking out of the star, but becomes baryon loaded after colliding with a massive outer shell, corresponding to mass from the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor star which became trapped in front of the jet core at breakout. The prompt emission produced before or during this collision would then have the signature of a high Lorentz factor jet, but the afterglow is produced by the amalgamated post-collision ejecta that has more inertia than the original highly relativistic jet core and thus has a delayed deceleration. This naturally explains the early light curve behavior discovered by Swift, including a steep decay and a long plateau, without invoking late-time energy injection from the central engine. The numerical simulation is performed continuously from engine to afterglow, covering a dynamic range of over 10 orders of magnitude in radius. Light curves calculated from the numerical output demonstrate that this mechanism reproduces basic features seen in early afterglow data. Initial steep decays are produced by internal shocks, and the plateau corresponds to the coasting phase of the outflow.

  3. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB 980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, T. W.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Connaughton, V.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R. D.; Fishman, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the first evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a gamma-ray burst, GRB 980923. The event consists of rapid variability lasting approximately 40 s followed by a smooth power-law emission tail lasting approximately 400 s. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for gamma-ray bursts. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB 990123.

  4. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB 980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, T. W.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Connaughton, V.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R. D.; Fishman, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the first evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a gamma-ray burst, GRB 980923. The event consists of rapid variability lasting approximately 40 s followed by a smooth power-law emission tail lasting approximately 400 s. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for gamma-ray bursts. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB 990123.

  5. Afterglows from Ring-Shaped Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Huang, Y. F.; Kong, S. W.

    2008-10-01

    For gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), there may exist ring-shaped jet when the jet axis does not coincide with the spin axis of its source. Using some refined jet dynamics, we study multi-wavelength afterglow light curves for such ring-shaped jets. There is an obvious break in the afterglow light curve due to the beaming effect. We also investigate the effects of many key parameters on the light curves and then use our model to fit light curves of some GRBs.

  6. Scattering, Thermal Emission and Extinction: Column Density and Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We compare three different ways to measure the column density of molecular clouds using (1) scat- tered light (cloudshine), (2) thermal emission in the sub-millimeter and (3) extinction of background stars. Our methods for estimating the column density from thermal emission and from extinction of background stars use hierarchical Bayesian models to coherently infer correlations in the dust properties and the column density estimates. In particular, we measure the slope of the extinction law (Rv) from extinction estimates and the deviation from blackbody emission (beta) from the thermal emission estimates. These dust properties are related to the size distribution and compo- sition of dust. The comparison among these three methods therefore tells us about which regimes particular methods work or fail and about the properties of the dust at different depths inside the cloud.

  7. Emission properties of biomimetic composites for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, P. V.; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Prutskij, T.

    Biocomposites based on carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite synthesized from the biological source of calcium (Goloshchapov et al., 2013) and organic primer on the basis of amino acids found in the enamel tubules of teeth, namely, arginine, histidine, lysine and hyaluronic acid were obtained and studied in this work. Incorporation of organic primer into biocomposite formulation allowed us to obtain the emission characteristics (luminescence) that were identical to those inherent to the native tissues of the human tooth (enamel and dentine).

  8. Properties and geometry of radio pulsar emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Johannes Martinus

    2006-10-01

    This thesis consists of a number of studies on the radio emission of pulsars. The central topics are polarisation and multi frequency observations, which both lead to important information on the geometry of the emission. The first chapter introduces different aspects of pulsars that are related to the research that has been done in this thesis. In particular it deals with different aspects concerning the geometry of pulsar emission. Chapter 2 is about the nature of the radio emission. It shows the result of an attempt to confirm and expand on work that has been published by Jenet et al. (2001) on the detection of coherence in pulsar radiation. From an analysis of high time resolution observations, we found that the detection of coherence is consistent with the effects of interstellar scintillation. In chapter 3 a study is carried out on the orthogonal polarisation mode behaviour as a function of frequency of 18 pulsars. By making the assumption that the radiation consists of two 100% polarised completely orthogonal superposed modes, both modes could be separated In chapter 4 PSR B0031-07 is studied at two frequencies using two observations that were carried out simultaneously. It is shown that from the three known drift modes, only one drift mode is seen at high frequency. Based on this result we suggest a geometrical model in which different modes are emitted in concentric rings around the magnetic axis, with each mode having a different radius. The fifth chapter follows the suggestions made in chapter 4 to create a geometrical model of PSR B0031-07 for two of the drift modes. The results can be used to limit the possible geometries of PSR B0031-07. The final chapter consists of documentation of software that was written in C and utilised for this thesis for handling and analysing data files in the EPN format

  9. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of a Leonid Fireball Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiří.; Jenniskens, Peter

    Two video spectra of a meteoric afterglow were obtained for the first time during the 1999 Leonid aircraft campaign. The train was produced by a -13 magnitude Leonid fireball at a relatively low height between 91-75 km. The meteor spectrum has a strong hydrogen emission, proportional to 10-20 II atoms per one Fe atom The train spectrum consisted of a red continuum, yellow continuum, and about 50 atomic lines between 3700-9000 Å. The yellow continuum, possibly due to NO_2, was also detected in the persistent train. The red continuum is interpreted as a thermal radiation of dust from meteoric debris at about 1400 K. Evidence for secondary ablation is found in the afterglow. The atomic lines decayed within seconds of the meteor. The lines of Fe I, Mg I, Na I, Ca I, Ca II, Cr I, Mn I, K I, and possibly Al I were present in the glow together with the 5577 Å forbidden O I line. The gas temperature in the train was close to 5000 K at the beginning and decayed to 1200 K within two seconds. However, thermal equilibrium was not satisfied for all populated levels.

  10. Late activity in GRB afterglows. A multidimensional approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasis, A.; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    A late activity of the central engine of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) followed by energy injection in the external shock has been proposed in order to explain the strong variability which is often observed in multiwavelength observations in the afterglow. We perform high resolution 1D and 2D numerical simulations of late collisions between two ultra-relativistic shells in order to explore these events. We examine the case where a cold uniform shell collides with a self-similar Blandford and McKee shell in a constant density environment and for the 1D case we produce the corresponding on-axis light curves for the afterglow phase investigating the occurrence of optical and radio flares assuming a spherical explosion and a jet scenario with different opening angles. For our simulations we use the Adaptive Mesh Refinement version of the Versatile Advection Code (MPI-AMRVAC) coupled to a linear radiative transfer code to calculate synchrotron emission. We find steeply rising flare like behavior for small jet opening angles and more gradual rebrightenings for large opening angles. Synchrotron self-absorption is found to strongly influence the onset and shape of the radio flare. Preliminary results of the dynamics from the 2D simulation are also presented in this paper.

  11. Afterglows of Mildly Relativistic Supernovae: Baryon Loaded Blastwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak

    2011-08-01

    Relativistic supernovae have been discovered until recently only through their association with long duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). As the ejecta mass is negligible in comparison to the swept up mass, the blastwaves of such explosions are well described by the Blandford-McKee (in the ultra relativistic regime) and Sedov-Taylor (in the non-relativistic regime) solutions during their afterglows. However, the recent discovery of the relativistic supernova SN 2009bb, without a detected GRB, has indicated the possibility of highly baryon loaded mildly relativistic outflows which remains in nearly free expansion phase during the radio afterglow. In this work, we consider the dynamics and emission from a massive, relativistic shell, launched by a Central Engine Driven EXplosion (CEDEX), decelerating adiabatically due to its collision with the pre-explosion circumstellar wind profile of the progenitor. We show that this model explains the observed radio evolution of the prototypical SN 2009bb and demonstrate that SN 2009bb had a highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflow.

  12. Advances in flowing afterglow and selected-ion flow tube techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Robert R.

    1992-09-01

    New developments in flowing afterglow and selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) techniques are briefly reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the new chemical and physical information that can be obtained with use of the tandem flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole apparatus developed in the author's laboratory. Several outstanding recent achievements in the design and utilization of flowing afterglow and SIFT instruments in other laboratories are briefly highlighted that illustrate the power and flexibility of flow-tube-based methods. These include isotope tracer experiments with the tandem flowing afterglow-SIFT instrument in Boulder, studies of large molecular cluster ions with the variable temperature facility at Penn State, and gas-phase metal ion reactions with the laser ablation/fast flow reactor in Madison. Recent applications of the flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole instrument in our laboratory have made use of collision-induced dissociation (CID) as a tool for synthesizing novel ions and for obtaining new thermo-chemical information from threshold energy measurements. Collision-induced decar☐ylation of organic car☐ylate ions provides access to a variety of unusual and highly basic carbanions that cannot be generated with conventional ion sources. The formation and properties of saturated alkyl ions and studies of gas-phase reactions of the methyl anion are briefly described. We have developed a new method for carrying out "preparative CID" in a flowing afterglow with use of a mini-drift tube; some recent applications of this new ion source are presented. Measurement of CID thresholds for simple cleavage reactions of thermalized ions can provide accurate measures of bond strengths, gas-phase acidities and basicities, and heats of formation for ions and reactive neutral species. Applications of this approach in the thermochemical characterization of carbenes, benzynes and biradicals are described. Future prospects for the continued development of flow

  13. Looking Into the Fireball: ROTSE-III and Swift Observations of Early Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykoff, E. S.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C. W.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Flewelling, H. A.; Gehrels, N.; Göǧüş, E.; Güver, T.; Kiziloǧlu, Ü.; Krimm, H. A.; McKay, T. A.; Özel, M.; Phillips, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Rowell, G.; Rujopakarn, W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Smith, D. A.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wren, J.; Yuan, F.; Yost, S. A.

    2009-09-01

    We report on a complete set of early optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) obtained with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE-III) telescope network from 2005 March through 2007 June. This set is comprised of 12 afterglows with early optical and Swift/X-Ray Telescope observations, with a median ROTSE-III response time of 45 s after the start of γ-ray emission (8 s after the GCN notice time). These afterglows span 4 orders of magnitude in optical luminosity, and the contemporaneous X-ray detections allow multi-wavelength spectral analysis. Excluding X-ray flares, the broadband synchrotron spectra show that the optical and X-ray emission originate in a common region, consistent with predictions of the external forward shock in the fireball model. However, the fireball model is inadequate to predict the temporal decay indices of the early afterglows, even after accounting for possible long-duration continuous energy injection. We find that the optical afterglow is a clean tracer of the forward shock, and we use the peak time of the forward shock to estimate the initial bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow, and find 100 lsim Γ0 lsim 1000, consistent with expectations.

  14. LOOKING INTO THE FIREBALL: ROTSE-III AND SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Rykoff, E. S.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C. W.; Flewelling, H. A.; McKay, T. A.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Phillips, A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Goegues, E.; Guever, T.; Kiziloglu, Ue.; Oezel, M.; Rowell, G.; Rujopakarn, W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Smith, D. A.; Vestrand, W. T.

    2009-09-01

    We report on a complete set of early optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) obtained with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE-III) telescope network from 2005 March through 2007 June. This set is comprised of 12 afterglows with early optical and Swift/X-Ray Telescope observations, with a median ROTSE-III response time of 45 s after the start of {gamma}-ray emission (8 s after the GCN notice time). These afterglows span 4 orders of magnitude in optical luminosity, and the contemporaneous X-ray detections allow multi-wavelength spectral analysis. Excluding X-ray flares, the broadband synchrotron spectra show that the optical and X-ray emission originate in a common region, consistent with predictions of the external forward shock in the fireball model. However, the fireball model is inadequate to predict the temporal decay indices of the early afterglows, even after accounting for possible long-duration continuous energy injection. We find that the optical afterglow is a clean tracer of the forward shock, and we use the peak time of the forward shock to estimate the initial bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow, and find 100 {approx}< {gamma}{sub 0} {approx}< 1000, consistent with expectations.

  15. Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Granot, J

    2005-02-17

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration ({approx}> 2 s) GRBs, but the reason for which the spectral energy distribution of their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, E{sub p}, is still a subject of debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower values of E{sub p}, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of the jet aperture). This type of model self consistently accommodates both the observed prompt emission and the afterglow light curves of XRGRB 041006 and XRF 030723, implying viewing angles {theta}{sub obs} from the jet axis of ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} 0.15 {theta}{sub 0} and ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} {theta}{sub 0}, respectively, where {theta}{sub 0} {approx} 3{sup o} is the half-opening angle of the jet. This suggests that GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs are intrinsically similar relativistic jets viewed from different angles. It is then natural to identify GRBs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< 1, XRGRBs with 1 {approx}< ({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< a few, and XRFs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}> a few, where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor of the outflow near the edge of the jet from which most of the

  16. DISCOVERY OF THE VERY RED NEAR-INFRARED AND OPTICAL AFTERGLOW OF THE SHORT-DURATION GRB 070724A

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, D. B.; Cucchiara, A.

    2009-10-10

    We report the discovery of the near-infrared and optical afterglow of the short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 070724A. The afterglow is detected in iJHK{sub s} observations starting 2.3 hr after the burst with K{sub s} = 19.59 +- 0.16 mag and i = 23.79 +- 0.07 mag, but is absent in images obtained 1.3 yr later. Fading is also detected in the K{sub s} band between 2.8 and 3.7 hr at a 4sigma significance level. The optical/near-IR spectral index, beta{sub O,NIR} approx -2, is much redder than expected in the standard afterglow model, pointing to either significant dust extinction, A {sup host} {sub V} approx 2 mag, or a non-afterglow origin for the near-IR emission. The case for extinction is supported by a shallow optical to X-ray spectral index, consistent with the definition for 'dark bursts', and a normal near-IR to X-ray spectral index. Moreover, a comparison to the optical discovery magnitudes of all short GRBs with optical afterglows indicates that the near-IR counterpart of GRB 070724A is one of the brightest to date, while its observed optical emission is one of the faintest. In the context of a non-afterglow origin, the near-IR emission may be dominated by a mini-supernova (mini-SN), leading to an estimated ejected mass of M approx 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} and a radioactive energy release efficiency of f approx 5 x 10{sup -3} (for v approx 0.3c). However, the mini-SN model predicts a spectral peak in the UV rather than near-IR, suggesting that this is either not the correct interpretation or that the mini-SN models need to be revised. Finally, the afterglow coincides with a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.457, previously identified as the host based on its coincidence with the X-ray afterglow position (approx2'' radius). Our discovery of the optical/near-IR afterglow makes this association secure, and furthermore localizes the burst to the outskirts of the galaxy, with an offset of 4.8 +- 0.1 kpc relative to the host center. At such a large offset, the possible

  17. Investigation on the effect of exposure time on scintillator afterglow for ultra-fast tomography acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zefreh, K. Z.; Welford, F. M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Thanks to the ultra-fast endstation of the TOMCAT beamline, it is possible to do a tomographic scan with a sub-second temporal resolution which allows following dynamic processes in 4D (3D space + time). This ultra- high-rate tomography acquisition, exploiting the distinctive peculiarities of synchrotron radiation, provides nondestructive investigation of many dynamic processes which were not possible in the past. For example a continuous tensile test has been conducted recently in-situ for the first time with a frequency of 20 tomograms per second (20 Hz acquisition frequency). In the ultra-fast endstation a scintillator is used to convert X-ray to visible photons that can be detected by the camera. However, this conversion is not ideal and the scintillator response decays exponentially with afterglow. Afterglow can cause resolution degradation and artifacts (such as ring and band) especially with high rotation speed. On the other hand, to achieve a higher scan speed, thicker scintillators are more common because they result in higher emission intensities that can compensate the short exposure time in fast scans. However, the resolution deteriorates as the scintillator's thickness increases and thicker scintillators show higher afterglow. Performing many ultra-fast scans at the TOMCAT beamline with different acquisition rate, we demonstrate how the exposure time effects on the projection data and reconstructed images. Using two different thicknesses of LAG scintillator we also investigate the afterglow artifacts for different acquisition rate and exposure time.

  18. The Afterglow, Energetics, and Host Galaxy of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Burst 051221a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, A. M.; Berger, E.; Kasliwal, M.; Frail, D. A.; Price, P. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Fox, D. B.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nakar, E.; Roth, K. C.

    2006-10-01

    We present detailed optical, X-ray, and radio observations of the bright afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst 051221a obtained with Gemini, Swift XRT, and the Very Large Array, as well as optical spectra from which we measure the redshift of the burst, z=0.5464. At this redshift the isotropic-equivalent prompt energy release was about 1.5×1051 ergs, and using a standard afterglow synchrotron model, we find that the blast wave kinetic energy is similar, EK,iso~8.4×1051 ergs. An observed jet break at t~5 days indicates that the opening angle is θj~7deg and the total beaming-corrected energy is therefore ~2.5×1049 ergs, comparable to the values inferred for previous short GRBs. We further show that the burst experienced an episode of energy injection by a factor of 3.4 between t=1.4 and 3.4 hr, which was accompanied by reverse shock emission in the radio band. This result provides continued evidence that the central engines of short GRBs may be active significantly longer than the duration of the burst and/or produce a wide range of Lorentz factors. Finally, we show that the host galaxy is actively forming stars at a rate of about 1.6 Msolar yr-1, yet exhibits evidence for an appreciable population of old stars (~1 Gyr) and near-solar metallicity. These properties are intermediate between those of long GRB hosts and previous short burst hosts. The lack of bright supernova emission and the low circumburst density (n~10-3 cm-3), however, continue to support the idea that short bursts are not related to massive stellar death. Given that the total energy release is larger than the predicted yield for a neutrino annihilation mechanism, this suggests that magnetohydrodynamic processes may be required to power the burst.

  19. Optical-infrared flares and radio afterglows by Jovian planets inspiraling into their host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Hayasaki, Kimitake; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-04-01

    When a planet inspirals into its host star, it releases gravitational energy, which is converted into an expanding bubble of hot plasma. We study the radiation from the bubble and show that it includes prompt optical-infrared emission and a subsequent radio afterglow. The prompt emission from M31 and the Large Magellanic Cloud is detectable by optical-near-infrared transient surveys with a large field of view. The subsequent radio afterglows are detectable for 103-104 yr. The event rate depends on uncertain parameters in the formation and dynamics of giant planets. Future observations of the rate will constrain related theoretical models. If the event rate is high ( ≳ a few events per year), the circumstellar disc must typically be massive, as suggested by recent numerical simulations.

  20. Electrical characterization of the flowing afterglow of N2 and N2/O2 microwave plasmas at reduced pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso Ferreira, J.; Stafford, L.; Leonelli, R.; Ricard, A.

    2014-04-01

    A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to analyze the spatial distribution of the number density of positive ions and electrons as well as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in the flowing afterglow of a 6 Torr N2 and N2/O2 plasma sustained by a propagating electromagnetic surface wave in the microwave regime. In pure N2 discharges, ion densities were in the mid 1014 m-3 in the pink afterglow and in the mid 1012 m-3 early in the late afterglow. In both pink and late afterglows, the ion population was much higher than the electron population, indicating non-macroscopically neutral media. The EEDF was close to a Maxwellian with an electron temperature of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV, except in the pink afterglow where the temperature rose to 1.1 ± 0.2 eV. This latter behavior is ascribed to N2 vibration-vibration pumping in the pink afterglow that increases the concentration of high N2 vibrational states and thus rises the electron temperature by vibration-electron collisions. After addition of small amounts of O2 in the nominally pure N2 discharge, the charged particles densities and average electron energy first strongly increased and then decreased with increasing O2 concentration. Based on these data and the evolution of the N2+(B) band emission intensities, it is concluded that a significant change in the positive ion composition of the flowing afterglow occurs, going from N2+ in nominally pure N2 discharges to NO+ after addition of trace amounts of O2 in N2.

  1. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B.; Wu, X. F. E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn

    2013-12-10

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ∼t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  2. Statistical properties of dust far-infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Lagache, G.; Boulanger, F.; Puget, J.-L.

    2007-07-01

    Context: Far-infrared dust emission has a self-similar structure which reveals the complex dynamical processes that shape the interstellar medium. The description of the statistical properties of this emission gives important constraints on the physics of the interstellar medium but it is also a useful way to estimate the contamination of diffuse interstellar emission in the cases where it is considered a nuisance. Aims: The main goals of this analysis of the power spectrum and non-Gaussian properties of far-infrared dust emission are 1) to estimate the power spectrum of interstellar matter density in three dimensions; 2) to review and extend previous estimates of the cirrus noise due to dust emission; and 3) to produce simulated dust emission maps that reproduce the observed statistical properties. Methods: To estimate the statistical properties of dust emission we analyzed the power spectrum and wavelet decomposition of 100 μm IRIS data (an improved version of the IRAS data) over 55% of the sky. The simulation of realistic infrared emission maps is based on modified Gaussian random fields. Results: The main results are the following. 1) The cirrus noise level as a function of brightness has been previously overestimated. It is found to be proportional to < I> instead of < I>1.5, where < I> is the local average brightness at 100 μm. This scaling is in accordance with the fact that the brightness fluctuation level observed at a given angular scale on the sky is the sum of fluctuations of increasing amplitude with distance on the line of sight. 2) The spectral index of dust emission at scales between 5 arcmin and 12.5° is <γ>=-2.9 on average but shows significant variations over the sky. Bright regions have systematically steeper power spectra than diffuse regions. 3) The skewness and kurtosis of brightness fluctuations are high, indicative of strong non-Gaussianity. Unlike the standard deviation of the fluctuations, the skewness and kurtosis do not depend

  3. Metastable atomic species in the N2 flowing afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levaton, J.; Amorim, J.

    2012-03-01

    We have studied by optical emission spectroscopy the post-discharge of a pure N2 DC flowing discharge in such experimental conditions that the pink afterglow and the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow occur. The emission profiles originated from the NB3Πg, NC3Πu and N2+B2Σu+ states and the NB3Πg,6≤v≤12 and NC3Πu,0≤v≤4 vibrational distributions were obtained in the post-discharge region. With basis on the works of Bockel et al. [S. Bockel, A.M. Diamy, A. Ricard, Surf. Coat. Tech. 74 (1995) 474] and Amorim and Kiohara [J. Amorim, V. Kiohara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385 (2004) 268], we have obtained the experimental N(4S) and N(2D) relative densities along the post-discharge. A numerical model, previously developed to describe the neutral atomic, molecular and ionic species in the afterglow, was improved to include the kinetics of N(2D) and N(2P) states. Several kinetic mechanisms leading to the production of N(2D) in the post-discharge have been studied in order to explain the experimental data. We have determined that the dominant one is the reaction NX1Σg+,v>8+N(4S)→NX1Σg++N(2D) with an estimated rate constant of 7 × 10-14 cm3 s-1. Also, the fit of the numerical density profiles of NC3Πu and N2+B2Σu+ to the experimental ones has provided the rate constant for reaction NA3Σu++NX1∑g+,v>18→NC3Πu+NX1Σg+. Its estimated value is 4 × 10-13 cm3 s-1. Finally, with the new kinetic scheme, we have found that the ionization in the post-discharge region has important contribution of N(2D) and N(2P) species.

  4. Short GRB 130603B: Discovery of a jet break in the optical and radio afterglows, and a mysterious late-time X-ray excess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Migliori, G.; Zauderer, B. A.; Lunnan, R.; Laskar, T.; Metzger, B. D.; Foley, R. J.; Desch, S. J.; Meech, K. J.; Sonnett, S.; Dickey, C.; Hedlund, A.; Harding, P.

    2014-01-10

    We present radio, optical/NIR, and X-ray observations of the afterglow of the short-duration Swift and Konus-Wind GRB 130603B, and uncover a break in the radio and optical bands at ≈0.5 day after the burst, best explained as a jet break with an inferred jet opening angle of ≈4°-8°. GRB 130603B is only the third short GRB with a radio afterglow detection to date, and represents the first time that a jet break has been evident in the radio band. We model the temporal evolution of the spectral energy distribution to determine the burst explosion properties and find an isotropic-equivalent kinetic energy of ≈(0.6-1.7) × 10{sup 51} erg and a circumburst density of ≈5 × 10{sup –3}-30 cm{sup –3}. From the inferred opening angle of GRB 130603B, we calculate beaming-corrected energies of E {sub γ} ≈ (0.5-2) × 10{sup 49} erg and E {sub K} ≈ (0.1-1.6) × 10{sup 49} erg. Along with previous measurements and lower limits we find a median opening angle of ≈10°. Using the all-sky observed rate of 10 Gpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1}, this implies a true short GRB rate of ≈20 yr{sup –1} within 200 Mpc, the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO sensitivity range for neutron star binary mergers. Finally, we uncover evidence for significant excess emission in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 130603B at ≳ 1 day and conclude that the additional energy component could be due to fall-back accretion or spin-down energy from a magnetar formed following the merger.

  5. Evidence for a Canonical GRB Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift/XRT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grupe, D.; Page, K.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Patel, S. K.; Burrows, D. N.; Mangano, V.; Barthelmy, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present new observations of the early X-ray afterglows of the first 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The early X-ray afterglows show a canonical behavior, where the light curve broadly consists of three distinct power law segments. These power law segments are separated by two corresponding break times. On top of this canonical behavior of the early X-ray light curve, many events have superimposed X-ray flares, which are most likely caused by internal shocks due to long lasting sporadx activity of the central engine, up to several hours after the GRB. We find that the initial steep decay is consistent with it being the tail of the prompt emission: from photons that are radiated at large angles relative to our line of sight. The first break in the light curve takes place when the forward shock emission becomes dominant, with the intermediate shallow flux decay likely caused by the continuous energy injection into the external shock. When this energy injection stops, a second break is then observed in the light curve. This energy injection increases the energy of the afterglow shock by at least a factor of f greater than or approx. equal to 4, and augments the already severe requirements for the efficiency of the prompt gamma-ray emission.

  6. Field emission properties of carbon nanotubes coated with boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Park, Noejung; Han, Seungwu; Ihm, Jisoon

    2003-01-01

    Field emission properties of carbon nanotubes coated with a single layer of boron nitride are calculated using the first-principles pseudopotential method. At lower bias voltage, the emission current of the coated nanotube is comparable to that of the bare carbon nanotube and is dominated by the contribution from localized states at the tip of the tube. At higher voltage, newly generated hybridized states between the carbon nanotube tip and the even-membered boron nitride rings contribute significantly to the emission current because they experience a low tunneling barrier compared with the bare carbon nanotube case. Our results suggest that the insulator coating can, besides protecting the nanotube tip from the attack of gas molecules, substantially enhance the field emission current.

  7. Optical and field emission properties of Zinc Oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui; Zhu, Yanwu; Ni, Zhenhua; Sun, Han; Poh, Cheekok; Lim, Sanhua; Sow, Chornghaur; Shen, Zexiang; Feng, Yuanping; Lin, Jianyi

    2005-10-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano-pikes were produced by oxidative evaporation and condensation of Zn powders. The crystalline structure and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures (ZnONs) greatly depend on the deposition position of the ZnONs. TEM and XRD indicated that the ZnONs close to the reactor center, ZnON-A, has better crystalline structure than the ZnONs away from the center, ZnON-B. ZnON-A showed the PL and Raman spectra characteristic of perfect ZnO crystals, whereas ZnON-B produced very strong green emission band at 500 nm in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and very strong Raman scattering peak at 560 cm(-1), both related to the oxygen deficiency due to insufficient oxidation of zinc vapor. ZnON-B exhibited better field emission properties with higher emission current density and lower turn-on field than ZnON-A.

  8. Field emission properties of single crystal chromium disilicide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Valentin, L. A.; Carpena-Nunez, J.; Yang, D.; Fonseca, L. F.

    2013-01-07

    The composition, crystal structure, and field emission properties of high-crystallinity chromium disilicide (CrSi{sub 2}) nanowires synthesized by a vapor deposition method have been studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction studies confirm the single-crystalline structure and composition of the CrSi{sub 2} nanowires. Field emission measurements show that an emission current density of 0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} was obtained at a turn-on electric field intensity of 2.80 V/{mu}m. The maximum emission current measured was 1.86 mA/cm{sup 2} at 3.6 V/{mu}m. The relation between the emission current density and the electric field obtained follows the Fowler-Nordheim equation, with an enhancement coefficient of 1140. The electrical conductivity of single nanowires was measured by using four-point-probe specialized microdevices at different temperatures, and the calculated values are close to those reported in previous studies for highly conductive single crystal bulk CrSi{sub 2}. The thermal tolerance of the nanowires was studied up to a temperature of 1100 Degree-Sign C. The stability of the field emission current, the I-E values, their thermal tolerance, and high electrical conductivity make CrSi{sub 2} nanowires a promising material for field emission applications.

  9. The Swift XRT: Observations of Early X-ray Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, David N.; Kennea, J. A.; Nousek, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Giommi, P.; Zhang, B.

    2006-05-19

    During the first year of operations of the Swift observatory, the X-ray Telescope has made a number of discoveries concerning the nature of X-ray afterglows of both long and short GRBs. We highlight the key findings, which include rapid declines at early times, a standard template of afterglow light curve shapes, common flaring, and the discovery of the first short GRB afterglow.

  10. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  11. Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.

    2012-11-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n+ ≈ 0.1VAɛ0/qd2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ' of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].

  12. Optical properties and emissivities of liquid metals and alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Nordine, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results from our on-going program to investigate the optical properties of liquid metals and alloys at elevated temperatures. Ellipsometric and polarimetric techniques have been used to investigate the optical properties of materials in the 1000 - 3000 K temperature range and in the 0.3 - 0.1 mu m wavelength range. The ellipsometric and polarimetric techniques are described and the characteristics of the instruments are presented. The measurements are conducted by reflecting a polarized laser beam from an electromagnetically levitated liquid metal or alloy specimen. A Rotating Analyzer Ellipsometer (RAE) or a four-detector Division-of-Amplitude Photopolarimeter (DOAP) is used to determine the polarimetric properties of the light reflected at an angle of incidence of approximately 68 deg. Optical properties of the specimen which are calculated from these measurements include the index of refraction, extinction coefficient, normal spectral emissivity, and spectral hemispherical emissivity. These properties have been determined at various wavelengths and temperatures for liquid Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Si, Ti, Ti-Al alloys, U, and Zr. We also describe new experiments using pulsed-dye laser spectroscopic ellipsometry for studies of the wavelength dependence of the emissivities and optical properties of materials at high temperature. Preliminary results are given for liquid Al. The application of four-detector polarimetry for rapid determination of surface emissivity and true temperature is also described. Characteristics of these devices are presented. An example of the accuracy of this instrument in measurements of the melting point of zirconium is illustrated.

  13. Radio afterglow of the jetted tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, B. D.; Giannios, D.; Mimica, P.

    2012-12-01

    The recent transient event Swift J1644+57 has been interpreted as resulting from a relativistic outflow, powered by the accretion of a tidally disrupted star onto a supermassive black hole. This discovery of a new class of relativistic transients opens new windows into the study of tidal disruption events (TDEs) and offers a unique probe of the physics of relativistic jet formation and the conditions in the centers of distant quiescent galaxies. Unlike the rapidly-varying γ/X-ray emission from Swift J1644+57, the radio emission varies more slowly and is well modeled as synchrotron radiation from the shock interaction between the jet and the gaseous circumnuclear medium (CNM). Early after the onset of the jet, a reverse shock propagates through and decelerates the ejecta released during the first few days of activity, while at much later times the outflow approaches the self-similar evolution of Blandford and McKee. The point at which the reverse shock entirely crosses the earliest ejecta is clearly observed as an achromatic break in the radio light curve at t ≈ 10 days. The flux and break frequencies of the afterglow constrain the properties of the jet and the CNM, including providing robust evidence for a narrowly collimated jet. I briefly discuss the implications of Swift J1644+57 for the fraction of TDEs accompanied by relativistic jets; the physics of jet formation more broadly; and the prospects for detecting off-axis TDE radio emission, either via follow-up observations of TDE candidates discovered at other wavelengths or blindly with upcoming wide-field radio surveys. The radio rebrightening observed months after the onset of the jet remains a major unsolved mystery, the resolution of which may require considering a jet with more complex (temporal or angular) structure.

  14. Snow property measurements correlative to microwave emission at 35 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    1987-01-01

    Snow microstructure, measured by plane section analysis, and snow wetness, measured by the dilution method, are used to calculate input parameters for a microwave emission model that uses the radiative transfer method. The scattering and absorbing properties are calculated by Mie theory. The effects of different equivalent sphere conversions, adjustments for near-field interference, and different snow wetness characterizations are compared for various snow conditions. The concentric shell geometry of liquid water in snow yields higher emissivities and better model results than the separate-sphere configuration for liquid water contents greater than 0.05, while at lower liquid water contents the separate-sphere treatment gives better results.

  15. Luminescence of divalent europium activated spinels synthesized by combustion and the enhanced afterglow by dysprosium incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haoyi; Jin, Yahong

    2016-05-01

    Herein we report a luminescent phenomenon of Eu2+ in the spinel MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 samples which are successfully synthesized via a combustion method. The XRD shows cubic spinel structure is obtained from the prepared samples. The mean crystal sizes estimated from XRD data are 30 and 10 nm for MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 respectively, and the large grain particles are the agglomeration of crystallites. The Eu2+ ions show a blue emission at around 480 nm and an afterglow phenomenon is observed after the removal of excitation. The afterglow spectrum of MgAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ shows two emissions at 480 and 520 nm while only one at 480 nm is observed in ZnAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+. The afterglow intensity and the persisting duration can be substantially enhanced by the Dy3+ incorporation because the trapping ability of the electron traps is reinforced. This is confirmed by the TL curves of the samples.

  16. Dissociative recombination studies in stationary and flowing afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypkowski, Miroslaw Piotr

    2000-11-01

    The dissociative recombination of NH4+(NH 3)2,3 cluster-ions with electrons has been studied in a stationary afterglow experiment in which the electron temperature Te was elevated by radio- frequency heating from 300K up to 1000K. The recombination coefficients for the n = 2 and n = 3 cluster ions were found to be equal, α2 = α3 = (4.8 +/- 0.5) × 10-6cm3/s, and to vary with electron temperature as Te-0.65 . The known temperature dependence of the recombination coefficient of Ar2+ ions was remeasured to check the validity of the methods employed to calculate the electron-temperature scale in the experiment. A flowing afterglow/Langmuir probe (FALP) technique in conjunction with spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy has been used to measure the absolute yield of radiative product states from ion-electron recombination. The technique was applied to the dissociative recombination of CO2 +, HCO+/COH+, HCO2 +, N2O+, and N2OH+/HN 2O+ ions with electrons at 300K. The vibrational distribution in CO(a3Π, v = 0-3) from CO2+ + e and in CO(a3Π, v = 0-4) from HCO+ + e was deduced. Contrary to expectations, no spectral features in the 550-750 region could be ascribed to the dissociative recombination in H3 +/e plasmas. FALP, coupled with spatially-resolved laser induced fluorescence (LIF), was also used in the studies of H- atom branching ratio from H3 + + e.

  17. Shallow decay phase of X-ray afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, R.; Takahashi, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.

    2008-05-22

    We investigated the characteristics of the shallow decay phase in the early X-ray afterglows of GRBs observed by Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during the period of January 2005 to December 2006. We found that the intrinsic break time at the shallow-to-normal decay transition in the X-ray light curve T{sub brk}{sup 0} is moderately well correlated with the isotropic X-ray luminosity in the end of the shallow decay phase (L{sub X,end}) as T{sub brk}{sup 0} (9.39{+-}0.64)x10{sup 3} s(L{sub X,end}/10{sup 47} ergs{center_dot}s{sup -1}){sup -0.71{+-}}{sup 0.03}. Using T{sub brk}{sup 0}-L{sub X,end} relation we have determined the pseudo redshifts of 33 GRBs. We compared the pseudo redshifts of 11 GRBs with measured redshifts and found the rms error to be 0.17 in log z. From this pseudo redshift, we estimate that {approx}15% of the Swift GRBs have z>5. The advantages of this distance indicator is that (1) it requires only X-ray afterglow data while other methods such as Amati and Yonetoku correlations require the peak energy (E{sub p}) of the prompt emission, (2) the redshift is uniquely determined without redshift degeneracies unlike the Amati correlation, and (3) the redshift is estimated in advance of deep follow-ups so that possible high redshift GRBs might be selected for detailed observations.

  18. Erosion of a-C:H in the afterglow of ammonia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, Aleksander; Mourkas, Angelos; Zaplotnik, Rok; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Panjan, Peter; Alegre, Daniel; Tabarés, Francisco L.

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) deposits were eroded in the afterglow of a NH3 plasma, created with an inductively coupled RF generator in pure NH3 at the gas pressure of 50 Pa. The plasma system was characterised by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and the erosion process was monitored in-situ with a laser interferometry system. Based on the mass spectrometry measurements, the degree of dissociation of the NH3 molecules was estimated at 90% at the highest generator forward power in the discharge region, however the densities of N and H atoms were significantly smaller at the location of the sample holder. The erosion rates were found to increase with surface temperature and forward generator power. In the high dissociation regime, the composition of the afterglow and the reaction products highlight the role of N atoms in the erosion process.

  19. Thermal Electrons in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, Sean M.; Laskar, Tanmoy

    2017-08-01

    To date, nearly all multi-wavelength modeling of long-duration γ-ray bursts has ignored synchrotron radiation from the significant population of electrons expected to pass the shock without acceleration into a power-law distribution. We investigate the effect of including the contribution of thermal, non-accelerated electrons to synchrotron absorption and emission in the standard afterglow model, and show that these thermal electrons provide an additional source of opacity to synchrotron self-absorption, and yield an additional emission component at higher energies. The extra opacity results in an increase in the synchrotron self-absorption frequency by factors of 10-100 for fiducial parameters. The nature of the additional emission depends on the details of the thermal population, but is generally observed to yield a spectral peak in the optical brighter than radiation from the nonthermal population by similar factors a few seconds after the burst, remaining detectable at millimeter and radio frequencies several days later.

  20. Properties of a field emission-driven Townsend discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David

    2012-10-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current (DC) microplasmas with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties such as ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that ionizing collisions by field-emitted electrons produce significant ion densities well before Paschen's criteria for breakdown is met. When positive space charge densities become sufficiently large, the effect of ion-enhanced field emission leads to breakdown. Defining breakdown mathematically using a solvability condition leads to a full modified Paschen's curve, while defining it physically in terms of a critical ion density leads analytically to an effective secondary emission coefficient, γ', of the form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk.footnotetextBoyle, W.S. and Kisliuk, P., Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955).

  1. PAH Emission From ULIRGs: Evidence For Unusual Grain Properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jason A.; Armus, L.; Spoon, H. W. W.

    2007-12-01

    The tremendous power emerging from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) is driven both by high levels of star-formation activity and AGN-related accretion. Observations of star-forming regions in the Milky Way and external star-forming galaxies provide evidence that the first of these energy generation mechanisms often also gives rise to emission from PAH molecules in the form of characteristic mid-IR features. Given the composite nature of ULIRGs, it is not surprising that many also exhibit significant emission from PAHs. Perhaps more surprising, however, is that some ULIRGs believed to be powered primarily by AGNs also show emission from PAHs, although typically at lower levels relative to their total dust output. To investigate the nature of the PAH emission from galaxies powered either by star-formation or AGN accretion alone, as well as emission from composite systems such as ULIRGs powered by both mechanisms, we present a detailed study of the PAH emission spectra from galaxies of each type. We use the CAFE spectral energy distribution decomposition software we have developed to derive and extinction correct the spectra of PAH emission from a sample of 100 galaxies with Spitzer/IRS observations, and use the results of this analysis to calculate the ratios of the various mid-IR PAH feature luminosities. In particular, we investigate to what extent these relative feature strengths vary as a function of the optical classification of galaxies, and we inquire into whether or not the derived feature strength ratios provide evidence for unusual grain properties in the extreme conditions within ULIRGs.

  2. Quantum noise and spatial emission properties of RCLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Richard; Kaiser, Joachim; ElsaBer, Wolfgang; Jung, Christian

    2004-09-01

    We present results of comprehensive investigations of the intensity noise and the angular-resolved spectral emission characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLEDs), demonstrating an interesting interplay between these two properties. First, we find that the intensity noise of the investigated RCLEDs, detected within a full solid angle of detection, is up to -0.15 dB below the shot noise in a quite large pumping regime, i.e., we demonstrate the successful generation of squeezed states of light with these optoelectronic devices. Second, we investigate the spectral and angular emission characteristics and find that the cavity-like character of the Bragg mirrors and the quantum well active medium manifests itself in a blue shift of the central emission wavelength from 847 nm at zero degree to 825 nm at an emission angle of sixty degree. By varying the temperature we are able to detune the quantum-well emission wavelength and the cavity resonance wavelength and observe a broader angular intensity profile. Third, we measure the angular resolved intensity noise. Its super-shot noise behavior can be explained by anticorrelations between radial components of the output intensity emitted at different angles. Finally, the possible origin of the observed anticorrelations in the angular-resolved intensity noise, as well as possibilities for future trends, applications and the limitations of these non-classical states of light with respect to sensing and spectroscopic applications are discussed.

  3. Afterglows from the largest explosions in the universe

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1999-01-01

    The distinction of “largest explosions in the universe” has been bestowed on cosmic gamma-ray bursts. Their afterglows are brighter than supernovae and therefore are called hypernovae. Photometry and spectroscopy of these afterglows have provided major breakthroughs in our understanding of this mysterious phenomenon. PMID:10220364

  4. On the afterglow from the receding jet of γ-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, Y. F.; Kong, S. W.

    2009-10-01

    According to popular progenitor models of gamma-ray bursts, twin jets should be launched by the central engine, with a forward jet moving toward the observer and a receding jet (or the counter jet) moving backwardly. However, in calculating the afterglows, usually only the emission from the forward jet is considered. Here we present a detailed numerical study on the afterglow from the receding jet. Our calculation is based on a generic dynamical description, and includes some delicate ingredients such as the effect of the equal arrival time surface. It is found that the emission from the receding jet is generally rather weak. In radio bands, it usually peaks at a time t ≥ 1000 d, with the peak flux nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than the peak flux of the forward jet. Also, it usually manifests as a short plateau in the total afterglow light curve, but not as an obvious rebrightening as once expected. In optical bands, the contribution from the receding jet is even weaker, with the peak flux being ~23 mag lower than the peak flux of the forward jet. We thus argue that the emission from the receding jet is very difficult to detect. However, in some special cases, i.e., when the circum-burst medium density is very high, or if the parameters of the receding jet are quite different from those of the forward jet, the emission from the receding jet can be significantly enhanced and may still emerge as a marked rebrightening. We suggest that the search for receding jet emission should mostly concentrate on nearby gamma-ray bursts, and the observation campaign should last for at least several hundred days for each event.

  5. Two Early Gamma-ray Bursts Optical Afterglow Detections with TAOS Telescopes--GRB 071010B and GRB 071112C

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Urata, Y.

    2009-05-25

    We present on two early detections of GRB afterglows with the Taiwanese-American Occltation Sruvey (TAOS) telescopes. The robotic TAOS system has been devised so that the routine Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey is interrupted when a GRB alert is triggered. Our first detection, GRB 071010B was detected by TAOS 62 s after the burst and showed a weak early brightening during the observations. No significant correction with the prompt gamma-ray emission indicated that our optical emission detected is afterglow emission. The second detection of TAOS, GRB 071112C was detected 96 s after the burst, also showed a possible initial raising then followed a steep decay in the R-band light curve.

  6. Spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emission from stratified jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Jin; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tolstov, Alexey; Mao, Jirong; Dainotti, Maria; Mizuta, Akira

    2014-07-10

    We explore the spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emissions from stratified jets in which multiple components, separated by sharp velocity shear regions, are distributed in lateral directions. Propagation of thermal photons injected at a high optical depth region are calculated until they escape from the photosphere. It is found that the presence of the lateral structure within the jet leads to the nonthermal feature of the spectra and significant polarization signal in the resulting emission. The deviation from thermal spectra, as well as the polarization degree, tends to be enhanced as the velocity gradient in the shear region increases. In particular, we show that emissions from multicomponent jet can reproduce the typical observed spectra of gamma-ray bursts irrespective of the position of the observer when a velocity shear region is closely spaced in various lateral (θ) positions. The degree of polarization associated with the emission is significant (>few percent) at a wide range of observer angles and can be higher than 30%.

  7. Field emission properties of ZnO nanosheet arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Rout, Chandra Sekhar E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Khare, Ruchita; More, Mahendra A.; Chakravarty, Disha; Late, Dattatray J. E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Thapa, Ranjit E-mail: dj.late@ncl.res.in E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in

    2014-12-08

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanosheet arrays grown on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates have been studied. Influence of oxygen vacancies on electronic structures and field emission properties of ZnO nanosheets are investigated using density functional theory. The oxygen vacancies produce unshared d electrons which form an impurity energy state; this causes shifting of Fermi level towards the vacuum, and so the barrier energy for electron extraction reduces. The ZnO nanosheet arrays exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.4 V/μm at 0.1 μA/cm{sup 2} and current density of 50.1 μA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 6.4 V/μm with field enhancement factor, β = 5812 and good field emission current stability. The nanosheet arrays grown by a facile electrodeposition process have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications.

  8. Correlated Optical and X-Ray Flares in the Afterglow of XRF 071031

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krühler, T.; Greiner, J.; McBreen, S.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.; Afonso, P.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; Yoldaş, A. Küpcü; Szokoly, G. P.; Yoldaş, A.

    2009-05-01

    We present a densely sampled early light curve of the optical/near-infrared (NIR) afterglow of the X-Ray Flash (XRF) 071031 at z = 2.692. Simultaneous and continuous observations in seven photometric bands from g' to KS with GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-InfraRed Detector) at the 2.2-m MPI/ESO telescope on LaSilla were performed between 4 minutes and 7 hr after the burst. The light curve consists of 547 individual points which allows us to study the early evolution of the optical transient associated with XRF 071031 in great detail. The optical/NIR light curve is dominated by an early increase in brightness which can be attributed to the apparent onset of the forward shock emission. There are several bumps which are superimposed onto the overall rise and decay. Significant flaring is also visible in the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curve from early to late times. The availability of high-quality, broadband data enables detailed studies of the connection between the X-ray and optical/NIR afterglow and its color evolution during the first night postburst. We find evidence of spectral hardening in the optical bands contemporaneous with the emergence of the bumps from an underlying afterglow component. The bumps in the optical/NIR light curve can be associated with flares in the X-ray regime suggesting late central engine activity as the common origin.

  9. Amplified spontaneous emission properties of semiconducting organic materials.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Eva M; Boj, Pedro G; Díaz-García, María A

    2010-06-18

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  10. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Calzado, Eva M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Díaz-García, María A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature. PMID:20640167

  11. Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zamri Yusop, Mohd; Kalita, Golap; Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-03-03

    Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10 nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870 V/μm for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200 nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

  12. Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

  13. Pinus Pinaster surface treatment realized in spatial and temporal afterglow DBD conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, E.; Clément, F.; Panousis, E.; Loiseau, J.-F.; Held, B.; Castetbon, A.; Guimon, C.

    2008-04-01

    This experimental work deals with the exposition of Pinus Pinaster wood samples to a DBD afterglow. Electrical parameters like duty cycle and injected energy in the gas are being varied and the modifications induced by the afterglow on the wood are analysed by several macroscopic and microscopic ways like wettability, XPS analyses and also soaking tests of treated wood in a commercial fungicide solution. Soaking tests show that plasma treatment could enhance the absorption of fungicide into the wood. The wettability results point out that the plasma treatment can inflict on the wood different surface properties, making it hydrophilic or hydrophobic, when varying electrical parameters. XPS analyses reveal several chemical modifications like an increase of the O/C ratio and the presence of carboxyl groups on the surface after plasma treatments.

  14. Electrodeposited ZnO films with high UV emission properties

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, Elena; Enculescu, Ionut

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electrodeposition of ZnO from nitrate baths is investigated. {yields} The influence of process parameters on morphological and optical properties is studied. {yields} Experimental conditions to fabricate ZnO films with high UV emission were found. -- Abstract: We report here our results in the preparation of ZnO films with high UV band to band characteristic luminescence emission by potentiostatic electrodeposition. Zinc nitrate aqueous baths with different concentration and additives were employed for the preparation of the films on platinum substrates. We focused our research in determining how the electrodeposition bath composition, i.e. zinc nitrate concentration and addition of KCl or polyvinyl pyrolidone and applied overpotential influence the morphological and optical properties of the oxide films. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for characterizing the films in terms of morphology. Optical reflection, photoluminescence spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence were used for determining the optical characteristics of the samples. The morphology of the deposit varies from hexagonal prisms to platelets as a function of the deposition rate. This experimental parameter also influences the luminescence properties. We found that at low deposition rates high UV luminescent material is obtained.

  15. Afterglow rebrightenings as a signature of a long-lasting central engine activity?. The emblematic case of GRB 100814A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, M.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Klose, S.; Afonso, P.; Kann, D. A.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Olivares E., F.; Rau, A.; Rossi, A.; Sudilovsky, V.; Schmidl, S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. In the past few years the number of well-sampled optical to near-infrared (NIR) light curves of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has greatly increased, particularly due to simultaneous multi-band imagers such as GROND. Combining these densely sampled ground-based data sets with the Swift UVOT and XRT space observations unveils a much more complex afterglow evolution than what was predicted by the most commonly invoked theoretical models. GRB 100814A represents a remarkable example of these interesting well-sampled events, showing a prominent late-time rebrightening in the optical to NIR bands and a complex spectral evolution. This represents a unique laboratory to test the different afterglow emission models. Aims: Here we study the nature of the complex afterglow emission of GRB 100814A in the framework of different theoretical models. Moreover, we compare the late-time chromatic rebrightening with those observed in other well-sampled long GRBs. Methods: We analysed the optical and NIR observations obtained with the seven-channel Gamma-Ray burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND) at the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope together with the X-ray and UV data detected by the instruments onboard the Swift observatory. The broad-band afterglow evolution, achieved by constructing multi-instrument light curves and spectral energy distributions, is discussed in the framework of different theoretical models. Results: We find that the standard models that describe the broad-band afterglow emission within the external shock scenario fail to describe the complex evolution of GRB 100814A, and therefore more complex scenarios must be invoked. The analysis of the very well sampled broad-band light curve of GRB 100814A allowed us to deduce that models invoking late-time activity of the central engine in the observed afterglow emission are the preferred ones for all the different observed features. This late-time activity most likely has the form of a delayed reactivation of the

  16. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SNe). We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳10-100 yr. In the rapidly rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Secondly, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (≲10-100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  17. Emission properties of body-centered cubic elemental metal photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tuo; Rickman, Benjamin L. Schroeder, W. Andreas

    2015-04-07

    A first principles analysis of photoemission is developed to explain the lower than expected rms transverse electron momentum measured using the solenoid scan technique for the body-centered cubic Group Vb (V, Nb, and Ta) and Group VIb (Cr, Mo, and W) metallic photocathodes. The density functional theory based analysis elucidates the fundamental role that the electronic band structure (and its dispersion) plays in determining the emission properties of solid-state photocathodes and includes evaluation of work function anisotropy using a thin-slab method.

  18. THE UNUSUAL RADIO AFTERGLOW OF THE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Horesh, Assaf; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Bellm, Eric

    2015-10-10

    GRB 130925A is one of the recent additions to the growing family of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; T90 ≳1000 s). While the X-ray emission of ultra-long GRBs have been studied extensively in the past, no comprehensive radio data set has been obtained so far. We report here the early discovery of an unusual radio afterglow associated with the ultra-long GRB 130925A. The radio emission peaks at low-frequencies (∼7 GHz) at early times, only 2.2 days after the burst occurred. More notably, the radio spectrum at frequencies above 10 GHz exhibits a rather steep cut-off, compared to other long GRB radio afterglows. This cut-off can be explained if the emitting electrons are either mono-energetic or originate from a rather steep, dN/dE ∝ E{sup −4}, power-law energy distribution. An alternative electron acceleration mechanism may be required to produce such an electron energy distribution. Furthermore, the radio spectrum exhibits a secondary underlying and slowly varying component. This may hint that the radio emission we observed is comprised of emission from both a reverse and a forward shock. We discuss our results in comparison with previous works that studied the unusual X-ray spectrum of this event and discuss the implications of our findings on progenitor scenarios.

  19. Dark matter properties implied by gamma ray interstellar emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2017-02-01

    We infer dark matter properties from gamma ray residuals extracted using eight different interstellar emission scenarios proposed by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration to explain the Galactic Center gamma ray excess. Adopting the most plausible simplified ansatz, we assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion interacting with standard fermions via a scalar mediator. To trivially respect flavor constraints, we only couple the mediator to third generation fermions. Using this theoretical hypothesis, and the Fermi residuals, we calculate Bayesian evidences, including Fermi-LAT exclusion limits from 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies as well. Our evidence ratios single out one of the Fermi scenarios as most compatible with the simplified dark matter model. In this scenario the dark matter (mediator) mass is in the 25-200 (1-1000) GeV range and its annihilation is dominated by bottom quark final state. Our conclusion is that the properties of dark matter extracted from gamma ray data are highly sensitive to the modeling of the interstellar emission.

  20. Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lack, Daniel A.; Corbett, James J.; Onasch, Timothy; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Covert, David S.; Coffman, Derek; Sierau, Berko; Herndon, Scott; Allan, James; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

    2009-04-01

    We characterize particulate emissions on the basis of chemical, physical, and optical properties from commercial vessels. Observations during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study 2006 field campaign provide chemical and physical characteristics including sulfate (SO42-) mass, organic matter (OM) mass, black carbon (BC) mass, particulate matter (PM) mass, number concentrations (condensation nuclei (CN) > 5 nm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Optical characterization included multiple wavelength visible light absorption and extinction, extinction relative humidity dependence, and single scatter albedo (SSA). The global contribution of shipping PM was calculated to be 0.90 Tg a-1, in good agreement with previous inventories (0.91 and 1.13 Tg a-1 from Eyring et al. (2005a) and Wang et al. [2008]). Observed PM composition was 46% SO42-, 39% OM, and 15% BC and differs from inventories that used 81%, 14%, and 5% and 31%, 63%, and 6% SO42-, OM, and BC, respectively. SO42- and OM mass were found to be dependent on fuel sulfur content as were SSA, hygroscopicity, and CCN concentrations. BC mass was dependent on engine type and combustion efficiency. A plume evolution study conducted on one vessel showed conservation of particle light absorption, decrease in CN > 5 nm, increase in particle hygroscopicity, and an increase in average particle size with distance from emission. These results suggest emission of small nucleation mode particles that subsequently coagulate/condense onto larger BC and OM. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the impacts of ship emissions on climate and air quality and will also assist in determining potential effects of altering fuel standards.

  1. Electrical characterization of the flowing afterglow of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} microwave plasmas at reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Afonso Ferreira, J.; Stafford, L. Leonelli, R.; Ricard, A.

    2014-04-28

    A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to analyze the spatial distribution of the number density of positive ions and electrons as well as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in the flowing afterglow of a 6 Torr N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasma sustained by a propagating electromagnetic surface wave in the microwave regime. In pure N{sub 2} discharges, ion densities were in the mid 10{sup 14} m{sup −3} in the pink afterglow and in the mid 10{sup 12} m{sup −3} early in the late afterglow. In both pink and late afterglows, the ion population was much higher than the electron population, indicating non-macroscopically neutral media. The EEDF was close to a Maxwellian with an electron temperature of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV, except in the pink afterglow where the temperature rose to 1.1 ± 0.2 eV. This latter behavior is ascribed to N{sub 2} vibration-vibration pumping in the pink afterglow that increases the concentration of high N{sub 2} vibrational states and thus rises the electron temperature by vibration-electron collisions. After addition of small amounts of O{sub 2} in the nominally pure N{sub 2} discharge, the charged particles densities and average electron energy first strongly increased and then decreased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration. Based on these data and the evolution of the N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) band emission intensities, it is concluded that a significant change in the positive ion composition of the flowing afterglow occurs, going from N{sub 2}{sup +} in nominally pure N{sub 2} discharges to NO{sup +} after addition of trace amounts of O{sub 2} in N{sub 2}.

  2. Evidence for a Canonical GRB Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift/XRT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Nousek, J.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grupe, D.; Page, K.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Patel, S.K.; Burrows, D.N.; Mangano, V.; Barthelmy, S.; Beardmore, A.P.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Falcone, A.D.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Goad, M.; Godet, O.; Hurkett, C.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /NASA, Marshall /IASF, Palermo /Brera Observ. /Frascati /Milan Bicocca U. /NASA, Goddard

    2005-08-17

    We present new observations of the early X-ray afterglows of the first 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The early X-ray afterglows show a canonical behavior, where the light curve broadly consists of three distinct power law segments: (1) an initial very steep decay ({infinity} t{sup -a} with 3 {approx}< a{sub 1} {approx}< 5) , followed by (2) a very shallow decay (0.2 {approx}< a{sub 2} {approx}< 0.8), and finally (3) a somewhat steeper decay (1 {approx}< a{sub 3} {approx}< 1.5). These power law segments are separated by two corresponding break times, 300 s {approx}< t{sub break,1} {approx}< 500 s and 10{sup 3} s {approx}< t{sub break,2} {approx}< 10{sup 4} s. On top of this canonical behavior of the early X-ray light curve, many events have superimposed X-ray flares, which are most likely caused by internal shocks due to long lasting sporadic activity of the central engine, up to several hours after the GRB. We find that the initial steep decay is consistent with it being the tail of the prompt emission, from photons that are radiated at large angles relative to our line of sight. The first break in the light curve (t{sub break,1}) takes place when the forward shock emission becomes dominant, with the intermediate shallow flux decay (a{sub 2}) likely caused by the continuous energy injection into the external shock. When this energy injection stops, a second break is then observed in the light curve (t{sub break,2}). This energy injection increases the energy of the afterglow shock by at least a factor of f {approx}> 4, and augments the already severe requirements for the efficiency of the prompt gamma-ray emission.

  3. GRB 110731A: Early Afterglow in Stellar Wind Powered By a Magnetized Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.

    2015-05-01

    One of the most energetic gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110731A, was observed from an optical to GeV energy range. Previous analysis of the prompt phase revealed similarities between the Large Area Telescope (LAT) bursts observed by Fermi: (1) a delayed onset of the high-energy emission (\\gt 100 MeV), (2) a short-lasting bright peak at later times, and (3) a temporally extended component from this phase, lasting hundreds of seconds. Additionally to the prompt phase, multiwavelength observations over different epochs showed that the spectral energy distribution was better fitted by a wind afterglow model. We present a leptonic model based on an early afterglow that evolves in a stellar wind of its progenitor. We apply this model to interpret the temporally extended LAT emission and the brightest LAT peak exhibited by the prompt phase of GRB 110731A. Additionally, using the same set of parameters, we describe the multiwavelength afterglow observations. The origin of the temporally extended LAT, X-ray, and optical flux is explained through synchrotron radiation from the forward shock (FS) and the brightest LAT peak is described, evoking the synchrotron self-Compton emission from the reverse shock (RS). The bulk Lorentz factor required in this model (Γ ≃ 520) lies in the range of values demanded for most LAT-detected GRBs. We show that the strength of the magnetic field in the RS region is ∼50 times stronger than that in the FS region. This result suggests that, for GRB 110731A, the central engine is likely entrained with strong magnetic fields.

  4. A unifying view of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Nardini, M.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2009-02-01

    We selected a sample of 33 gamma-ray bursts detected by Swift, with known redshift and optical extinction at the host frame. For these, we constructed the de-absorbed and K-corrected X-ray and optical rest-frame light curves. These are modelled as the sum of two components: emission from the forward shock due to the interaction of a fireball with the circumburst medium and an additional component, treated in a completely phenomenological way. The latter can be identified, among other possibilities, as a `late prompt' emission produced by a long-lived central engine with mechanisms similar to those responsible for the production of the `standard' early prompt radiation. Apart from flares or re-brightenings, that we do not model, we find a good agreement with the data, despite of their complexity and diversity. Although based, in part, on a phenomenological model with a relatively large number of free parameters, we believe that our findings are a first step towards the construction of a more physical scenario. Our approach allows us to interpret the behaviour of the optical and X-ray afterglows in a coherent way, by a relatively simple scenario. Within this context, it is possible to explain why sometimes no jet break is observed; why, even if a jet break is observed, it is often chromatic and why the steepening after the jet break time is often shallower than predicted. Finally, the decay slope of the late prompt emission after the shallow phase is found to be remarkably similar to the time profile expected by the accretion rate of fall-back material (i.e. ~ t-5/3), suggesting that this can be the reason why the central engine can be active for a long time.

  5. The first extinction curve of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Darach; Andersen, Anja; Castro Cerón, José María; Fynbo, Johan; Hjorth, Jens; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Tanvir, Nial; Vreeswijk, Paul

    2007-05-01

    In this proposal we intend to derive for the first time the absolute extinction curve of a single star-forming region at high redshift using a GRB afterglow, using a target of opportunity IRAC and MIPS 24 micron photometric observation to fix the level of the extinction-free continuum in the mid-infrared. Since GRBs occur in actively star-forming regions, it was anticipated that there should be significant dust extinction of their optical afterglows. But the extinctions derived solely from the reddening in GRB optical/near IR spectra have been low. At the same time these reddening measurements disagreed strongly with extinctions inferred from metallicity measurements and led to the suggestion of a flat dust extinction curve, possibly because of dust destruction by the GRB. In spite of the large literature on grey dust and the alteration of the extinction curve by dust destruction, its existence has so far never been demonstrated. The dust properties of GRB environments are of interest not only for their value in studies of GRB and their formation, but also because GRBs occur in star-forming galaxies at very high redshifts (currently = 2.8), and GRB afterglows give us a means to study dust and metallicity in the hearts of extremely distant star-forming regions that are accessible in no other way. These observations will be triggered on a burst where we have, (1) a good quality optical spectrum that shows a large damped Ly alpha absorption line, log N(HI) > 21.5, (2) a high signal-to-noise X-ray spectrum with a significant detection of extragalactic absorption and (3) multi-colour optical/near infrared (NIR) photometric follow-up of the afterglow near-simultaneous with the Spitzer observation.

  6. What can we learn from "internal plateaus"? The peculiar afterglow of GRB 070110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, P.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The origin of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts is highly debated. Proposed scenarios involve various dissipation processes (shocks, magnetic reconnection, and inelastic collisions) above or below the photosphere of an ultra-relativistic outflow. Aims: We search for observational features that could help to favour one scenario over the others by constraining the dissipation radius, the magnetization of the outflow, or by indicating the presence of shocks. Bursts showing peculiar behaviours can emphasize the role of a specific physical ingredient, which becomes more apparent under certain circumstances. Methods: We study GRB 070110, which exhibited several remarkable features during its early afterglow; i.e. a very flat plateau terminated by an extremely steep drop and immediately followed by a bump. We modelled the plateau as the photospheric emission from a long-lasting outflow of moderate Lorentz factor (Γ 20), which lags behind an ultra-relativistic (Γ > 100) ejecta that is responsible for the prompt emission. We computed the dissipation of energy in the forward and reverse shocks resulting from the deceleration of this ejecta by the external medium (uniform or stellar wind). Results: We find that photospheric emission from the long-lasting outflow can account for the plateau properties (luminosity and spectrum) assuming that some dissipation takes place in the flow. The geometrical timescale at the photospheric radius is so short that the observed decline at the end of the plateau likely corresponds to the actual shutdown of the activity in the central engine. The bump that follows results from the power dissipated in the reverse shock, which develops when the material making the plateau catches up with the initially fast shell in front, after the fast shell has decelerated. Conclusions: The proposed interpretation suggests that the prompt phase results from dissipation above the photosphere while the plateau has a photospheric origin. If the

  7. Decay phases of Swift X-ray afterglows and the forward-shock model.

    PubMed

    Panaitescu, A

    2007-05-15

    The X-ray flux of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows monitored by the Swift satellite from January 2005 to July 2006 displays one to four phases of flux power-law decay. In chronological order, they are: the GRB tail, the 'hump', the standard decay and the post-jet-break decay. More than half of the GRB tails can be identified with the large-angle emission produced during the burst (but arriving later at observer). The remaining, slower GRB tails imply that the gamma-ray mechanism continues to radiate after the burst, as also suggested by the frequent occurrence of X-ray flares during the burst tail. The several GRB tails exhibiting a slow unbroken power-law decay until 100ks must be attributed to the forward shock. In fact, the decay of most GRB tails is also consistent with that of the forward-shock emission from a narrow jet. The X-ray light-curve hump may be due to an increase of the kinetic energy per solid angle of the forward-shock region visible to the observer, caused by either the transfer of energy from ejecta to the forward shock or the emergence of the emission from an outflow seen from a location outside the jet opening. The decay following the X-ray light-curve hump is consistent with the emission from an adiabatic blast wave but, contrary to expectations, the light-curve decay index and spectral slope during this phase are not correlated. The X-ray light curves of two dozens X-ray afterglows that followed for more than a week do not exhibit a jet break, in contrast with the behaviour of pre-Swift optical afterglows, which displayed jet breaks at 0.5-2 days. Nevertheless, the X-ray light curves of several Swift afterglows show a second steepening break at 0.4-3 days that is consistent with the break expected for a jet when its edge becomes visible to the observer.

  8. Swift observations of GRB 060614: an anomalous burst with a well behaved afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, V.; Holland, S. T.; Malesani, D.; Troja, E.; Chincarini, G.; Zhang, B.; La Parola, V.; Brown, P. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Cusumano, G.; Della Valle, M.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Grupe, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Mineo, T.; Moretti, A.; Osborne, J. P.; Pandey, S. B.; Perri, M.; Romano, P.; Roming, P. W. A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2007-07-01

    GRB 060614 is a remarkable gamma-ray burst (GRB) observed by Swift with puzzling properties, which challenge current progenitor models. In particular, the lack of any bright supernova (SN) down to very strict limits and the vanishing spectral lags during the whole burst are typical of short GRBs, strikingly at odds with the long (102 s) duration of this event. Here we present detailed spectral and temporal analysis of the Swift observations of GRB 060614. We show that the burst presents standard optical, ultraviolet and X-ray afterglows, detected beginning 4 ks after the trigger. An achromatic break is observed simultaneously in the optical and X-ray bands, at a time consistent with the break in the R-band light curve measured by the VLT. The achromatic behaviour and the consistent post-break decay slopes make GRB 060614 one of the best examples of a jet break for a Swift burst. The optical and ultraviolet afterglow light curves have also an earlier break at 29.7 ± 4.4 ks, marginally consistent with a corresponding break at 36.6 ± 2.4 ks observed in the X-rays. In the optical, there is strong spectral evolution around this break, suggesting the passage of a break frequency through the optical/ultraviolet band. The very blue spectrum at early times suggests this may be the injection frequency, as also supported by the trend in the light curves: rising at low frequencies, and decaying at higher energies. The early X-ray light curve (from 97 to 480 s) is well interpreted as the X-ray counterpart of the burst extended emission. Spectral analysis of the BAT and XRT data in the ~80 s overlap time interval show that the peak energy of the burst has decreased to as low as 8 keV at the beginning of the XRT observation. Spectral analysis of following XRT data shows that the peak energy of the burst continues to decrease through the XRT energy band and exits it at about 500 s after the trigger. The average peak energy Ep of the burst is likely below the BAT energy band (<24

  9. SWIFT Discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts without Jet Break Feature in their X-ray Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, G.; Yamazaki, R.; Sakamoto, T.; Takahashi, T; Nakazawa, K.; Nakamura, T.; Toma, K.; Hullinger, D.; Tashiro, M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We analyze Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray afterglows for three GRBs with spectroscopic redshift determinations - GRB 050401, XRF 050416a, and GRB 050525a. We find that the relation between spectral peak energy and isotropic energy of prompt emissions (the Amati relation) is consistent with that for the bursts observed in pre-Swift era. However, we find that the X-ray afterglow lightcurves, which extend up to 10 - 70 days, show no sign of the jet break that is expected in the standard framework of collimated outflows. We do so by showing that none of the X-ray afterglow lightcurves in our sample satisfies the relation between the spectral and temporal indices that is predicted for the phase after jet break. The jet break time can be predicted by inverting the tight empirical relation between the peak energy of the spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy of the prompt emission (the Ghirlanda relation). We find that there are no temporal breaks within the predicted time intervals in X-ray band. This requires either that the Ghirlanda relation has a larger scatter than previously thought, that the temporal break in X-rays is masked by some additional source of X-ray emission, or that it does not happen because of some unknown reason.

  10. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Tim; vanParadijs, Jan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Connaughton, Valerie; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Fishman, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, we present for the first time evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), GRB980923. The event ranks third highest in fluence (>25 keV) in the BATSE catalog and consists of a period of rapid variability lasting about 40 s followed by a smooth power law emission tail lasting about 400 s beyond the trigger time. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for GRBS. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the primary gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB990123.

  11. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Tim; vanParadijs, Jan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Connaughton, Valerie; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Fishman, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, we present for the first time evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), GRB980923. The event ranks third highest in fluence (>25 keV) in the BATSE catalog and consists of a period of rapid variability lasting about 40 s followed by a smooth power law emission tail lasting about 400 s beyond the trigger time. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for GRBS. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the primary gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB990123.

  12. Spectral Energy Distributions and Light Curves of GRB 990123 and Its Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Wijers,R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Band, D.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Preece, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the interaction of an extremely relativistic outflow interacting with a small amount of material surrounding the site of the explosion. Multi-wavelength observations covering the gamma-ray to radio wavebands allow investigations of this "fireball" model. On 23 January 1999 optical emission was detected while the gamma-ray burst was still underway. Here we report the results of gamma-ray, optical/infra-red, sub-mm, mm and radio observations of this burst and its afterflow, which indicate that the prompt and afterflow emissions from GRB 990123 are associated with three distinct regions in the fireball. The afterglow one day after the burst has a much lower peak frequency than those of previous bursts; this explains the short-lived nature of the radio emission, which is not expected to reapear. We suggest that such differences reflect variations in the magnetic-field strengths in the afterglow emitting regions.

  13. Spectral Energy Distributions and Light Curves of GRB 990123 and Its Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Wijers,R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Rol, E.; Band, D.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Preece, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the interaction of an extremely relativistic outflow interacting with a small amount of material surrounding the site of the explosion. Multi-wavelength observations covering the gamma-ray to radio wavebands allow investigations of this "fireball" model. On 23 January 1999 optical emission was detected while the gamma-ray burst was still underway. Here we report the results of gamma-ray, optical/infra-red, sub-mm, mm and radio observations of this burst and its afterflow, which indicate that the prompt and afterflow emissions from GRB 990123 are associated with three distinct regions in the fireball. The afterglow one day after the burst has a much lower peak frequency than those of previous bursts; this explains the short-lived nature of the radio emission, which is not expected to reapear. We suggest that such differences reflect variations in the magnetic-field strengths in the afterglow emitting regions.

  14. Influence of coal properties on NO{sub x} emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, S.K.; Bond, R.A.; Thompson, A.W.; Allen, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Fundamental coal characterization work has indicated the particular properties which influence the performance of coals in Low-NO{sub x} combustion systems. These properties influence NO{sub x} emissions as well as unburned carbon levels, slagging and fouling tendencies. The performance of a 265 MW boiler retrofitted with a flame attachment nozzle burner Low-NO{sub x} system is discussed in terms of these basic coal properties. Owensboro Municipal Utilities` Elmer Smith Station is comprised of one 151 MW{sub E} cyclone-fired and one 265 MW{sub E} tangentially-fired pulverized coal burning generating unit. It is located in Owensboro, Kentucky on the Ohio River, and provides electric power to the city of Owensboro as well as a neighboring utility. The station historically burn approximately 1.1 million tons of 6lb SO{sub 2}/mmBTU coal from the surrounding western Kentucky coal fields. A typical proximate analysis for this fuel is shown.

  15. Optical properties of particulate emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japar, Steven M.; Szkarlat, Ann Cuneo; Gorse, Robert A.

    The light absorbing and light scattering properties of on-road vehicle exhaust particulate were determined as a function of traffic composition at the Allegheny Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike during August-September 1979. This study was one part of a comprehensive experiment aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of vehicle exhaust particulate. Paniculate light absorption was determined by the integrating plate method, while light scattering was measured with an integrating nephelometer. Mass-specific optical coefficients (at 500.0 nm) have been derived from regressions of the optical and mass emissions data against traffic composition. For diesel vehicles (predominantly heavy-duty, but also including diesel passenger vehicles) the absorption coefficient, b' abs/ M', was found to be 5.13 ± 0.28 m2g-1, while the light scattering coefficient, b' scat/ M', was 1.99 ± 0.07 m2g-1. Diesel vehicle emissions were responsible for greater than 90% of the light extinction in the tunnel, although diesels accounted for only 23% of the vehicle miles travelled. Estimates for b' abs/ M' and b' scat/ M' for particulate from gasoline-powered vehicles were 8 ± 16 m2g-1and 6 ± 10 m2g-1, respectively, while the analogous values for ambient particulate were babs/ M< 1 m2g-1andbscat/ M = 5.0 ± 1.0 m2g-1.

  16. Ultrafast terahertz emission properties in GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihua; Shi, Yulei; Zhou, Qingli

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Schottky barriers is an extremely active area of research in recent years. The observation of the generation of terahertz pulses from metal/semiconductor interfaces provides a technique to characterize electronic properties of these materials. However, a detailed analysis of these phenomena has not been performed satisfactorily. In this work, the measurements of optically generated terahertz emission from Au/GaAs interfaces are investigated in detail. We observe that, under high laser power excitation, terahertz signals from bare GaAs wafers and Au/GaAs samples exhibit an opposite polarity. The polarity-flip behaviors in the terahertz beams are also observed in the temperature-dependent measurements and the femtosecond pump-generation studies of the Au/GaAs interfaces. These effects can be fully explained in terms of the dynamics of carrier transfer in the Au/GaAs Schottky barriers, which involves the internal photoelectric emission and the electron tunneling effect, and picosecond time constants are found for these processes.

  17. Luminescence enhancement of CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ afterglow phosphors synthesized using ZnO nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Boon K.; Luo, Zhiping; Li, Yang; Singh, Surinder P.; Joly, Alan G.; Hossu, Marius; Liu, Zhongxin; Chen, Wei

    2011-06-01

    CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ afterglow phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction using organic coated ZnO 30 nanopowders and their photoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and afterglow properties were investigated. The CaZnGe2O6:Tb3+ samples emit a green luminescence at 548 nm attributed to the 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+. It was observed that the replacement of bulk ZnO by ZnO nanopowder in the sample synthesis increases the luminescence intensity. By adjusting the mass ratio of bulk ZnO to nanopowder ZnO, the photoluminescence intensity, X-ray luminescence intensity, and afterglow efficiency are improved. The optimized sample made with a 0.71 ratio of nano ZnO to bulk ZnO has a factor of four enhancement in X-ray luminescence, photoluminescence and afterglow intensities in comparison with the sample made with 100% bulk ZnO.

  18. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  19. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  20. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D.; Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cristofaro, S.

    2015-04-08

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H{sub α} light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H{sub α} spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  1. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  2. Characterization of Secondary Electron Emission Properties of Plasma Facing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Marlene I.; Capece, Angela M.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Koel, Bruce E.

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of wall-bounded plasmas is significantly affected by the plasma-wall interactions, including the emission of secondary electrons (SEE) from the wall materials due to bombardment by primary electrons. The importance of SEE has prompted previous investigations of SEE properties of materials especially with applications to magnetic fusion, plasma thrusters, and high power microwave devices. In this work, we present results of measurements of SEE properties of graphite and lithium materials relevant for the divertor region of magnetic fusion devices. Measurements of total SEE yield (defined as the number of emitted secondary electrons per incident primary electron) for lithium are extended up to 5 keV primary electron energy, and the energy distributions of secondary electrons are provided for graphite and lithium. Additionally, the effect of contamination on the total SEE yield of lithium was explored by exposing the material to water vapor. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine surface composition and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was used to determine lithium film thickness. Results show an order of magnitude increase in total SEE yield for lithium exposed to water vapor. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466; AFOSR grants FA9550-14-1-0053, FA9550-11-1-0282, and AF9550-09-1-0695; and DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research Program.

  3. Chemical abundances associated with gamma-ray bursts: nucleosynthesis in afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta carries huge amounts of energy expanding into the surrounding medium and heats up these materials, making it possible that nucleosynthesis can take place in such hot sites in afterglow stage. Here, we study possible changes in chemical abundances in the GRB afterglow processes of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star wind environments (Case A) and constant density surroundings (Case B). We find that the light element of lithium-beryllium-boron could occur in the afterglows via He+He process and spallation reactions. Some isotopes of F, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Fe-group elements are also new species formed in the afterglows via proton-, neutron- and α-capture. The results show that the nucleosynthetic yields might be a diagnostic of the GRB's ambient environment. Our calculations indicate that Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have trended to appear in Case A, while Ne, Ti and Ni trend to occur in Case B. Furthermore, although some species have occurred both in Cases A and B, their mass fractions are quite different in these two cases. Here, we show that the mass fractions of 7Li, 7Be, 24Mg and 30Si are higher in Case A than that in Case B, but 18F gives an opposite conclusion. Nucleosynthetic outputs might also be an indice to estimate the luminosity-temperature relation factor β. In this study, when β reduces, the mass abundances of 11B and 20Ne are higher in Case B than that in Case A; in contrast, as the β becomes larger, this trend would be reversed; therefore, perhaps we could select the above elements as the indicators to estimate the properties of the surroundings around the GRBs. We also suggest that the spectroscopic observations of a GRB afterglow could only reveal the nucleosynthetic outputs from the interaction site between the GRB jet and its ambient matter, but could not represent the original composition of the pre-GRB surrounding medium.

  4. Discovery of Smoothly Evolving Blackbodies in the Early Afterglow of GRB 090618: Evidence for a Spine-Sheath Jet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R.

    2015-10-01

    GRB 090618 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) with multiple pulses. It shows evidence of thermal emission in the initial pulses as well as in the early afterglow phase. Because high-resolution spectral data from the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) are available for the early afterglow, we investigate the shape and evolution of the thermal component in this phase using data from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the Swift/XRT, and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detectors. An independent fit to the BAT and XRT data reveals two correlated blackbodies with monotonically decreasing temperatures. Hence, we investigated the combined data with a model consisting of two blackbodies and a power law (2BBPL), a model suggested for several bright GRBs. We elicit the following interesting features of the 2BBPL model: (1) the same model is applicable from the peak of the last pulse in the prompt emission to the afterglow emission, (2) the ratio of temperatures and the fluxes of the two blackbodies remains constant throughout the observations, (3) the blackbody temperatures and fluxes show a monotonic decrease with time, with the BB fluxes dropping about a factor of two faster than that of the power-law (PL) emission, and (4) attributing the blackbody emission to photospheric emissions, we find that the photospheric radii increase very slowly with time, and the lower-temperature blackbody shows a larger emitting radius than that of the higher-temperature blackbody. We find some evidence that the underlying shape of the nonthermal emission is a cutoff power law rather than a PL. We sketch a spine-sheath jet model to explain our observations.

  5. DISCOVERY OF SMOOTHLY EVOLVING BLACKBODIES IN THE EARLY AFTERGLOW OF GRB 090618: EVIDENCE FOR A SPINE–SHEATH JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R. E-mail: arrao@tifr.res.in

    2015-10-20

    GRB 090618 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) with multiple pulses. It shows evidence of thermal emission in the initial pulses as well as in the early afterglow phase. Because high-resolution spectral data from the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) are available for the early afterglow, we investigate the shape and evolution of the thermal component in this phase using data from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the Swift/XRT, and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detectors. An independent fit to the BAT and XRT data reveals two correlated blackbodies with monotonically decreasing temperatures. Hence, we investigated the combined data with a model consisting of two blackbodies and a power law (2BBPL), a model suggested for several bright GRBs. We elicit the following interesting features of the 2BBPL model: (1) the same model is applicable from the peak of the last pulse in the prompt emission to the afterglow emission, (2) the ratio of temperatures and the fluxes of the two blackbodies remains constant throughout the observations, (3) the blackbody temperatures and fluxes show a monotonic decrease with time, with the BB fluxes dropping about a factor of two faster than that of the power-law (PL) emission, and (4) attributing the blackbody emission to photospheric emissions, we find that the photospheric radii increase very slowly with time, and the lower-temperature blackbody shows a larger emitting radius than that of the higher-temperature blackbody. We find some evidence that the underlying shape of the nonthermal emission is a cutoff power law rather than a PL. We sketch a spine–sheath jet model to explain our observations.

  6. Two-shell collisions in the gamma-ray burst afterglow phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasis, A.; van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2011-07-01

    Strong optical and radio flares often appear in the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It has been proposed that colliding ultrarelativistic shells can produce these flares. Such consecutive shells can be formed due to the variability in the central source of a GRB. We perform high-resolution 1D numerical simulations of late collisions between two ultrarelativistic shells in order to explore these events. We examine the case where a cold uniform shell collides with a self-similar Blandford & McKee shell in a constant density environment and consider cases with different Lorentz factor and energy for the uniform shell. We produce the corresponding on-axis light curves and emission images for the afterglow phase and examine the occurrence of optical and radio flares, assuming a spherical explosion and a hard-edged jet scenario. For our simulations, we use the Adaptive Mesh Refinement version of the Versatile Advection Code coupled to a linear radiative transfer code to calculate synchrotron emission. We find steeply rising flares like the behaviour of small jet opening angles and more gradual rebrightenings for large opening angles. Synchrotron self-absorption is found to strongly influence the onset and shape of the radio flare.

  7. Limits on the TeV gamma-ray afterglow of fast radio bursts with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, F.; Brun, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rowell, G.; Wagner, R.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Keane, E.; Petroff, E.; SUPERB Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We here present the H.E.S.S. follow-up of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), millisecond-long, very strong radio pulses of yet unknown origin. The SUPERB (SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts) project at the Parkes radio observatory is able to detect these enigmatic events almost in real-time which allows triggering follow-up observations covering the full electromagnetic spectrum. The H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory is taking active part in this endeavor. Here we focus on data taken within hours of FRB 150418, which allow us to derive the first limits on gamma-ray afterglow emission of FRBs. Based on the identification of the potential host galaxy of this burst we are able to discuss absorption effects due to the extragalactic background light (EBL) and derive intrinsic, energy dependent limits on the gamma-ray afterglow.

  8. Pyrene Schiff base: photophysics, aggregation induced emission, and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Arunkumar; Sundaravel, Karuppasamy; Jaccob, Madhavan; Dhinagaran, Ganesan; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Arul Ananth, Devanesan; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2014-11-26

    Pyrene containing Schiff base molecule, namely 4-[(pyren-1-ylmethylene)amino]phenol (KB-1), was successfully synthesized and well characterized by using (1)H, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, and EI-MS spectrometry. UV-visible absorption, steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques have been employed to elucidate the photophysical processes of KB-1. It has been demonstrated that the absorption characteristics of KB-1 have been bathochromatically tuned to the visible region by extending the π-conjugation. The extended π-conjugation is evidently confirmed by DFT calculations and reveals that π→π* transition is the major factor responsible for electronic absorption of KB-1. The photophysical property of KB-1 was carefully examined in different organic solvents at different concentrations and the results show that the fluorescence of this molecule is completely quenched due to photoinduced electron transfer. Intriguingly, the fluorescence intensity of KB-1 increases enormously by the gradual addition of water up to 90% with concomitant increase in fluorescence lifetime. This clearly signifies that this molecule has aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. The mechanism of AIE of this molecule is suppression of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) due to hydrogen bonding interaction of imine donor with water. A direct evidence of PET process has been presented by using nanosecond transient absorption measurements. Further, KB-1 was successfully used for antimicrobial and bioimaging studies. The antimicrobial studies were carried out through disc diffusion method. KB-1 is used against both Gram-positive (Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species and also fungal species (Candida albicans). The result shows KB-1 can act as an excellent antimicrobial agent and as a photolabeling agent. S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans

  9. The plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the thick-shell scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventis, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic calculations of synchrotron radiation from the forward and the reverse shock of gamma-ray burst blast waves, in the thick-shell scenario (i.e. when the reverse shock is relativistic). We show that this scenario can naturally account for the plateau phase, observed early in the afterglows of about half the bursts detected by Swift. We generalize our approach to include power-law luminosity of the central engine and show that when radiation from both regions (forward and reverse shock) is taken into account, a wide range of possibilities emerge, including chromatic and achromatic breaks, frequency-dependent spectral evolution during the injection break and widely varying decay indices in different bands. For both the forward and the reverse shock, we derive formulas for the spectral parameters and the observed flux in different power-law segments of the spectrum, as a function of observer time. We explore the Fb-tb relation (between the observed time of the end of the plateau phase and the flux at that point) in the framework of the presented model and show that model predictions favour the reverse shock as the dominant source of emission in both optical and X-rays. As case studies, we present simultaneous fits to X-ray and optical/IR afterglow data of GRB 080928 and GRB 090423. We identify the end of the plateau phase with the cessation of energy injection and infer the corresponding upper limits to central-engine activity, which are about 1 h for the former and 1.5 h for the latter. We conclude that smooth energy injection through the reverse shock is a plausible explanation for the plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows. During that phase, radiation from the reverse shock is likely to be important, or even dominant, and should be taken into account when fitting model parameters to observations.

  10. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  11. Multiple thermoluminescence glow peaks and afterglow suppression in CsI:Tl co-doped with Eu2+ or Yb2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartram, R. H.; Kappers, L. A.; Hamilton, D. S.; Brecher, C.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Miller, S. R.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    CsI:Tl is a widely utilized scintillator material with many desirable properties but its applicability is limited by persistent afterglow. However, effective afterglow suppression has been achieved by co-doping with divalent lanthanides. The present report is concerned with observation of multiple thermoluminescence glow peaks in CsI:Tl,Eu and CsI:Tl,Yb, attributed to varying distributions of charge-compensating cation vacancies relative to divalent lanthanide co-dopants, and the subsequent modification of these distributions by repeated observations. It is observed that Yb2+ provides a slightly shallower electron trap than Eu2+, and that it can occupy a face-centered position by virtue of its relatively small ionic radius; the latter observation is confirmed by electrostatic calculations. It is also found that repeated observation of thermoluminescence in these materials has a modest adverse effect on afterglow suppression.

  12. The γ-ray afterglows of tidal disruption events.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian; Gómez-Vargas, Germán Arturo; Guillochon, James

    2016-05-21

    A star wandering too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) will be tidally disrupted. Previous studies of such 'tidal disruption event' (TDE) mostly focus on the stellar debris that are bound to the system, because they give rise to luminous flares. On the other hand, half of the stellar debris in principle are unbound and can stream to a great distance, but so far there is no clear evidence that this 'unbound debris stream' (UDS) exists. Motivated by the fact that the circum-nuclear region around SMBHs is usually filled with dense molecular clouds (MCs), here we investigate the observational signatures resulting from the collision between an UDS and an MC, which is likely to happen hundreds of years after a TDE. We focus on γ-ray emission (0.1-10(5) GeV), which comes from the encounter of shock-accelerated cosmic rays with background protons and, more importantly, is not subject to extinction. We show that because of the high proton density inside an MC, the peak γ-ray luminosity, about 10(39) erg s(-1), is at least 100 times greater than that in the case without an MC (only with a smooth interstellar medium). The luminosity decays on a time-scale of decades, depending on the distance of the MC, and about a dozen of these 'TDE afterglows' could be detected within a distance of about 16 Mpc by the future Cherenkov Telescope Array. Without careful discrimination, these sources potentially could contaminate the searches for starburst galaxies, galactic nuclei containing millisecond pulsars or dark matter annihilation signals.

  13. The γ-ray afterglows of tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Gómez-Vargas, Germán Arturo; Guillochon, James

    2016-05-01

    A star wandering too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) will be tidally disrupted. Previous studies of such `tidal disruption event' (TDE) mostly focus on the stellar debris that are bound to the system, because they give rise to luminous flares. On the other hand, half of the stellar debris in principle are unbound and can stream to a great distance, but so far there is no clear evidence that this `unbound debris stream' (UDS) exists. Motivated by the fact that the circum-nuclear region around SMBHs is usually filled with dense molecular clouds (MCs), here we investigate the observational signatures resulting from the collision between an UDS and an MC, which is likely to happen hundreds of years after a TDE. We focus on γ-ray emission (0.1-105 GeV), which comes from the encounter of shock-accelerated cosmic rays with background protons and, more importantly, is not subject to extinction. We show that because of the high proton density inside an MC, the peak γ-ray luminosity, about 1039 erg s-1, is at least 100 times greater than that in the case without an MC (only with a smooth interstellar medium). The luminosity decays on a time-scale of decades, depending on the distance of the MC, and about a dozen of these `TDE afterglows' could be detected within a distance of about 16 Mpc by the future Cherenkov Telescope Array. Without careful discrimination, these sources potentially could contaminate the searches for starburst galaxies, galactic nuclei containing millisecond pulsars or dark matter annihilation signals.

  14. Methane emissions from rice fields: Effect of soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, R.L.; Fisher, F.M.; Lewis, S.T. ); Jund, M.F.; Turner, F.T. )

    1994-06-01

    Atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing at the rate of approximately 1% per year. How much of this increase is due to increased emissions from flooded rice fields is unknown but rice cultivation will continue to increase, raising the possibility of further methane emission increases. At the same time, irrigated rice is one of the few sources where management of methane emission is possible. This paper reviews several emission studies carried out by the authors over a 4 year period on three different soil types as well as new data. Evidence is presented that methane emission values in different soils can be compared by correlating them with soil texture quantified by the amount of sand present in the soil. Emission values were found to be characteristic of the soil type. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. GRB-081029: A Step Towards Understanding Multiple Afterglow Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst-081029 at a redshift of z = 3.8474. We combine X-ray and optical observations from (Swift) with optical and infrared data from REM to obtain a detailed data set extending from approx 10(exp 2)s to approx 10(exp 5)s after the BAT trigger, and from approx.10 keV to 16,000 AA. The X-ray afterglow showed a shallow initial decay followed by u rapid decay after about 18,000 s. The optical afterglow, however, shows an uncharecteristic rise at about 5000 s that has no corresponding feature in the X-ray light curve. The data are not consistent with a single-component jet. It is possible that there are multiple physical components contributing to the afterglow of GRB-081029.

  16. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase.

  17. A Search for Discrete X-Ray Spectral Features in a Sample of Bright Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, M

    2004-09-09

    We present uniform, detailed spectral analyses of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows observed with ASCA, Beppo-SAX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, and critically evaluate the statistical significances of X-ray emission and absorption features in these spectra. The sample consists of 21 X-ray afterglow observations up to and including that of GRB040106 with spectra of sufficient statistical quality to allow meaningful line searches, chosen here somewhat arbitrarily to be detections with more than 100 total (source plus background) counts. This sample includes all nine X-ray afterglows with published claims of line detections. Moderate resolution spectra are available for 16 of the 21 sources, and for the remaining five the Chandra transmission grating spectrometers obtained high-resolution data. All of the data are available from the public archive. We test a simple hypothesis in which the observed spectra are produced by a power-law continuum model modified by photoelectric absorption by neutral material both in our Galaxy and possibly also local to the burst. As a sample, these afterglow spectra are consistent with this relatively simple model. However, since the {chi}{sup 2} statistic is not sensitive to weak and/or localized fluctuations, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations to search for discrete features and to estimate their significances. Our analysis shows that there are four afterglows (GRB011211, GRB030227, GRB021004, and GRB040106) with line-like features that are significant at the 3 {sigma} level. We cautiously note that, in two cases, the features are associated with an unusual background feature; in the other two, the fractional magnitudes of the lines are small, and comparable to the expected level of systematic uncertainty in the spectral response. In addition, none of the statistically significant features are seen in more than one detector or spectral order where available. We conclude that, to date, no credible X-ray line feature has been

  18. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts.

  19. Photoelectron emission properties of hydrogen terminated intrinsic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, D.; Nebel, C. E.; Yamasaki, S.

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen terminated intrinsic diamond is characterized using photoelectron emission spectroscopy. Samples have been annealed at temperatures Ta from 200 to 1000 °C. The electron emission characteristics can be divided into three regimes: (I) (Ta<300 °C) is governed by surface band bending which allows only excitons to reach the surface with subsequent dissociation. (II) (300 °C<=Ta<=650 °C) shows increased electron emission and the surface band bending has been removed. Here, excitons and electrons contribute. (III) (Ta>650 °C) additional rise of emission is detected. The spectra are dominated by photon-phonon interactions which are discussed in detail.

  20. Nitric oxide kinetics in the afterglow of a diffuse plasma filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D.; Montello, A.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2014-08-01

    A suite of laser diagnostics is used to study kinetics of vibrational energy transfer and plasma chemical reactions in a nanosecond pulse, diffuse filament electric discharge and afterglow in N2 and dry air at 100 Torr. Laser-induced fluorescence of NO and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence of O and N atoms are used to measure absolute, time-resolved number densities of these species after the discharge pulse, and picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is used to measure time-resolved rotational temperature and ground electronic state N2(v = 0-4) vibrational level populations. The plasma filament diameter, determined from plasma emission and NO planar laser-induced fluorescence images, remains nearly constant after the discharge pulse, over a few hundred microseconds, and does not exhibit expansion on microsecond time scale. Peak temperature in the discharge and the afterglow is low, T ≈ 370 K, in spite of significant vibrational nonequilibrium, with peak N2 vibrational temperature of Tv ≈ 2000 K. Significant vibrational temperature rise in the afterglow is likely caused by the downward N2-N2 vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Simple kinetic modeling of time-resolved N, O, and NO number densities in the afterglow, on the time scale longer compared to relaxation and quenching time of excited species generated in the plasma, is in good agreement with the data. In nitrogen, the N atom density after the discharge pulse is controlled by three-body recombination and radial diffusion. In air, N, NO and O concentrations are dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, N + NO → N2 + O, and ozone formation reaction, O + O2 + M → O3 + M, respectively. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules and excited N atoms on NO formation kinetics is estimated to be negligible. The results suggest that NO formation in the nanosecond pulse discharge is dominated by reactions of excited electronic states of nitrogen, occurring on

  1. Scintillation, Afterglow and Thermoluminescence of CsI:Tl,Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappers, L. A.; Bartram, R. H.; Hamilton, D. S.; Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with trapped holes, thus suppressing afterglow. These experiments support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially as substitutional Sm+ near VKA(Tl+) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step. Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence on single-crystal samples of CsI:Tl and CsI:Tl,Sm, recorded sequentially at adjusted gain settings following low-temperature irradiation, reveal reversible radiation damage as well.

  2. Characterization of Magnetoacoustic Emission Related to Structural Properties of Ferromagnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.; Todhunter, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) properties has been performed over the past several years. As a result, the dependence of the spectral characteristics of MAE on certain microstructural variations and uniaxially applied stress in a particular type of low carbon steel are now well known. The embrittlement-causing concentration of certain atomic species, e. g., tin, sulphur, phosphorous etc., at the grain boundaries of this steel creates strong potential barriers resisting the motion of non-180 domain walls which is the source of MAE. (Since the only type of non-180 domain walls in this material are 90 domain walls, the term 90 domain wall will be used throughout this paper in place of non-180 domain wall.) An MAE burst produced during one-half cycle of a hysteresis loop at a low AC magnetic field frequency (e. g., 0.7 Hz) shows two sub-peaks; the leading peak is usually sharp and short-lived, while the trailing peak is usually smooth and long-lasting. It has been shown that the enhanced domain wall-defect interaction, due to the strengthened potential barriers, causes an increase in the asymmetry of the MAE signal by suppressing the leading sub-peak and amplifying the trailing sub-peak. This phenomena is due to the delayed motion of the 90 domain walls. The effect of a tensile stress applied parallel to the external AC magnetic field is to diminish the MAE. On the other hand, the amplitude of the MAE burst has been shown to be a non-monotonic function of the stress amplitude. Recently, our study has concentrated on obtaining quantitative values for parameters computed from the MAE spectra averaged over a sufficient number of cycles to achieve statistical stability. Nevertheless, certain fundamental elements of the MAE characteristics remain unexplained.

  3. KPC-Scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Candels

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed -combined spectroscopic and photometric- study of resolved properties of galaxies at kpc scale and investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. The sample consists of 119 galaxies to z~1.3 with the unique feature of having very high-resolution spectroscopic data from long exposure observations with the KECK/DEIMOS. Using HST/ACS and WFC3 data taken as part of the CANDELS project, we produce resolved rest-frame (U-V) color, stellar mass and star formation surface densities, stellar age and extinction maps and profiles along the galaxies rotation axes. We model the optical nebular emission lines using the high-resolution DEIMOS spectra and construct the optical line ratio profiles diagnostic of metallicity (R23) and nebular extinction (Ha/Hb). We find that the nebular dust extinction profile, inferred from Balmer decrement, is in agreement with the average extinction derived from the resolved SED modeling. Using the R23 metallicity profiles we examine, for the first time, the mass metallicity relation across galaxies and explore how this relation changes as a function of spatial position. We identify red and blue 'regions' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the 'main sequence' of star forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1±0.1 and a scatter of ˜ 0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter

  4. KILOPARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Miller, Sarah H.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.

    2014-12-20

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kiloparsec scales to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. We use a sample of 119 galaxies in the GOODS fields. The galaxies are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.3. High resolution spectroscopic data from Keck/DEIMOS observations are used to fix the redshift of all the galaxies in our sample. Using the HST/ACS and HST/WFC3 imaging data taken as a part of the CANDELS project, for each galaxy, we perform spectral energy distribution fitting per resolution element, producing resolved rest-frame U – V color, stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, and extinction maps. We develop a technique to identify ''regions'' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps to select red and blue regions, a broader definition for what are called ''clumps'' in other works. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.6 dex. The blue regions show higher specific SFRs (sSFRs) than their red counterparts with the sSFR decreasing since z ∼ 1, driven primarily by the stellar mass surface densities rather than the SFRs at a given resolution element.

  5. Optical properties of lamps with cold emission cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenik, Jerzy; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Biernacki, Krzysztof; Rymarczyk, Joanna; Stepińska, Izabela

    2016-12-01

    A luminescent lamp was constructed and tested. Phosphor excited by electrons is the source of light. The source of electrons is field emission cathode. The cathode is covered with nickel-carbon layer containing carbon nanotubes that enhance electron emission from the cathode. Results of luminance measurements are presented. Luminance is high enough for lighting application.

  6. Emission Properties of Fluorescent Nanoparticles Determined by Their Optical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kelvin; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    The emission rate of a radiating dipole within a nanoparticle is crucially dependent on its surrounding refractive index environment. In this manuscript, we present numerical results on how the emission rates are affected for nanoparticles in a homogenous and substrate environment. These results are general, applicable to any refractive index distribution and emitter.

  7. The afterglow of GRB 050709 and the nature of the short-hard gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Fox, D B; Frail, D A; Price, P A; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Piran, T; Soderberg, A M; Cenko, S B; Cameron, P B; Gal-Yam, A; Kasliwal, M M; Moon, D-S; Harrison, F A; Nakar, E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B; Chevalier, R A; Kumar, P; Roth, K; Watson, D; Lee, B L; Shectman, S; Phillips, M M; Roth, M; McCarthy, P J; Rauch, M; Cowie, L; Peterson, B A; Rich, J; Kawai, N; Aoki, K; Kosugi, G; Totani, T; Park, H-S; MacFadyen, A; Hurley, K C

    2005-10-06

    The final chapter in the long-standing mystery of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) centres on the origin of the short-hard class of bursts, which are suspected on theoretical grounds to result from the coalescence of neutron-star or black-hole binary systems. Numerous searches for the afterglows of short-hard bursts have been made, galvanized by the revolution in our understanding of long-duration GRBs that followed the discovery in 1997 of their broadband (X-ray, optical and radio) afterglow emission. Here we present the discovery of the X-ray afterglow of a short-hard burst, GRB 050709, whose accurate position allows us to associate it unambiguously with a star-forming galaxy at redshift z = 0.160, and whose optical lightcurve definitively excludes a supernova association. Together with results from three other recent short-hard bursts, this suggests that short-hard bursts release much less energy than the long-duration GRBs. Models requiring young stellar populations, such as magnetars and collapsars, are ruled out, while coalescing degenerate binaries remain the most promising progenitor candidates.

  8. FTIR Analysis of Flowing Afterglow from a High-Frequency Spark Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen; Hieftje, Gary M.; Ray, Steve; Pfeuffer, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Plasmas are often used as ionization sources for ambient mass spectrometry (AMS). Here, the flowing afterglow of a novel high-energy spark discharge system, operated in nitrogen at high repetition rates, is investigated as a source for AMS. The spark discharge here is the same as that of an automobile ignition circuit.Combustion in automobile engines is initiated by a spark ignition system that is designed to deliver short-duration,high-voltage sparks to multiple engine cylinders. The arrangement utilized in this study is a modified discharge configuration designed to produce similarly short-duration, high-voltage discharges. It consists of an automotive ignition coil that is activated by a spark initiation circuit that discharges in turn into a cell with neutral gas input flow and ultimately into the collection orifice of a mass spectrometer. The discharge voltage is approximately 40kV at 800 Hz. High-frequency spark discharges in a nitrogen flow produce reagent ions such as NO+. In order to better evaluate the effectiveness of the discharge in producing reagent ions, an FTIR is utilized to measure IR active species such as nitric oxide, hydroxide, ozone, and water in the afterglow of the spark discharge during variation of discharge parameters. Time-resolved IR emission spectra provide additional insight into the reagent ion production mechanisms.

  9. The onset of the GeV afterglow of GRB 090510

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Nava, L.

    2010-02-01

    We study the emission of the short/hard Gamma Ray Burst 090510 at energies >0.1 GeV as observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The GeV flux rises in time as t2 up till 0.2 s after the peak of the MeV pulse detected by the Fermi Gamma Burst Monitor (GBM) after which it decays as t-1.5 up to 200 s. Its energy spectrum is consistent with F(ν)∝ ν-1. The time behavior and the spectrum of the high energy LAT flux are strong evidences of an afterglow origin. We then interpret it as synchrotron radiation produced by the forward shock of a fireball with a bulk Lorentz factor Γ ˜ 2000. The afterglow peak time is independent of energy in the 0.1-30 GeV range and coincides with the arrival time of the highest energy photon (~ 30 GeV). Since the flux detected by the GBM and the LAT have different origins, the delay between these two components is not entirely due to possible violation of the Lorentz invariance. The LAT component alone allows us to set a reliable lower limit on the quantum-gravity mass of 4.7 times the Planck mass.

  10. The mysterious optical afterglow spectrum of GRB 140506A at z = 0.889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Leighly, K.; Ledoux, C.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Schulze, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Watson, D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Bolmer, J.; Cano, Z.; Christensen, L.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Friis, M.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hammer, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Japelj, J.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Leloudas, G.; Levan, A.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Møller, P.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Oates, S.; Pian, E.; Schady, P.; Sparre, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N.; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S.; Wiersema, K.; Xu, D.; Zafar, T.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows probe sightlines to star-forming regions in distant star-forming galaxies. Here we present a study of the peculiar afterglow spectrum of the z = 0.889Swift GRB 140506A. Aims: Our aim is to understand the origin of the very unusual properties of the absorption along the line of sight. Methods: We analyse spectroscopic observations obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the ESO/VLT at two epochs 8.8 h and 33 h after the burst, and with imaging from the GROND instrument. We also present imaging and spectroscopy of the host galaxy obtained with the Magellan telescope. Results: The underlying afterglow appears to be a typical afterglow of a long-duration GRB. However, the material along the line of sight has imprinted very unusual features on the spectrum. First, there is a very broad and strong flux drop below 8000 Å (~4000 Å in the rest frame), which seems to be variable between the two spectroscopic epochs. We can reproduce the flux-drops both as a giant 2175 Å extinction bump and as an effect of multiple scattering on dust grains in a dense environment. Second, we detect absorption lines from excited H i and He i. We also detect molecular absorption from CH+. Conclusions: We interpret the unusual properties of these spectra as reflecting the presence of three distinct regions along the line of sight: the excited He i absorption originates from an H ii-region, whereas the Balmer absorption must originate from an associated photodissociation region. The strong metal line and molecular absorption and the dust extinction must originate from a third, cooler region along the line of sight. The presence of at least three separate regions is reflected in the fact that the different absorption components have different velocities relative to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Based on observations carried out under prog. ID 093.A-0069(B) with the X-shooter spectrograph installed at the Cassegrain focus of the

  11. Field emission properties of ultrasmall Zr spots on W

    SciTech Connect

    Fursey, G.N.; Glazanov, D.V.

    1995-05-01

    The aims of the investigation were to obtain small and supersmall Zr/ZrO spots on W surface, estimating the limit emission capabilities of such systems, and to analyze their physical mechanisms, which determine their stability. Ultrasmall Zr spots with radii of {approximately} 100 {Angstrom} were obtained. For such spots field emission current densities of {approximately} 10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2} were achieved in stationary regime. The numerical simulation of the emitter heating in the three-dimensional axial-symmetrical model showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results for both localized and nonlocalized emission. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  12. The radio afterglow of Swift J1644+57 reveals a powerful jet with fast core and slow sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Aloy, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    We model the non-thermal transient Swift J1644+57 as resulting from a relativistic jet powered by the accretion of a tidally disrupted star on to a supermassive black hole. Accompanying synchrotron radio emission is produced by the shock interaction between the jet and the dense circumnuclear medium, similar to a gamma-ray burst afterglow. An open mystery, however, is the origin of the late-time radio re-brightening, which occurred well after the peak of the jetted X-ray emission. Here, we systematically explore several proposed explanations for this behaviour by means of multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled to a self-consistent radiative transfer calculation of the synchrotron emission. Our main conclusion is that the radio afterglow of Swift J1644+57 is not naturally explained by a jet with a one-dimensional top-hat angular structure. However, a more complex angular structure comprised of an ultrarelativistic core (Lorentz factor Γ ˜ 10) surrounded by a slower (Γ ˜ 2) sheath provides a reasonable fit to the data. Such a geometry could result from the radial structure of the super-Eddington accretion flow or as the result of jet precession. The total kinetic energy of the ejecta that we infer of ˜ few 1053 erg requires a highly efficient jet launching mechanism. Our jet model providing the best fit to the light curve of the on-axis event Swift J1644+57 is used to predict the radio light curves for off-axis viewing angles. Implications for the presence of relativistic jets from tidal disruption events (TDEs) detected via their thermal disc emission, as well as the prospects for detecting orphan TDE afterglows with upcoming wide-field radio surveys and resolving the jet structure with long baseline interferometry, are discussed.

  13. ON THE EMERGENT SPECTRA OF HOT PROTOPLANET COLLISION AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Meyer, Michael R.; Seager, Sara; Elkins-Tanton, Linda

    2009-10-10

    We explore the appearance of terrestrial planets in formation by studying the emergent spectra of hot molten protoplanets during their collisional formation. While such collisions are rare, the surfaces of these bodies may remain hot at temperatures of 1000-3000 K for up to millions of years during the epoch of their formation (of duration 10-100 Myr). These objects are luminous enough in the thermal infrared to be observable with current and next-generation optical/IR telescopes, provided that the atmosphere of the forming planet permits astronomers to observe brightness temperatures approaching that of the molten surface. Detectability of a collisional afterglow depends on properties of the planet's atmosphere-primarily on the mass of the atmosphere. A planet with a thin atmosphere is more readily detected, because there is little atmosphere to obscure the hot surface. Paradoxically, a more massive atmosphere prevents one from easily seeing the hot surface, but also keeps the planet hot for a longer time. In terms of planetary mass, more massive planets are also easier to detect than smaller ones because of their larger emitting surface areas-up to a factor of 10 in brightness between 1 and 10 M {sub +} planets. We present preliminary calculations assuming a range of protoplanet masses (1-10 M {sub +}), surface pressures (1-1000 bar), and atmospheric compositions, for molten planets with surface temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1800 K, in order to explore the diversity of emergent spectra that are detectable. While current 8 to 10 m class ground-based telescopes may detect hot protoplanets at wide orbital separations beyond 30 AU (if they exist), we will likely have to wait for next-generation extremely large telescopes or improved diffraction suppression techniques to find terrestrial planets in formation within several AU of their host stars.

  14. An external-shock model for gamma-ray burst afterglow 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, A.; Vestrand, W. T.; Woźniak, P.

    2013-12-01

    The complex multiwavelength emission of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow 130427A (monitored in the radio up to 10 d, in the optical and X-ray until 50 d, and at GeV energies until 1 d) can be accounted for by a hybrid reverse-forward shock synchrotron model, with inverse-Compton emerging only above a few GeV. The high ratio of the early optical to late radio flux requires that the ambient medium is a wind and that the forward-shock synchrotron spectrum peaks in the optical at about 10 ks. The latter has two consequences: the wind must be very tenuous and the optical emission before 10 ks must arise from the reverse-shock, as suggested also by the bright optical flash that Raptor has monitored during the prompt emission phase (<100 s). The Very Large Array radio emission is from the reverse-shock, the Swift X-ray emission is mostly from the forward-shock, but the both shocks give comparable contributions to the Fermi GeV emission. The weak wind implies a large blast-wave radius (8 t_day^{1/2} pc), which requires a very tenuous circumstellar medium, suggesting that the massive stellar progenitor of GRB 130427A resided in a superbubble.

  15. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  16. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  17. Measurements of EEDF in recombination dominated afterglow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Varju, J.; Dohnal, P.; Donko, Z.; Bano, G.; Glosik, J.

    2009-11-01

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) have been measured in decaying plasma in Flowing Afterglow Langmuir Probe (FALP) experiment. The measurements have been carried out in diffusion and recombination governed plasmas used for studies of recombination of KrD+ and H3+ ions.

  18. High-Performance Field-Emission Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Field Emitters.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ki Nam; Sun, Yuning; Han, Jun Soo; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2017-01-18

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have attracted considerable attention as a field emission material because of their high mechanical strength, high negative electron affinity, and high oxidation resistance. Nevertheless, the obtained field-emission properties of BNNTs have indicated poor emission performance, which is a very high turn-on electric field with a low emission current. We fabricated BNNT field emitters and investigated their field-emission properties. The field-emission properties of the BNNT field emitters were considerably enhanced compared to those of other BN nanomaterial-based field emitters. The turn-on and the threshold electric fields of the BNNT field emitter were 3.1 and 5.4 V/μm at the gap distance of 750 μm, respectively. Both the turn-on and the threshold electric fields of the BNNT field emitters were decreased by increasing the gap distance between the emitter tip and the anode electrode. Degradation of the emission current during field emission operation for 20 h showed no significant difference according to the gap distance. Emission current fluctuation of the BNNT field emitters showed that the smaller gap was more unstable than the larger gap. The enhanced emission properties are mainly attributed to the small diameter, high-quality, and straight structure of BNNTs as well as the stable network formation of the BNNT film with good mechanical and electrical contact between the BNNTs and the cathode electrode. The remarkable emission performance of the BNNT field emitters might have promising applications for various field-emission devices.

  19. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  20. Absorption properties and graphitic carbon emission factors of forest fire aerosols

    Treesearch

    E.M. Patterson; Charles K. McMahon; D.E. Ward

    1986-01-01

    Abstract. Data on the optical absorption properties (expressed as a specific absorption, Ba) of the smoke emissions from fires with forest fuels have been determined for a series of low-intensity field fires and a series of laboratory scale fires. The B, data have been used to estimate the emission factors for graphitic...

  1. A look at some systemic properties of self-bioluminescent emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creath, Katherine

    2008-08-01

    Self-bioluminescent emission (SBE) is a type of biological chemiluminescence where photons are emitted as part of chemical reactions occurring during metabolic processes. This emission is also known as biophoton emission, ultraweak photon emission and ultraweak bioluminescence. This paper outlines research over the past century on some systemic properties of SBE as measured with biological detectors, photomultiplier detectors and ultra-sensitive imaging arrays. There is an apparent consensus in the literature that emission in the deep blue and ultraviolet (150-450nm) is related to DNA / RNA processes while emission in the red and near infrared (600-1000nm) is related to mitochondria and oxidative metabolisms involving reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen and free radicals in plant, animal and human cells along with chlorophyll fluorescent decay in plants. Additionally, there are trends showing that healthy, unstressed and uninjured samples have less emission than samples that are unhealthy, stressed or injured. Mechanisms producing this emission can be narrowed down by isolating the wavelength region of interest and waiting for short-term fluorescence to decay leaving the ultraweak long-term metabolic emission. Examples of imaging this emission in healthy versus unhealthy, stressed versus unstressed, and injured versus uninjured plant parts are shown. Further discussion poses questions still to be answered related to properties such as coherence, photon statistics, and methodological means of isolating mechanisms.

  2. Electron Field Emission Properties of Textured Platinum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.

    2002-01-01

    During ground tests of electric microthrusters and space tests of electrodynamic tethers the electron emitters must successfully operate at environmental pressures possibly as high as 1x10(exp -4) Pa. High partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor are expected in such environments. A textured platinum surface was used in this work for field emission cathode assessments because platinum does not form oxide films at low temperatures. Although a reproducible cathode conditioning process did not evolve from this work, some short term tests for periods of 1 to 4 hours showed no degradation of emission current at an electric field of 8 V/mm and background pressures of about 1x10(exp -6) Pa. Increases of background pressure by air flow to about 3x10(exp -4) Pa yield a hostile environment for the textured platinum field emission cathode.

  3. Controlled drop emission by wetting properties in driven liquid filaments.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Aguilar, R; Nistal, R; Hernández-Machado, A; Pagonabarraga, I

    2011-05-01

    The controlled formation of micrometre-sized drops is of great importance to many technological applications. Here we present a wetting-based destabilization mechanism of forced microfilaments on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic stripes that leads to the periodic emission of droplets. The drop emission mechanism is triggered above the maximum critical forcing at which wetting, capillarity, viscous friction and gravity can balance to sustain a stable driven contact line. The corresponding critical filament velocity is predicted as a function of the static wetting angle, which can be tuned through the substrate behaviour, and shows a strong dependence on the filament size. This sensitivity explains the qualitative difference in the critical velocity between hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes, and accounts for previous experimental results of splashing solids. We demonstrate that this mechanism can be used to control independently the drop size and emission period, opening the possibility of highly monodisperse and flexible drop production techniques in open microfluidic geometries.

  4. Prospects for detection of very high-energy emission from GRB in the context of the external shock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Piro, L.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The detection of the 100 GeV-TeV emission by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the nature of the central engine and the interaction between the relativistic flow and the environment of the burst's progenitor. Aims: In this paper we show that there are exciting prospects of detecting from the burst by MAGIC high-energy (HE) emission during the early X-ray flaring activity and, later, during the normal afterglow phase. We also identify the best observational strategy: trigger conditions and time period of observation. Methods: We determine the expected HE emission from the flaring and afterglow phases of GRBs in the context of the external shock scenario and compare them with the MAGIC threshold. Results: We find that an X-ray flare with the average properties of the class can be detected in the 100 GeV range by MAGIC, provided that z ≲ 0.7. The requested observational window with MAGIC should then start from 10-20 s after the burst and cover about 1000-2000 s. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are solid prospects of detecting the late afterglow emission in the same energy range for most of the bursts with z ≲ 0.5 if the density of the external medium is n ≳ a few cm-3. In this case, the MAGIC observation shall extend to about 10-20 ks. We provide recipes for tailoring this prediction to the observational properties of each burst, in particular the fluence in the prompt emission and the redshift, thus allowing an almost real time decision procedure to decide whether to continue the follow-up observation of a burst at late times.

  5. Superior Field Emission Properties of Layered WS2-RGO Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Joshi, Padmashree D.; Kashid, Ranjit V.; Joag, Dilip S.; More, Mahendra A.; Simbeck, Adam J.; Washington, Morris; Nayak, Saroj K.; Late, Dattatray J.

    2013-01-01

    We report here the field emission studies of a layered WS2-RGO composite at the base pressure of ~1 × 10−8 mbar. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1 μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2-RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2-RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 μA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2-RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overalp of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. PMID:24257504

  6. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  7. Uncertainties in Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions, Scavenging Parameterizations, and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Bond, T.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Sun, H.; van Aardenne, J.; van der Werf, G.

    2006-12-01

    Estimates of human influence on climate are especially hindered by poor constraint on the amount of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the atmosphere. Coordination of observation and model analyses attempt to constrain particle absorption amount, however these are limited by uncertainties in aerosol emission estimates, model scavenging parameterization, aerosol size assumption, contributions from organic aerosol absorption, air concentration observational techniques and by sparsity of data coverage. We perform multiple simulations using GISS modelE and six present-day emission estimates for black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) (Bond et al 2004 middle and upper estimates, IIASA, EDGAR, GFED v1 and v2); for one of these emissions we apply 4 different BC/OC scavenging parameterizations. The resulting concentrations will be compared with a new compilation of observed BC/OC concentrations. We then use these model concentrations, together with effective radius assumptions and estimates of OC absorption to calculate a range of carbonaceous aerosol absorption. We constrain the wavelength-dependent model τ- absorption with AERONET sun-photometer observations. We will discuss regions, seasons and emission sectors with greatest uncertainty, including those where observational constraint is lacking. We calculate the range of model radiative forcing from our simulations and discuss the degree to which it is constrained by observations.

  8. A possible macronova in the late afterglow of the long-short burst GRB 060614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Covino, Stefano; Zheng, Xian-Zhong; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi; Wei, Da-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Long-duration (>2 s) γ-ray bursts that are believed to originate from the death of massive stars are expected to be accompanied by supernovae. GRB 060614, that lasted 102 s, lacks a supernova-like emission down to very stringent limits and its physical origin is still debated. Here we report the discovery of near-infrared bump that is significantly above the regular decaying afterglow. This red bump is inconsistent with even the weakest known supernova. However, it can arise from a Li-Paczyński macronova--the radioactive decay of debris following a compact binary merger. If this interpretation is correct, GRB 060614 arose from a compact binary merger rather than from the death of a massive star and it was a site of a significant production of heavy r-process elements. The significant ejected mass favours a black hole-neutron star merger but a double neutron star merger cannot be ruled out.

  9. A possible macronova in the late afterglow of the long-short burst GRB 060614.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Covino, Stefano; Zheng, Xian-Zhong; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi; Wei, Da-Ming

    2015-06-11

    Long-duration (>2 s) γ-ray bursts that are believed to originate from the death of massive stars are expected to be accompanied by supernovae. GRB 060614, that lasted 102 s, lacks a supernova-like emission down to very stringent limits and its physical origin is still debated. Here we report the discovery of near-infrared bump that is significantly above the regular decaying afterglow. This red bump is inconsistent with even the weakest known supernova. However, it can arise from a Li-Paczyński macronova--the radioactive decay of debris following a compact binary merger. If this interpretation is correct, GRB 060614 arose from a compact binary merger rather than from the death of a massive star and it was a site of a significant production of heavy r-process elements. The significant ejected mass favours a black hole-neutron star merger but a double neutron star merger cannot be ruled out.

  10. Collisional-Radiative Recombination of Ar^+ Ions with Electrons in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypkowski, Miroslaw P.; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1998-10-01

    Langmuir probe measurements of electron densities, n_e, in an Ar^+/e^- plasma are quantitatively consistent with the semi-empirical rate coefficient for collisional-radiative recombination given by Stevefelt et al.(J. Stevefelt et al., Phys. Rev A 12, 1246 (1975)) : α_cr=1.55×10-10T-0.63 + 6.0×10-9T-2.18n_e^0.37+3.8×10- 9T-4.5ne over the initial electron density range 5×10^9-5×10^10cm-3 at T=300K. Optical emission spectroscopy data reveal transitions from highly-excited states of Ar to Ar(^3P). We believe that the collisional-radiative recombination of Ar^+ ions is responsible for the presence of Ar metastable atoms in flowing afterglow plasmas.

  11. Is the Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 021004 Unusual?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, A.

    2003-03-01

    The afterglow (AG) of gamma-ray burst GRB 021004 has been claimed to be unusual. In the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs, that is not the case. The very early AG's shape is, like for GRB 990123, a direct tracer of the expected circumburst density profile. The unprecedented precision of the data allows for the ``resolution'' of two CBs in the AG. These two CBs correspond to the two pulses in the GRB and to the two wide shoulders in the AG light curve. The smaller wiggles in the AG are, like for GRB 000301c and for GRB 970508, to be expected: they trace moderate deviations from a constant density interstellar medium. The observed evolution of the optical spectrum is that predicted in the CB model. The X-ray and radio emissions of GRB 021004 are also normal.

  12. Enhancement of electron field emission property with silver incorporation into diamondlike carbon matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Sk. Faruque; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

    2008-05-12

    Effects of silver doping on the electron field emission properties of diamondlike carbon films deposited on silicon substrates by the rf reactive sputtering technique were studied in detail. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced by Ag doping and the emission current strongly depends on the Ag doping percentage. The threshold field was found to decrease from 6.8 to 2.6 V/{mu}m with a variation of Ag at. % from 0 to 12.5. The field enhancement factor was calculated and we have explained the emission mechanism.

  13. A Comprehensive Review of Effect of Biodiesel Additives on Properties, Performance, and Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiwale, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Bhojwani, V.

    2017-05-01

    Objectives:- To presents the literature review on effect of biodiesel additives on properties, performance and on emission. Method:-In the current paper reviews are taken from previous years paper which necessitates the need of addition of additives in the blends of biodiesel and studied the its effect on properties, performance and emissions. Emissions from the diesel powered vehicles mostly damaged the earth’s environment and also increased the overall earth’s temperature. This attracts the need of alternative fuels in the field of transportation sector. Past inventions and research showed that Biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. Biodiesel have good combustion characteristics because of their long chain hydrocarbon structure. However biodiesel possesses few disadvantages such as lower heating value, higher flow ability, much high density and not able to flow at low temperature. Higher rate of fuel consumption is identified and higher level of NOx emissions when biodiesel used in an engine as an alternative fuels. Findings:-Different additives such as antioxidants, improvers for cetane number, cold flow properties improver, etc were investigated by the many researcher and scientists and added in the different feedstock of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel with diesel in different proportions. Directly or indirectly fuel additives can improve the reduction in the emissions, improve the fuel economy, and reduce the dependency of the one’s nation on other. Performances of biodiesel vehicles were drastically improved because of additioninthe blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel in specific percentages to meet the international emission standards. Addition of additives in the biodiesel or in the blends of biodiesel basically changes the high temperature and low temperature flow properties of blends of biodiesel. Current paper finds and compares properties of different additives and its effect on blends of biodiesel properties

  14. Polarization properties of OH emission in planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, José F.; Uscanga, Lucero; Green, James A.; Miranda, Luis F.; Suárez, Olga; Bendjoya, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    We present the interferometric, full-polarization observations of the four ground-state transitions of OH, towards five confirmed and one candidate OH-emitting planetary nebulae (OHPNe). OHPNe are believed to be very young PNe, and information on their magnetic fields (provided by their polarization) could be key to understand the early evolution of PNe. We detect significant circular and linear polarization in four and two objects, respectively. Possible Zeeman pairs are seen in JaSt 23 and IRAS 17393-2727, resulting in estimates of magnetic field strengths between 0.8 and 24 mG. We also report the new detection of OH emission at 1720 MHz towards Vy 2-2, making it the third known PN with this type of emission. We suggest that younger PNe have spectra dominated by narrow maser features and higher degrees of polarization. Shock-excited emission at 1720 MHz seems to be more common in PNe than in early evolutionary phases, and could be related to equatorial ejections during the early PN phase.

  15. Emission and Propagation Properties of Midinfrared Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswami, Kannan; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Ho, Nicolas; Anheier, Norman C.

    2008-02-15

    We report divergence, astigmatism and M2 measurements of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) with an emission wavelength of 8.77 mum. Emission profiles from the QCL facet showed divergence angles of 62° and 32° FWHM ± 2° for the fast and slow axes, respectively. The observation of far field structure superimposed on the fast axes profiles was attributed to the position of the QCL die with respect to the edge of the laser submount, emphasizing the need for careful placement. Two diffraction-limited Germanium aspheric microlenses were designed and fabricated to efficiently collect, collimate, and focus QCL emission. A confocal system comprised of these lenses was used to measure the beam propagation figure of merit (M2) yielding 1.8 and 1.2 for the fast and slow axes, respectively. Astigmatism at the exit facet was calculated to be about 3.4 mum, or less than half a wave. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental measurement of astigmatism and M2 reported for mid-IR QCLs.

  16. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Laskar, T.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R.; Dupuy, T. J.; Levan, A.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Mangano, V.; Fox, D. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Menten, K. M.; Hjorth, J.; Roth, K.

    2013-03-10

    We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB

  17. How mole ratio of UF resin affects formaldehyde emission and other properties : a literature critique

    Treesearch

    George E. Myers

    1984-01-01

    A critical review was made of the literature concerned with how the formaldehyde to urea mole ratio (F/U) affects formaldehyde emission from particleboard and plywood bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives, and how this ratio affects certain other adhesive and board properties. It is difficult to quantify the dependence of various properties on mole ratio or...

  18. Modeling and assessment of long afterglow decay curves.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jeng-Wen; Huang, Yih-Ping; Huang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Multiple exponential equations have been successfully fitted to experimental long afterglow decay curve data for some phosphor materials by previous researchers. The calculated decay constants in such equations are used to assess the phosphorescence characteristics of an object. This study generates decay constants from experimental test data and from existing literature for comparison. It shows that the decay constants of an object may not be invariant and that they are dependent on phosphor material, temperature, irradiation intensity, sample thickness, and phosphor density for samples. In addition, the use of different numbers of exponential components in interpretation leads to different numerical results for decay constants. The relationship between the calculated decay constants and the afterglow characteristics of an object is studied and discussed in this paper. The appearance of the luminescence intensity is less correlated to the decay constants than to the time-invariant constants in an equation.

  19. Modeling and Assessment of Long Afterglow Decay Curves

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jeng-Wen; Huang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Multiple exponential equations have been successfully fitted to experimental long afterglow decay curve data for some phosphor materials by previous researchers. The calculated decay constants in such equations are used to assess the phosphorescence characteristics of an object. This study generates decay constants from experimental test data and from existing literature for comparison. It shows that the decay constants of an object may not be invariant and that they are dependent on phosphor material, temperature, irradiation intensity, sample thickness, and phosphor density for samples. In addition, the use of different numbers of exponential components in interpretation leads to different numerical results for decay constants. The relationship between the calculated decay constants and the afterglow characteristics of an object is studied and discussed in this paper. The appearance of the luminescence intensity is less correlated to the decay constants than to the time-invariant constants in an equation. PMID:25295289

  20. Detailed Study of the Variable Afterglow of GRB 060526

    SciTech Connect

    Johannesson, G.; Thoene, C. C.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kann, D. A.; Selj, J. H.; Jaunsen, A.; Hanlon, L.; French, J.

    2009-05-25

    Using one of the largest photometric datasets ever obtained for a GRB, we investigate the highly variable afterglow light curve of Gamma-Ray Burst 060526. The light curve shows clear deviations from a power-law behaviour which we attribute to energy injections. We fit the data to a numerical model including 6 energy injections which explains the full temporal behaviour of the light curve in many wavebands, ranging from NIR to X-rays.

  1. Continuous heatable Langmuir probe for flowing afterglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubé, Sylvain; Mostefaoui, Toufik; Rowe, Bertrand

    2000-02-01

    A heatable Langmuir probe consisting of a continuous dc-heating-current loop of tungsten wire is presented. This technique is efficient to keep the probe surface clean for flowing afterglow measurements. In our experimental conditions, the perturbations on the electron density determination can be considered as very small. The measurement of the well-known rate for the dissociative recombination of O2+ shows that the gas surrounding the probe is not heated for estimated probe temperature up to 700 K.

  2. Spectroscopic Observations of the Bright Afterglow of GRB021004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Fiona

    2001-09-01

    One of the holy grails of gamma-ray burst research is to detect X-ray line signatures from an afterglow with high statistical significance. Of all possible observations, this perhaps offers the best chance of constraining the GRB mechanism and environment, and could provide the "smoking gun" signature connecting GRBs to massive stellar deaths. In order to accomplish this, we know long observations within one day of the event are necessary.

  3. Field emission properties of a graphene/polymer composite.

    PubMed

    Patole, Shashikant P; Lee, Jong Hak; Park, Jae Hong; Yu, Seong Man; Makotchenko, V G; Nazarov, A S; Fedorov, V E; Shin, Dong Wook; Alegaonkar, Prashant S; More, Mahendra A; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2013-11-01

    Thin graphene/polymer sheet composites were fabricated using easily soluble expanded graphite (ESEG), and their field emission (FE) parameters were examined. Due to the high dispersability of ESEG, a stable graphene suspension was prepared by ultrasonication in toluene without the need for a surfactant. The suspension consisted of exfoliated graphene sheets with a thickness of 1 - 2 nm. Using a calendering process, the solution was further shear mixed with ethyl cellulose to obtain a well-dispersed graphene/polymer composite. The composite was screen printed onto a conducing substrate to fabricate the FE cathode layers. The FE measurements were taken in a diode configuration at an applied electrostatic field and inter-electrode distance of 1.7 to 6 V/microm and approximately 200 microm, respectively. The threshold turn-on-field was approximately 3.5 V/microm at a current density of approximately 10 microA/cm2 with a corresponding mean field enhancement factor of 1350 +/- 50. Emission occurred mainly from the edges and bends of the graphene layers. The luminescence uniformity of the composite cathode layers was examined using a phosphor-coated anode.

  4. Systematic properties of CO emission from galaxies. I - Luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verter, Frances

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive survey of normal galaxies covering a wide range of luminosities and morphological types is combined with galaxy observations in the literature to provide a sample for statistical study. The global CO emission of these galaxies is extrapolated by modeling the galaxies with an exponential radial profile. The maximum-likelihood distribution functions of CO luminosity and CO/H I flux ratio are similar in behavior. Both have long tails of bright galaxies. However, the typical galaxy has a CO luminosity of about 10 to the 6th Jy km/s Mpc-squared or less and a CO/H I ratio of the order of 10 or less. Averages of the distributions of CO luminosity and CO/H I flux ratio are higher for galaxies of Hubble type Sb-Sbc than for groups of earlier or later types. Quantitative estimates of the possible error sources in the conversion of CO luminosity to molecular mass indicates that the peaking of CO emission at intermediate types is a fairly confident result.

  5. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic ;NEA; peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  6. Very High Energy Neutrinos from nearby long GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jessymol K.; Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-09-01

    Long duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are well-motivated sources of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos. During the afterglow phase these particles can be produced as a result of acceleration and interaction there in. We have modeled afterglow spectra and light curves from synchrotron cooling of accelerated electrons. We have fitted data of 17 long GRBs detected within redshift 0.5 in case of the GRB blastwave evolving in a wind and constant density interstellar medium. The afterglow photons can interact with the shock accelerated protons to produce very high energy neutrinos. We have calculated the neutrino flux for photo-pion interactions for all these GRBs. As IceCube have been detecting very high energy neutrinos for the last four years and a larger future extension called Gen 2 is planned, this calculation will help in understanding more about GRB neutrino production. Calculation of flux and estimation of events for Northern Hemisphere GRBs are done for the upcoming neutrino observatory KM3NeT.

  7. Rates, flux densities, and spectral indices of meteor radio afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenberger, K. S.; Dowell, J. D.; Hancock, P. J.; Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Schinzel, F. K.; Taylor, G. B.

    2016-07-01

    Using the narrowband all-sky imager mode of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), we have now detected 30 transients at 25.6 MHz, 1 at 34 MHz, and 93 at 38.0 MHz. While we have only optically confirmed that 37 of these events are radio afterglows from meteors, evidence suggests that most, if not all, are. Using the beam-forming mode of the LWA1, we have also captured the broadband spectra between 22.0 and 55.0 MHz of four events. We compare the smooth, spectral components of these four events and fit the frequency-dependent flux density to a power law, and find that the spectral index is time variable, with the spectrum steepening over time for each meteor afterglow. Using these spectral indices along with the narrowband flux density measurements of the 123 events at 25.6 and 38 MHz, we predict the expected flux densities and rates for meteor afterglows potentially observable by other low-frequency radio telescopes.

  8. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Michael J.; Schmidt, Anja; Easter, Richard; Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Ghan, Steven J.; Neely, Ryan R.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Conley, Andrew; Bardeen, Charles G.; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  9. Far-UV Emission Properties of FR1 Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; France, Kevin; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Perlman, Eric

    2016-11-01

    The power mechanism and accretion geometry for low-power FR 1 radio galaxies are poorly understood in comparison to those for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs. In this paper, we use the diagnostic power of the Lyα recombination line observed using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to investigate the accretion flows in three well-known, nearby FR 1s: M87, NGC 4696, and Hydra A. The Lyα emission line’s luminosity, velocity structure, and the limited knowledge of its spatial extent provided by COS are used to assess conditions within a few parsecs of the supermassive black hole in these radio-mode active galactic nuclei. We observe strong Lyα emission in all three objects with total luminosity similar to that seen in BL Lacertae objects. M87 shows a complicated emission-line profile in Lyα, which varies spatially across the COS aperture and possibly temporally over several epochs of observation. In both NGC 4696 and M87, the Lyα luminosities ˜1040 erg s-1 are closely consistent with the observed strength of the ionizing continuum in Case B recombination theory and with the assumption of a near-unity covering factor. It is possible that the Lyα-emitting clouds are ionized largely by beamed radiation associated with the jets. Long-slit UV spectroscopy can be used to test this hypothesis. Hydra A and the several BL Lac objects studied in this and previous papers have Lyα luminosities larger than M87 but their extrapolated, nonthermal continua are so luminous that they overpredict the observed strength of Lyα, a clear indicator of relativistic beaming in our direction. Given their substantial space density (˜4 × 10-3 Mpc-3), the unbeamed Lyman continuum radiation of FR 1s may make a substantial minority contribution (˜10%) to the local UV background if all FR 1s are similar to M87 in ionizing flux level.

  10. The magnetoionic modes and propagation properties of auroral radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Wynne; Hashimoto, Kozo

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the magnetoionic wave modes which accompany the aurora is clarified here by a detailed analysis, using multiple techniques, of DE 1 auroral radio observations. All four of the possible magnetoionic wave modes are found to occur, apparently emitted from two different source regions on the same auroral field line. AKR originates primarily in the X mode near the electron cyclotron frequency, and is frequently also accompanied by a weaker O-mode component from the same location. The next most prominent auroral emission is the W-mode auroral hiss originating from altitudes always well below the DE 1 satellite at frequencies below the local cyclotron frequency. The previously reported Z-mode auroral radiation was also detected, but from sources also below the satellite at the poleward edge of the cavity, and not from the expected AKR source at the cyclotron frequency.

  11. Emission properties of non-equilibrium krypton plasma in the water-window region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Vassily S.

    2017-01-01

    The line emission properties of non-equilibrium krypton plasma are examined and the optimal emission temperature conditions for soft x-ray emission output in the water-window region are explored. The kinetic parameters for non-equilibrium plasma including major inelastic ion interaction processes, radiation and emission data are obtained with an approach based on the Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) quantum-statistical model and a distorted wave approximation. A nonmaxwellian electron distribution is used as well for calculating collisional rates. At a temperature of 70 eV the emission spectral efficiency for Kr equilibrium plasma is about 10%, and it jumps to a value greater than 70% at 100 eV. A similar spectral efficiency is achieved at a lower temperature e.g. 80 eV in non-equilibrium plasma with 7.5 keV fast electron average energy.

  12. Field Enhancement Properties of Nanotubes in a Field Emission Set-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adessi, Ch.; Devel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mechanisms of emission of nanotubes. The field enhancement properties of carbon nanotubes, involved in the emission of electrons, is investigated theoretically for various single-wall (SWNT) and multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT). The presentation points out big differences between (n,0) and (n,n) nanotubes, and propose phenomenological laws for the variations of the enhancement factor with length and diameter

  13. Comparison of the coherence properties of superradiance and laser emission in semiconductor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Petr P; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-12-31

    The coherence properties of a transient electron - hole state developing during superradiance emission in semiconductor laser structures have been studied experimentally using a Michelson interferometer and Young's classic double-slit configuration. The results demonstrate that, in the lasers studied, the first-order correlation function, which quantifies spatial coherence, approaches unity for superradiant emission and is 0.2 - 0.5 for laser emission. The supercoherence is due to long-range ordering upon the superradiant phase transition. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  14. Synoptic observations of Jupiter's radio emissions - Average statistical properties observed by Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Carr, T. D.; Thieman, J. R.; Schauble, J. J.; Riddle, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's low-frequency radio emissions collected over one-month intervals before and after each Voyager encounter are analyzed to provide a synoptic view of the average statistical properties of the emissions. Compilations of occurrence probability, average power flux density, and average sense of circular polarization are given as a function of central meridian longitude, phase of Io, and frequency. The results are then compared with ground-based observations. The necessary geometric conditions and preferred polarization sense for Io-related decametric emission observed by Voyager from above both the dayside and nightside hemispheres are found to be basically the same as those observed in earth-based studies.

  15. Influence of Helium Atoms Absorption on the Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umaev, S. M.; Levchenko, A. A.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the emission properties of charge sources based on carbon nanotubes prepared by arc discharge deposition of nanotubes onto a flat copper substrate (Borisenko et al. in Instrum Exp Tech 57(6):755, 2014; Low Temp Phys 41(7):567, 2015). The charge sources were submerged into superfluid helium at temperature T=1.3 K. The collector fixed above the charge source at a distance of 0.3 mm was connected to an electrometer. The current of charges was measured by the electrometer when a high voltage was applied to the charge source. In the originally prepared source, the emission of charges (electrons) on the level of 10^{-10}A is observed at a negative voltage above U=80 V and increases with increasing voltage. If the source of charge was kept in liquid helium for 15 h, the current-voltage characteristic changed significantly. The current of charges on the same level of 10^{-10} A was registered at a voltage of U=150 V. Extraction of gases from the source placed in a vacuum chamber at room temperature for 48 h leads to the complete recovery of the emission properties. One can assume that the degradation of the emission properties of the sources is associated with the adsorption of helium atoms by carbon nanotubes at low temperatures. We did not observe any degradation of the emission properties of the charge sources in the case of positive charges injection into superfluid helium.

  16. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-05-16

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed.

  17. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  18. Some unique properties of gas chromatography coupled with atomic-emission detection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jan T

    2002-07-01

    The atomic-emission detector in gas chromatography is enormously versatile in applications in analytical chemistry. Its unique properties of high selectivity for most elements and low limits of detection combine to make it the preferred detector for many analytical problems. In this review the stress is laid on the possibility of using it for compound-independent calibration, for determination of the empirical formula of an unknown analyte, for isotope-selective detection, and on derivatization to give AED-active derivatives with advantageous detection properties. Both metals and non-metals are considered and examples of the use of atomic emission detection in real-world analysis are discussed.

  19. Field emission properties of ring-shaped Si ridges with DLC coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prommesberger, Christian; Ławrowski, Robert; Langer, Christoph; Mecani, Mirgen; Huang, Yifeng; She, Juncong; Schreiner, Rupert

    2017-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and the emission characterization of single ring-shaped Si ridges with a coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The reactive ion etching and the subsequent inductively coupled plasma step were adjusted to realize ring-shaped Si ridges with a height of 7.5 μm respectively 15 μm and an apex radius of 20 - 25 nm. The samples were coated with a DLC layer (thickness ≈ 2 - 5 nm) by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system in order to lower the work function of the emitter and to improve the field emission characteristics. The field emission characterizations were done in diode configuration with cathode and anode separated by a 50 μm thick mica spacer. A higher emission current was carried out for the ring-shaped Si ridge in comparison to the point-shaped Si tips due to the increased emission area. The highest emission current of 0.22 μA at 1000 V was measured on a DLC-coated sample with the highest aspect ratio. No degradation of the emission current was observed in the plateau regime during a measurement period of 6 h. Finally, no decreasing performance of the field emission properties was found due to changes in the geometry or destructions.

  20. Very Bright Prompt and Reverse Shock Emission of GRB 140512A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Xin, Li-Ping; Yi, Shuang-Xi; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Jin-Song; Wei, Jian-Yan; Liang, En-Wei

    2016-12-01

    We report our observations of very bright prompt optical and reverse shock (RS) optical emission of GRB 140512A and analyze its multi-wavelength data observed with the Swift and Fermi missions. It is found that the joint optical-X-ray-gamma-ray spectrum with our first optical detection (R = 13.09 mag) at {T}0+136 s during the second episode of the prompt gamma-rays can be fit by a single power law with an index of -1.32 ± 0.01. Our empirical fit to the afterglow light curves indicates that the observed bright optical afterglow with R = 13.00 mag at the peak time is consistent with predictions of the RS and forward shock (FS) emission of external shock models. A joint optical-X-ray afterglow spectrum is well fit with an absorbed single power law, with an index evolving with time from -1.86 ± 0.01 at the peak time to -1.57 ± 0.01 at a late epoch, which could be due to the evolution of the ratio of the RS to FS emission fluxes. We fit the light curves with standard external models, and derive the physical properties of the outflow. It is found that the ratio {R}{{B}}\\equiv {ɛ }{{B},{{r}}}/{ɛ }{{B},{{f}}} is 8187, indicating a high magnetization degree in the RS region. Measuring the relative radiation efficiency with {R}{{e}}\\equiv {ɛ }{{e},{{r}}}/{ɛ }{{e},{{f}}}, we have R e = 0.02, implying that the radiation efficiency of the RS is much lower than that in FS. We also show that the R B of GRBs 990123, 090102, and 130427A are similar to that of GRB 140512A and their apparent difference may be mainly attributed to the difference of the jet kinetic energy, initial Lorentz factor, and medium density among them.

  1. The chemical and microphysical properties of secondary organic aerosols from Holm Oak emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.; Mentel, Th. F.; Bohne, A.; Buchholz, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Spindler, C.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2010-08-01

    The Mediterranean region is expected to experience substantial climatic change in the next 50 years. But, possible effects of climate change on biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well as on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) produced from these VOC are yet unexplored. To address such issues, the effects of temperature on the VOC emissions of Mediterranean Holm Oak and small Mediterranean stand of Wild Pistacio, Aleppo Pine, and Palestine Oak have been studied in the Jülich plant aerosol atmosphere chamber. For Holm Oak the optical and microphysical properties of the resulting SOA were investigated. Monoterpenes dominated the VOC emissions from Holm Oak (97.5%) and Mediterranean stand (97%). Higher temperatures enhanced the overall VOC emission but with different ratios of the emitted species. The amount of SOA increased linearly with the emission strength with a fractional mass yield of 6.0±0.6%, independent of the detailed emission pattern. The investigated particles were highly scattering with no absorption abilities. Their average hygroscopic growth factor of 1.13±0.03 at 90% RH with a critical diameter of droplet activation was 100±4 nm at a supersaturation of 0.4%. All microphysical properties did not depend on the detailed emission pattern, in accordance with an invariant O/C ratio (0.57(+0.03/-0.1)) of the SOA observed by high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. The increase of Holm oak emissions with temperature (≈20% per degree) was stronger than e.g. for Boreal tree species (≈10% per degree). The SOA yield for Mediterranean trees determined here is similar as for Boreal trees. Increasing mean temperature in Mediterranean areas could thus have a stronger impact on BVOC emissions and SOA formation than in areas with Boreal forests.

  2. DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang Bing; Hascoeet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-20

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the ''mechanical model'' that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  3. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves with a Long-lived Reverse Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing; Hascoët, Romain; Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the "mechanical model" that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  4. Mid-IR emission of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. Integrated properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Lequeux, J.; Sauvage, M.; Boulade, O.; Boulanger, F.; Cesarsky, D.; Dupraz, C.; Madden, S.; Viallefond, F.; Vigroux, L.

    1998-07-01

    We analyse the integrated properties of the Mid-IR emission of a complete, optically selected sample of galaxies in the Virgo cluster observed with the ISOCAM instrument on board the ISO satellite. The ISOCAM data allows us to construct the luminosity distribution at 6.75 and 15 mu m of galaxies for different morphological classes. These data are used to study the spectral energy distribution of galaxies of different type and luminosity in the wavelength range 2000 Angstroms - 100 mu m. The analysis shows that the Mid-IR emission up to 15 mu m of optically-selected, normal early-type galaxies (E, S0 and S0a) is dominated by the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the cold stellar component. The Mid-IR emission of late-type galaxies is instead dominated by the thermal emission from dust. As in the Milky Way, the small dust grains emitting in the Mid-IR have an excess of emission if compared to big grains emitting in the Far-IR. While the Far-IR emission of galaxies increases with the intensity of the interstellar radiation field, their Mid-IR emission is non-linearly related to the UV radiation field. The spectral energy distributions of the target galaxies indicate that there is a linear relationship between the UV radiation field and the Mid-IR emission of galaxies for low or intermediate activities of star formation, while the emission from the hot dust seems to drop for strong UV fields. The Mid-IR colour of late-type galaxies is not related to their activity of star formation. The properties of the dust emission in the Mid-IR seem more related to the mass than to the morphological type of the target galaxy. Since the activity of star formation is anticorrelated to the mass of galaxies, this reflects a relationship between the emission of dust in the Mid-IR and the UV radiation field: galaxies with the lowest Mid-IR emission for a given UV field are low mass, dwarf galaxies. These observational evidences are easily explained if the carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands

  5. Studies of x-ray emission properties of photoionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feilu; Han, Bo; Jin, Rui; Salzmann, David; Liang, Guiyun; Wei, Huigang; Zhong, Jiayong; Zhao, Gang; Li, Jia-ming

    2016-03-01

    In this paper three aspects of photoionized plasmas are discussed in both laboratory and astrophysical contexts. First, the importance of accurate atomic/ionic data for the analysis of photoionized plasmas is shown. Second, an overview of present computer codes for the analysis of photoionized plasmas is given. We introduce our computer model, radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF), for calculations of the properties of such plasmas. RCF uses database generated by the flexible atomic code. Using RCF it is shown that incorporating the satellite lines from doubly excited Li-like ions into the He{}α triplet lines is necessary for reliable analysis of observational spectra from astrophysical objects. Finally, we introduce a proposal to generate photoionized plasmas by x-ray free electron laser, which may facilitate the simulation in lab of astrophysical plasmas in photoionization equilibrium.

  6. Links between phytoplankton, CO2 emissions and water properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, L.

    2009-04-01

    estimated an amount of ~5 tons of CaCO3 produced in the upper 30 m of water resulting in a emission of CO2 of 7.4 mmol m-2 d-1, which indicates that the calcification process constitutes an additional source of CO2 to the water and, eventually, to the atmosphere. Our findings illustrate the sensitivity of the phytoplankton species composition in the shelf system under study to climate variations and also its importance in the carbon cycle. Thus, if phytoplankton community is vulnerable to this type of perturbations, one may expect impacts on higher trophic levels that involve specific trophic links.Please fill in your abstract text.

  7. Emission properties of Ce3+ centers in barium borate glasses prepared from different precursor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torimoto, Aya; Masai, Hirokazu; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray induced luminescence properties of Ce-doped barium borate glasses prepared from different precursor materials have been investigated. Oxidation of Ce3+ takes place during the melting process performed using a pre-vitrified non-doped glass. Residual groups originated from the precursor materials, such as fluorine atoms and OH groups, are found to affect the optical and emission properties of the glasses. Moreover, both the PL and the X-ray induced luminescence properties of the glasses depend on the precursor materials used for their synthesis. Based on a thorough analysis of the emission properties, we conclude that the best synthesis conditions involve melting a batch containing Ce(CH3COO)3·H2O, BaCO3, and B2O3 in Ar atmosphere.

  8. 'Self-absorbed' GeV light curves of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.; Vestrand, W. T.; Woźniak, P.

    2014-06-10

    We investigate the effect that the absorption of high-energy (above 100 MeV) photons produced in gamma-ray burst afterglow shocks has on the light curves and spectra of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) afterglows. Afterglows produced by the interaction of a relativistic outflow with a wind-like medium peak when the blast wave deceleration sets in, and the afterglow spectrum could be hardening before that peak, as the optical thickness to pair formation is decreasing. In contrast, in afterglows produced in the interaction with a homogeneous medium, the optical thickness to pair formation should increase and yield a light curve peak when it reaches unity, followed by a fast light curve decay, accompanied by spectral softening. If energy is injected in the blast wave, then the accelerated increase of the optical thickness yields a convex afterglow light curve. Other features, such as a double-peak light curve or a broad hump, can arise from the evolution of the optical thickness to photon-photon absorption. Fast decays and convex light curves are seen in a few LAT afterglows, but the expected spectral softening is rarely seen in (and difficult to measure with) LAT observations. Furthermore, for the effects of photon-photon attenuation to shape the high-energy afterglow light curve without attenuating it too much, the ejecta initial Lorentz factor must be in a relatively narrow range (50-200), which reduces the chance of observing those effects.

  9. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission during the X-ray flaring activity in GRB 100728A

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.; Piro, L.

    2011-05-26

    Here, we present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. As a result, we discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source.

  10. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission during the X-ray flaring activity in GRB 100728A

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2011-05-26

    Here, we present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. As a result, we discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activitymore » as their power source.« less

  11. Links Between Emission Line Properties of AGN and Their X-ray SED Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Martin; Done, C.; Gelbord, J.; Hutton, S.; Jin, C.

    2010-03-01

    We have produced SEDs from 1 micron to 10keV, for a sample of about 50 AGN based on observations with XMM-Newton, including UV points from the optical monitor, and the SDSS. Using detailed spectral fitting techniques, we quantify the contributions from an accretion disc, a hot Compton component, and a power-law, including the effects of absorption. From the optical spectra we measure the principal emission line diagnostics of conditions within the BLR, NLR and the highly ionised regions. By our decomposition of the X-ray to optical continuum into its constituent components, and using correlations with the optical emission lines, we are able to identify the strongest links. From this understanding of how emission lines respond to the separate components of the ionising continuum, we can better explain the wide range of properties from narrowest line Seyfert 1s up to those displaying exceptionally broad emission lines.

  12. Influence of cluster-assembly parameters on the field emission properties of nanostructured carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, C.; Barborini, E.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.; Robertson, J.

    2002-11-01

    Supersonic cluster beam deposition has been used to produce films with different nanostructures by controlling the deposition parameters such as the film thickness, substrate temperature and cluster mass distribution. The field emission properties of cluster-assembled carbon films have been characterized and correlated to the evolution of the film nanostructure. Threshold fields ranging between 4 and 10 V/mum and saturation current densities as high as 0.7 mA have been measured for samples heated during deposition. A series of voltage ramps, i.e., a conditioning process, was found to initiate more stable and reproducible emission. It was found that the presence of graphitic particles (onions, nanotube embryos) in the films substantially enhances the field emission performance. Films patterned on a micrometer scale have been conditioned spot by spot by a ball-tip anode, showing that a relatively high emission site density can be achieved from the cluster-assembled material.

  13. Optical emission-line properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesen, R. A.; Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    New optical spectrophotometric data are presented for the supernova remnants CTB 1, OA 184, VRO 42.05.01, S147, the Monoceros Loop, G206.9 + 2.3, and G65.3 + 5.7. These data are combined with published spectral data to study some of the general properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants. It is found that (1) O I and O II forbidden line strengths, when used in conjunction with the usual H-alpha S II forbidden line ratio test, provide an excellent additional diagnostic for discriminating remnants from H II regions; (2) the line ratios H-alpha forbidden line N II, H-alpha forbidden line S II, and forbidden line S II 6717/6731 A generally do not vary substantially among the filaments of an individual remnant; and (3) the observed correlation of forbidden line N II/H-alpha with S II forbidden line 6717/6731 A in remnants is the result of observational selection rather than of evolutionary effects. A galactic nitrogen abundance gradient of d log (N/H)/dR = -0.088 dex/kpc, which is in agreement with that derived from H II regions. However, no abundance gradients for oxygen or sulfur are indicated from the remnant data.

  14. Field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of variety of diamond-like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Tripathi, R. K.; Malik, H. K.; Panwar, O. S.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of nitrogen incorporation and sandwich titanium and copper layers, on field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films is explored. The introduction of foreign element (N2) and sandwich Cu and Ti layers changed the amorphous morphology to nanostructured, reduced the stress, enhanced the hardness (except N2 incorporated DLC film) and improved the field emission (except Ti/DLC bilayer) of modified DLC films. The associated versatile electrical and mechanical properties of modified DLC film made it a material of great utility in the development of field emission display panels and also lead to its application as a hard and protective coating on cutting tools, automobile parts etc. It is important to mention that DLC-based electronic materials may replace currently used soft electronic materials (such as Si) due to their enhanced stability under high energy radiation.

  15. Application and development of a spectrally-resolved confocal microscope: A study of lipofuscin emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralampus-Grynaviski, Nicole Marie

    A unique spectrally-resolved confocal microscope is developed for use in biophysical applications. This microscope enables the rapid collection of the complete emission spectra for every pixel in a fluorescence image. The basic optical design and function of the device are assessed through examination of fluorescently labeled beads, using both one- and two-photon excitation. The spatial resolution of the device is found to approach the diffraction limit in the lateral plane and ˜2 mum in the axial plane. This device can readily distinguish between overlapping emissions which are not easily differentiated using standard filter techniques. The potential of this device to be used as a detection method in DNA sequence experiments is demonstrated. Images of a human skin tissue section and a mouse kidney section are presented which demonstrate the structure and spectra of biologic samples can be resolved. The emission properties of human ocular lipofuscin, LF, a heterogeneous auto-fluorescent material associated with age-related macular degeneration is investigated in detail. Isolated LF granules show substantial variation in emission spectra. Near-field scanning microscopy experiments find the emissive regions on a single LF granule are homogeneous on the ˜150 nm scale and confirm results obtained on the microscope developed here. For ˜100 studied LF deposits, the histogram of the measured peak emission is centered around 18,000 cm-1 (555 nm). The average emission spectra for large LF aggregates (peak 17,150 cm-1) is red-shifted compared to the average emission from small individual granules (peak 17,600 cm-1). The average LF granule emission observed here is similar to previously reported bulk LF emission and the emission of a previously identified LF chromophore, A2E. Individual LF granules show a broad range in emission maximum whether the LF is isolated from multiple donors or examined within the cells of a single donor. Multiple as yet unidentified chromophores

  16. Gamma-ray Bursts: Radio Afterglow and Host Galaxy Study with The FAST Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. B.; Huang, Y. F.; Kong, S. W.; Zhang, Z. B.; Li, D.; Luo, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    For four types of GRBs, namely high-luminosity, low-luminosity, standard and failed GRBs, we calculated their radio afterglow light curves. Meanwhile, considering contributions from host galaxies in radio bands, we statistically investigated the effect of hosts on radio afterglows. It is found that a tight anti-correlation exists between the ratio of radio flux (RRF) of host galaxy to the total radio afterglow peak flux and the observed frequency. Using this method, the host flux densities of those bursts without host measurements can be estimated at low or medium frequencies. We predicted that almost all types of radio afterglows, except that of low-luminosity GRBs, can be observed by FAST up to z = 15 or even more. FAST is expected to significantly expand the samples of GRB radio afterglows and host galaxies.

  17. The Late Peaking Afterglow of GR8 100418A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Frank; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Covino, S.; dePasquale, M.; Evans, P. A.; Fugazza, D.; Holland, S. T.; Liang, E. W.; OBrien, P. T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    GRB 100418A is a long Gamma-Ray Burst at redshift z=0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves ' After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least approx.7 ks after the trigger, peak at approx.50 ks, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in 6R8 afterglows. Observations with REM during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at approx.25 ks, The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the 'et of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is >100 times the 10(exp 51) erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis 'et model would require the intrinsic $T f801$ for the GR8 'et viewed on-axis to be very short, approx.10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs^ The non-detection of a 'et break up to approx.2 Ms indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least 14 degrees, and a relatively high collimation-corrected 'et energy of at least 10(exp 52) erg.

  18. THE LATE PEAKING AFTERGLOW OF GRB 100418A

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F. E.; Holland, S. T.; Sakamoto, T.; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Siegel, M. H.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Evans, P. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Liang, E. W.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-02-01

    GRB 100418A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) at redshift z = 0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves. After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least {approx}7 x 10{sup 3} s after the trigger, peak at {approx}5 x 10{sup 4} s, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in GRB afterglows. Observations with Rapid Eye Mount during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 4} s. The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the jet of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is {>=}10{sup 2} times the 10{sup 51} erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis jet model would require the intrinsic T{sub 90} for the GRB jet viewed on-axis to be very short, {approx}10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs. The non-detection of a jet break up to t {approx} 2 x 10{sup 6} s indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least {approx}14{sup 0}, and a relatively high-collimation-corrected jet energy of E{sub jet} {>=} 10{sup 52} erg.

  19. GRB 080503 LATE AFTERGLOW RE-BRIGHTENING: SIGNATURE OF A MAGNETAR-POWERED MERGER-NOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, He; Ding, Xuan; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2015-07-10

    GRB 080503 is a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift and has been classified as a GRB originating from a compact star merger. The soft extended emission and the simultaneous late re-brightening in both the X-ray and optical afterglow light curves raise interesting questions regarding its physical origin. We show that the broadband data of GRB 080503 can be well explained within the framework of the double neutron star merger model, provided that the merger remnant is a rapidly rotating massive neutron star with an extremely high magnetic field (i.e., a millisecond magnetar). We show that the late optical re-brightening is consistent with the emission from a magnetar-powered “merger-nova.” This adds one more case to the growing sample of merger-novae associated with short GRBs. The soft extended emission and the late X-ray excess emission are well connected through a magnetar dipole spin-down luminosity evolution function, suggesting that direct magnetic dissipation is the mechanism to produce these X-rays. The X-ray emission initially leaks from a hole in the merger ejecta pierced by the short GRB jet. The hole subsequently closes after the magnetar spins down and the magnetic pressure drops below ram pressure. The X-ray photons are then trapped behind the merger-nova ejecta until the ejecta becomes optically thin at a later time. This explains the essentially simultaneous re-brightening in both the optical and X-ray light curves. Within this model, future gravitational-wave sources could be associated with a bright X-ray counterpart along with the merger-nova, even if the short GRB jet beams away from Earth.

  20. Luminescence properties of silk cocoon derived carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles/PVA hybrid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Haobin; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Carbonaceous fluorescent nanoparticles (CFNs) with broad particle distribution were synthesized by thermal-treatment using carbonation of silk cocoon as raw materials. The experimental results showed tunable emission wavelength of the nanoparticles. The quantum yield of the CFNs was calculated to be 23%. A CFNs/PVA hybrid thin film was prepared from a blend of the CFNs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showing interesting green afterglow which could be observed by naked eyes. The afterglow spectrum revealed that the CFNs/PVA thin film had a broad afterglow emission peak located at 520 nm. The afterglow intensity decay curve of the film showed visually recognizable period longer than 140 s. The PVA-PVA hydrogen bonding in the PVA matrix may play a key role for the afterglow.

  1. Electron behaviors in afterglow of synchronized dc-imposed pulsed fluorocarbon-based plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, Toshinari; Fukunaga, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Iwata, Manabu; Ohya, Yoshinobu; Sugai, Hideo; Hori, Masaru

    2017-06-01

    Electron behaviors in a pulsed dual radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma of a mixture of C4F8, O2, and Ar gases, where the DC bias of -300 V in the RF-on period was imposed and synchronously increased to -1000 V in the RF-off period, were investigated. The synchronous DC bias prolongs the electron density (n e) decay and provides emission of Ar at a wavelength of 750.38 nm in early afterglow at 3 µs during the RF-off period of 10 kHz pulse modulation. The rapid n e decay occurred with the electron attachments to the electronegative fluorocarbons, and thus the plasma consisting of positive and negative ions was generated. The DC bias voltage seems to be applied between the electrodes and the positive ions accelerated to the top electrode, and enhanced the secondary electron generation at the top electrode surface in the RF-off period with the ion bombardments, concomitantly with the synchronous emissions.

  2. Ambient magnetic field amplification in shock fronts of relativistic jets: an application to GRB afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha da Silva, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Strong downstream magnetic fields of the order of ˜1 G, with large correlation lengths, are believed to cause the large synchrotron emission at the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Despite the recent theoretical efforts, models have failed to fully explain the amplification of the magnetic field, particularly in a matter-dominated scenario. We revisit the problem by considering the synchrotron emission to occur at the expanding shock front of a weakly magnetized relativistic jet over a magnetized surrounding medium. Analytical estimates and a number of high-resolution 2D relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (RMHD) simulations are provided. Jet opening angles of θ = 0°-20°, and ambient to jet density ratios of 10-4-102 were considered. We found that most of the amplification is due to compression of the ambient magnetic field at the contact discontinuity between the reverse and forward shocks at the jet head, with substantial pile-up of the magnetic field lines as the jet propagates sweeping the ambient field lines. The pile-up is maximum for θ → 0, decreasing with θ, but larger than in the spherical blast problem. Values obtained for certain models are able to explain the observed intensities. The maximum correlation lengths found for such strong fields is of lcorr ≤ 1014 cm, 2-6 orders of magnitude larger than the found in previous works.

  3. Jet Breaks and Missing Breaks in the X-Ray Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, A.

    2008-06-01

    The X-ray afterglows (AGs) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) have, after the fast-decline phase of their prompt emission, a temporal behavior varying between two extremes. A large fraction of these AGs has a canonical light curve which, after an initial shallow-decay plateau phase, breaks smoothly into a fast power-law decline. Very energetic GRBs, contrariwise, appear to not have a break: their AGs decline like a power law from the start of the observations. Breaks and "missing breaks" are intimately related to the geometry and deceleration of the jets responsible for GRBs. In the frame of the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs and XRFs, we analyze the cited extreme behaviors (canonical and pure power law) and intermediate cases spanning the observed range of X-ray AG shapes. We show that the entire panoply of X-ray light-curve shapes—measured with Swift and other satellites—are as anticipated in the CB model. We test the expected correlations between the AG's shape and the peak and isotropic energies of the prompt radiation, strengthening a simple conclusion of the analysis of AG shapes: in energetic GRBs the break is not truly missing, it is hidden under the tail of the prompt emission, or it occurs too early to be recorded. We also verify that the spectral index of the unabsorbed AGs and the temporal indexes of their late power-law decline differ by half a unit, as predicted.

  4. Linear and circular polarization in ultra-relativistic synchrotron sources - implications to GRB afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, Lara; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Polarization measurements from relativistic outflows are a valuable tool to probe the geometry of the emission region and the microphysics of the particle distribution. Indeed, the polarization level depends on (i) the local magnetic field orientation, (ii) the geometry of the emitting region with respect to the line of sight and (iii) the electron pitch angle distribution. Here we consider optically thin synchrotron emission and we extend the theory of circular polarization from a point source to an extended radially expanding relativistic jet. We present numerical estimates for both linear and circular polarization in such systems. We consider different configurations of the magnetic field, spherical and jetted outflows, isotropic and anisotropic pitch angle distributions, and outline the difficulty in obtaining the reported high level of circular polarization observed in the afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) 121024A. We conclude that the origin of the observed polarization cannot be intrinsic to an optically thin synchrotron process, even when the electron pitch angle distribution is extremely anisotropic.

  5. A new method for unambiguous determination of trap parameters from afterglow and TSL curves connection: Example on garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, Vasilii; Venevtsev, Ivan; Spoor, Sandra; Boerekamp, Jack; van Dongen, Anne-Marie; Wieczorek, Herfried; Chernenko, Kirill; Buettner, Daniela; Ronda, Cees; Rodnyi, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Due to presence of charge carrier traps, many scintillating materials exhibit afterglow. The de-trapping mechanisms are usually studied separately via either thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) or isothermal decay (afterglow) measurements. In this paper, we develop procedures to determine trap parameters such as thermal trap depth and frequency factor in an unambiguous manner by connecting TSL and afterglow measurements. In order to accomplish that, we have devised a special method of extracting the lifetime of trapped carriers from afterglow measurements, independent of kinetic order. The procedures are first shown on simulated TSL and afterglow curves and then illustrated using (Y,Gd)3Al5O12:Ce garnets as example.

  6. Relative influence upon microwave emissivity of fine-scale stratigraphy, internal scattering, and dielectric properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    The microwave emissivity of relatively low-loss media such as snow, ice, frozen ground, and lunar soil is strongly influenced by fine-scale layering and by internal scattering. Radiometric data, however, are commonly interpreted using a model of emission from a homogeneous, dielectric halfspace whose emissivity derives exclusively from dielectric properties. Conclusions based upon these simple interpretations can be erroneous. Examples are presented showing that the emission from fresh or hardpacked snow over either frozen or moist soil is governed dominantly by the size distribution of ice grains in the snowpack. Similarly, the thickness of seasonally frozen soil and the concentration of rock clasts in lunar soil noticeably affect, respectively, the emissivities of northern latitude soils in winter and of the lunar regolith. Petrophysical data accumulated in support of the geophysical interpretation of microwave data must include measurements of not only dielectric properties, but also of geometric factors such as finescale layering and size distributions of grains, inclusions, and voids. ?? 1976 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Effect of surface oxidation on emissivity properties of pure aluminum in the near infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Yu, Kun; Liu, Yufang; Zhao, Yuejin

    2017-08-01

    Emissivity is a basic thermo physical property of materials and determines the precision of radiation thermometry. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of surface oxidation on the infrared emissivity properties of pure aluminum. The emissivity data presented in this study covers the spectral range between 0.8 and 2.2 µm and temperatures from 473 to 873 K. The samples with different oxidation time were prepared under a controlled environment. The morphology and composition of the samples were characterized by metallographic microscope and XRD techniques before and after oxidation. The thickness of oxide film with different oxidation time was accurately measured by spectroscopic ellipsometer and a parabolic growth was found. In addition, the interference model of an oxidized metal substrate is established to explain the influence of the oxide film thickness on the emissivity. The thickness of oxide film when the interference effect occurs was calculated according to the interference model. The data shows that the maximum value measured was less than the thickness value at the first order constructive interference. Neither peaks nor valleys were observed in emissivity measurements with different oxidation time at 873 K, which could be related to the thin oxide film on sample surface.

  8. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-Energy Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lien, Amy; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nat R.; Cucchiara, Antonino; De Diego, Jose A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gehrels, Neil; Georgiev, Leonid; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Kann, D. Alexander; Klein, Christopher R.; Knust, Fabian; Kutyrev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (Mr >> -27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of Rrel = 610/yr (68% confidence interval of 110-2000/yr). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide "orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  9. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-Energy Trigger

    DOE PAGES

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; ...

    2015-04-20

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (Msub>r ≈ ₋27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB140226A. This marks the rst unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically dis- tant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value ofmore » $$R_{rel}$$ = 610yr-1 (68% con dence interval of 110{2000 yr-1). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncer- tainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we brie y discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona de \\orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking de- tectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.« less

  10. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-Energy Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lien, Amy; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nat R.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Diego, José A. de; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gehrels, Neil; Georgiev, Leonid; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Kann, D. Alexander; Klein, Christopher R.; Knust, Fabian; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Laher, Russ; Lee, William H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Rubin, Adam; Urata, Yuji; Varela, Karla; Watson, Alan M.; Wozniak, Przemek R.

    2015-04-20

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (Msub>r ≈ ₋27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB140226A. This marks the rst unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically dis- tant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of $R_{rel}$ = 610yr-1 (68% con dence interval of 110{2000 yr-1). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncer- tainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we brie y discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona de \\orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking de- tectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  11. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-Energy Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lien, Amy; Arcavi, Iair; hide

    2015-01-01

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (Mr >> -27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of Rrel = 610/yr (68% confidence interval of 110-2000/yr). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide "orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  12. Suppression of afterglow in CsI:Tl by codoping with Eu 2+—I: Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, C.; Lempicki, A.; Miller, S. R.; Glodo, J.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Gaysinskiy, V.; Nagarkar, V. V.; Bartram, R. H.

    2006-03-01

    Although CsI:Tl is the brightest and most efficient scintillator material ever developed, its use in fast imaging applications has been hindered by its strong and persistent afterglow. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that much of this afterglow can be suppressed by the addition of Eu 2+ to the CsI host lattice. The magnitude of the effect depends strongly on the duration of the pulse of ionizing radiation that excites the scintillation, but is virtually independent of the intensity of that excitation pulse. The codoping also brings about a measurable red shift in the Tl + emission, suggesting some degree of spatial correlation between the luminophor and the modifying additive. The observations indicate that the Eu 2+ ion exerts its influence not by a quenching process, but rather by introducing a set of electron traps that fundamentally alter the decay kinetics. This is confirmed by the appearance of new glow peaks in the thermoluminescence traces of the codoped material. A consistent mathematical model has been developed to describe the phenomenon, to be discussed in detail in the accompanying paper.

  13. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  14. A review of biomass burning emissions part II: intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Koppmann, R.; Eck, T. F.; Eleuterio, D. P.

    2005-03-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass-burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  15. A review of biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Koppmann, R.; Eck, T. F.; Eleuterio, D. P.

    2004-09-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  16. Tailoring the emissive properties of photocathodes through materials engineering: Ultra-thin multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Ganegoda, Hasitha; Olive, Daniel; Rice, Amy; Logan, Kevin; Yusof, Zikri; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental verification that emission properties of photocathodes can be manipulated through the engineering of the surface electronic structure. Ultrathin multilayered MgO/Ag(0 0 1)/MgO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, tuning the thickness n of the flanking MgO layers to 0, 2, 3, and 4 monolayers. We observed an increase in quantum efficiency and simultaneous decrease in work function with layer thickness. The scale and trend direction of measurements are in good but not excellent agreement with theory. Angle resolved photoemission data for the multilayered sample n = 3 showed that the emission profile has a metallic-like momentum dispersion. Deviations from theoretical predictions [K. Németh et al., PRL 104, 046801 (2010)] are attributed to imperfections of real surfaces in contrast with the ideal surfaces of the calculation. Photoemissive properties of cathodes are critical for electron beam applications such as photoinjectors for Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). An ideal photoemitter has a high quantum efficiency, low work function, low intrinsic emittance and long lifetime. It has been demonstrated here that emission properties may be systematically tailored by control of layer thickness in ultrathin multilayered structures. The reproducibility of the emission parameters under specific growth conditions is excellent, even though the interfaces themselves have varying degrees of roughness.

  17. HST Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2: Comparing Physical Properties of Lyman Alpha and Optical Emission Line Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Behrens, Christoph; Ciardullo, Robin; Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna S.; Fox, Derek B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Chonis, Taylor S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, Gary J.; Jogee, Shardha; Gawiser, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We compare the physical and morphological properties of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) identified in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow band studies with those of z ˜ 2 optical emission line selected galaxies (oELGs) identified via HST WFC3 infrared grism spectroscopy. Both sets of galaxies extend over the same range in stellar mass (7.5\\lt {log}M/{M}⊙ \\lt 10.5), size (0.5 < R < 3.0 kpc), and star formation rate (˜ 1\\lt {{SFR}}\\lt 100 {M}⊙ yr-1). Remarkably, a comparison of the most commonly used physical and morphological parameters—stellar mass, half-light radius, UV slope, SFR, ellipticity, nearest neighbor distance, star formation surface density, specific SFR, [O iii] luminosity, and [O iii] equivalent width—reveals no statistically significant differences between the populations. This suggests that the processes and conditions which regulate the escape of Lyα from a z ˜ 2 star-forming galaxy do not depend on these quantities. In particular, the lack of dependence on the UV slope suggests that Lyα emission is not being significantly modulated by diffuse dust in the interstellar medium. We develop a simple model of Lyα emission that connects LAEs to all high-redshift star-forming galaxies where the escape of Lyα depends on the sightline through the galaxy. Using this model, we find that mean solid angle for Lyα escape is {{{Ω }}}{{Ly}α }=2.4+/- 0.8 steradians; this value is consistent with those calculated from other studies.

  18. Photoluminescence properties of defect emissions in Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Hyunggil; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-09-01

    The power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin films grown by the hydrothermal method were investigated. The intensities of both the near-band-edge emission (NBE) and deep-level emission (DLE) as well as the overall spectral line shape were strongly affected by the excitation power. At low excitation power, the blue emission was found to show the highest intensity among the different emission lights. A low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed the bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.362 eV. The dependence of peak energy with the excitation power indicates that these DLE processes are generated by DAP transitions. The overall intensity of DLE was found to decrease as the temperature increases. With regard to the blue emission (around 2.52 eV), it showed a well-pronounced shoulder at 200 K. The activation energy for this blue emission was 51.93 meV, which corresponds to the thermal dissociation energy required for the donor-acceptor pair transitions.

  19. Tunable Yellow-Red Photoluminescence and Persistent Afterglow in Phosphors Ca4LaO(BO3)3:Eu(3+) and Ca4EuO(BO3)3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Pan, Yuexiao; Xi, Luqing; Pang, Ran; Huang, Shaoming; Liu, Guokui

    2016-11-07

    In most Eu(3+) activated phosphors, only red luminescence from the (5)D0 is obtainable, and efficiency is limited by concentration quenching. Herein we report a new phosphor of Ca4LaO(BO3)3:Eu(3+) (CLBO:Eu) with advanced photoluminescence properties. The yellow luminescence emitted from the (5)D1,2 states is not thermally quenched at room temperature. The relative intensities of the yellow and red emission bands depend strongly on the Eu(3+) doping concentration. More importantly, concentration quenching of Eu(3+) photoluminescence is absent in this phosphor, and the stoichiometric compound of Ca4EuO(BO3)3 emits stronger luminescence than the Eu(3+) doped compounds of CLBO:Eu; it is three times stronger than that of a commercial red phosphor of Y2O3:Eu(3+). Another beneficial phenomenon is that ligand-to-metal charge transfer (CT) transitions occur in the long UV region with the lowest charge transfer band (CTB) stretched down to about 3.67 eV (∼330 nm). The CT transitions significantly enhance Eu(3+) excitation, and thus result in stronger photoluminescence and promote trapping of excitons for persistent afterglow emission. Along with structure characterization, optical spectra and luminescence dynamics measured under various conditions as a function of Eu(3+) doping, temperature, and excitation wavelength are analyzed for a fundamental understanding of electronic interactions and for potential applications.

  20. Synthesis and field emission property of VO 2 nanorods with a body-centered-cubic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuquan; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2009-02-01

    Films consisting of vertically aligned VO 2 nanorods were prepared on planar silicon substrate by thermally heating a sheet of vanadium in a rough vacuum. These nanorods were found to be of a body-centered-cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice constant of 0.94 nm, which was not observed before for VO 2. Due to their sharp tip of the nanometer scale, the BCC VO 2 nanorods exhibited excellent field emission properties, which make them possible candidate materials for applications in field emission devices.

  1. Mass transport growth and optical emission properties of hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskova, T.; Goldys, E. M.; Paskov, P. P.; Wahab, Q.; Wilzen, L.; de Jong, M. P.; Monemar, B.

    2001-06-01

    The optical emission properties of mass-transport regions of GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy are studied by cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy. A strong donor-acceptor pair emission is observed from the mass-transport regions. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence reveals a strong intensity contrast between the exciton and donor-acceptor bands from mass-transport and nontransport regions. Focused Auger electron and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were employed to investigate the impurity incorporation in the different regions. A preferential moderate increase of residual impurity incorporation or redistribution in mass-transport regions is suggested to be responsible for the observed change of the dominant radiative mechanism.

  2. Testing a new view of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2010-04-01

    The optical and X-ray light curves of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) often show a complex evolution and in most cases do not track each other. This behaviour cannot be easily explained by the simplest standard afterglow models. A possible interpretation is to consider the observed optical and X-ray light curves as the sum of two separate components. This scenario requires the presence of a spectral break between these bands. One of the aims of this work is to test whether such a break is present within the observed Swift X-Ray Telescope energy range. We analyse the X-ray afterglow spectra of a sample of 33 long GRBs with known redshift, good optical photometry and published estimate of the host galaxy dust absorption AhostV. We find that indeed in seven bright events a broken power law provides a fit to the data that is better than a single power-law model. For eight events, instead, the X-ray spectrum is better fitted by a single power law. We discuss the role of these breaks in connection to the relation between the host hydrogen column density NhostH and AhostV and check the consistency of the X-ray spectral breaks with the optical bands photometry. We analyse the optical to X-ray spectral energy distributions at different times and find again consistency with two components interpretation.

  3. Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotube Fibers and Sheets for a High Current Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Larry

    Field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers from Rice University and the University of Cambridge have been studied for use within a high current electron source for a directed energy weapon. Upon reviewing the performance of these two prevalent CNT fibers, cathodes were designed with CNT fibers from the University of Cincinnati Nanoworld Laboratory. Cathodes composed of a single CNT fiber, an array of three CNT fibers, and a nonwoven CNT sheet were investigated for FE properties; the goal was to design a cathode with emission current in excess of 10 mA. Once the design phase was complete, the cathode samples were fabricated, characterized, and then analyzed to determine FE properties. Electrical conductivity of the CNT fibers was characterized with a 4-probe technique. FE characteristics were measured in an ultra-high vacuum chamber at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The arrayed CNT fiber and the enhanced nonwoven CNT sheet emitter design demonstrated the most promising FE properties. Future work will include further analysis and cathode design using this nonwoven CNT sheet material to increase peak current performance during electron emission.

  4. Spectroscopic Properties of Selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies from the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Amy M.; Carroll, P.; Roberts, R.; Wong, N.; Liu, C.

    2007-12-01

    We present properties of seven blue narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs) in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.73, initially selected as QSO candidates in the COSMOS 2-degree survey field. These galaxies have been selected for the high signal-to-noise of their spectra, as indicated by the presence of the emission line [NeIII] 3869 Angstroms. Emission line diagnostics are used to measure metallicities and star formation rates, and to test the presence of AGN. Hubble ACS images are used to measure their surface brightness distributions and quantitative morphologies. Preliminary results indicate that these objects are forming stars at a rate of 4 to 20 solar masses per year; and their metallicity appears not to vary with the galaxy's concentration index which ranges 0.42 to 0.63.

  5. Graphene coated subwavelength wires: a theoretical investigation of emission and radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    This work analyzes the emission and radiation properties of a single optical emitter embedded in a graphene-coated subwavelength wire. We discuss the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation efficiency as a function of the position and orientation of the dipole inside the wire. Our results show that these quantities can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the emission frequency coincides with one of the resonance frequencies of the graphene-coated wire. In particular, high-order plasmon resonances are excited when the emitter is moved from the wire center. Modifications resulting from varying the orientation of the dipole in the near field distribution and in the far field intensities are shown.

  6. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-01

    Gallium oxide and more particularly β-Ga2O3 matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  7. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-15

    Gallium oxide and more particularly {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  8. LATE-TIME DETECTIONS OF THE X-RAY AFTERGLOW OF GRB 060729 WITH CHANDRA-THE LATEST DETECTIONS EVER OF AN X-RAY AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Grupe, Dirk; Burrows, David N.; Wu Xuefeng; Wang Xiangyu; Garmire, Gordon; Nousek, John A.; Zhang Bing; Liang Enwei; Gehrels, Neil; Ricker, George R.; Bautz, Marshall W.

    2010-03-10

    We report on five Chandra observations of the X-ray afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060729 performed between 2007 March and 2008 May. In all five observations, the afterglow is clearly detected. The last Chandra pointing was performed on 2008 May 4, 642 days after the burst-the latest detection of a GRB X-ray afterglow ever. A reanalysis of the Swift XRT light curve together with the three detections by Chandra in 2007 reveals a break at {approx}1.0 Ms after the burst with a slight steepening of the decay slope from alpha = 1.32 to 1.61. This break coincides with a significant hardening of the X-ray spectrum, consistent with a cooling break in the wind medium scenario, in which the cooling frequency of the afterglow crosses the X-ray band. The last two Chandra observations in 2007 December and 2008 May provide evidence for another break at about one year after the burst. If interpreted as a jet break, this late-time break implies a jet half-opening angle of {approx}14{sup 0} for a wind medium. Alternatively, this final break may have a spectral origin, in which case no jet break has been observed and the half-opening angle of the jet of GRB 060729 must be larger than {approx}15{sup 0} for a wind medium. We compare the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729 in a wind environment with other bright X-ray afterglows, in particular GRBs 061121 and 080319B, and discuss why the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729 is such an exceptionally long-lasting event.

  9. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Burst Broadband Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broadband afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from 2004 November to 2015 March with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared (NIR), and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent γ-ray and kinetic energies of Eγ,iso ≈ 2 × 1051 erg, and EK,iso ≈ (1-3) × 1051 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n ≈ (3-15) × 10-3 cm-3, and that ≈80%-95% of bursts have densities of n ≲ 1 cm-3. We investigate trends between the circumburst densities and host galaxy properties, and find that events located at large projected offsets of ≳10 effective radii from their hosts exhibit particularly low densities of n ≲ 10-4 cm-3, consistent with an intergalactic medium-like environment. Using late-time afterglow data for 11 events, we find a median jet opening angle of θj = 16 ± 10°. We also calculate a median beaming factor of fb ≈ 0.04, leading to a beaming-corrected total energy release of Etrue ≈ 1.6 × 1050 erg. Furthermore, we calculate a beaming-corrected event rate of {{R}}{{true}}={270}-180+1580 Gpc-3 yr-1, or ≈ {8}-5+47 yr-1 within a 200 Mpc volume, the Advanced LIGO/Virgo typical detection distance for NS-NS binaries.

  10. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn; Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn; Shang, Xuefu

    2015-09-15

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 4}. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  11. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Song, Yenan; Wang, Xu; Li, Zhenhua; Shang, Xuefu; Wu, Huizhen; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Miao

    2015-09-01

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, and field enhancement factor of ˜1.3 × 104. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  12. NIR emission studies and dielectric properties of Er3+-doped multicomponent tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajna, M. S.; Thomas, Sunil; Jayakrishnan, C.; Joseph, Cyriac; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent tellurite glasses containing altered concentrations of Er2O3 (ranging from 0 to 1 mol%) were prepared by the standard melt quenching technique. Investigations through energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman scattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) emission studies and dielectric measurement techniques were done to probe their compositional, structural, spectroscopic and dielectric characteristics. The broad emission together with the high values of the effective linewidth (~ 63 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (9.67 × 10- 21 cm2) and lifetime (2.56 ms) of 4I13/2 level for 0.5 mol% of Er3+ makes these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the measured capacitance and dissipation factor, the relative permittivity, dielectric loss and the conductivity were computed; which furnish the dielectric nature of the multicomponent tellurite glasses that depend on the applied frequency. Assuming the ideal Debye behavior as substantiated by Cole-Cole plot, an examination of the real and imaginary parts of impedance was performed. The power-law and Cole-Cole parameters were resolved for all the glass samples. From the assessment of the emission analysis and dielectric properties of the glass samples, it was obvious that the Er3+ ion concentration had played a vital role in tuning the optical and dielectric properties and the 0.5 mol% of Er3+ -doped glass was confirmed as the optimum composition.

  13. NIR emission studies and dielectric properties of Er(3+)-doped multicomponent tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Sajna, M S; Thomas, Sunil; Jayakrishnan, C; Joseph, Cyriac; Biju, P R; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2016-05-15

    Multicomponent tellurite glasses containing altered concentrations of Er2O3 (ranging from 0 to 1 mol%) were prepared by the standard melt quenching technique. Investigations through energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman scattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) emission studies and dielectric measurement techniques were done to probe their compositional, structural, spectroscopic and dielectric characteristics. The broad emission together with the high values of the effective linewidth (~63 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (9.67 × 10(-21) cm(2)) and lifetime (2.56 ms) of (4)I13/2 level for 0.5 mol% of Er(3+) makes these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the measured capacitance and dissipation factor, the relative permittivity, dielectric loss and the conductivity were computed; which furnish the dielectric nature of the multicomponent tellurite glasses that depend on the applied frequency. Assuming the ideal Debye behavior as substantiated by Cole-Cole plot, an examination of the real and imaginary parts of impedance was performed. The power-law and Cole-Cole parameters were resolved for all the glass samples. From the assessment of the emission analysis and dielectric properties of the glass samples, it was obvious that the Er(3+) ion concentration had played a vital role in tuning the optical and dielectric properties and the 0.5 mol% of Er(3+) -doped glass was confirmed as the optimum composition.

  14. GRB 990712: First Detection of Polarization Variability in a Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Galama, T. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Frontera, F.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of significant polarization in the afterglow of GRB 990712 on three instances 0.44-1.45 days after the gamma-ray burst. This polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow. The degree of polarization is not constant, and smallest at the second measurement. The polarization angle does not vary significantly during these observations. We find that none of the existing models predict such polarization variations constant polarization angle, and discuss ways in which these models might be modified to accommodate the observed behavior of this afterglow.

  15. Modeling the Radio and Optical/NIR Afterglows of GRB 980703: a Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S. W.; Huang, Y. F.

    2008-10-01

    GRB 980703 has extensive available multiband afterglow data. Especially, its radio afterglows were very bright and monitored until more than 1000 days after the trigger time. This makes GRB 980703 a precious sample in GRB research. We calculate the radio and optical/NIR afterglows of GRB 980703 numerically, by using a set of generic dynamical equations. It is found that the observations consist with the theoretical expectation of the standard fireball model well. Our result suggests that the jet opening angle is ~13°, the number density of the surrounding medium is ~30 cm-3, and the isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the explosion is ~3.8×1052 ergs.

  16. The Swift Discovery of X-ray Afterglows Accompanying Short Bursts from SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K.; Palmer, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray afterglows accompanying two short bursts from SGR1900+14 is presented. The afterglow luminosities at the end of each observation are lower by 30-50% than their initial luminosities, and decay with power law indices p approx. 0.2-0.4. Their initial bolometric luminosities are L approx. 10(exp 34)- 10(exp 35) erg/s. We discuss analogies and differences between the X-ray afterglows of SGR short bursts and short gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Effects of particle size on far infrared emission properties of tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Jin, Wei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Gan, Kun; Yuan, Youde

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline superfine powders with different particle sizes were prepared by grinding, superfine ball milling, and high-speed centrifugation. The powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results show that tourmaline powders exhibit improved far infrared emission properties as the particle size decreases. The increased surface free energy and proportion of the polar component are considered to play an important role for their properties. The spontaneous polarization is increased, and the dipole moment of tourmaline is stimulated to a high energy level more easily for the chemical bond vibration, so that the energy is apt to emit by transition. In the range of 2000-500 cm(-1), the emissivity values of the samples with D50 size of 2.67 microm and 0.2 microm are 0.973 and 0.991, respectively.

  18. Optical properties and spectral emissivities at 632.8 nm in the titanium-aluminum system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S.; Anderson, C. D.; Weber, J. K. R.; Nordine, P. C.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical properties (including spectral emissivity, refractive index, and extinction coefficient) of liquid Ti-Al alloys were measured as functions of temperature (including temperatures up to 350 K below the equilibrium liquidus temperatures), using laser ellipsometry at 632.8 nm. The experiments were conducted under containerless conditions, using electromagnetic levitation and heating supplemented by CO2 laser beam heating. It is shown that the emissivities of liquid Ti-Al alloy vary with temperature in a manner that can be understood by the same theories which are applicable to solid metals, for regions near to and above the liquidus temperature. At temperatures below the liquidus temperature, the optical properties of highly undercooled liquid Ti-Al alloys are not dependent on temperature.

  19. On the nature of type 1 AGN: emission properties and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik Andika, Irham; Ikbal Arifyanto, Mochamad; Kollatschny, Wolfram

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of emission properties and correlations of 3191 type 1 AGN at z < 0.35, selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We supplement the data with ultraviolet spectra from Hubble Space Telescope and International Ultraviolet Explorer along with X-ray properties from Chandra Source Catalog and XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog and radio measurements from FIRST. We find that the observed spectral diversity of type 1 AGN can be unified by Eddington ratio (L/L Edd). Objects with higher L/L Edd tend to have narrower broad Hβ component, strong Ee II emission, systematic blueshift of C IV λ1549, soft X-ray excess, and lower ionization parameter compared to those of the lower L/L Edd.

  20. Emission Properties of Porous Silicon Electron Emitters Formed by Pulsed Anodic Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W. B.; Zhao, W.; Fan, J. L.; Wu, S. L.; Zhang, J. T.

    2017-02-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed by pulsed anodic etching and subsequently processed by electrochemical oxidization (ECO) and high-pressure water vapor annealing (HWA), and their morphologies and oxidation degrees were analyzed. The electron emitters based on these PS layers were fabricated, and their emission properties were investigated. The experimental results show that a PS layer formed by pulsed anodic etching has a better pore-diameter homogeneity in the longitudinal direction, and it can obtain good oxidation quality more easily by the combined treatment of ECO and HWA. The as-formed PS electron emitters have better emission properties in comparison with those based on PS layers prepared by constant-current anodic etching.

  1. Optical properties and spectral emissivities at 632.8 nm in the titanium-aluminum system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S.; Anderson, C. D.; Weber, J. K. R.; Nordine, P. C.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical properties (including spectral emissivity, refractive index, and extinction coefficient) of liquid Ti-Al alloys were measured as functions of temperature (including temperatures up to 350 K below the equilibrium liquidus temperatures), using laser ellipsometry at 632.8 nm. The experiments were conducted under containerless conditions, using electromagnetic levitation and heating supplemented by CO2 laser beam heating. It is shown that the emissivities of liquid Ti-Al alloy vary with temperature in a manner that can be understood by the same theories which are applicable to solid metals, for regions near to and above the liquidus temperature. At temperatures below the liquidus temperature, the optical properties of highly undercooled liquid Ti-Al alloys are not dependent on temperature.

  2. Biochar Properties Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Tropical Soils Differing in Texture and Mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Butnan, Somchai; Deenik, Jonathan L; Toomsan, Banyong; Antal, Michael J; Vityakon, Patma

    2016-09-01

    The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3.9%) and low-VM (14.7%) contents produced with a high-temperature (800°C) Flash Carbonization reactor and different biochar rates (0, 2, and 4% w/w) on the GHG emissions in a loamy-sand Ultisol and a silty-clay-loam Oxisol. In the coarse-textured, low-buffer Ultisol, cumulative CO and CH emissions increased with increasing VM content of biochars; however, CO emission sharply decreased at 83 μg VM g soil. In the fine-textured, high-buffer Oxisol, there were significant positive effects of VM content on cumulative CO emission without suppression effects. Regarding cumulative NO emission, there were significant positive effects in the Mn-rich Oxisol. Ash-induced increases in soil pH had negative effects on all studied GHG emissions. Possible mechanisms include the roles biochar VM played as microbial substrates, a source of toxic compounds and complexing agents reducing the toxicity of soil aluminum and manganese, and the role of biochar ash in increasing soil pH affecting GHG emissions in these two contrasting soils.

  3. Fabrication, characterization, cathodoluminescence, and field-emission properties of silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.Q.; Onodera, H.; Sekiguchi, T.; Golberg, D.; Bando, Y.; Mori, T.

    2012-11-15

    High-quality one dimensional amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanostructures with different morphologies (nanowires and starfish-like nanostructures) are synthesized through a simple catalysis-free approach and effective thermal evaporation process. The morphologies, microstructures, and compositions of the products are investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A promising optical property (cathodoluminescence (CL) in a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission and a weak blue emission at room temperature) was detected in the as-synthesized nanostructures. Field-emission measurements show that the SiO{sub 2} nanostructures may also be a promising FE emitter candidate if we can improve the conductivity and decrease the density of the nanostructures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple catalysis-free approach and effective thermal evaporation process Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality one dimensional amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanostructures Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission and a weak blue emission at room temperature Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A promising FE emitter's candidate.

  4. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhen; Li, Enling; Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  5. The properties of mid- to far- infrared emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tokura, Daisuke; Tajiri, Yuka Y.; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Daisuke; Onishi, Toshikazu

    We present a study on the properties of mid- to far-infrared emission in the LMC based on the ISSA and COBE/DIRBE data analysis. In this analysis, we investigate the properties of submicron dust (hereafter BGs), which carries the thermal far-infrared emission, and very small grains (hereafter VSGs), which carry the excess emission in 10-80μm, by subtracting the Galactic component using the correlation between the HI data from Parkes High-Latitude HI survey and the infrared band intensity. Based on the analysis of the two-color diagram of COBE/DIRBE 240μm/140μm against 140μm/100μm (see Figure 1), we find the typical values of the emissivity power law index α in the LMC is smaller than 2.0, which is the canonical value in our Galactic plane (Reach et al. 1995). This characteristic may be explained by the optical properties of some amorphous silicate grains (Boudet et al. 2005) having smaller α at higher temperature. We have also found an enhancement in the 240μm band intensity in several positions, roughly corresponding to the regions of inner spiral arms. We attribute this enhancement at 240μm to the existence of cold dust and fit the COBE/DIRBE data at 100μm, 140μm, and 240μm in such region with a combination of two temperature components, while other regions with a single temperature component. We derive the thermal equilibrium temperature of the warm component and the optical depths at 140μm of both components for each case of the emissivity power law index α = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. In addition to the result that the LMC is in higher temperature environment than in the Milky Way as suggested in previous studies (Aguirre et al. 2003; Sauvage et al. 1990), we find that the average values of the mid-infrared excess emission at 12μm and 25μm relative to the total far-infrared emission in the LMC is lower than in the Milky way, while that of the mid-infrared excess emission at 60μm relative to the total far-infrared emission in the LMC is in an amount

  6. Discovery of a cosmological, relativistic outburst via its rapidly fading optical emission

    SciTech Connect

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Nugent, Peter E.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, Assaf; Carpenter, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Groot, Paul J.; Hallinan, G.; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Frail, Dale A.; Gruber, D.; Rau, Arne; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright (R {sub peak} = 18.3 mag), rapidly fading (ΔR = 4 mag in Δt = 2 days) optical transient emission; (2) a faint (R = 26.2 ± 0.2 mag), blue (g' – R = 0.17 ± 0.29 mag) quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients (flare stars, X-ray binaries, dwarf novae), and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for a GRB-like afterglow without a high-energy counterpart: an 'untriggered' GRB (lack of satellite coverage), an 'orphan' afterglow (viewing-angle effects), and a 'dirty fireball' (suppressed high-energy emission). The observed optical and radio light curves appear inconsistent with even the most basic predictions for off-axis afterglow models. The simplest explanation, then, is that PTF11agg is a normal, on-axis long-duration GRB for which the associated high-energy emission was simply missed. However, we have calculated the likelihood of such a serendipitous discovery by PTF and find that it is quite small (≈2.6%). While not definitive, we nonetheless speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new, more common (>4 times the on-axis GRB rate at 90% confidence) class of relativistic outbursts lacking associated high

  7. Measurement of dielectric properties and determination of microwave emissivity of polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The dielectric properties of polluted waters are measured with a reflection-type resonant cavity at 1.43 GHz. Very small water samples in quartz tubes of known volume are placed in the center of the maximum electric field. Measurement of the resonance-frequency variation and a change of the cavity's quality factor are used to determine the dielectric properties. The microwave emissivity of the polluted water is then calculated via the Fresnel equation and applied to data reductions of microwave radiometer measurements.

  8. Study of secondary emission properties of materials used for high power RF components in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, L.; Moranti, C.; Rueda, F.; Sanz, J. M.

    1988-03-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) properties of materials used for high power waveguide components in space, particularly on surfaces for space hardware were studied, including Alodine surfaces before and after power conditioning. Surface treatments to aid multipactor suppression for these materials, including methods for surface protection and handling, were examined. If only true SEE is considered, Alodine coatings have better characteristics than TiN, TiC, Cr2O3, and C. The rugosity of Alodine may explain its good properties. No clear correlation between SEE characteristic values and multipactor threshold power is found; smaller SEE is not determinant for obtaining higher multipactor threshold power.

  9. Optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning in the tropics, BASE-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Setzer, Alberto W.; Tanre, Didre D.; Ward, Darold E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based and airborne measurements of biomass-burning smoke particle optical properties, obtained with a view to aerosol-absorption properties, are presented as a function of time and atmospheric height. The wavelength dependence of the optical thickness can be explained by a log-normal size distribution, with particles' effective radius varying between 0.1 and 0.2 microns. The strong correlation noted between aerosol particle profile and CO profile indicates that smoke particulates constitute a good tracer for emission trace gases from tropical biomass burning.

  10. Optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning in the tropics, BASE-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Setzer, Alberto W.; Tanre, Didre D.; Ward, Darold E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based and airborne measurements of biomass-burning smoke particle optical properties, obtained with a view to aerosol-absorption properties, are presented as a function of time and atmospheric height. The wavelength dependence of the optical thickness can be explained by a log-normal size distribution, with particles' effective radius varying between 0.1 and 0.2 microns. The strong correlation noted between aerosol particle profile and CO profile indicates that smoke particulates constitute a good tracer for emission trace gases from tropical biomass burning.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on structure, surface composition, infrared emission and surface electrical properties of tourmaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dengliang; Liu, Shuxin

    2017-02-01

    Crystal structure, surface composition, infrared emission properties and surface electrical properties of tourmaline from Guangxi of China, when subjected to heat treatment in air atmosphere had been studied by some methods, including X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Zeta potential analyzer, etc. Experimental results show that the unit cell of tourmaline would shrink during heat treatment because Fe2+ were oxidized. Moreover, the Fe3+/Fetotal inside tourmaline can be raised after treatment. Infrared normal total emissivity of tourmaline reaches 0.87, and infrared radiation energy density is 4.56 × 102W/m2. It can maintain excellent infrared emission properties at high temperature. Simultaneously, tourmaline presents negative Zeta potential in the aqueous solution, and its Zeta potential reaches -18.04 mV. Zeta potential of tourmaline was increased to -24.83 mV after heat treatment at 400∘C, and decrease to -11.78 mV after heat treatment at 600∘C. These findings may provide reference data for tourmaline’s application in the field of functional materials.

  12. Decadal-scale trends in regional aerosol particle properties and their linkage to emission changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Diner, David; Worden, John; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Xing, Jia; Garay, Michael; Huang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Understanding long-term trends in aerosol loading and properties is essential for evaluating the health and climatic effects of these airborne particulates as well as the effectiveness of pollution control policies. While many studies have used satellite data to examine the trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD), very few have investigated the trends in aerosol properties associated with particle size, morphology, and light absorption. In this study, we investigate decadal-scale (13-15 year) trends in aerosol loading and properties during 2001-2015 over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). We use observations from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Relationships between aerosol property trends and air pollutant emission changes are examined. We find that annual mean AOD shows pronounced decreasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, as a result of considerable emission reductions in all major pollutants except for mineral dust and ammonia (NH3). Over the ECC region, AOD increases before 2006 due to emission increases induced by rapid economic development, fluctuates between 2006 and 2011, and subsequently decreases after 2011 in conjunction with effective emission reduction in anthropogenic primary aerosols, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fraction of small-size AOD (<0.7 μm diameter), Ångstrom exponent and single-scattering albedo have generally decreased, while the fractions of large-size (>1.4 μm diameter), nonspherical and absorbing AOD have generally shown increasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, indicating that fine and light-scattering aerosol constituents have been more effectively reduced than coarse and light-absorbing constituents. These trends are consistent with the larger reduction ratios in SO2 and NOx emissions than in primary aerosols, including mineral dust and black carbon (BC

  13. GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts: a radiative fireball?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Celotti, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the emission observed at energies >100 MeV of 11 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) until 2009 October. The GeV emission has three main properties: (i) its duration is often longer than the duration of the softer emission detected by the Gamma Burst Monitor onboard Fermi (this confirms earlier results from the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope); (ii) its spectrum is consistent with Fν ~ ν-1 and does not show strong spectral evolution; and (iii) for the brightest bursts the flux detected by the LAT decays as a power law with a typical slope t-1.5. We argue that the observed >0.1 GeV flux can be interpreted as afterglow emission shortly following the start of the prompt phase emission as seen at smaller frequencies. The decay slope is what is expected if the fireball emission is produced in the radiative regime, i.e. all dissipated energy is radiated away. We also argue that the detectability in the GeV energy range depends on the bulk Lorentz factor Γ of the bursts, being strongly favoured in the case of large Γ. This implies that the fraction of bursts detected at high energies corresponds to the fraction of bursts having the largest Γ. The radiative interpretation can help to explain why the observed X-ray and optical afterglow energetics are much smaller than the energetics emitted during the prompt phase, despite the fact that the collision with the external medium should be more efficient than internal shocks in producing the radiation that we see.

  14. SHOCK CORRUGATION BY RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I. E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu

    2014-08-10

    Afterglow jets are Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and therefore turbulent during the early part of their deceleration. There are also several processes which actively cool the jet. In this Letter, we demonstrate that if cooling significantly increases the compressibility of the flow, the turbulence collides with the forward shock, destabilizing and corrugating it. In this case, the forward shock is turbulent enough to produce the magnetic fields responsible for synchrotron emission via small-scale turbulent dynamo. We calculate light curves assuming the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy and discover that dynamic magnetic fields are well approximated by a constant magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of 1%, though there is a sizeable delay in the time of peak flux as the magnetic field turns on only after the turbulence has activated. The reverse shock is found to be significantly more magnetized than the forward shock, with a magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of the order of 10%. This work motivates future Rayleigh-Taylor calculations using more physical cooling models.

  15. Filling the disk hollow following binary black hole merger: The transient accretion afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    Tidal torques from a binary black hole empty out the central regions in any circumbinary gaseous accretion disk. The balance between tidal torques and viscosity maintain the inner edge of the disk at a radius r˜1.5a-2a, where a is the binary semimajor axis. Eventually, the inspiraling binary decouples from the disk and merges, leaving behind a central hollow ("donut hole") in the disk orbiting the remnant black hole. We present a simple, time-dependent, Newtonian calculation that follows the secular (viscous) evolution of the disk as it fills up the hollow down to the black hole innermost stable circular orbit and then relaxes to stationary equilibrium. We use our model to calculate the electromagnetic radiation ("afterglow") spectrum emitted during this transient accretion epoch. Observing the temporal increase in the total electromagnetic flux and the hardening of the spectrum as the donut hole fills may help confirm a binary black hole merger detected by a gravitational wave interferometer. We show how the very existence of the initial hollow can lead to super-Eddington accretion during this secular phase if the rate is not very far below Eddington prior to decoupling. Our model, though highly idealized, may be useful in establishing some of the key parameters, thermal emission features and scalings that characterize this transient. It can serve as a guide in the design and calibration of future radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity.

  16. A possible macronova in the late afterglow of the long–short burst GRB 060614

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Covino, Stefano; Zheng, Xian-Zhong; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi; Wei, Da-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration (>2 s) γ-ray bursts that are believed to originate from the death of massive stars are expected to be accompanied by supernovae. GRB 060614, that lasted 102 s, lacks a supernova-like emission down to very stringent limits and its physical origin is still debated. Here we report the discovery of near-infrared bump that is significantly above the regular decaying afterglow. This red bump is inconsistent with even the weakest known supernova. However, it can arise from a Li-Paczyński macronova—the radioactive decay of debris following a compact binary merger. If this interpretation is correct, GRB 060614 arose from a compact binary merger rather than from the death of a massive star and it was a site of a significant production of heavy r-process elements. The significant ejected mass favours a black hole–neutron star merger but a double neutron star merger cannot be ruled out. PMID:26065563

  17. Entropy emission properties of near-extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-05-01

    Bekenstein and Mayo have revealed an interesting property of evaporating (3 +1 )-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes: their entropy emission rates S˙Sch are related to their energy emission rates P by the simple relation S˙Sch=CSch×(P /ℏ)1/2, where CSch is a numerically computed dimensionless coefficient. Remembering that (1 +1 )-dimensional perfect black-body emitters are characterized by the same functional relation, S˙1 +1=C1 +1×(P /ℏ)1/2 [with C1 +1=(π /3 )1/2], Bekenstein and Mayo have concluded that, in their entropy emission properties, (3 +1 )-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes behave effectively as (1 +1 )-dimensional entropy emitters. Later studies have shown that this intriguing property is actually a generic feature of all radiating (D +1 )-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. One naturally wonders whether all black holes behave as simple (1 +1 )-dimensional entropy emitters? In order to address this interesting question, we shall study in this paper the entropy emission properties of Reissner-Nordström black holes. We shall show, in particular, that the physical properties which characterize the neutral sector of the Hawking emission spectra of these black holes can be studied analytically in the near-extremal TBH→0 regime (here TBH is the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature of the black hole). We find that the Hawking radiation spectra of massless neutral scalar fields and coupled electromagnetic-gravitational fields are characterized by the nontrivial entropy-energy relations S˙RNScalar=-CRNScalar×(A P3/ℏ3)1/4ln (A P /ℏ) and S˙RN Elec -Grav=-CRNElec -Grav×(A4P9/ℏ9)1 /10ln (A P /ℏ) in the near-extremal TBH→0 limit (here {CRNScalar,CRNElec -Grav} are analytically calculated dimensionless coefficients and A is the surface area of the Reissner-Nordström black hole). Our analytical results therefore indicate that not all black holes behave as simple (1 +1 )-dimensional entropy emitters.

  18. Bright afterglow illuminator made of phosphorescent material and fluorescent fibers.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Yamamoto, K

    2000-08-20

    Phosphorescent oxides and fluorescent dyes were used together to create a fiber-type illuminator that glows in the dark without the need for electric power. Dye-doped polymer fibers, which were bundled at one end, were linearly arrayed in a polysiloxane resin that contained phosphorescent oxide particles. The phosphorescent resin continued to glow for a long time even after the excitation light was removed. Organic dyes in a polymer fiber were excited by the phosphorescence and emitted fluorescence toward the fiber end. Fluorescence from a number of dyes was combined in the long fiber, and, consequently a bright light beam emerged from the fiber end. Useful performance, i.e., high power density, narrow beam divergence, and long afterglow, is demonstrated by the prototype fiber illuminator.

  19. Langmuir-probe measurements in flowing-afterglow plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, R.; Shun'ko, E.V.; Gougousi, T. ); Golde, M.F. )

    1994-11-01

    The validity of the orbital-motion theory for cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing-afterglow plasmas is investigated experimentally. It is found that the probe currents scale linearly with probe area only for electron-collecting but not for ion-collecting probes. In general, no agreement is found between the ion and electron densities derived from the probe currents. Measurements in recombining plasmas support the conclusion that only the [ital electron] densities derived from probe measurements can be trusted to be of acceptable accuracy. This paper also includes a brief derivation of the orbital-motion theory, a discussion of perturbations of the plasma by the probe current, and the interpretation of plasma velocities obtained from probe measurements.

  20. Langmuir-Probe Measurements in Flowing-Afterglow Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, R.; Shunko, E. V.; Gougousi, T.; Golde, M. F.

    1994-01-01

    The validity of the orbital-motion theory for cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing- afterglow plasmas is investigated experimentally. It is found that the probe currents scale linearly with probe area only for electron-collecting but not for ion-collecting probes. In general, no agreement is found between the ion and electron densities derived from the probe currents. Measurements in recombining plasmas support the conclusion that only the electron densities derived from probe measurements can be trusted to be of acceptable accuracy. This paper also includes a brief derivation of the orbital-motion theory, a discussion of perturbations of the plasma by the probe current, and the interpretation of plasma velocities obtained from probe measurements.

  1. Langmuir-probe measurements in flowing-afterglow plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, R.; Shun'ko, E. V.; Gougousi, T.; Golde, M. F.

    1994-11-01

    The validity of the orbital-motion theory for cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing-afterglow plasmas is investigated experimentally. It is found that the probe currents scale linearly with probe area only for electron-collecting but not for ion-collecting probes. In general, no agreement is found between the ion and electron densities derived from the probe currents. Measurements in recombining plasmas support the conclusion that only the electron densities derived from probe measurements can be trusted to be of acceptable accuracy. This paper also includes a brief derivation of the orbital-motion theory, a discussion of perturbations of the plasma by the probe current, and the interpretation of plasma velocities obtained from probe measurements.

  2. What We Learn from the Afterglow of GRB 021211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, A.

    2003-08-01

    The behavior of the afterglow (AG) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) directly provides, in the cannonball (CB) model, information about the environment of their progenitor stars. The well-observed early temporal decline of the AG of GRB 021211 is precisely the one predicted in the presence of a progenitor's ``wind,'' which resulted in a density profile ~1/r2 around the star. The subsequent fast fading-which makes this GRB ``quasi-dark''-is the one anticipated if, farther away, the interstellar density is roughly constant and relatively high. The CB model fit to the AG clearly shows the presence of an associated supernova akin to SN 1998bw and allows even for the determination of the broadband spectrum of the host galaxy. GRB 990123 and GRB 021004, whose AGs were also measured very early, are also discussed.

  3. Pink splash of active nitrogen in the discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Akishev, Yu. S.; Grushin, M. E.; Karal'nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Trushkin, N. I.

    2007-09-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the glow dynamics of active nitrogen in the stage of its excitation by a current pulse and during the discharge afterglow. The mechanism is proposed for the generation of a light splash in a highly activated nitrogen after the end of its pulsed excitation. The key role in the generation of this splash is played by the D-V processes, by which the dissociation energy is transferred to the vibrational degrees of freedom in the course of recombination of nitrogen atoms, and the V-E processes, by which the vibrational energy of highly excited molecules N{sub 2}(X, v {>=} 25-27) is transferred to the emitting electronic states N{sub 2}(B, v) after the V-V delay. Results of simulations based on the mechanism proposed are also presented.

  4. Rapid Identification of GRB Afterglows with Swift/UVOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. E.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the automated response to a new gamma-ray burst (GRB), the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument on Swift starts a 200-second exposure with the V filter within approximately 100 seconds of the BAT burst trigger. The instrument searches for sources in a 8' x 8' region, and sends the list of sources and a 160" x 160" sub-image centered on the burst position to the ground via Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These raw products and additional products calculated on the ground are then distributed through the GCN within a few minutes of the trigger. We describe the sensitivity of these data for detecting afterglows, summarize current results, and outline plans for rapidly distributing future detections.

  5. On the afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 021004: A comprehensivestudy with the Hubble Space Telescope1

    SciTech Connect

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.; Hjorth,J.; Pedersen, K.; Levan, A.; Burud, I.; Sahu, K.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Bergeron, E.; Kouveliotou1, C.; Tanvir, N.; Thorsett11, S.E.; Wijers,R.A.M.J.; Castro Ceron, J.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Garnavich, P.; Holland,S.T.; Jakobsson, P.; Moller, P.; Nugent, P.; Pian, E.; Rhoads, J.; Thomsen, B.; Watson, D.; Woosley, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the late-time afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 021004 (z = 2.33).Although this gamma-ray burst (GRB) is one of the best observed so far in terms of sampling in the time domain, multi-wavelength coverage and polarimetric observations, there is large disagreement between different measurements and interpretations of this burst in the literature. We have observed the field of GRB 021004 with the HST at multiple epochs from 3 days until almost 10 months after the burst. With STI S prism and G430L spectroscopy we cover the spectral region from about 2000 Angstrom to 5700 Angstrom corresponding to 600 1700 Angstrom in the rest frame. From the limit on the flux recovery bluewards of the Lyman-limit we constrain the H I column density to be above 1 x 1018 cm-2 (5 sigma). Based on ACS and N ICMOS imaging we find that the afterglow evolved a chromatically within the errors (any variation must be less then 5 percent) during the period of HST observations. The color changes observed by other authors during the first four days must be related to a 'noisy' phenomenon superimposed on an afterglow component with a constant spectral shape. This also means that the cooling break has remained on the blue side of the optical part of the spectrum for at least two weeks after the explosion. The optical to X-ray slope OX is consistent with being the same at 1.4 and 52.4 days after the burst. This indicates that the cooling frequency is constant and hence, according to fireball models, that the circumburst medium has a constant density profile. The late-time slope of the light curve (alpha 2, F nu proportional to t-alpha2) is in the range 2 = 1.8-1.9, although inconsistent with a single power-law. This could be due to a late-time flattening caused by the transition to non-relativistic expansion or due to excess emission (a 'bump' in the light curve) about 7 days afterburst. The host galaxy is like most previously studied GRB hosts

  6. Intercrystalline distal-effect on the afterglow phenomenon in photoluminescent SrAl2O4:Ce(III), Ln nanotube growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled Zurba, Nadia; Bdikin, Igor; Kholkin, Andrei; Golberg, Dmitri; Ferreira, José M. F.

    2010-08-01

    We report a new method for the synthesis of photoluminescent SrAl2O4:Ce3 + , Dy3 + , Eu2 + nanotubes, PL-SNT:Ce(III), Ln, using solid-state reaction and post-annealing approach. This new optical nanotubular structure was characterized by HRTEM, SEM, AFM, EDX, steady-state and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. A series of f-f and f-d-transitions with light emission in structured bands peaking at 488 nm arising from the polymorphism of the host lattice was correlated with an intercrystalline distal-effect on the afterglow phenomenon.

  7. Gamma-ray burst afterglows from transrelativistic blast wave simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Leventis, K.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-03-01

    We present a study of the intermediate regime between ultrarelativistic and non-relativistic flow for gamma-ray burst afterglows. The hydrodynamics of spherically symmetric blast waves is numerically calculated using the AMRVAC adaptive mesh refinement code. Spectra and light curves are calculated using a separate radiation code that, for the first time, links a parametrization of the microphysics of shock acceleration, synchrotron self-absorption and electron cooling to a high-performance hydrodynamic simulation. For the dynamics, we find that the transition to the non-relativistic regime generally occurs later than expected, the Sedov-Taylor solution overpredicts the late-time blast wave radius and the analytical formula for the blast wave velocity from Huang, Dai & Lu overpredicts the late-time velocity by a factor of 4/3. Also, we find that the lab frame density directly behind the shock front divided by the fluid Lorentz factor squared remains very close to four times the unshocked density, while the effective adiabatic index of the shock changes from relativistic to non-relativistic. For the radiation, we find that the flux may differ up to an order of magnitude depending on the equation of state that is used for the fluid and that the counterjet leads to a clear rebrightening at late times for hard-edged jets. Simulating GRB 030329 using predictions for its physical parameters from the literature leads to spectra and light curves that may differ significantly from the actual data, emphasizing the need for very accurate modelling. Predicted light curves at low radio frequencies for a hard-edged jet model of GRB 030329 with opening angle 22° show typically two distinct peaks, due to the combined effect of jet break, non-relativistic break and counterjet. Spatially resolved afterglow images show a ring-like structure.

  8. The bright optical afterglow of the long GRB 001007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. U.; Jensen, B. L.; Pedersen, H.; Andersen, M. I.; López-Corredoira, M.; Suárez, O.; Grosdidier, Y.; Casares, J.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Mallén-Ornelas, G.; Fruchter, A.; Greiner, J.; Pian, E.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cline, T.; Frontera, F.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hurley, K.; Masetti, N.; Mazets, E.; Palazzi, E.; Park, H. S.; Rol, E.; Salamanca, I.; Tanvir, N.; Trombka, J. I.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Williams, G. G.; van den Heuvel, E.

    2002-10-01

    We present optical follow up observations of the long GRB 001007 between 6.14 hours and ~468 days after the event. An unusually bright optical afterglow (OA) was seen to decline following a steep power law decay with index α = -2.03 ± 0.11, possibly indicating a break in the light curve at t - t0 < 3.5 days, as found in other bursts. Upper limits imposed by the LOTIS alerting system 6.14 hours after the gamma ray event provide tentative (1.2σ) evidence for a break in the optical light curve. The spectral index β of the OA yields -1.24 ± 0.57. These values may be explained both by several fireball jet models and by the cannonball model. Fireball spherical expansion models are not favoured. Late epoch deep imaging revealed the presence of a complex host galaxy system, composed of at least two objects located 1.2 arcsec (1.7σ) and 1.9 arcsec (2.7σ) from the afterglow position. Based on observations collected: at the European Southern Observatory, in La Silla and Paranal (Chile), ESO Large Programmes 165.H-0464(G), 165.H-0464(I) and 265.D-5742(A), granted to the GRACE Team; with the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System's 0.11 m telephoto lenses, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in California (USA); with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias's 0.82 m telescope, at the Observatorio del Teide, in the island of Tenerife (Spain); with the Danish 1.54 m telescope, at the European Southern Observatory, in La Silla (Chile); and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. Constraining chameleon field theories using the GammeV afterglow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhye, A.; Steffen, J. H.; Weltman, A.

    2010-01-01

    The GammeV experiment has constrained the couplings of chameleon scalar fields to matter and photons. Here, we present a detailed calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate underlying these constraints. The dependence of GammeV constraints on various assumptions in the calculation is studied. We discuss the GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch, a second-generation GammeV experiment, which will improve upon GammeV in several major ways. Using our calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate, we forecast model-independent constraints achievable by GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch. We then apply these constraints to a variety of chameleon models, including quartic chameleons and chameleon dark energy models. The new experiment will be able to probe a large region of parameter space that is beyond the reach of current tests, such as fifth force searches, constraints on the dimming of distant astrophysical objects, and bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant.

  10. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  11. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Influence of plasma diffusion losses on dust charge relaxation in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-07

    The influence of diffusive losses on residual dust charge in a complex plasma afterglow has been investigated. The dust residual charges were simulated based on a model developed to describe complex plasma decay. The experimental and simulated data show that the transition from ambipolar to free diffusion in the decaying plasma plays a significant role in determining the residual dust particle charges. The presence of positively charged dust particles is explained by a broadening of the charge distribution function in the afterglow plasma.

  13. X-ray emission properties of the old pulsar PSR B2224+65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, C. Y.; Becker, W.

    2007-06-01

    Using archival Chandra data we studied the X-ray emission properties of PSR B2224+65 and its environment. Albeit limited by photon statistics the spectral analysis suggests that the bulk of the emission from PSR B2224+65 is non-thermal. Fitting a power-law model to the observed energy spectrum yields a photon index of Γ=1.58+0.43-0.33. The possible origin of the non-thermal pulsar emission is discussed in the context of the outer-gap model. We did not find any evidence for a compact nebula around PSR B2224+65 though the Chandra data reveal the existence of an extended feature which appears to be associated with PSR B2224+65. It extends from the pulsar position about 2 arcmin to the north-west. Its orientation deviates by ˜118° from the pulsar's proper motion direction. Investigating its energy spectrum shows that the emission of this extended feature is much harder than that of the pulsar itself and is non-thermal in nature.

  14. Ultra-weak photon emission from biological samples: definition, mechanisms, properties, detection and applications.

    PubMed

    Cifra, Michal; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2014-10-05

    This review attempts to summarize molecular mechanisms, spectral and intensity properties, detection techniques and applications of ultra-weak photon emission. Ultra-weak photon emission is the chemiluminescence from biological systems where electronically excited species are formed during oxidative metabolic or oxidative stress processes. It is generally accepted that photons are emitted (1) at near UVA, visible, and near IR spectral ranges from 350 to 1300nm and (2) at the intensity of photon emission in the range of several units to several hundreds (oxidative metabolic process) and several hundreds to several thousands (oxidative stress process) photons s(-1)cm(-2). Current development in detection using low-noise photomultiplier tubes and imaging using highly sensitive charge coupled device cameras allows temporal and spatial visualization of oxidative metabolic or oxidative stress processes, respectively. As the phenomenon of ultra-weak photon emission reflects oxidative metabolic or oxidative stress processes, it can be widely used as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of the physiological state of biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids. • Application study of the SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids (ε=0.707) in lowering the infrared emissivity.

  16. Effect of Oxygen Adsorbates on Terahertz Emission Properties of Various Semiconductor Surfaces Covered with Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagsican, Filchito Renee; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lulu; Wang, Minjie; Murakami, Hironaru; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Kawayama, Iwao

    2016-11-01

    We have studied coherent terahertz (THz) emission from graphene-coated surfaces of three different semiconductors—InP, GaAs, and InAs—to provide insight into the influence of O2 adsorption on charge states and dynamics at the graphene/semiconductor interface. The amplitude of emitted THz radiation from graphene-coated InP was found to change significantly upon desorption of O2 molecules by thermal annealing, while THz emission from bare InP was nearly uninfluenced by O2 desorption. In contrast, the amount of change in the amplitude of emitted THz radiation due to O2 desorption was essentially the same for graphene-coated GaAs and bare GaAs. However, in InAs, neither graphene coating nor O2 adsorption/desorption affected the properties of its THz emission. These results can be explained in terms of the effects of adsorbed O2 molecules on the different THz generation mechanisms in these semiconductors. Furthermore, these observations suggest that THz emission from graphene-coated semiconductors can be used for probing surface chemical reactions (e.g., oxidation) as well as for developing O2 gas sensor devices.

  17. Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV-TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Takuma; To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki; Fujita, Yutaka

    2017-08-01

    We numerically simulate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission with a one-zone time-dependent code. The temporal evolutions of the decelerating shocked shell and energy distributions of electrons and photons are consistently calculated. The photon spectrum and light curves for an observer are obtained taking into account the relativistic propagation of the shocked shell and the curvature of the emission surface. We find that the onset time of the afterglow is significantly earlier than the previous analytical estimate. The analytical formulae of the shock propagation and light curve for the radiative case are also different from our results. Our results show that even if the emission mechanism is switching from synchrotron to synchrotron self-Compton, the gamma-ray light curves can be a smooth power law, which agrees with the observed light curve and the late detection of a 32 GeV photon in GRB 130427A. The uncertainty of the model parameters obtained with the analytical formula is discussed, especially in connection with the closure relation between spectral index and decay index.

  18. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Michael J.; Schmidt, Anja; Easter, Richard; Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Ghan, Steven J.; Neely, Ryan R.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Conley, Andrew; Bardeen, Charles G.; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosols from volcanic and nonvolcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone losses that may be linked to volcanic activity. Attribution of climate variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the rate of global average temperature increases. We have compiled a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions from 1990 to 2014 and developed a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in the Community Earth System Model. We used these combined with other nonvolcanic emissions of sulfur sources to reconstruct global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014. Our calculations show remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD) and with in situ measurements of stratospheric aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD calculations represent a clear improvement over available satellite-based analyses, which generally ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at middle and high latitudes. Our SAD calculations greatly improve on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses about 60% of the SAD measured in situ on average during both volcanically active and volcanically quiescent periods.

  19. Carbon nanotube—Based cold cathodes: Field emission angular properties and temporal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, S.; Fratini, M.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Cole, M. T.; Milne, W. I.; Lagomarsino, S.; Liscio, A.; Stefani, G.

    2016-10-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based cathodes have been investigated on nanostructured surfaces grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The FE angular properties and temporal stability of the emergent electron beam have been determined using a dedicated apparatus for cathodes of various architectures and geometries, characterized by scanning electron microscopy and I-V measurements. The angular electron beam divergence and time instability at the extraction stage, which are crucial parameters in order to obtain high brilliance of FE-based-cathode electron sources, have been measured for electrons emitted by several regular architectures of vertically aligned arrays and critically compared to conventional disordered cathodes. The measured divergences strongly depend on the grid mesh. For regular arrays of individual CNT, divergences from 2° to 5° have been obtained; in this specific case, measurements together with ray-tracing simulations suggest that the maximum emission angle is of the order of ±30° about the tube main axis. Larger divergences have been measured for electron beams emitted from honeycomb-structured cathodes (6°) and significantly broader angle distributions (10°) from disordered CNT surfaces. Emission current instabilities of the order of 1% for temporal stability studies conducted across a medium time scale (hours) have been noted for all cathodes consisting of a high number (104 and larger) of aligned CNTs, with the degree of stability being largely independent of the architecture.

  20. Functionalization of emissive conjugated polymer nanoparticles by coprecipitation: consequences for particle photophysics and colloidal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amita; Bezuidenhout, Michael; Walsh, Nichola; Beirne, Jason; Felletti, Riccardo; Wang, Suxiao; Fitzgerald, Kathleen T.; Gallagher, William M.; Kiely, Patrick; Redmond, Gareth

    2016-07-01

    The functionalization of polyfluorene (PFO) nanoparticles by coprecipitation of the conjugated polymer with an amphiphilic comb polymer, consisting of a hydrophobic polystyrene backbone with hydrophilic, carboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene oxide side-chains (PS-PEG-COOH), is investigated. The comb polymer affects the properties of the formed hybrid nanoparticles. Non-functionalized particles are typically larger (28 nm) than functionalized ones (20 nm); peak molar extinction coefficients are found to differ in a similar trend. Zeta potentials are negative, consistent with negative surface charge on PFO particles due to chemical defect formation, with additional charge on functionalized particles due to the pendant carboxylic acid groups. Emission quantum yields of functionalized particles are typically larger, consistent with lower efficiency of energy transfer to quenchers in smaller particles and weaker PFO interchain interactions due to chain dilution. The trend in per-particle fluorescence brightness values, as confirmed by single particle fluorescence imaging, reflects the nanoparticle extinction coefficients. Photostability studies on aqueous dispersions of hybrid particles indicate mild photobrightening under continuous illumination while PFO particles exhibit slow exponential emission decay. Functionalized particles are also resistant to aggregation during exposure to adenocarcinoma cells. Generally, the hybrid particles exhibit more favorable time-, pH- and medium-dependent stabilities, likely due to steric and electrostatic stabilization by PEG-carboxylic acid functionalities. Overall, the functionalized particles exhibit attractive properties: Reasonably small size, tight size distribution, high absorption cross section, radiative rate and emission quantum yield, excellent brightness and photostability, and good colloidal stability.

  1. Surface morphology correlated with field emission properties of laser irradiated nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, S. A.; Bashir, S.; Akram, M.; Ahmed, Q. S.; Haq, F. U.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of laser fluence on the surface morphology and field emission properties of nickel (Ni) has been investigated. Circular shaped Ni targets are irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 10 ns) at various fluences ranging from 5.2 to 26 J/cm2 in air. For low fluence ranging from 5.2 to 10.4 J/cm2, SEM analysis reveals the growth of unorganized channels, grains, droplets, and ridges. Whereas, at moderate fluence of 15.6 J/cm2, the formation of ridges and cones along with few number of holes are observed. However, at high fluence regime ranging from 20 to 26 J/cm2, a sharp transition in morphology from ridges to holes has been observed. The laser structured Ni targets are also investigated for field emission properties by recording their I-V characteristics and Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots. The enhancement in field emission factor (β) and the reduction in turn on field are found to be dependent upon the laser fluence and morphology of the grown structures. For samples treated at low and moderate fluences, the growth of cones, channels and ridges is responsible for enhancement of β factor ranging from 121 to 178. Whereas, for samples treated at high fluence region, the formation of pores and holes is responsible for significant field convergence and consequently resulting in substantial enhancement in β factor to 276.

  2. Surface morphology correlated with field emission properties of laser irradiated nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, S. A.; Bashir, S.; Akram, M.; Ahmed, Q. S.; Haq, F. U.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of laser fluence on the surface morphology and field emission properties of nickel (Ni) has been investigated. Circular shaped Ni targets are irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 10 ns) at various fluences ranging from 5.2 to 26 J/cm2 in air. For low fluence ranging from 5.2 to 10.4 J/cm2, SEM analysis reveals the growth of unorganized channels, grains, droplets, and ridges. Whereas, at moderate fluence of 15.6 J/cm2, the formation of ridges and cones along with few number of holes are observed. However, at high fluence regime ranging from 20 to 26 J/cm2, a sharp transition in morphology from ridges to holes has been observed. The laser structured Ni targets are also investigated for field emission properties by recording their I-V characteristics and Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots. The enhancement in field emission factor (β) and the reduction in turn on field are found to be dependent upon the laser fluence and morphology of the grown structures. For samples treated at low and moderate fluences, the growth of cones, channels and ridges is responsible for enhancement of β factor ranging from 121 to 178. Whereas, for samples treated at high fluence region, the formation of pores and holes is responsible for significant field convergence and consequently resulting in substantial enhancement in β factor to 276.

  3. Emitter spacing effects on field emission properties of laser-treated single-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers.

    PubMed

    Chen, YiWen; Miao, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Ryan Jiyao; Zhang, Mei; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2010-12-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters on buckypaper were activated by laser treatment and their field emission properties were investigated. The pristine buckypapers and CNT emitters' height, diameter, and spacing were characterized through optical analysis. The emitter spacing directly impacted the emission results when the laser power and treatment times were fixed. The increasing emitter density increased the enhanced field emission current and luminance. However, a continuous and excessive increase of emitter density with spacing reduction generated the screening effect. As a result, the extended screening effect from the smaller spacing eventually crippled the field emission effectiveness. Luminance intensity and uniformity of field emission suggest that the highly effective buckypaper will have a density of 2500 emission spots cm(-2), which presents an effective field enhancement factor of 3721 and a moderated screening effect of 0.005. Proper laser treatment is an effective post-treatment process for optimizing field emission, luminance, and durability performance for buckypaper cold cathodes.

  4. Inferring physical properties of galaxies from their emission-line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucci, G.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; Pallottini, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new approach based on Supervised Machine Learning algorithms to infer key physical properties of galaxies (density, metallicity, column density and ionization parameter) from their emission-line spectra. We introduce a numerical code (called GAME, GAlaxy Machine learning for Emission lines) implementing this method and test it extensively. GAME delivers excellent predictive performances, especially for estimates of metallicity and column densities. We compare GAME with the most widely used diagnostics (e.g. R23, [N II] λ6584/Hα indicators) showing that it provides much better accuracy and wider applicability range. GAME is particularly suitable for use in combination with Integral Field Unit spectroscopy, both for rest-frame optical/UV nebular lines and far-infrared/sub-millimeter lines arising from photodissociation regions. Finally, GAME can also be applied to the analysis of synthetic galaxy maps built from numerical simulations.

  5. Emission properties and photon statistics of a single quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Ritter, S; Gartner, P; Gies, C; Jahnke, F

    2010-05-10

    A theoretical description for a single quantum-dot emitter in a microcavity is developed.We analyze for increasing steady-state pump rate the transition from the strong-coupling regime with photon antibunching to the weak-coupling regime with coherent emission. It is demonstrated how Coulomb interaction of excited carriers and excitation-induced dephasing can strongly modify the emission properties. Our theoretical investigations are based on a direct solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the coupled carrier-photon system. We include multiple carrier excitations in the quantum dot, their Coulomb interaction, as well as excitation-induced dephasing and screening. Similarities and differences to atomic systems are discussed and results in the regime of recent experiments are interpreted. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  6. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  7. Polyanils and Polyboranils: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Aggregation-Induced Emission.

    PubMed

    Frath, Denis; Benelhadj, Karima; Munch, Maxime; Massue, Julien; Ulrich, Gilles

    2016-10-21

    A first series of polyanils were synthesized by a simple condensation between either isomers of phenylenediamine derivatives or 1,3,5-benzenetriamine and 4-(diethylamino)salicylaldehyde, while a second series resulted from the condensation between 4,6-dihydroxyisophthalaldehyde or 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalaldehyde and differently substituted anilines. All these polyanils showed good chelating abilities toward trivalent boron fragments such as BF2 or BPh2 to yield the corresponding boranils. The optical properties of these novel fluorophores have been studied both in solution and in the solid-state and show emission wavelengths covering the entire visible spectrum and near-infrared (NIR), depending on molecular structure, substitution, and environment. While faintly fluorescent in solution in their molecular state, some polyanils show typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior upon addition of increasing amounts of water in THF solution, leading to a sizable enhancement of fluorescence intensity.

  8. Structure and properties of InAs/AlAs quantum dots for broadband emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. Q.; Jin, P.; Liang, Z. M.; Liu, F. Q.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, Z. Y.

    2010-11-01

    The InAs quantum dots (QDs) on an AlAs layer are grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy technique. The properties of materials and optics of such QD structures have been investigated by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. It is discovered that the inhomogeneous strain filed mainly exists below InAs QDs layers in the case of no wetting layer. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) and intensities of PL emission peaks of InAs QDs are found to be closely related to the thickness of the thin AlAs layers. The InAs QDs on an eight monolayer AlAs layer, with wide FWHMs and large integral intensity of PL emission peaks, are favorable for producing broadband QD superluminescent diodes, external-cavity QD laser with large tuning range.

  9. Broadband antireflection and field emission properties of TiN-coated Si-nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Ravipati, Srikanth; Kao, Pin-Hsu; Shieh, Jiann; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2014-07-01

    Broadband antireflection and field emission characteristics of silicon nanopillars (Si-NPs) fabricated by self-masking dry etching in hydrogen-containing plasma were systematically investigated. In particular, the effects of ultrathin (5-20 nm) titanium nitride (TiN) films deposited on Si-NPs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the optoelectronic properties were explored. The results showed that by coating the Si-NPs with a thin layer of TiN the antireflection capability of pristine Si-NPs can be significantly improved, especially in the wavelength range of 1000-1500 nm. The enhanced field emission characteristics of these TiN/Si-NP heterostructures suggest that, in addition to the reflectance suppression in the long wavelength range arising from the strong wavelength-dependent refractive index of TiN, the TiN-coating may have also significantly modified the effective work function at the TiN/Si interface as well.

  10. Theoretical modeling of the plasma-assisted catalytic growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha

    2015-12-15

    A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Low Styrene Emission Polyester Resins for Marine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baley, Christophe; Perrot, Y.; Davies, Peter; Bourmaud, A.; Grohens, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester composites are used extensively for hulls and decks of pleasure boats. Boat-builders must optimise manufacturing technology, not only with respect to mechanical properties but also limiting volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. One way to achieve this is through modified polyester resin formulations such as low styrene content, low styrene emission or combinations of these. The resin matrix selection procedure is based on design specification (mechanical behaviour) but also manufacturing requirements and cost considerations. For this application post-cure is rarely used so it is important to optimise curing conditions. In this study the influence of the curing cycle on mechanical properties was examined first for two polyester resins. Then for one cycle (16 h at 40°C) the properties of eight resins have been determined. Significant differences in failure strain are observed, from 0.9% to 3.3%. The resins with improved VOC performance are the most brittle. The transverse tensile behaviour of these resins in composites with unidirectional glass fibre reinforcement and the limit of linearity for composites with glass mat both depend on these failure strains. These results are discussed in terms of admissible composite strains for boat design.

  12. Suppression of afterglow in CsI:Tl by codoping with Eu 2+—II: Theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartram, R. H.; Kappers, L. A.; Hamilton, D. S.; Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Glodo, J.; Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E. E.

    2006-03-01

    The mechanism for afterglow suppression in codoped CsI:Tl,Eu reported in the preceding paper was investigated by combined radioluminescence and thermoluminescence experiments. Model rate equations informed by these experiments were employed to simulate afterglow. It was found that codoping with europium introduces deep electron traps, with room-temperature glow peaks, that effectively scavenge the electrons from shallow traps associated with thallium, thus suppressing afterglow in the time domain of tens of milliseconds.

  13. Study of GRB Light-curve Decay Indices in the Afterglow Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vecchio, Roberta; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Ostrowski, Michał

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we study the distribution of temporal power-law decay indices, α, in the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow phase, fitted for 176 GRBs (139 long GRBs, 12 short GRBs with extended emission, and 25 X-ray flashes) with known redshifts. These indices are compared with the temporal decay index, α W , derived with the light-curve fitting using the Willingale et al. model. This model fitting yields similar distributions of α W to the fitted α, but for individual bursts a difference can be significant. Analysis of (α, L a ) distribution, where L a is the characteristic luminosity at the end of the plateau, reveals only a weak correlation of these quantities. However, we discovered a significant regular trend when studying GRB α values along the Dainotti et al. correlation between L a and the end time of the plateau emission in the rest frame, {T}a* , hereafter LT correlation. We note a systematic variation of the α parameter distribution with luminosity for any selected {T}a* . We analyze this systematics with respect to the fitted LT correlation line, expecting that the presented trend may allow us to constrain the GRB physical models. We also attempted to use the derived correlation of α ({T}a) versus {L}a({T}a) to diminish the luminosity scatter related to the variations of α along the LT distribution, a step forward in the effort of standardizing GRBs. A proposed toy model accounting for this systematics applied to the analyzed GRB distribution results in a slight increase of the LT correlation coefficient.

  14. Highly Conductive Diamond-Graphite Nanohybrid Films with Enhanced Electron Field Emission and Microplasma Illumination Properties.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2015-07-01

    Bias-enhanced nucleation and growth of diamond-graphite nanohybrid (DGH) films on silicon substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH4/N2 gas mixture is reported herein. It is observed that by controlling the growth time, the microstructure of the DGH films and, thus, the electrical conductivity and the electron field emission (EFE) properties of the films can be manipulated. The films grown for 30 min (DGHB30) possess needle-like geometry, which comprised of a diamond core encased in a sheath of sp(2)-bonded graphitic phase. These films achieved high conductivity of σ = 900 S/cm and superior EFE properties, namely, low turn-on field of 2.9 V/μm and high EFE current density of 3.8 mA/cm(2) at an applied field of 6.0 V/μm. On increasing the growth time to 60 min (the DGHB60), the acicular grain growth ceased and formed nanographite clusters or defective diamond clusters (n-diamond). Even though DGHB60 films possess higher electrical conductivity (σ = 1549 S/cm) than the DGHB30 films, the EFE properties degraded. The implication of this result is that higher conductivity by itself does not guarantee better EFE properties. The nanosized diamond grains with needle-like geometry are the most promising ones for the electron emission, exclusively when they are encased in graphene-like layers. The salient feature of such materials with unique granular structure is that their conductivity and EFE properties can be tuned in a wide range, which makes them especially useful in practical applications.

  15. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2015, using CESM1(WACCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Michael; Schmidt, Anja; Easter, Richard; Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Douglas; Ghan, Steven; Neely, Ryan; Marsh, Daniel; Conley, Andrew; Bardeen, Charles; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosols from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-losses that may be linked to volcanic activity. Attribution of climate variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the rate of global average temperature increases. We have compiled a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions from 1990 to 2015, and developed a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We combined these with other non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources to reconstruct global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2015. Our calculations show remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of stratospheric aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD calculations represent a clear improvement over available satellite-based analyses, which generally ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD calculations greatly improve on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses about 60% of the SAD measured in situ on average during both volcanically active and volcanically quiescent periods. The stark differences in SAOD and SAD compared to other data sets will have significant effects on calculations of the radiative forcing of climate and global stratospheric chemistry over the period 2005-2015. In light of these results, the impact of volcanic aerosols in reducing the rate of global average temperature increases since the year 2000 should be revisited. We have made our calculated aerosol properties from January 1990 to

  16. Visible properties of Sm3+ ions in chloro-fluoro-borate glasses for reddish - orange emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Babu, S.; Rao, B. Venkata; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of different concentration (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mol %) of Sm3+ doped chloro-fluoro-borate glasses have been synthesized and discussed. Structural characterizations have been studied through XRD analysis. Spectroscopic analysis has done from absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and decay lifetime profiles. From the emission spectra, concentration quenching is observed, with increase of samarium concentration and discussed behind the phenomena. The nature of decay curve analysis was performed for the 4G5/2 level. These glasses are expected to give interesting application in the field of optics.

  17. Poly(naphthalene diimide) vinylene: solid state red emission and semiconducting properties for transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Xianfeng; Tan, Luxi; Liu, Zitong; ...

    2017-04-06

    Here in this work, a conjugated polymer PNV is developed, linking naphthalene diimide with a vinyl linkage. Owing to the C-H ∙∙∙O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl and the vinyl, PNV exhibits a high red emission with a quantum yield of 33.4% in the solid state while it shows n-type properties with an electron mobility up to 1.5 x 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 in organic field effect transistors, simultaneously.

  18. [Experimental investigation on sulfur emission properties of micro-pulverized coal].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiumin; Liu, Hui; Li, Jubin; Zheng, Chuguang; Liu, Dechang

    2002-03-01

    Micro-pulverized coal(0-20 microns) combustion is a new kind of pulverized coal combustion technology. Four Heshan sulfur coal samples with different mean particles diameter were combusted, using a TGA-FTIR made in Germany. Micro-pulverized coal self-desulfurization and adding CaO desulfurization characteristics were investigated. Experimental result proved that micro-pulverized coal SO2 emission was less than coarse particles, and with the same Ca/S molar ratio 3 micro-pulverized coal can obtain higher sulfur capture efficiency. Its unique desulfurization property provide a new idea path for reduce sulfur releasing from pulverized coal combustion.

  19. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170–180 A/cm2 were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma. PMID:27502662

  20. Theoretical Rationalization of the Emission Properties of Prototypical Cu(I)-Phenanthroline Complexes.

    PubMed

    Capano, G; Rothlisberger, U; Tavernelli, I; Penfold, T J

    2015-07-09

    The excited state properties of transition metal complexes have become a central focus of research owing to a wide range of possible applications that seek to exploit their luminescence properties. Herein, we use density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), classical and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to provide a full understanding on the role of the geometric and electronic structure, spin-orbit coupling, singlet-triplet gap and the solvent environment on the emission properties of nine prototypical copper(I)-phenanthroline complexes. Our calculations reveal clear trends in the electronic properties that are strongly correlated to the luminescence properties, allowing us to rationalize the role of specific structural modifications. The MD simulations show, in agreement with recent experimental observations, that the lifetime shortening of the excited triplet state in donor solvents (acetonitrile) is not due to the formation of an exciplex. Instead, the solute-solvent interaction is transient and arises from solvent structures that are similar to the ones already present in the ground state. These results based on a subset of the prototypical mononuclear Cu(I) complexes shed general insight into these complexes that may be exploited for development of mononuclear Cu(I) complexes for applications as, for example, emitters in third generation OLEDs.

  1. Evaluation of the physical, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard manufactured from waste stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cones.

    PubMed

    Buyuksari, Umit; Ayrilmis, Nadir; Avci, Erkan; Koc, Enus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate some physical/mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboard containing particles of waste stone pine cone at various usage ratios using urea-formaldehyde resin. Some physical (thickness swelling, water absorption), mechanical (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond strength) properties and formaldehyde emission of particleboards were evaluated. The addition of cone particle improved water resistance of the panels and greatly reduced their formaldehyde emissions. However, flexural properties and internal bond strength decreased with increasing cone particle content in the panel. The cone of the stone pine can be considered as an alternative to wood material in the manufacture of particleboard used in indoor environment due to lower thickness swelling, water absorption and formaldehyde emission.

  2. Morphology-dependent field emission properties and wetting behavior of ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of three kinds of ZnO nanowire arrays with different structural parameters over Au-coated silicon (100) by facile thermal evaporation of ZnS precursor is reported, and the growth mechanism are proposed based on structural analysis. Field emission (FE) properties and wetting behavior were revealed to be strongly morphology dependent. The nanowire arrays in small diameter and high aspect ratio exhibited the best FE performance showing a low turn-on field (4.1 V/μm) and a high field-enhancement factor (1745.8). The result also confirmed that keeping large air within the films was an effective way to obtain super water-repellent properties. This study indicates that the preparation of ZnO nanowire arrays in an optimum structural model is crucial to FE efficiency and wetting behavior. PMID:21711609

  3. Fractal analysis of acoustic emission parameter series of coal with different properties under uniaxial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiming

    2017-08-01

    In order to study acoustic emission (AE) evolution characteristics of coal with different mechanical properties in failure process, uniaxial compression experiments of coals from 4 mines were carried out to analyse fractal feature of AE time series by G-P algorithm. The results indicate that AE parameter series of all 4 different coals have fractal feature, and the fractal dimension value of coal with different properties go through a process of “first rise, then fall”. The change of AE fractal dimension value can reflect the cracking evolution in coal failure process, which is closely related with the failure phase. The continuous decline of AE fractal dimension can be viewed as a precursor of impending failure of coal, which could provide theoretical basis for the AE pre-warning model establishment of coal dynamic disaster.

  4. Emissive and reflective properties of curved displays in relation to image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Blanc, Pierre; Sandré-Chardonnal, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Different aspects of the characterization of curved displays are presented. The limit of validity of viewing angle measurements without angular distortion on such displays using goniometer or Fourier optics viewing angle instrument is given. If the condition cannot be fulfilled the measurement can be corrected using a general angular distortion formula as demonstrated experimentally using a Samsung Galaxy S6 edge phone display. The reflective properties of the display are characterized by measuring the spectral BRDF using a multispectral Fourier optics viewing angle system. The surface of a curved OLED TV has been measured. The BDRF patterns show a mirror like behavior with and additional strong diffraction along the pixels lines and columns that affect the quality of the display when observed with parasitic lighting. These diffraction effects are very common on OLED surfaces. We finally introduce a commercial ray tracing software that can use directly the measured emissive and reflective properties of the display to make realistic simulation under any lighting environment.

  5. Fabrication of free-standing highly conducting ultrananocrystalline diamond films with enhanced electron field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, K. J.; Chen, H. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Tai, N. H.; Lin, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Fabrication of free-standing/highly conducting ultrananocrystalline diamond (fc-UNCD) films at low growth temperature (<475 °C) is demonstrated. The fc-UNCD films show high conductivity of σ = 146 (Ω cm)-1 with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties, viz. low turn-on field of 4.35 V/μm and high EFE current density of 3.76 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 12.5 V/μm. Transmission electron microscopy examinations reveal the presence of Au/Cu clusters in film-to-substrate interface, which consequences in the induction of nanographite phases, surrounding the diamond grains that form conduction channels for electrons transport, ensuing in marvelous EFE properties of fc-UNCD films.

  6. Emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties of buckled CdS nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Liaoxin; Lu, Jian; Ren, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Tianning; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Changqing; Shen, Xuechu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We report the modulation of emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties in a single buckled CdS nanoribbon (NR) by strain-engineering. Inspired by ordered structure fabrication on elastomeric polymer, we develop a new method to fabricate uniform buckled NRs supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Wavy structure, of which compressive and tensile strain periodically varied along the CdS NR, leads to a position-dependent emission energy shift as large as 14 nm in photoluminescence (PL) mapping. Both micro-PL and micro-reflectance reveal the spectral characteristics of broad emission of buckled NR, which can be understood by the discrepancy of strain-induced energy shift of A- and B-exciton of CdS. Furthermore, the dynamics of excitons under tensile strain are also investigated; we find that the B-exciton have much shorter lifetime than that of redshifted A-exciton. In addition, we also present the lasing of buckled CdS NRs, in which the strain-dominated mode selection in multi-mode laser and negligible mode shifts in single-mode laser are clearly observed. Our results show that the strained NRs may serve as new functional optical elements for flexible light emitter or on-chip all-optical devices. PMID:27210303

  7. Emission-Line Properties and Selection Effects for z > 4 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, A.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F.

    2000-12-01

    A growing number of QSOs are now known to exist at redshifts beyond 4, and these sources provide important opportunities for better understanding of the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution. To date there are ~ 130 known QSOs with z > 4, but only limited efforts have been made to survey systematically the emission-line properties of these objects and/or the selection effects related with the techniques by which they were discovered. In this poster we will present results of a program of high signal-to-noise spectroscopy for 44 QSOs using the MMT and Keck observatories. The majority of these sources were originally identified via color selection techiques. The quasar spectra cover wavelengths between 1100 Å and 1700 Å in the rest frame, for sources spanning a luminosity range of ~ 2 orders of magnitude. An examination of the luminosity dependence of the emission features reveals evidence for a weak Baldwin effect. Spectrum composites for the whole data set and for subsets are obtained and analysed in order to investigate the spectral dependence on selection effects. The results show a tendency for stronger C IV emission lines for color-selected quasars, than for grism-selected objects.

  8. Emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties of buckled CdS nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Liaoxin; Lu, Jian; Ren, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Tianning; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Changqing; Shen, Xuechu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    We report the modulation of emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties in a single buckled CdS nanoribbon (NR) by strain-engineering. Inspired by ordered structure fabrication on elastomeric polymer, we develop a new method to fabricate uniform buckled NRs supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Wavy structure, of which compressive and tensile strain periodically varied along the CdS NR, leads to a position-dependent emission energy shift as large as 14 nm in photoluminescence (PL) mapping. Both micro-PL and micro-reflectance reveal the spectral characteristics of broad emission of buckled NR, which can be understood by the discrepancy of strain-induced energy shift of A- and B-exciton of CdS. Furthermore, the dynamics of excitons under tensile strain are also investigated; we find that the B-exciton have much shorter lifetime than that of redshifted A-exciton. In addition, we also present the lasing of buckled CdS NRs, in which the strain-dominated mode selection in multi-mode laser and negligible mode shifts in single-mode laser are clearly observed. Our results show that the strained NRs may serve as new functional optical elements for flexible light emitter or on-chip all-optical devices.

  9. Light absorption properties and radiative effects of primary organic aerosol emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Winijkul, Ekbordin; ...

    2015-03-26

    Organic aerosols (OAs) in the atmosphere affect Earth’s energy budget by not only scattering but also absorbing solar radiation due to the presence of the so-called “brown carbon” (BrC) component. However, the absorptivities of OAs are not represented or are poorly represented in current climate and chemical transport models. In this study, we provide a method to constrain the BrC absorptivity at the emission inventory level using recent laboratory and field observations. We review available measurements of the light-absorbing primary OA (POA), and quantify the wavelength-dependent imaginary refractive indices (kOA, the fundamental optical parameter determining the particle’s absorptivity) and theirmore » uncertainties for the bulk POA emitted from biomass/biofuel, lignite, propane, and oil combustion sources. In particular, we parametrize the kOA of biomass/biofuel combustion sources as a function of the black carbon (BC)-to-OA ratio, indicating that the absorptive properties of POA depend strongly on burning conditions. The derived fuel-type-based kOA profiles are incorporated into a global carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory, and the integrated kOA values of sectoral and total POA emissions are presented. The results of a simple radiative transfer model show that the POA absorptivity warms the atmosphere significantly and leads to ~27% reduction in the amount of the net global average POA cooling compared to results from the nonabsorbing assumption.« less

  10. Light absorption properties and radiative effects of primary organic aerosol emissions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Yan, Fang; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C; Feng, Yan; Dubey, Manvendra K; Liu, Shang; Pinto, Joseph P; Carmichael, Gregory R

    2015-04-21

    Organic aerosols (OAs) in the atmosphere affect Earth's energy budget by not only scattering but also absorbing solar radiation due to the presence of the so-called "brown carbon" (BrC) component. However, the absorptivities of OAs are not represented or are poorly represented in current climate and chemical transport models. In this study, we provide a method to constrain the BrC absorptivity at the emission inventory level using recent laboratory and field observations. We review available measurements of the light-absorbing primary OA (POA), and quantify the wavelength-dependent imaginary refractive indices (kOA, the fundamental optical parameter determining the particle's absorptivity) and their uncertainties for the bulk POA emitted from biomass/biofuel, lignite, propane, and oil combustion sources. In particular, we parametrize the kOA of biomass/biofuel combustion sources as a function of the black carbon (BC)-to-OA ratio, indicating that the absorptive properties of POA depend strongly on burning conditions. The derived fuel-type-based kOA profiles are incorporated into a global carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory, and the integrated kOA values of sectoral and total POA emissions are presented. Results of a simple radiative transfer model show that the POA absorptivity warms the atmosphere significantly and leads to ∼27% reduction in the amount of the net global average POA cooling compared to results from the nonabsorbing assumption.

  11. Effect of the local morphology in the field emission properties of conducting polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, T. A.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Miranda, J. G. V.; de Souza, Nara C.; de Castilho, C. M. C.; Mota, F. de B.; Borondo, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we present systematic theoretical evidence of a relationship between the point local roughness exponent (PLRE) (which quantifies the heterogeneity of an irregular surface) and the cold field emission properties (indicated by the local current density and the macroscopic current density) of real polyaniline (PANI) surfaces, considered nowadays as very good candidates in the design of field emission devices. The latter are obtained from atomic force microscopy data. The electric field and potential are calculated in a region bounded by the rough PANI surface and a distant plane, both boundaries held at distinct potential values. We numerically solve Laplace’s equation subject to appropriate Dirichlet’s condition. Our results show that local roughness reveals the presence of specific sharp emitting spots with a smooth geometry, which are the main ones responsible (but not the only) for the emission efficiency of such surfaces for larger deposition times. Moreover, we have found, with a proper choice of a scale interval encompassing the experimentally measurable average grain length, a highly structured dependence of local current density on PLRE, considering different ticks of PANI surfaces.

  12. DIVERSITY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS FROM COMPACT BINARY MERGERS HOSTING PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela

    2014-07-20

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (≈20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves.

  13. Quantifying the impact of AGN and nebular emission on stellar population properties with REBETIKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, L. S. M.; Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.

    2016-06-01

    Spectral synthesis enables the reconstruction of the star formation and chemical evolution histories (SFH & CEH) of a galaxy that are encoded in its spectral energy distribution (SED). Most state-of-the-art population synthesis codes however consider only purely stellar emission and are hence inadequate for modelling studies of galaxies where non-stellar emission components contribute significantly to the SED. This work combines evolutionary and population synthesis techniques to quantify the impact of active galactic nucleus (AGN) and nebular emission on the determination of the stellar population properties in galaxies. We have developed an evolutionary synthesis code called REBETIKO - Reckoning galaxy Emission By means of Evolutionary Tasks with Input Key Observables - to compute and study the time evolution of the SED of AGN-hosts and starburst galaxies. Our code takes into account the main ingredients of a galaxy's SED (e.g. non-thermal emission and/or nebular continuum and lines) for various commonly used parameterizations of the SFH, such as instantaneous burst, constant, exponentially decreasing, and gradually increasing peaking at a redshift between 1-10. Synthetic SEDs computed with REBETIKO have been subsequently fitted with the STARLIGHT population synthesis code (PSC) which can be regarded as representative for currently available state-of-the-art (i.e. purely stellar) PSCs. The objective is to study the impact of non-stellar SED components on the recovery of the true total stellar mass M_{star} and SFH of a galaxy, as well as other evolutionary properties, such as CEH and light- and mass-weighted mean stellar age and metallicity. We find that purely stellar fits in galaxies with a strong non-stellar continuum (e.g. Seyfert and/or starburst galaxies) can for instance overestimate M_{star} by up to 3 orders of magnitude, while the mean stellar age and metallicity can deviate from their true values up to 2 and 4 dex, respectively. These results imply

  14. Properties of Solar Flare Plasmas Derived from Soft X-Ray Line Emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornmann, Patricia Lee

    A new observational property of soft X-ray line fluxes observed during the decay phase of solar flares is described and a new technique is presented for determining the plasma temperature and emission measure as functions of time based on this property. Results of this technique indicate the need for continuous heating or an intermediate energy storage mechanism during the flare. Fluid turbulence is examined as a possible intermediate energy storage mechanism. The soft X-ray line fluxes observed by SMM's FCS during the gradual phase of the 1980 November 5 flare did not decay at a constant rate. The line flux decay rate changed abruptly, with the line fluxes falling more rapidly later in the flare decay. These changes occurred at earlier times for lines formed at higher temperatures. This behavior is proposed to be due to the decreasing temperature of the flare plasma tracking the rise and subsequent fall of each line emissivity function. The proposed explanation for the rate changes was used to develop a technique for estimating the temperature and emission measure as a function of time during the gradual phase of solar flares. Eight flares were modeled with this technique and the model fits were repeated for each flare using five different sets of published line emissivity calculations. Estimates were made of various plasma parameters based on the model results during the decay of the 1980 November 5 flare. The mass was found to remain constant as the volume expanded, and the change in thermal energy was insufficient to account for the predicted total radiative losses, indicating the need for additional heating during the decay phase of this flare. Turbulence is proposed as a method for converting the energy observed as mass motions during the impulsive phase into thermal energy and the subsequent thermal radiation observed during the gradual phase of solar flares. The general properties of steady state, homogeneous fluid turbulence and of turbulent decay are

  15. Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hong Seong; Kang, Jeong Seok; Kim, Jae Won; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2004-02-01

    The mechanism of ultraviolet (UV) and green emission of ZnO thin films deposited on (001) sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition was investigated by using postannealing treatment at various annealing temperatures after deposition. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO films have been also observed. As the postannealing temperature increased, the intensity of UV (380 nm) peak and the carrier concentration were decreased while the intensity of the visible (about 490-530 nm) peak and the resistivity were increased. The role of oxygen in ZnO thin film during the annealing process was important to the change of optical properties. The mechanism of the luminescence suggested that UV luminescence of ZnO thin film was related to the transition from near band edge to valence band, and green luminescence of ZnO thin film was caused by the transition from deep donor level to valence band due to oxygen vacancies. The activation energy derived by using the variation of green emission intensity was 1.19 eV.

  16. Chemical and Optical Properties of Water-Soluble Organic Aerosols from Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. M.; Park, S.; Cho, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Light absorption property by organic aerosols is an important parameter to determine their radiative forcing on global and regional scales. However, the optical measurements by light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning emissions are rather lacking. This study explored the chemical and light-absorption properties of humic-like substances (HULIS) from biomass burning aerosols of three types; rice straw (RS), pine needles (PN), and sesame stem (SS). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) contributed 42.5, 42.0, and 57.0% to the OC concentrations of the RS, PN, and SS emissions, respectively. Respective HULIS (=1.94´HULIS-C) concentrations accounted for 29.5±2.0, 15.3±3.1, and 25.8±4.0% of PM2.5, and contributed 63±5, 36±10, and 51±8% to WSOC concentration. Absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs) of the WSOC fitted between 300 and 400 nm wavelengths were 7.4-8.3, indicating no significant differences among the biomass types. These AAEs are similar to those reported for aqueous extracts of biomass burning HULIS and fresh secondary organic aerosols from ozonolysis of terpenes. HULIS, which is a hydrophobic part of WSOC and a significant fraction of brown carbon, showed absorption spectra similar to brown carbon. WSOC mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) at 365 nm were 1.37, 0.86, and 1.38 m2/g×C for RS, PN, and SS burning aerosols, respectively. The MAE values by WSOC were less than 10% of MAE caused by light-absorbing black carbon. The light absorption of the water extracts at 365 nm indicated that light absorption was more strongly associated with HULIS from biomass burning emissions than with the hydrophilic WSOC fraction.

  17. Modeling Extragalactic Extinction through Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Alberto; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Aresu, Giambattista

    2016-09-01

    We analyze extragalactic extinction profiles derived through gamma-ray burst afterglows, using a dust model specifically constructed on the assumption that dust grains are not immutable but respond, time-dependently, to the local physics. Such a model includes core-mantle spherical particles of mixed chemical composition (silicate core, sp2, and sp3 carbonaceous layers), and an additional molecular component in the form of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We fit most of the observed extinction profiles. Failures occur for lines of sight, presenting remarkable rises blueward of the bump. We find a tendency for the carbon chemical structure to become more aliphatic with the galactic activity, and to some extent with increasing redshifts. Moreover, the contribution of the molecular component to the total extinction is more important in younger objects. The results of the fitting procedure (either successes and failures) may be naturally interpreted through an evolutionary prescription based on the carbon cycle in the interstellar medium of galaxies.

  18. On the radio afterglow of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, S.; Dar, A.; De Rújula, A.

    2003-04-01

    We use the cannonball (CB) model of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) to predict the spectral and temporal behaviour of their radio afterglows (AGs). A single simple expression describes the AGs at all times and frequencies; its high-frequency limit reproduces the successful CB model predictions for optical and X-ray AGs. We analyze all of the observed radio AGs of GRBs with known redshifts, including those of the exceptionally close-by GRB 980425. We also study in detail the time-evolution of the AGs' spectral index. The agreement between theory and observations is excellent, even though the CB model is extremely frugal in the number of parameters required to explain the radio observations. We propose to use the scintillations in the radio AGs of GRBs to verify and measure the hyperluminal speed of their jetted CBs, whose apparent angular velocity is of the same order of magnitude as that of galactic pulsars, consistently measured directly, or via scintillations. Figures 6 to 55 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  19. Emission properties of oxyluciferin and its derivatives in water: revealing the nature of the emissive species in firefly bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Avisek; Rebarz, Mateusz; Maltsev, Oleg V; Hintermann, Lukas; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Fron, Eduard; Hofkens, Johan; Mély, Yves; Naumov, Panče; Sliwa, Michel; Didier, Pascal

    2015-02-12

    The first systematic steady-state and time-resolved emission study of firefly oxyluciferin (emitter in firefly bioluminescence) and its analogues in aqueous buffers provided the individual emission spectra of all chemical forms of the emitter and the excited-state equilibrium constants in strongly polar environment with strong hydrogen bonding potential. The results confirmed the earlier hypothesis that excited-state proton transfer from the enol group is favored over proton transfer from the phenol group. In water, the phenol-keto form is the strongest photoacid among the isomers and its conjugate base (phenolate-keto) has the lowest emission energy (634 nm). Furthermore, for the first time we observed green emission (525 nm) from a neutral phenol-keto isomer constrained to the keto form by cyclopropyl substitution. The order of emission energies indicates that in aqueous solution a second deprotonation at the phenol group after the enol group had dissociated (that is, deprotonation of the phenol-enolate) does not occur in the first excited state. The pH-dependent emission spectra and the time-resolved fluorescence parameters revealed that the keto-enol tautomerism reaction, which can occur in a nonpolar environment (toluene) in the presence of a base, is not favored in water.

  20. Durability assessments of concrete using electrical properties and acoustic emission testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todak, Heather N.

    Premature damage deterioration has been observed in pavement joints throughout the Midwestern region of the United States. Over time, severe joint damage creates a transportation safety concern and the necessary repairs can be an extreme economic burden. The deterioration is due in part to freeze-thaw damage associated with fluid accumulation at the pavement joints. This very preventable problem is an indication that current specifications and construction practices for freeze-thaw durability of concrete are inadequate. This thesis serves to create a better understanding of moisture ingress, freeze-thaw damage mechanisms, and the effect of variations in mixture properties on freeze-thaw behavior of concrete. The concepts of the nick point degree of saturation, sorptivity rates, and critical degree of saturation are discussed. These factors contribute to service life, defined in this study as the duration of time a concrete element remains below levels of critical saturation which are required for damage development to initiate. A theoretical model and a simple experimental procedure are introduced which help determine the nick point for a series of 32 concrete mixtures with unique mixture proportions and air entrainment properties. This simple experimental procedure is also presented as a method to measure important electrical properties in order to establish the formation factor, a valuable measure of concrete transport properties. The results of freeze-thaw testing with acoustic emission monitoring are presented to help understand and quantify damage development in concrete specimens when conditioned to various degrees of saturation. This procedure was used to study the relationship between air entrainment properties and the critical degree of saturation. Applying the concepts of degree of saturation and sorptivity, a performance-based model is proposed as a new approach to specifications for freeze-thaw durability. Finally, a conceptual model is presented to

  1. Adaptive Photothermal Emission Analysis Techniques for Robust Thermal Property Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Raymond

    The characterization of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is increasingly important because they enable gas turbine engines to operate at high temperatures and efficiency. Phase of photothermal emission analysis (PopTea) has been developed to analyze the thermal behavior of the ceramic top-coat of TBCs, as a nondestructive and noncontact method for measuring thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Most TBC allocations are on actively-cooled high temperature turbine blades, which makes it difficult to precisely model heat transfer in the metallic subsystem. This reduces the ability of rote thermal modeling to reflect the actual physical conditions of the system and can lead to higher uncertainty in measured thermal properties. This dissertation investigates fundamental issues underpinning robust thermal property measurements that are adaptive to non-specific, complex, and evolving system characteristics using the PopTea method. A generic and adaptive subsystem PopTea thermal model was developed to account for complex geometry beyond a well-defined coating and substrate system. Without a priori knowledge of the subsystem characteristics, two different measurement techniques were implemented using the subsystem model. In the first technique, the properties of the subsystem were resolved as part of the PopTea parameter estimation algorithm; and, the second technique independently resolved the subsystem properties using a differential "bare" subsystem. The confidence in thermal properties measured using the generic subsystem model is similar to that from a standard PopTea measurement on a "well-defined" TBC system. Non-systematic bias-error on experimental observations in PopTea measurements due to generic thermal model discrepancies was also mitigated using a regression-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis reported measurement uncertainty and was developed into a data reduction method to filter out these "erroneous" observations. It was found

  2. PRODAN dual emission feature to monitor BHDC interfacial properties changes with the external organic solvent composition.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Federico M; Rodriguez, Javier; Falcone, R Dario; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano

    2013-03-19

    We have investigated the water/benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)/n-heptane:benzene reverse micelles (RMs) interfaces properties using 6-propionyl-2-(N,N-dimethyl)aminonaphthalene, PRODAN, as molecular probe. We have used absorption and emission (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy of PRODAN to monitor the changes in the RMs interface functionalities upon changing the external organic solvent blend. We demonstrate that PRODAN is a useful probe to investigate how the external solvent composition affects the micelle interface properties. Our results show that changes in the organic solvent composition in water/BHDC/n-heptane:benzene RMs have a dramatic effect on the photophysics of PRODAN. Thus, increasing the aliphatic solvent content over the aromatic one produces PRODAN partition and PRODAN intramolecular electron transfer (ICT) processes. Additionally, the water presence in these RMs makes the PRODAN ICT process favored with the consequent decreases in the LE emission intensity and a better definition of the charge transfer (CT) band. All this evidence suggests that the benzene molecules are expelled out of the interface, and the water-BHDC interactions are stronger with more presence of water molecules in the polar part of the interface. Thus, we demonstrate that a simple change in the composition of the external phase promotes remarkable changes in the RMs interface. Finally, the results obtained with PRODAN together with those reported in a previous work in our lab reveal that the external phase is important when trying to control the properties of RMs interface. It should be noted that the external phase itself, besides the surfactant and the polar solvent sequestrated, is a very important control variable that can play a key role if we consider smart application of these RMs systems.

  3. Electron Emission Properties of Insulator Materials Pertinent to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, C. D.; Zavyalov, V.; Dennison, J. R.; Corbridge, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of our measurements of the electron emission properties of selected insulating and conducting materials used on the International Space Station (ISS). Utah State University (USU) has performed measurements of the electron-, ion-, and photon-induced electron emission properties of conductors for a few years, and has recently extended our capabilities to measure electron yields of insulators, allowing us to significantly expand current spacecraft material charging databases. These ISS materials data are used here to illustrate our various insulator measurement techniques that include: i) Studies of electron-induced secondary and backscattered electron yield curves using pulsed, low current electron beams to minimize deleterious affects of insulator charging. ii) Comparison of several methods used to determine the insulator 1st and 2nd crossover energies. These incident electron energies induce unity total yield at the transition between yields greater than and less than one with either negative or positive charging, respectively. The crossover energies are very important in determining both the polarity and magnitude of spacecraft surface potentials. iii) Evolution of electron emission energy spectra as a function of insulator charging used to determine the surface potential of insulators. iv) Surface potential evolution as a function of pulsed-electron fluence to determine how quickly insulators charge, and how this can affect subsequent electron yields. v) Critical incident electron energies resulting in electrical breakdown of insulator materials and the effect of breakdown on subsequent emission, charging and conduction. vi) Charge-neutralization techniques such as low-energy electron flooding and UV light irradiation to dissipate both positive and negative surface potentials during yield measurements. Specific ISS materials being tested at USU include chromic and sulfuric anodized aluminum, RTV-silicone solar array adhesives, solar cell

  4. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30-50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ∼40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at -3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at -3.9 and -3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by the

  5. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30–50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ~40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at −3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at −3.9 and −3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by

  6. Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.

  7. Physical properties of particulate matter from animal houses-empirical studies to improve emission modelling.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ehab; Nannen, Christoph; Henseler, Jessica; Diekmann, Bernd; Gates, Richard; Buescher, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining and preserving the environment from pollutants are of utmost importance. Particulate matter (PM) is considered one of the main air pollutants. In addition to the harmful effects of PM in the environment, it has also a negative indoor impact on human and animal health. The specific forms of damage of particulate emission from livestock buildings depend on its physical properties. The physical properties of particulates from livestock facilities are largely unknown. Most studies assume the livestock particles to be spherical with a constant density which can result in biased estimations, leading to inaccurate results and errors in the calculation of particle mass concentration in livestock buildings. The physical properties of PM, including difference in density as a function of particle size and shape, can have a significant impact on the predictions of particles' behaviour. The aim of this research was to characterize the physical properties of PM from different animal houses and consequently determine PM mass concentration. The mean densities of collected PM from laying hens, dairy cows and pig barns were 1450, 1520 and 2030 kg m(-3), respectively, whilst the mass factors were 2.17 × 10(-3), 2.18 × 10(-3) and 5.36 × 10(-3) μm, respectively. The highest mass concentration was observed in pig barns generally followed by laying hen barns, and the lowest concentration was in dairy cow buildings. Results are presented in such a way that they can be used in subsequent research for simulation purposes and to form the basis for a data set of PM physical properties.

  8. Enhanced electron field emission properties of conducting ultrananocrystalline diamond films after Cu and Au ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Panda, Kalpataru; Sundaravel, Balakrishnan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-04-09

    The effects of Cu and Au ion implantation on the structural and electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were investigated. High electrical conductivity of 186 (Ω•cm)(-1) and enhanced EFE properties with low turn-on field of 4.5 V/μm and high EFE current density of 6.70 mA/cm(2) have been detected for Au-ion implanted UNCD (Au-UNCD) films that are superior to those of Cu-ion implanted UNCD (Cu-UNCD) ones. Transmission electron microscopic investigations revealed that Au-ion implantation induced a larger proportion of nanographitic phases at the grain boundaries for the Au-UNCD films in addition to the formation of uniformly distributed spherically shaped Au nanoparticles. In contrast, for Cu-UNCD films, plate-like Cu nanoparticles arranged in the row-like pattern were formed, and only a smaller proportion of nanographite phases along the grain boundaries was induced. From current imaging tunneling spectroscopy and local current-voltage curves of scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements, it is observed that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the grain boundaries. Consequently, the presence of nanosized Au particles and the induction of abundant nanographitic phases in the grain boundaries of Au-UNCD films are believed to be the authentic factors, ensuing in high electrical conductivity and outstanding EFE properties of the films.

  9. Influence of mixed alkalies on absorption and emission properties of Sm 3+ ions in borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakaram, Y. C.; Thirupathi Naidu, D.; Vijaya Kumar, A.; Gopal, N. O.

    2005-04-01

    The present work aims to study the variation of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, absorption and emission cross sections with alkali content in three different Sm 3+-doped mixed alkali borate glasses. Mixed alkali borate glasses in the composition 67H 3BO 3· xLi 2CO 3(32- x)Na 2CO 3·1Sm 2O 3, 67H 3BO 3· xLi 2CO 3(32- x)K 2CO 3·1Sm 2O 3 and 67H 3BO 3· xNa 2CO 3(32- x)K 2CO 3·1Sm 2O 3 with x=8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 mol% were prepared by quenching melts consisting of the above chemicals (850-950 °C, 1-2 h) between two brass plates. Judd-Ofelt theory is used to study the spectral properties and to calculate the radiative transition probabilities and branching ratios. The predicted radiative transition probabilities ( Aed), branching ratios ( β) and integrated absorption cross-sections ( Σ) for certain transitions are reported. From the emission spectra, emission cross-sections ( σ) are obtained for the four transitions, 4G 5/2→ 6H 5/2, 4G 5/2→ 6H 7/2, 4G 5/2→ 6H 9/2 and 4G 5/2→ 6H 11/2 of Sm 3+ ion in these mixed alkali borate glasses. Optical band gaps ( Eopt) and absorption edges are reported for the three Sm 3+-doped mixed alkali borate glasses.

  10. Controlled growth of copper oxide nanostructures by atmospheric pressure micro-afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaweel, A.; Filipič, G.; Gries, T.; Belmonte, T.

    2014-12-01

    A large variety of copper oxide nanostructures encompassing nanodots, nanowires and nanowalls, sometimes organized in "cabbage-like" architectures, are grown locally by direct oxidation of copper thin films using the micro-afterglow of an Ar-O2 microwave plasma operating at atmospheric pressure. Morphology, structure and composition of the oxidized copper thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The concentric areas where each kind of nanostructures is found are defined by both their radial position with respect to the afterglow centre and by experimental conditions. A growth mechanism is proposed, based on stress-induced outward migration of copper ions. The development of stress gradients is caused by the formation of a copper oxide scale layer. If copper oxide nanowires can be grown as in thermal oxidation processes, micro-afterglow conditions offer novel nanostructures and nano-architectures.

  11. Machine Learning Search for Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows in Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topinka, M.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to the advances in robotic telescopes, time domain astronomy leads to a large number of transient events detected in images every night. Data mining and machine learning tools used for object classification are presented. The goal is to automatically classify transient events for both further follow-up by a larger telescope and for statistical studies of transient events. Special attention is given to the identification of gamma-ray burst afterglows. Machine learning techniques are used to identify GROND gamma-ray burst afterglow among the astrophysical objects present in the SDSS archival images based on the g'-r', r'-i' and i'-z' color indices. The performance of the support vector machine, random forest and neural network algorithms is compared. A joint meta-classifier, built on top of the individual classifiers, can identify GRB afterglows with the overall accuracy of ≳ 90%.

  12. An on-line Langmuir probe technique for the study of afterglow plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanel, Patrik

    1995-11-01

    A new analytical technique has been developed to determine from Langmuir probe characteristics the electron number densities, electron energy distribution functions and electron temperatures in thermal and near-thermal afterglow plasmas. This technique utilises a standard personal computer equipped with a simple 12-bit analogue/digital and digital/analogue converters coupled to the Langmuire probe via a specially designed differential amplifier. The energy distribution functions are obtained by numerical differentiation of the probe characteristics using a fast noise-suppressing numerical technique, the mathematical principles of which are discussed in some detail. Some sample data, which have been obtained in truly thermalised helium flowing afterglows and in argon flowing afterglow at elevated electron temperatures, are presented to demonstrate the value of this new analytical technique.

  13. X-ray excited ZnS:Cu,Co afterglow nanoparticles for photodynamic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Zou, Xiaoju; Bui, Brian; Chen, Wei; Song, Kwang Hyun; Solberg, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Copper and cobalt co-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu,Co) afterglow nanoparticles were conjugated to photosensitizer tetrabromorhodamine-123 (TBrRh123) and efficient energy transfer from the nanoparticles to TBrRh123 was observed. In addition to their X-ray excited luminescence, the ZnS:Cu,Co nanoparticles also show long lasting afterglow, which continuously serve as a light source for photodynamic therapy (PDT) activation. Compared to TBrRh123 or ZnS:Cu,Co alone, the ZnS:Cu,Co-TBrRh123 conjugates show low dark toxicity but high X-ray induced toxicity to human prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that the ZnS:Cu,Co afterglow nanoparticles have a good potential for PDT activation.

  14. Photoluminescence properties of zinc white: an insight into its emission mechanisms through the study of historical artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artesani, A.; Bellei, S.; Capogrosso, V.; Cesaratto, A.; Mosca, S.; Nevin, A.; Valentini, G.; Comelli, D.

    2016-12-01

    While the photophysical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been widely explored, less research has focused on the bulk material present in artist pigments. This study is based on the analysis of historical pastels, representative of artist materials available at the turn of the twentieth century, and of the pure powder pigment as the control sample. The study of the intensity of the photoluminescence emission as a function of the fluence and of the nanosecond and microsecond emission decay kinetic properties allows the elucidation of the emission mechanisms in control ZnO and historical samples containing ZnO. Data suggest that in historical samples the near-band-edge free-exciton photoluminescence emission, typically occurring in the pure semiconductor, is influenced by the interaction of the pigment with surrounding organic binding material. Conversely, crystal defects, typically expected in historical samples following the imperfect synthesis process available at the beginning of the twentieth century, introduce minor modifications to the photoluminescence emission. The study further suggests that zinc carboxylates, detected in all historical samples and known to introduce characteristic groups on the surface of ZnO, could be responsible for changes in emission mechanisms. Research demonstrates how photoluminescence decay kinetics and the study of the dependence of the emission intensity on the fluence are powerful methods for elucidating the nature of the mechanism processes in luminescent semiconductor pigments.

  15. Spectroscopic properties and amplified spontaneous emission of fluorescein laser dye in ionic liquids as green media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Aqmar, Dalal M.; Abdelkader, H. I.; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2015-09-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as milieu materials for laser dyes is a promising field and quite competitive with volatile organic solvents and solid state-dye laser systems. This paper investigates some photo-physical parameters of fluorescein dye incorporated into ionic liquids; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate (BMIM AlCl4) and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM BF4) as promising host matrix in addition to ethanol as reference. These parameters are: absorption and emission cross-sections, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield, in addition to the transition dipole moment, the attenuation length and oscillator strength were also investigated. Lasing characteristics such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), the gain, and the photostability of fluorescein laser dye dissolved in different host materials were assessed. The composition and properties of the matrix of ILs were found