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Sample records for afterglow spectral energy

  1. ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE SPECTRAL BREAK IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2012-02-20

    The temporal evolution of the spectral break in the time-resolved spectral energy density of the broadband afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 091127 and 080319B was shown recently to be inconsistent with that expected for the cooling break in the standard fireball model of GRBs. Here we show that it is, however, in good agreement with the predicted temporal evolution of the smooth injection break/bend in the cannonball model of GRBs.

  2. CORRELATED SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF LATE-TIME AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2012-12-20

    The cannonball (CB) model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts that the asymptotic behavior of the spectral energy density of GRB afterglows is a power law in time and in frequency, and the difference between the temporal and spectral power-law indices, {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X}, is restricted to the values 0, 1/2, and 1. Here we report the distributions of the values {alpha}{sub X} and {beta}{sub X}, and their difference for a sample of 315 Swift GRBs. This sample includes all Swift GRBs that were detected before 2012 August 1, whose X-ray afterglow extended well beyond 1 day and the estimated error in {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X} was {<=}0.25. The values of {alpha}{sub X} were extracted from the CB-model fits to the entire light curves of their X-ray afterglow while the spectral index was extracted by the Swift team from the time-integrated X-ray afterglow of these GRBs. We found that the distribution of the difference {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X} for these 315 Swift GRBs has three narrow peaks around 0, 1/2, and 1 whose widths are consistent with being due to the measurement errors, in agreement with the CB-model prediction.

  3. GRB 070125 and the environments of spectral-line poor afterglow absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cia, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wiersema, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Björnsson, G.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Jakobsson, P.; Levan, A. J.; Rol, E.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2011-11-01

    GRB 070125 is among the most energetic bursts detected and the most extensively observed so far. Nevertheless, unresolved issues are still open in the literature on the physics of the afterglow and on the gamma-ray burst (GRB) environment. In particular, GRB 070125 was claimed to have exploded in a galactic halo environment, based on the uniqueness of the optical spectrum and the non-detection of an underlying host galaxy. In this work we collect all publicly available data and address these issues by modelling the near-infrared to X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) and studying the high signal-to-noise ratio Very Large Telescope/FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph afterglow spectrum in comparison with a larger sample of GRB absorbers. The SED reveals a synchrotron cooling break in the ultraviolet, low equivalent hydrogen column density and little reddening caused by a Large Magellanic Cloud type or Small Magellanic Cloud type extinction curve. From the weak Mg II absorption at z= 1.5477 in the spectrum, we derived log N(Mg II) = 12.96+0.13- 0.18 and upper limits on the ionic column density of several metals. These suggest that the GRB absorber is most likely a Lyman limit system with a 0.03 < Z < 1.3 Z⊙ metallicity. The comparison with other GRB absorbers places GRB 070125 at the low end of the absorption-line equivalent width distribution, confirming that weak spectral features and spectral-line poor absorbers are not so uncommon in afterglow spectra. Moreover, we show that the effect of photoionization on the gas surrounding the GRB, combined with a low N(H I) along a short segment of the line of sight within the host galaxy, can explain the lack of spectral features in GRB 070125. Finally, the non-detection of an underlying galaxy is consistent with a faint GRB host galaxy, well within the GRB host brightness distribution. Thus, the possibility that GRB 070125 is simply located in the outskirts of a gas-rich, massive star-forming region inside its

  4. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB 980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, T. W.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Connaughton, V.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R. D.; Fishman, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the first evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a gamma-ray burst, GRB 980923. The event consists of rapid variability lasting approximately 40 s followed by a smooth power-law emission tail lasting approximately 400 s. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for gamma-ray bursts. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB 990123.

  5. X-RAY SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OBSERVED IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Bellm, Eric C.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bhalerao, Varun; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Stern, Daniel; and others

    2014-04-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 × 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10{sup 8} cm), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  6. X-Ray Spectral Components Observed in the Afterglow of GRB 130925A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barriere, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Horesh, Assaf; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miller, Jon M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Perley, Daniel A.; Rana, Vikram R.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at greater than 4 less than 1 significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at 2 x 10 (sup 5) and 10 (sup 6) seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several kiloelectronvolts width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch. An additive blackbody or second power-law component provide better fits. Both are challenging to interpret: the blackbody radius is near the scale of a compact remnant (10 (sup 8) centimeters), while the second power-law component requires an unobserved high-energy cutoff in order to be consistent with the non-detection by Fermi/Large Area Telescope.

  7. On the Electron Energy Distribution Index of Swift Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Evans, P. A.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    The electron energy distribution index, p, is a fundamental parameter of the synchrotron emission from a range of astronomical sources. Here we examine one such source of synchrotron emission, gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows observed by the Swift satellite. Within the framework of the blast wave model, we examine the constraints placed on the distribution of p by the observed X-ray spectral indices and parameterize the distribution. We find that the observed distribution of spectral indices are inconsistent with an underlying distribution of p composed of a single discrete value but consistent with a Gaussian distribution centered at p = 2.36 and having a width of 0.59. Furthermore, accepting that the underlying distribution is a Gaussian, we find that the majority (gsim94%) of GRB afterglows in our sample have cooling break frequencies less than the X-ray frequency.

  8. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  9. Evidence for an Early High-Energy Afterglow Observed with BATSE from GRB980923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Tim; vanParadijs, Jan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Connaughton, Valerie; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Fishman, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, we present for the first time evidence in the BATSE data for a prompt high-energy (25-300 keV) afterglow component from a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), GRB980923. The event ranks third highest in fluence (>25 keV) in the BATSE catalog and consists of a period of rapid variability lasting about 40 s followed by a smooth power law emission tail lasting about 400 s beyond the trigger time. An abrupt change in spectral shape is found when the tail becomes noticeable. Our analysis reveals that the spectral evolution in the tail of the burst mimics that of a cooling synchrotron spectrum, similar to the spectral evolution of the low-energy afterglows for GRBS. This evidence for a separate emission component is consistent with the internal-external shock scenario in the relativistic fireball picture. In particular, it illustrates that the external shocks can be generated during the primary gamma-ray emission phase, as in the case of GRB990123.

  10. Spectral softening in the X-RAY afterglow of GRB 130925A as predicted by the dust scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a ≤ 0.1 μm) in the diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  11. Spectral Softening in the X-Ray Afterglow of GRB 130925A as Predicted by the Dust Scattering Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Shao, Lang

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually occur in a dense star-forming region with a massive circumburst medium. The small-angle scattering of intense prompt X-ray emission off the surrounding dust grains will have observable consequences and sometimes can dominate the X-ray afterglow. In most of the previous studies, only the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) approximation is employed for describing the scattering process, which works accurately for the typical size of grains (with radius of a <= 0.1 μm) in the diffuse interstellar medium. When the size of the grains may significantly increase, as in a more dense region where GRBs would occur, the RG approximation may not be valid enough for modeling detailed observational data. In order to study the temporal and spectral properties of the scattered X-ray emission more accurately with potentially larger dust grains, we provide a practical approach using the series expansions of anomalous diffraction (AD) approximation based on the complicated Mie theory. We apply our calculations to understand the puzzling X-ray afterglow of recently observed GRB 130925A that showed a significant spectral softening. We find that the X-ray scattering scenarios with either AD or RG approximation adopted could well reproduce both the temporal and spectral profile simultaneously. Given the plateau present in the early X-ray light curve, a typical distribution of smaller grains as in the interstellar medium would be suggested for GRB 130925A.

  12. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars. PMID:16838015

  13. Comparison of Three Afterglow Morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D; Rossi, E; Lazzati, D

    2003-12-23

    Herein we compare three functional families for afterglow morphologies: the homogeneous afterglow with constant shock surface energy density, the structured afterglow for which the energy density decays as a power-law as a function of viewer angle, and the gaussian afterglow which has an exponential decay of energy density with viewer angle. We simulate observed lightcurves and polarization curves for each as seen from a variety of observer vantage points. We find that the homogeneous jet is likely inconsistent with observations and suggest that the future debate on the structure of afterglow jets will be between the other two candidates.

  14. A Search for Early High-Energy Afterglows in BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this project was to perform a detailed search for the early high-energy afterglow component of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE GRB data archive. GRBs are believed to be the product of shock waves generated in a relativistic outflow from the demise of extremely massive stars and/or binary neutron star mergers. The outflow undeniably encounters the ambient medium of the progenitor object and another shock wave is set up. A forward shock propagates into the medium and a reverse shock propagates through the ejecta. This "external" shock dissipates the kinetic energy of the ejecta in the form of radiation via synchrotron losses and slows the outflow eventually to a non-relativistic state. Radiation from the forward external shock is therefore expected to be long-lived, lasting days, weeks, and even months. This radiation is referred to as the 'afterglow'.

  15. Radio observations of GRB 100418a: Test of an energy injection model explaining long-lasting GRB afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Moin, A.; Wang, Z.; Chandra, P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Tingay, S. J.; Reynolds, C.; Taylor, G. B.; Frail, D. A.; Phillips, C. J.

    2013-12-20

    We present the results of our radio observational campaign of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100418a, for which we used the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Very Large Array, and the Very Long Baseline Array. GRB 100418a was a peculiar GRB with unusual X-ray and optical afterglow profiles featuring a plateau phase with a very shallow rise. This observed plateau phase was believed to be due to a continued energy injection mechanism that powered the forward shock, giving rise to an unusual and long-lasting afterglow. The radio afterglow of GRB 100418a was detectable several weeks after the prompt emission. We conducted long-term monitoring observations of the afterglow and attempted to test the energy injection model advocating that the continuous energy injection is due to shells of material moving at a wide range of Lorentz factors. We obtained an upper limit of γ < 7 for the expansion rate of the GRB 100418a radio afterglow, indicating that the range-of-Lorentz factor model could only be applicable for relatively slow-moving ejecta. A preferred explanation could be that continued activity of the central engine may have powered the long-lasting afterglow.

  16. 'Self-absorbed' GeV light curves of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.; Vestrand, W. T.; Woźniak, P.

    2014-06-10

    We investigate the effect that the absorption of high-energy (above 100 MeV) photons produced in gamma-ray burst afterglow shocks has on the light curves and spectra of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) afterglows. Afterglows produced by the interaction of a relativistic outflow with a wind-like medium peak when the blast wave deceleration sets in, and the afterglow spectrum could be hardening before that peak, as the optical thickness to pair formation is decreasing. In contrast, in afterglows produced in the interaction with a homogeneous medium, the optical thickness to pair formation should increase and yield a light curve peak when it reaches unity, followed by a fast light curve decay, accompanied by spectral softening. If energy is injected in the blast wave, then the accelerated increase of the optical thickness yields a convex afterglow light curve. Other features, such as a double-peak light curve or a broad hump, can arise from the evolution of the optical thickness to photon-photon absorption. Fast decays and convex light curves are seen in a few LAT afterglows, but the expected spectral softening is rarely seen in (and difficult to measure with) LAT observations. Furthermore, for the effects of photon-photon attenuation to shape the high-energy afterglow light curve without attenuating it too much, the ejecta initial Lorentz factor must be in a relatively narrow range (50-200), which reduces the chance of observing those effects.

  17. A two-step energy injection explanation for the rebrightenings of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 081029

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong-Bo; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2013-06-01

    The afterglow of GRB 081029 showed unusual behavior, with a significant rebrightening being observed at the optical wavelength at about 3000 s after the burst. One possible explanation is that the rebrightening resulted from an energy injection. Here we present a detailed numerical study of the energy injection process and interpret the X-ray and optical afterglow light curves of GRB 081029. In our model, we have assumed two periods of energy injection, each with a constant injection power. One injection starts at 2.8 × 103 s and lasts for about 2500 s, with a power of 7.0 × 1047 erg s-1. This energy injection mainly accounts for the rapid rebrightening at about 3000 s. The other injection starts at 8.0 × 103 s and lasts for about 5000 s. The injection power is 3.5 × 1047 erg s-1. This energy injection can help to explain the slight rebrightening at about 10 000 s. It is shown that the observed optical afterglow, especially the marked rebrightening at about 3000 s, can be reproduced well. In the X-ray band, the predicted amplitude of the rebrightening is much shallower, which is also consistent with the observed X-ray afterglow light curve. It is argued that the two periods of energy injection can be produced by clumpy materials falling onto the central compact object of the burster, which leads to an enhancement of accretion and gives rise to a strong temporary outflow.

  18. The Transition from the Gamma-Ray Burst to the Afterglow and the Total Electromagnetic Energy Associated to the Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; BEPPOSAX GRB Team

    1998-05-01

    The discovery of afterglow X-ray sources has impacted on many aspects of the Gamma-Ray Burst Physics. The final evidence provided by optical spectra of a cosmological distance scale is furtherly stimulating the study of GRBs as tracers of the Universe at large distance. But X-ray data also show that the energy associated with the main Gamma-Ray event is only a fraction, not likely constant, of the total. An important task for present and future experiments is the build up of a "bolometric correction" for GRBs aimed to derive the total electromagnetic luminosity and check the quality of GRBs as standard candles. The evaluation of the amount of enegy to be associated to the afterglow requires an understanding of the transition from the Gamma event to the afterglow itself. Moreover, since the afterglow spectra are hard and not-thermal, this evaluation also depends on the assumptions on the extension to nearby bands of the spectra measured in the 2-10 keV range. A few cases based on the analysis of BeppoSAX data are discussed.

  19. X-ray afterglow light curves: toward a standard candle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendre, B.; Galli, A.; Boër, M.

    2008-05-01

    We investigate the clustering of afterglow light curves observed at X-ray and optical wavelengths. We construct a sample of 34 bursts with known distance and X-ray afterglow. We correct the light curves for cosmological effects and compare the observed X-ray fluxes one day after the burst. We check for correlations between the observed flux and the burst spectral and temporal properties. We confirm the previous result of Boër and Gendre (2000) that X-ray afterglow light curves cluster in luminosity, even when we consider the SWIFT data. We observe this clustering only for the afterglow light curves; the inclusion of prompt-related data broaden the distribution. The same clustering is observed for the optical light curves; GRB sources can be divided in three classes, namely optical and X-ray bright afterglows, optical and X-ray dim ones, and optically bright-X-ray dim ones. We argue that this clustering is related to the fireball total energy, the external medium density, the fraction of fireball energy going in relativistic electrons and magnetic fields. These parameters can be either fixed to a standard value, or correlated.

  20. X-ray afterglow light curves : toward standard candle ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendre, B.; Galli, A.; Boër, M.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the clustering of afterglow light curves observed in X-ray and in optical before the launch of SWIFT in light of SWIFT observations. We have constructed a sample of 34 bursts with known distance and X-ray afterglow. This sample includes bursts observed by BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and SWIFT. We correct the light curves for cosmological effects and compare the observed X-ray fluxes at 1 day after the burst. We check if there is any correlation between the observed flux and the burst spectral and temporal properties. We find that X-ray afterglow light curves cluster in luminosity, even in the SWIFT era. We show that this clustering is due only to the afterglow, and that the inclusion of prompt-related data broaden the distribution and hide the clustering. The same clustering is observed in optical, and we found three sub-division between optical and X-ray bright afterglows, dim ones, and optically bright -X-ray dim ones. We argue that the observed optical and X-ray clustering are related to the fireball total energy, the external medium density, the fraction of fireball energy going in relativistic electrons and magnetic fields. These parameters are either all fixed to a standard value, or all linked together.

  1. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15–2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ˜1051 to ˜1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15–2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are ‑0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  2. The Energy Budget of GRBs Based on a Large Sample of Prompt and Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygoda, N.; Guetta, D.; Mandich, M. A.; Waxman, E.

    2016-06-01

    We compare the isotropic equivalent 15–2000 keV γ-ray energy, E γ , emitted by a sample of 91 swift Gamma-Ray Bursts with known redshifts, with the isotropic equivalent fireball energy, E fb, as estimated within the fireball model framework from X-ray afterglow observations of these bursts. The uncertainty in E γ , which spans the range of ∼1051 to ∼1053.5 erg, is ≈25% on average, due mainly to the extrapolation from the BAT detector band to the 15–2000 keV band. The uncertainty in E fb is approximately a factor of 2, due mainly to the X-ray measurements’ scatter. We find E γ and E fb to be tightly correlated. The average(std) of {η }γ 11 {hr}\\equiv {{log}}10({E}γ /(3{\\varepsilon }{{e}}{E}{{fb}}11 {hr})) are ‑0.34(0.60), and the upper limit on the intrinsic spread of η γ is approximately 0.5 ({\\varepsilon }{{e}} is the fraction of energy carried by electrons and {E}{{fb}}x {hr} is inferred from the X-ray flux at x hours). {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} are similar, with an average(std) of {{log}}10({E}{{fb}}3 {hr}/{E}{{fb}}11 {hr}) of 0.04(0.28). The small variance of η γ implies that burst-to-burst variations in {\\varepsilon }{{e}} and in the efficiency of fireball energy conversion to γ-rays are small, and suggests that both are of order unity. The small variance of η γ and the similarity of {E}{{fb}}3 {hr} and {E}{{fb}}11 {hr} further imply that deviations from a simple fireball model description, if present, are small. This puts stringent constraints on models incorporating such modifications (due e.g., to radiative losses, energy injection, off-axis viewing).

  3. Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Using the Swift-UVOT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Guy; Guetta, Dafne; Landsman, Hagar; Behar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    We consider a sample of 107 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which early ultra-violet emission was measured by Swift and extrapolate the photon intensity to lower energies. Protons accelerated in the GRB jet may interact with such photons to produce charged pions and subsequently ultra high energy neutrinos {\\varepsilon }ν ≥slant {10}16 eV. We use simple energy conversion efficiency arguments to predict the maximal neutrino flux expected from each GRB. We estimate the neutrino detection rate at large area radio based neutrino detectors and conclude that the early afterglow neutrino emission is too weak to be detected even by next generation neutrino observatories.

  4. Electron energy distribution function, effective electron temperature, and dust charge in the temporal afterglow of a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenko, I. B.; Kersten, H.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical expressions describing the variation of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an afterglow of a plasma are obtained. Especially, the case when the electron energy loss is mainly due to momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is considered. The study is carried out for different EEDFs in the steady state, including Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions. The analytical results are not only obtained for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy but also for the case when the collisions are a power function of electron energy. Using analytical expressions for the EEDF, the effective electron temperature and charge of the dust particles, which are assumed to be present in plasma, are calculated for different afterglow durations. An analytical expression for the rate describing collection of electrons by dust particles for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy is also derived. The EEDF profile and, as a result, the effective electron temperature and dust charge are sufficiently different in the cases when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy and when the rate is a power function of electron energy.

  5. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-Ray Bursts. II. Type I GRB versus Type II GRB Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Covino, S.; Butler, N. R.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Wilson, A. C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Israel, G. L.; Mannucci, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Schulze, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wiersema, K.

    2011-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been separated into two classes, originally along the lines of duration and spectral properties, called "short/hard" and "long/soft." The latter have been conclusively linked to the explosive deaths of massive stars, while the former are thought to result from the merger or collapse of compact objects. In recent years, indications have been accumulating that the short/hard versus long/soft division does not map directly onto what would be expected from the two classes of progenitors, leading to a new classification scheme called Type I and Type II which is based on multiple observational criteria. We use a large sample of GRB afterglow and prompt-emission data (adding further GRB afterglow observations in this work) to compare the optical afterglows (or the lack thereof) of Type I GRBs with those of Type II GRBs. In comparison to the afterglows of Type II GRBs, we find that those of Type I GRBs have a lower average luminosity and show an intrinsic spread of luminosities at least as wide. From late and deep upper limits on the optical transients, we establish limits on the maximum optical luminosity of any associated supernova (SN), confirming older works and adding new results. We use deep upper limits on Type I GRB optical afterglows to constrain the parameter space of possible mini-SN emission associated with a compact-object merger. Using the prompt-emission data, we search for correlations between the parameters of the prompt emission and the late optical afterglow luminosities. We find tentative correlations between the bolometric isotropic energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at a fixed time after the trigger (positive), and between the host offset and the luminosity (negative), but no significant correlation between the isotropic energy release and the duration of the GRBs. We also discuss three anomalous GRBs, GRB 060505, GRB 060614, and GRB 060121, in light of their optical afterglow luminosities. Based in part

  6. GRB050525A : Multiband modelling of the afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, Lekshmi; Misra, Kuntal; Castro-Tirado, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The Swift era has posed a challenge to the standard blast-wave model of Gamma Ray Burst afterglows. The achromatic steepening of the afterglow lightcurves (`jet break') considered in the model as the signature of outflow collimation, has become almost rare. Several afterglows exhibited complex lightcurves that did not confirm by the predicted spectral--temporal `closure relations' of the blastwave model. Here we present optical observations and broadband modelling of the afterglow of GRB0505025A, a bright burst detected and followed up by Swift. We find that the overall evolution of the afterglow can not be explained by a single forward shock emission, though the late time evolution is compatible with the predictions of the standard afterglow model, including a jet break. We explain the afterglow evolution based on a two-component jet model and estimate the physical parameters.

  7. X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves: Toward A Standard Candle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendre, B.; Galli, A.; Boër, M.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the clustering of afterglow light curves observed at X-ray and optical wavelengths. We have constructed a sample of 61 bursts with known distance and X-ray afterglow. This sample includes bursts observed by BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift. We correct the light curves for cosmological effects and compare the observed X-ray fluxes 1 day after the burst. We check for correlations between the observed flux and the burst spectral and temporal properties. We confirm the previous result of Boër & Gendre that X-ray afterglow light curves cluster in luminosity, even when we consider the last Swift data. We observe this clustering only for the afterglow light curves; the inclusion of prompt-related data broadens the distribution. A similar clustering is observed for the optical light curves; gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources can be divided into three classes, namely, optically and X-ray bright afterglows, optically and X-ray dim ones, and optically bright but X-ray dim ones. We argue that this clustering is related to the fireball total energy, the external medium density, and the fraction of fireball energy going into relativistic electrons and magnetic fields. These parameters can be either fixed to a standard value or correlated. We finally propose a method for the estimation of the GRB source redshift based on the observed X-ray flux 1 day after the burst and optical properties. Using this method, we compute a redshift of 1.4 +/- 0.2 for GRB 980519 and of 1.9 +/- 0.3 for GRB 040827. We tested this method on three recently detected Swift GRBs with known redshift, and found it in good agreement with the reported distance from optical spectroscopy.

  8. How Bad or Good Are the External Forward Shock Afterglow Models of Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Gao; Zhang, Bing; Liang, En-Wei; Gao, He; Li, Liang; Deng, Can-Min; Qin, Song-Mei; Tang, Qing-Wen; Kann, D. Alexander; Ryde, Felix; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-07-01

    The external forward shock models have been the standard paradigm to interpret the broadband afterglow data of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One prediction of the models is that some afterglow temporal breaks at different energy bands should be achromatic; that is, the break times should be the same in different frequencies. Multiwavelength observations in the Swift era have revealed chromatic afterglow behaviors at least in some GRBs, casting doubts on the external forward shock origin of GRB afterglows. In this paper, using a large sample of GRBs with both X-ray and optical afterglow data, we perform a systematic study to address the question: how bad or good are the external forward shock models? Our sample includes 85 GRBs up to 2014 March with well-monitored X-ray and optical light curves. Based on how well the data abide by the external forward shock models, we categorize them into five grades and three samples. The first two grades (Grade I and II) include 45 of 85 GRBs. They show evidence of, or are consistent with having, an achromatic break. The temporal and spectral behaviors in each afterglow segment are consistent with the predictions (the “closure relations”) of the forward shock models. These GRBs are included in the Gold sample. The next two grades (Grade III and IV) include 37 of 85 GRBs. They are also consistent with having an achromatic break, even though one or more afterglow segments do not comply with the closure relations. These GRBs are included in the Silver sample. Finally, Grade V (3/85) shows direct evidence of chromatic behaviors, suggesting that the external shock models are inconsistent with the data. These are included in the Bad sample. We further perform statistical analyses of various observational properties (temporal index α, spectral index β, break time tb) and model parameters (energy injection index q, electron spectral index p, jet opening angle {θ }j, radiative efficiency ηγ, and so on) of the GRBs in the Gold sample

  9. GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE FERMI ERA: THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Grindlay, J. E.; Paggi, A.

    2010-05-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show evidence of different light curves, duration, afterglows, and host galaxies and explode within a wide redshift range. However, their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) appear to be very similar, showing a curved shape. Band et al. proposed a phenomenological description of the integrated spectral shape for the GRB prompt emission, the so-called Band function. In this Letter, we suggest an alternative scenario to explain the curved shape of GRB SEDs: the log-parabolic model. In comparison with the Band spectral shape our model is statistically favored because it fits the GRB spectra with one parameter less than the Band function and is motivated by a theoretical acceleration scenario. The new Fermi observations of GRBs will be crucial for disentangling these two models.

  10. GLAST Prospects for Swift-Era Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, L.J.; Meszaros, P.; /Penn State U.

    2011-11-23

    We calculate the GeV spectra of gamma-ray burst afterglows produced by inverse Compton scattering of these objects sub-MeV emission. We improve on earlier treatments by using refined afterglow parameters and new model developments motivated by recent Swift observations. We present time-dependent GeV spectra for standard, constant-parameter models, as well as for models with energy injection and with time-varying parameters, for a range of burst parameters. We evaluate the limiting redshift to which such afterglows can be detected by the GLAST Large Area Telescope, as well as by AGILE.

  11. The SEDs and Host Galaxies of the Dustiest GRB Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruhler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Savaglio, S.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Gruber, D.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, E.; Pierini, D.; Rau, A.; Rossi, A.; Nardini, M.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    The afterglows and host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer unique opportunities to study star-forming galaxies in the high-z Universe, Until recently, however. the information inferred from GRB follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows. biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Aims. Here we present afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) approx > 1 mag) along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies. and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. Methods. This work is based on GROND optical/NIR and Swift/XRT X-ray observations of the afterglows, and multi-color imaging for eight GRB hosts. The afterglow and galaxy spectral energy distributions yield detailed insight into physical properties such as the dust and metal content along the GRB sight-line as well as galaxy-integrated characteristics like the host's stellar mass, luminosity. color-excess and star-formation rate. Results. For the eight afterglows considered in this study we report for the first time the redshift of GRBs 081109 (z = 0.97S7 +/- 0.0005). and the visual extinction towards GRBs 0801109 (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.4(sup +0.4) (sub -0.3) mag) and l00621A (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 mag), which are among the largest ever derived for GRB afterglows. Combined with non-extinguished GRBs. there is a strong anti-correlation between the afterglow's metals-to-dust ratio and visual extinction. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder(((R - K)(sub AB)) approximates 1.6 mag), more luminous ( approximates 0.9 L (sup *)) and massive ((log M(sup *) [M(solar]) approximates 9.8) than the hosts of optically-bright events. We hence probe

  12. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  13. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-Energy Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lien, Amy; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nat R.; Cucchiara, Antonino; De Diego, Jose A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gehrels, Neil; Georgiev, Leonid; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Kann, D. Alexander; Klein, Christopher R.; Knust, Fabian; Kutyrev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous (Mr >> -27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of Rrel = 610/yr (68% confidence interval of 110-2000/yr). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide "orphan" afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  14. iPTF14yb: The First Discovery of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Independent of a High-energy Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Urban, Alex L.; Perley, Daniel A.; Horesh, Assaf; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lien, Amy; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Butler, Nat R.; Cucchiara, Antonino; de Diego, José A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gehrels, Neil; Georgiev, Leonid; Jesús González, J.; Graham, John F.; Greiner, Jochen; Kann, D. Alexander; Klein, Christopher R.; Knust, Fabian; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Laher, Russ; Lee, William H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Richer, Michael G.; Rubin, Adam; Urata, Yuji; Varela, Karla; Watson, Alan M.; Wozniak, Przemek R.

    2015-04-01

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, a luminous ({{M}r}≈ -27.8 mag), cosmological (redshift 1.9733), rapidly fading optical transient. We demonstrate, based on probabilistic arguments and a comparison with the broader population, that iPTF14yb is the optical afterglow of the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 140226A. This marks the first unambiguous discovery of a GRB afterglow prior to (and thus entirely independent of) an associated high-energy trigger. We estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like sources (i.e., cosmologically distant relativistic explosions) based on iPTF observations, inferring an all-sky value of {{\\Re }rel}=610 yr-1 (68% confidence interval of 110-2000 yr-1). Our derived rate is consistent (within the large uncertainty) with the all-sky rate of on-axis GRBs derived by the Swift satellite. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the nondetection to date of bona fide “orphan” afterglows (i.e., those lacking detectable high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  15. On the Non-existence of a Sharp Cooling Break in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Although the widely used analytical afterglow model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts a sharp cooling break ν c in its afterglow spectrum, the GRB observations so far rarely show clear evidence for a cooling break in their spectra or a corresponding temporal break in their light curves. Employing a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. We precisely follow the cooling history of non-thermal electrons accelerated into each Lagrangian shell. We show that a detailed calculation of afterglow spectra does not in fact give rise to a sharp cooling break at ν c . Instead, it displays a very mild and smooth transition, which occurs gradually over a few orders of magnitude in energy or frequency. The main source of this slow transition is that different mini shells have different evolutionary histories of the comoving magnetic field strength B, so that deriving the current value of ν c of each mini shell requires an integration of its cooling rate over the time elapsed since its creation. We present the time evolution of optical and X-ray spectral indices to demonstrate the slow transition of spectral regimes and discuss the implications of our result in interpreting GRB afterglow data.

  16. On the non-existence of a sharp cooling break in gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-01-01

    Although the widely used analytical afterglow model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts a sharp cooling break ν {sub c} in its afterglow spectrum, the GRB observations so far rarely show clear evidence for a cooling break in their spectra or a corresponding temporal break in their light curves. Employing a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. We precisely follow the cooling history of non-thermal electrons accelerated into each Lagrangian shell. We show that a detailed calculation of afterglow spectra does not in fact give rise to a sharp cooling break at ν {sub c}. Instead, it displays a very mild and smooth transition, which occurs gradually over a few orders of magnitude in energy or frequency. The main source of this slow transition is that different mini shells have different evolutionary histories of the comoving magnetic field strength B, so that deriving the current value of ν {sub c} of each mini shell requires an integration of its cooling rate over the time elapsed since its creation. We present the time evolution of optical and X-ray spectral indices to demonstrate the slow transition of spectral regimes and discuss the implications of our result in interpreting GRB afterglow data.

  17. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  18. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 130427A ESTABLISH A SINGLE COMPONENT SYNCHROTRON AFTERGLOW ORIGIN FOR THE LATE OPTICAL TO MULTI-GEV EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kouveliotou, C.; Racusin, J. L.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J. E.; Zhang, W. W.; Bellm, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Vianello, G.; Oates, S.; Fryer, C. L.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Dermer, C. D.; Hailey, C. J.; Melandri, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mundell, C. G.; Stern, D. K. E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il

    2013-12-10

    GRB 130427A occurred in a relatively nearby galaxy; its prompt emission had the largest GRB fluence ever recorded. The afterglow of GRB 130427A was bright enough for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) to observe it in the 3-79 keV energy range long after its prompt emission (∼1.5 and 5 days). This range, where afterglow observations were previously not possible, bridges an important spectral gap. Combined with Swift, Fermi, and ground-based optical data, NuSTAR observations unambiguously establish a single afterglow spectral component from optical to multi-GeV energies a day after the event, which is almost certainly synchrotron radiation. Such an origin of the late-time Fermi/Large Area Telescope >10 GeV photons requires revisions in our understanding of collisionless relativistic shock physics.

  19. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglows and Central Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Lu, T.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most intense transient gamma-ray events in the sky; this, together with the strong evidence (the isotropic and inhomogeneous distribution of GRBs detected by BASTE) that they are located at cosmological distances, makes them the most energetic events ever known. For example, the observed radiation energies of some GRBs are equivalent to the total convertion into radiation of the mass energy of more than one solar mass. This is thousand times stronger than the energy of a supernova explosion. Some unconventional energy mechanism and extremely high conversion efficiency for these mysterious events are required. The discovery of host galaxies and association with supernovae at cosmological distances by the recently launched satellite of BeppoSAX and ground based radio and optical telescopes in GRB afterglow provides further support to the cosmological origin of GRBs and put strong constraints on their central engine. It is the aim of this article to review the possible central engines, energy mechanisms, dynamical and spectral evolution of GRBs, especially focusing on the afterglows in multi-wavebands.

  20. Observational Signatures of High-Energy Emission during the Shallow Decay Phase of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.; Liu, X. W.; Dai, Z. G.

    2007-12-01

    The widely existing shallow decay phase of the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is generally accepted to be due to long-lasting energy injection. The outflows carrying the injecting energy, based on the component that is dominant in energy, fall into two possible types: baryon-dominated and lepton-dominated ones. The former type of outflow could be ejecta that is ejected during the prompt phase of a GRB and consists of a series of baryonic shells with a distribution of Lorentz factors, and the latter type could be an electron-positron pair wind that is driven by the postburst central engine. We here provide a unified description for the dynamics of fireballs based on these two types of energy injection and calculate the corresponding high-energy photon emission by considering synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering (including synchrotron self-Compton and combined inverse Compton) of electrons. We find that, in the two energy-injection models, there is a plateau (even a hump) in high-energy light curves during the X-ray shallow decay phase. In particular, a considerable fraction of the injecting energy in the lepton-dominated model can be shared by the long-lasting reverse shock since it is relativistic. Furthermore, almost all of the energy of the reverse shock is carried by leptons, and thus, the inverse Compton emission is enhanced dramatically. Therefore, this model predicts more significant high-energy afterglow emission than the baryon-dominated model. We argue that these observational signatures would be used to discriminate between different energy-injection models in the upcoming Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) era.

  1. Detailed optical and near-infrared polarimetry, spectroscopy and broad-band photometry of the afterglow of GRB 091018: polarization evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Krühler, T.; Melandri, A.; Rol, E.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; van der Horst, A. J.; Covino, S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goldoni, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Hjorth, J.; Klose, S.; Mundell, C. G.; O'Brien, P. T.; Palazzi, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; D'Elia, V.; Evans, P. A.; Filgas, R.; Gomboc, A.; Greiner, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Kaper, L.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levan, A. J.; Rossi, A.; Rowlinson, A.; Steele, I. A.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2012-10-01

    Follow-up observations of large numbers of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, facilitated by the Swift satellite, have produced a large sample of spectral energy distributions and light curves, from which their basic micro- and macro-physical parameters can in principle be derived. However, a number of phenomena have been observed that defy explanation by simple versions of the standard fireball model, leading to a variety of new models. Polarimetry can be a major independent diagnostic of afterglow physics, probing the magnetic field properties and internal structure of the GRB jets. In this paper we present the first high-quality multi-night polarimetric light curve of a Swift GRB afterglow, aimed at providing a well-calibrated data set of a typical afterglow to serve as a benchmark system for modelling afterglow polarization behaviour. In particular, our data set of the afterglow of GRB 091018 (at redshift z = 0.971) comprises optical linear polarimetry (R band, 0.13-2.3 d after burst); circular polarimetry (R band) and near-infrared linear polarimetry (Ks band). We add to that high-quality optical and near-infrared broad-band light curves and spectral energy distributions as well as afterglow spectroscopy. The linear polarization varies between 0 and 3 per cent, with both long and short time-scale variability visible. We find an achromatic break in the afterglow light curve, which corresponds to features in the polarimetric curve. We find that the data can be reproduced by jet break models only if an additional polarized component of unknown nature is present in the polarimetric curve. We probe the ordered magnetic field component in the afterglow through our deep circular polarimetry, finding Pcirc < 0.15 per cent (2σ), the deepest limit yet for a GRB afterglow, suggesting ordered fields are weak, if at all present. Our simultaneous R- and Ks-band polarimetry shows that dust-induced polarization in the host galaxy is likely negligible.

  2. Robust photometric redshift determinations of gamma-ray burst afterglows at z ≳ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wiersema, K.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2008-11-01

    Context: Theory suggests that about 10% of Swift-detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) will originate at redshifts, z, greater than 5 yet a number of high redshift candidates may be left unconfirmed due to the lack of measured redshifts. Aims: Here we introduce our code, GRBz, a method of simultaneous multi-parameter fitting of GRB afterglow optical and near infrared, spectral energy distributions. It allows for early determinations of the photometric redshift, spectral index and host extinction to be made. Methods: We assume that GRB afterglow spectra are well represented by a power-law decay and model the effects of absorption due to the Lyman forest and host extinction. We use a genetic algorithm-based routine to simultaneously fit the parameters of interest, and a Monte Carlo error analysis. Results: We use GRBs of previously determined spectroscopic redshifts to prove our method, while also introducing new near infrared data of GRB 990510 which further constrains the value of the host extinction. Conclusions: Our method is effective in estimating the photometric redshift of GRBs, relatively unbiased by assumptions of the afterglow spectral index or the host galaxy extinction. Monte Carlo error analysis is required as the method of error estimate based on the optimum population of the genetic algorithm underestimates errors significantly.

  3. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-ray Bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era Long/Soft (Type II) GRB Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Pozanenko, A.; Wilson, A. C.; Butler, N. R.; Jakobsson, P.; Schulze, S.; Andreev, M.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Biryukov, V.; Böttcher, M.; Burenin, R. A.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Efimov, Yu.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gålfalk, M.; Grundahl, F.; Gorosabel, J.; Gupta, S.; Guziy, S.; Hafizov, B.; Hjorth, J.; Holhjem, K.; Ibrahimov, M.; Im, M.; Israel, G. L.; Jeĺinek, M.; Jensen, B. L.; Karimov, R.; Khamitov, I. M.; Kiziloǧlu, Ü.; Klunko, E.; Kubánek, P.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Laursen, P.; Levan, A. J.; Mannucci, F.; Martin, C. M.; Mescheryakov, A.; Mirabal, N.; Norris, J. P.; Ovaldsen, J.-E.; Paraficz, D.; Pavlenko, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Rossi, A.; Rumyantsev, V.; Salinas, R.; Sergeev, A.; Sharapov, D.; Sollerman, J.; Stecklum, B.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Telting, J.; Testa, V.; Updike, A. C.; Volnova, A.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.; Xu, D.

    2010-09-01

    We have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature

  4. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Rol, Evert; Woosley, Stan; in'tZand, Jean J. M.; vanderHorst, Alexander; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby GRBs (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ib/c supernovae. For each event, we investigated its spectral and luminosity evolution and estimated the total energy budget based on the broadband observations. We discuss the properties of the four events in comparison to general burst population, and infer the physical parameters involved in creation of these nearby GRB-SN events

  5. The spectral energy distribution of NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.; Oke, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of absolute spectral energy distributions of interstellar gas for a galaxy (NGC 1275) is presented. Infrared spectra data shows heavy reddening. It is proposed that the interstellar gas may be ionized by shock waves or by nonthermal or stellar radiation. It is suggested, that high velocity, emission-line knots are H2 regions in a Perseus cluster galaxy or intergalactic gas cloud seen in projection against NGC 1275.

  6. An inverse Compton origin for the 55 GeV photon in the late afterglow of GRB 130907A

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-06-20

    The extended high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) emission which occurs well after the prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually explained as the afterglow synchrotron radiation. Here we report the analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of GRB 130907A. A 55 GeV photon compatible with the position of the burst was found about 5 hr after the prompt phase. The probability that this photon is associated with GRB 130907A is higher than 99.96%. The energy of this photon exceeds the maximum synchrotron photon energy at this time and its occurrence thus challenges the synchrotron mechanism as the origin for the extended high-energy >10 GeV emission. Modeling of the broadband spectral energy distribution suggests that such high energy photons can be produced by the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the afterglow.

  7. Evolution of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Amanda; Kennefick, J.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-05-01

    A common practice when formulating quasar luminosity functions (QLF) has been to adopt an average spectral index, $\\alpha$, for the sample even though it is well known that quasars exhibit a broad range of spectral energy distributions (SED.) We have investigated the possible evolution of $\\alpha$ as a function of redshift, as any evolution in this parameter would introduce or mask evolution in the QLF. We imaged 103 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars in the optical and near-infrared bands, near in time to mitigate the effects of variability, in three redshift bins centered at $z\\approx 1.9$, $2.7$, and $4.0$, corresponding to look-back times of 10-12 billion years. We present restframe UV-optical SED’s and spectral indices and discuss possible evolution in our sample. We also use single epoch spectra of the quasars to estimate the mass of the central black hole and discuss possible correlations of quasar properties such as mass, luminosity, and spectral shape.

  8. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. A.; Bendo, G. J.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Regan, M. W.; Armus, L.; Cannon, J. M.; Calzetti, D.; Draine, B. T.; Helou, G.; Joseph, R. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Li, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Roussel, H.; Walter, F.; Hanson, H. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kewley, L. J.; Lamanna, C. A.; Leitherer, C.; Meyer, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Sheth, K.; Smith, J. D. T.; Thornley, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out a comprehensive multi-wavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. The 1-850 \\micron\\ spectral energy distributions are presented for the first portion of the SINGS sample using broadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. The infrared colors derived from the globally-integrated Spitzer data are generally consistent with the previous generation of models that were developed based on global data for normal star-forming galaxies, though significant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity and resolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared spectral energy distributions for various locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031 (M 81), NGC 5194 (M 51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapes are found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of the three targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scales can be explored. The local star formation rate, as gauged by Hα emission, is shown to strongly correlate with local infrared fluxes and colors. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in spectral energy distributions seen in our sample are representative of the range present at high redshift then extrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation rates from the observed 24 \\micron\\ flux will be uncertain at the factor-of-five level. The corresponding uncertainties in the redshifted 8.0 \\micron\\ flux (e.g. observed 24 \\micron\\ flux for a z = 2 source) are factors of 5--10. Considerable caution should be used when interpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities. Support for this work, part of the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Science Program, was provided by NASA through Contract Number 1224769 issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  9. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emissions from pairs formed in GRB afterglows (analytical treatment)

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.; Vestrand, W. T.

    2014-10-01

    We calculate the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emissions from pairs formed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows from high-energy photons (above 100 MeV), assuming a power-law photon spectrum C {sub ν}∝ν{sup –2} and considering only the pairs generated from primary high-energy photons. The essential properties of these pairs (number, minimal energy, cooling energy, distribution with energy) and of their emission (peak flux, spectral breaks, spectral slope) are set by the observables GeV fluence Φ(t) = Ft and spectrum, and by the Lorentz factor, Γ, and magnetic field, B, of the source of high-energy photons, at observer time, t. Optical and X-ray pseudo light curves, F {sub ν}(Γ), are calculated for the given B; proper synchrotron self-Compton light curves are calculated by setting the dynamics Γ(t) of the high-energy photon source to be that of a decelerating, relativistic shock. It is found that the emission from pairs can accommodate the flux and decays of the optical flashes measured during the prompt (GRB) phase, but it decays faster than the X-ray plateaus observed during the delayed (afterglow) phase. The brightest pair optical emission is obtained for 100 < Γ < 500, and depends mostly on the GeV fluence, being independent of the source redshift. Emission from pairs formed during the GRB phase offers an alternate explanation to reverse-shock optical flashes. These two models may be distinguished based on their corresponding flux decay index-spectral slope relations, different correlations with the Large Area Telescope fluence, or through modeling of the afterglow multiwavelength data.

  10. Methodology in the Afterglow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofsess, Brooke Anne

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation study seeks to understand how artist-teacher renewal may be nurtured through aesthetic experiential play in a Masters of Art Education degree program, and beyond, as my former students/participants and myself experience finding ourselves in its afterglow. "Aesthetic experiential play" could be described as a playful,…

  11. A multi-wavelength study on gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binbin

    2011-08-01

    During the prompt emission and afterglow phases, GRBs (Gamma-Ray Bursts) release their huge amount of energy not limited in gamma-ray, but in a wide range of muti-wavelengths, from radio band to GeV gamma-rays. Thanks to the recent missions of Swift and Fermi, I was able to use their multi-wavelength observation data of GRBs and study their physical natures. I have processed all the Swift BAT/XRT and Fermi GBM/LAT GRB observation data. Based on the Swift data, I have studied the following comprehensive topics: (1) high-latitude "curvature effect" of early X-ray tails of GRBs Swift XRT afterglow (2) diverse physical origins of shallow decay phase of Swift XRT afterglow. (3) Jet break (in-)consistency in both X-Ray and Optical observations. Based on the Fermi observation data, I focused on the 17 GRBs with Fermi/LAT high-energy emission and found there are three elemental spectral components, namely, a classical "Band" function component, a quasi-thermal component and an extra non-thermal power law component extending to high energies. The detailed behaviors of these three components are extensively studied and their physical origins and corresponding jet properties and emission mechanisms are also discussed.

  12. SWIFT Discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts without Jet Break Feature in their X-ray Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, G.; Yamazaki, R.; Sakamoto, T.; Takahashi, T; Nakazawa, K.; Nakamura, T.; Toma, K.; Hullinger, D.; Tashiro, M.; Parsons, A. M.; Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Burrows, D. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Chincarini, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray afterglows for three GRBs with spectroscopic redshift determinations - GRB 050401, XRF 050416a, and GRB 050525a. We find that the relation between spectral peak energy and isotropic energy of prompt emissions (the Amati relation) is consistent with that for the bursts observed in pre-Swift era. However, we find that the X-ray afterglow lightcurves, which extend up to 10 - 70 days, show no sign of the jet break that is expected in the standard framework of collimated outflows. We do so by showing that none of the X-ray afterglow lightcurves in our sample satisfies the relation between the spectral and temporal indices that is predicted for the phase after jet break. The jet break time can be predicted by inverting the tight empirical relation between the peak energy of the spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy of the prompt emission (the Ghirlanda relation). We find that there are no temporal breaks within the predicted time intervals in X-ray band. This requires either that the Ghirlanda relation has a larger scatter than previously thought, that the temporal break in X-rays is masked by some additional source of X-ray emission, or that it does not happen because of some unknown reason.

  13. Optical flashes from internal pairs formed in gamma-ray burst afterglows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Panaitescu, A.

    2015-06-09

    We develop a numerical formalism for calculating the distribution with energy of the (internal) pairs formed in a relativistic source from unscattered MeV–TeV photons. For gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, this formalism is more suitable if the relativistic reverse shock that energizes the ejecta is the source of the GeV photons. The number of pairs formed is set by the source GeV output (calculated from the Fermi-LAT fluence), the unknown source Lorentz factor, and the unmeasured peak energy of the LAT spectral component. We show synchrotron and inverse-Compton light curves expected from pairs formed in the shocked medium and identify some criteria for testing a pair origin of GRB optical counterparts. Pairs formed in bright LAT afterglows with a Lorentz factor in the few hundreds may produce bright optical counterparts (more » $$R\\lt 10$$) lasting for up to one hundred seconds. As a result, the number of internal pairs formed from unscattered seed photons decreases very strongly with the source Lorentz factor, thus bright GRB optical counterparts cannot arise from internal pairs if the afterglow Lorentz factor is above several hundreds.« less

  14. Optical flashes from internal pairs formed in gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.

    2015-06-09

    We develop a numerical formalism for calculating the distribution with energy of the (internal) pairs formed in a relativistic source from unscattered MeV–TeV photons. For gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, this formalism is more suitable if the relativistic reverse shock that energizes the ejecta is the source of the GeV photons. The number of pairs formed is set by the source GeV output (calculated from the Fermi-LAT fluence), the unknown source Lorentz factor, and the unmeasured peak energy of the LAT spectral component. We show synchrotron and inverse-Compton light curves expected from pairs formed in the shocked medium and identify some criteria for testing a pair origin of GRB optical counterparts. Pairs formed in bright LAT afterglows with a Lorentz factor in the few hundreds may produce bright optical counterparts ($R\\lt 10$) lasting for up to one hundred seconds. As a result, the number of internal pairs formed from unscattered seed photons decreases very strongly with the source Lorentz factor, thus bright GRB optical counterparts cannot arise from internal pairs if the afterglow Lorentz factor is above several hundreds.

  15. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-09-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array.

  16. Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Granot, J

    2005-02-17

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration ({approx}> 2 s) GRBs, but the reason for which the spectral energy distribution of their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, E{sub p}, is still a subject of debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower values of E{sub p}, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of the jet aperture). This type of model self consistently accommodates both the observed prompt emission and the afterglow light curves of XRGRB 041006 and XRF 030723, implying viewing angles {theta}{sub obs} from the jet axis of ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} 0.15 {theta}{sub 0} and ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} {theta}{sub 0}, respectively, where {theta}{sub 0} {approx} 3{sup o} is the half-opening angle of the jet. This suggests that GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs are intrinsically similar relativistic jets viewed from different angles. It is then natural to identify GRBs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< 1, XRGRBs with 1 {approx}< ({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< a few, and XRFs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}> a few, where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor of the outflow near the edge of the jet from which most of the

  17. POPULATION III GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS: CONSTRAINTS ON STELLAR MASSES AND EXTERNAL MEDIUM DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter; Sakamoto, Takanori E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu

    2011-04-20

    Population (Pop.) III stars are theoretically expected to be prominent around redshifts z {approx} 20, consisting of mainly very massive stars with M{sub *} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun}, though there is no direct observational evidence for these objects. They may produce collapsar gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with jets driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes, whose total isotropic-equivalent energy could be as high as E{sub iso} {approx}> 10{sup 57} erg over a cosmological-rest-frame duration of t{sub d} {approx}> 10{sup 4} s, depending on the progenitor mass. Here, we calculate the afterglow spectra of such Pop. III GRBs based on the standard external shock model and show that they will be detectable with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)/XRT and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments. We find that in some cases a spectral break due to electron-positron pair creation will be observable in the LAT energy range, which can put constraints on the ambient density of the pre-collapse Pop. III star. Thus, high-redshift GRB afterglow observations could be unique and powerful probes of the properties of Pop. III stars and their environments. We examine the trigger threshold of the BAT instrument in detail, focusing on the image trigger system, and show that the prompt emission of Pop. III GRBs could also be detected by BAT. Finally we briefly show that the late-time radio afterglows of Pop. III GRBs for typical parameters, despite the large distances, can be very bright: {approx_equal} 140 mJy at 1 GHz, which may lead to a constraint on the Pop. III GRB rate from the current radio survey data, and {approx_equal} 2.4 mJy at 70 MHz, which implies that Pop. III GRB radio afterglows could be interesting background source candidates for 21 cm absorption line detections.

  18. Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Japelj, J.; Kopač, D.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A. E-mail: andreja.gomboc@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2014-04-20

    We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and γ-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R {sub B} = ε{sub B,r}/ε{sub B,f} ∼ 2-10{sup 4}. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

  19. Extremely Soft X-Ray Flash as the Indicator of Off-axis Orphan GRB Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamazaki, Ryo; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2015-06-01

    We verified the off-axis jet model of X-ray flashes (XRFs) and examined a discovery of off-axis orphan gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. The XRF sample was selected on the basis of the following three factors: (1) a constraint on the lower peak energy of the prompt spectrum {E}{obs}{src}, (2) redshift measurements, and (3) multicolor observations of an earlier (or brightening) phase. XRF 020903 was the only sample selected on the basis of these criteria. A complete optical multicolor afterglow light curve of XRF 020903 obtained from archived data and photometric results in the literature showed an achromatic brightening around 0.7 days. An off-axis jet model with a large observing angle (0.21 rad, which is twice the jet opening half-angle, {θ }{jet}) can naturally describe the achromatic brightening and the prompt X-ray spectral properties. This result indicates the existence of off-axis orphan GRB afterglow light curves. Events with a larger viewing angle (\\gt ∼ 2{θ }{jet}) could be discovered using an 8 m class telescope with wide-field imagers such as the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  20. Kinematics of Gamma-Ray Burst and their Relationship to Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D

    2001-12-17

    A strong correlation is reported between gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulse lags and afterglow jet-break times for the set of bursts (seven) with known redshifts, luminosities, pulse lags, and jet-break times. This may be a valuable clue toward understanding the connection between the burst and afterglow phases of these events. The relation is roughly linear (i.e. doubling the pulse lag in turn doubles the jet break time) and thus implies a simple relationship between these quantities. We suggest that this correlation is due to variation among bursts of emitter Doppler factor. Specifically, an increased speed or decreased angle of velocity, with respect to the observed line-of-site, of burst ejecta will result in shorter perceived pulse lags in GRBs as well as quicker evolution of the external shock of the afterglow to the time when the jet becomes obvious, i.e. the jet-break time. Thus this observed variation among GRBs may result from a perspective effect due to different observer angles of a morphologically homogeneous populations of GRBs. Also, a conjecture is made that peak luminosities not only vary inversely with burst timescale, but also are directly proportional to the spectral break energy. If true, this could provide important information for explaining the source of this break.

  1. Study of argon–oxygen flowing afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon–oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon–oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF THE 2175 A EXTINCTION FEATURE DISCOVERED IN GRB AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Watson, Darach; Eliasdottir, Ardis; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Kruehler, Thomas; Leloudas, Giorgos; Schady, Patricia; Greiner, Jochen; Jakobsson, Pall; Thoene, Christina C.; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Bloom, Joshua E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk

    2012-07-01

    The unequivocal, spectroscopic detection of the 2175 A bump in extinction curves outside the Local Group is rare. To date, the properties of the bump have been examined in only two gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows (GRB 070802 and GRB 080607). In this work, we analyze in detail the detections of the 2175 Angstrom-Sign extinction bump in the optical spectra of two further GRB afterglows: GRB 080605 and 080805. We gather all available optical/near-infrared photometric, spectroscopic, and X-ray data to construct multi-epoch spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for both GRB afterglows. We fit the SEDs with the Fitzpatrick and Massa model with a single or broken power law. We also fit a sample of 38 GRB afterglows, known to prefer a Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-type extinction curve, with the same model. We find that the SEDs of GRB 080605 and GRB 080805 at two epochs are fit well with a single power law with a derived extinction of A{sub V} = 0.52{sup +0.13}{sub -0.16} and 0.50{sup +0.13}{sub -0.10}, and 2.1{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} and 1.5 {+-} 0.2, respectively. While the slope of the extinction curve of GRB 080805 is not well constrained, the extinction curve of GRB 080605 has an unusual very steep far-UV rise together with the 2175 A bump. Such an extinction curve has previously been found in only a small handful of sightlines in the Milky Way. One possible explanation of such an extinction curve may be dust arising from two different regions with two separate grain populations, however we cannot distinguish the origin of the curve. We finally compare the four 2175 A bump sightlines to the larger GRB afterglow sample and to Local Group sightlines. We find that while the width and central positions of the bumps are consistent with what is observed in the Local Group, the relative strength of the detected bump (A{sub bump}) for GRB afterglows is weaker for a given A{sub V} than for almost any Local Group sightline. Such dilution of the bump strength may offer tentative

  3. Prompt and Afterglow Emmision Properties of Gamma-ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZant, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type IC supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic out8ows appears to have a sigruficantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fracti

  4. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Thöne, C. C.; Christensen, L.; Gorosabel, J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Schulze, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Wiersema, K.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Leloudas, G.; Zafar, T.; Malesani, D.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy at almost any redshift. Aims: We describe the distribution of rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of the most prominent absorption features in GRB afterglow spectra, providing the means to compare individual spectra to the sample and identify its peculiarities. Methods: Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame EWs distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 Å. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features in a GRB spectrum as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of their column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. Results: We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of the LSP with the redshift. There is a weak correlation between the ionisation of the absorbers and the energy of the GRB, indicating that, either the GRB event is responsible for part of the ionisation, or that galaxies with high-ionisation media produce more energetic GRBs. Spectral features in GRB spectra are, on average, 2.5 times stronger than those seen in QSO intervening damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems and slightly more ionised. In particular we find a larger excess in the EW of C ivλλ1549 relative to QSO DLAs, which could be related to an excess of Wolf-Rayet stars in the environments of GRBs. From the CoG fitting we obtain an average number of components in the

  5. Spectral optimization of CPV for integrated energy output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mark; Barnes, Chris

    2008-08-01

    The series electrical nature of the multi-junction solar cell is both the source of its desirable overall efficiency and of its sensitivity to spectral balance. Owing to the series connection of the spectrally selective junctions, variations in the spectra of the solar input, optical transfer function, and cell quantum efficiency have significant impact on annual energy production despite being effectively indistinguishable in instantaneous power output. This paper will outline spectral filtering approaches for experimental characterization, and spectral simulation methods for estimating annual energy production. We will also present system level design to optimize for annual energy production.

  6. The spectral energy distribution of NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.; Oke, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of absolute spectral energy distributions for NGC 1275 (Per A) covering the wavelength interval from 3300 A to 10,800 A is presented. The data are consistent with the heavy reddening discovered by Wampler (1971). The H-alpha intensity varied by less than 10% between the times of Wampler's earlier measurements and the two occasions of the present observations. The line-emitting region has a characteristic density of about 10 to the 4.5 power per cu cm, a mass of about 10 to the 5.5 power solar masses, and a volume filling factor of about 10 to the -6th power. The gas may be ionized by shock waves or by nonthermal or stellar radiation. It is suggested, in the vein of Minkowski's (1957) original proposal, that the high-velocity emission-line knots described by Minkowski are H II regions in a Perseus-cluster galaxy or intergalactic gas cloud seen in projection against NGC 1275.

  7. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. A.; Bendo, G. J.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Regan, M. W.; Armus, L.; Cannon, J. M.; Calzetti, D.; Draine, B. T.; Helou, G.; Joseph, R. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Li, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Roussel, H.; Walter, F.; Hanson, H. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kewley, L. J.; Lamanna, C. A.; Leitherer, C.; Meyer, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Sheth, K.; Smith, J. D. T.; Thornley, M. D.

    2005-11-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out a comprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented using broadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. The infrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data are generally consistent with the previous generation of models that were developed using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, although significant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity and resolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs for various locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapes is found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of the three targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scales can be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local star formation rate and the infrared colors fν(70 μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24 μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μm emission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level. Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission, and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0 μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, and NGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sample are representative of the range present at high redshift, then extrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation rates from the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5 level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using the redshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2 source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used when interpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

  8. Multiwavelength Observations of GRB 110731A: GeV Emission from Onset to Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M.; Connaughton, V.; Foley, S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kann, D. A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Krühler, T.; Fukui, A.; Sako, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Oates, S. R.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Littlejohns, O.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. The observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet Γ ~ 500-550.

  9. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 110731A: GeV EMISSION FROM ONSET TO AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A. E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu E-mail: srazzaque@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil E-mail: dgruber@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-02-15

    We report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. The observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet {Gamma} {approx} 500-550.

  10. The plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the thick-shell scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventis, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic calculations of synchrotron radiation from the forward and the reverse shock of gamma-ray burst blast waves, in the thick-shell scenario (i.e. when the reverse shock is relativistic). We show that this scenario can naturally account for the plateau phase, observed early in the afterglows of about half the bursts detected by Swift. We generalize our approach to include power-law luminosity of the central engine and show that when radiation from both regions (forward and reverse shock) is taken into account, a wide range of possibilities emerge, including chromatic and achromatic breaks, frequency-dependent spectral evolution during the injection break and widely varying decay indices in different bands. For both the forward and the reverse shock, we derive formulas for the spectral parameters and the observed flux in different power-law segments of the spectrum, as a function of observer time. We explore the Fb-tb relation (between the observed time of the end of the plateau phase and the flux at that point) in the framework of the presented model and show that model predictions favour the reverse shock as the dominant source of emission in both optical and X-rays. As case studies, we present simultaneous fits to X-ray and optical/IR afterglow data of GRB 080928 and GRB 090423. We identify the end of the plateau phase with the cessation of energy injection and infer the corresponding upper limits to central-engine activity, which are about 1 h for the former and 1.5 h for the latter. We conclude that smooth energy injection through the reverse shock is a plausible explanation for the plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows. During that phase, radiation from the reverse shock is likely to be important, or even dominant, and should be taken into account when fitting model parameters to observations.

  11. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Heng

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are essential to understand the physics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. This thesis present a detailed study of AGN SED shapes in the optical-near infrared bands (0.3--3microm) for 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey. We define a useful near-IR/optical index-index ('color-color') diagram to investigate the mixture of AGN continuum, host galaxy and reddening contributions. We found that ˜90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the Elvis et al. (1994) mean AGN SED (E94) and a host galaxy, with only the modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1--0.2] expected in type 1 AGNs. Lower luminosity and Eddington ratio objects have more host galaxy, as expected. The E94 template is remarkably good in describing the SED shape in the 0.3--3microrn decade of the spectrum over a range of 3.2 dex in LOPT, 2.7 dex in L/LEdd, and for redshifts up to 3. The AGN phenomenon is thus insensitive to absolute or relative accretion rate and to cosmic time. However, 10% of the AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs. The fraction of these hot-dust-poor AGNs evolves with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z < 2) to 20% at moderately high redshift (2 < z < 3.5). A similar fraction of HDP quasars are found in the Elvis et al. 1994 (BQS) and Richards et al. 2006 (SDSS) samples. The 1--3microm emission of the HDP quasars is a factor 2--4 smaller than the typical E94 AGN SED. The implied torus covering factor is 2%--29%, well below the 75% required by unified models. The weak hot dust emission seems to expose an extension of the accretion disk continuum in some of AGNs. For these, we estimate the outer edge of their accretion disks to lie at ˜104 Schwarzschild radii, more than ten times the gravitational stability radii. Either the host-dust is destroyed

  12. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  13. The ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to afterglow and afterglow properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Coward, D. M.; Howell, E.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S.; Klotz, A.; Piro, L.

    2013-12-10

    The 'ultra-long' gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ∼4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of A{sub V} = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ∼1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  14. The supercritical pile gamma-ray burst model: The GRB afterglow steep decline and plateau phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.

    2013-12-10

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the 'supercritical pile' GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E {sub pk} ∼ m{sub e}c {sup 2}. We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Γ to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (∼25%) decrease in Γ at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R{sub D} . Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the 'supercritical pile' is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by ∼m{sub p} /m{sub e} than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R{sub D} , the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Γ and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R{sub D} is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the 'unexpected' XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R ≅ R{sub D} , the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a 'plateau,' consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R ≅ R{sub D} , thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  15. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E pk ~ mec 2. We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Γ to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (~25%) decrease in Γ at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius RD . Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by ~mp /me than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than RD , the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Γ and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until RD is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R ~= RD , the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R ~= RD , thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  16. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  17. Effective absorbing column density in the gamma-ray burst afterglow X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Braito, V.; Cusumano, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the scaling relation between the observed amount of absorption in the X-ray spectra of gamma-ray burst afterglows and the absorber redshift. Through dedicated numerical simulations of an ideal instrument, we establish that this dependence has a power-law shape with index 2.4. However, for real instruments, this value depends on their low-energy cut-off, spectral resolution and on the detector spectral response in general. We thus provide appropriate scaling laws for specific instruments. Finally, we discuss the possibility to measure the absorber redshift from X-ray data alone. We find that 105-106 counts in the 0.3-10 keV band are needed to constrain the redshift with 10 per cent accuracy. As a test case, we discuss the XMM-Newton observation of GRB 090618 at z = 0.54. We are able to recover the correct redshift of this burst with the expected accuracy.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglow and Prompt Emission Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2008-10-01

    Swift observations have revealed interesting but puzzling data that demand a rethink of the origins of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows. The chromatic breaks in X-ray/optical afterglow lightcurves stimulated several innovative suggestions, most invoking a non-forward-shock origin of the X-ray afterglows. The status of both the observational facts and the theoretical models is critically reviewed. Besides the late ``internal'' emission from a long-live central engine, most observed X-ray afterglows likely still include the contribution of the traditional forward shock component. The physical nature (e.g. energy dissipation mechanism, emission site, and radiation mechanism) of the GRB prompt emission is currently not identified. The motivations and issues of three proposed prompt emission sites are reviewed. Several independent methods, invoking prompt gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and GeV emission information, respectively, have been applied to constrain the unknown emission site. Tentative evidence suggests a large prompt emission radius. Finally, the implications of the broad band high quality data of the ``naked eye'' GRB 080319B for our understanding of the afterglow and prompt emission mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol Duran, R.; Giannios, D.

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow (supernova remnant emission), which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the ˜10-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of ˜ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in ˜0.1c shocks.

  20. The Onset of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Zhang, Bing

    2007-02-01

    We discuss the reference time t0 of afterglow light curves in the context of the standard internal-external shock model. The decay index of early afterglow is very sensitive to the reference time one chooses. In order to understand the nature of early afterglow, it is essential to take a correct reference time. Our simple analytic model provides a framework for understanding special relativistic effects involved in early afterglow phase. We evaluate light curves of reverse shock emission as well as those of forward shock emission, based on full hydrodynamic calculations. We show that the reference time does not shift significantly even in the thick-shell case. For external shock emission components, measuring times from the beginning of the prompt emission is a good approximation and it does not cause an early steep decay. In the thin-shell case, the energy transfer time from fireball ejecta to ambient medium typically extends to thousands of seconds. This might be related to the shallow decay phases observed in early X-ray afterglow at least for some bursts.

  1. Photometry and spectroscopy of GRB 060526: a detailed study of the afterglow and host galaxy of a z = 3.2 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöne, C. C.; Kann, D. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Selj, J. H.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Akerlof, C. W.; Baliyan, K. S.; Bartolini, C.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Bloom, J. S.; Burenin, R. A.; Cobb, B. E.; Covino, S.; Curran, P. A.; Dahle, H.; Ferrero, A.; Foley, S.; French, J.; Fruchter, A. S.; Ganesh, S.; Graham, J. F.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Hanlon, L.; Hjorth, J.; Ibrahimov, M.; Israel, G. L.; Jakobsson, P.; Jelínek, M.; Jensen, B. L.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Khamitov, I. M.; Koch, T. S.; Levan, A. J.; Malesani, D.; Masetti, N.; Meehan, S.; Melady, G.; Nanni, D.; Näränen, J.; Pakstiene, E.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Perley, D. A.; Piccioni, A.; Pizzichini, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rumyantsev, V.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sharapov, D.; Starr, D.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Swan, H.; Tanvir, N. R.; Terra, F.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wilson, A. C.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: With this paper we want to investigate the highly variable afterglow light curve and environment of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060526 at z = 3.221. Methods: We present one of the largest photometric datasets ever obtained for a GRB afterglow, consisting of multi-color photometric data from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The data set contains 412 data points in total to which we add additional data from the literature. Furthermore, we present low-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of the afterglow. The afterglow light curve is modeled with both an analytical model using broken power law fits and with a broad-band numerical model which includes energy injections. The absorption lines detected in the spectra are used to derive column densities using a multi-ion single-component curve-of-growth analysis from which we derive the metallicity of the host of GRB 060526. Results: The temporal behaviour of the afterglow follows a double broken power law with breaks at t = 0.090 ± 0.005 and t = 2.401 ± 0.061 days. It shows deviations from the smooth set of power laws that can be modeled by additional energy injections from the central engine, although some significant microvariability remains. The broadband spectral-energy distribution of the afterglow shows no significant extinction along the line of sight. The metallicity derived from S ii and Fe ii of [S/H] = -0.57 ± 0.25 and [Fe/H] = -1.09 ± 0.24 is relatively high for a galaxy at that redshift but comparable to the metallicity of other GRB hosts at similar redshifts. At the position of the afterglow, no host is detected to F775W(AB) = 28.5 mag with the HST, implying an absolute magnitude of the host M(1500 Å) > -18.3 mag which is fainter than most long-duration hosts, although the GRB may be associated with a faint galaxy at a distance of 11 kpc. Based in part on observations obtained with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope under proposals 077.D-0661 (PI: Vreeswijk) and 177.A-0591

  2. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  3. Physics of the GRB 030328 afterglow and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, E.; Masetti, N.; Palazzi, E.; Savaglio, S.; Rol, E.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Pian, E.; Price, P. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Jelínek, M.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M. I.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Frontera, F.; Fruchter, A. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Henden, A. A.; Hjorth, J.; Jensen, B. L.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Masi, G.; Møller, P.; Nicastro, L.; Ofek, E. O.; Pandey, S. B.; Rhoads, J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van den Heuvel, E. P. J.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.To investigate the physical nature of the afterglow emission. We report on the photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the optical afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) 030328 detected by HETE-2.Methods.Photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric monitoring of the optical afterglow.Results.Photometry, collected at 7 different telescopes, shows that a smoothly broken powerlaw decay, with indices α1 = 0.76 ± 0.03, α2 = 1.50 ± 0.07 and a break at tb = 0.48 ± 0.03 days after the GRB, provides the best fit of the optical afterglow decline. This shape is interpreted as due to collimated emission, for which we determine a jet opening angle θ_jet ˜ 3.2 °. An achromatic bump starting around ~0.2 d after the GRB is possibly marginally detected in the optical light curves. Optical spectroscopy shows the presence of two rest-frame ultraviolet metal absorption systems at z = 1.5216 ± 0.0006 and at z = 1.295 ± 0.001, the former likely associated with the GRB host galaxy. Analysis of the absorption lines at z = 1.5216 suggests that the host of this GRB may be a Damped Lyman-α Absorber. The optical V-band afterglow appears polarized, with P = (2.4 ± 0.6)% and θ = 170° ± 7°, suggesting an asymmetric blastwave expansion. An X-ray-to-optical spectral flux distribution of the GRB 030328 afterglow was obtained at 0.78 days after the GRB and fitted using a broken powerlaw, with an optical spectral slope β_opt = 0.47 ± 0.15, and an X-ray slope βX = 1.0 ± 0.2.Conclusions.The discussion of the results in the context of the "fireball model" shows that the preferred scenario for this afterglow is collimated structured jet with fixed opening angle in a homogeneous medium.

  4. X-ray flares in early GRB afterglows.

    PubMed

    Burrows, D N; Falcone, A; Chincarini, G; Morris, D; Romano, P; Hill, J E; Godet, O; Moretti, A; Krimm, H; Osborne, J P; Racusin, J; Mangano, V; Page, K; Perri, M; Stroh, M

    2007-05-15

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) has discovered that flares are quite common in early X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), being observed in roughly 50% of afterglows with prompt follow-up observations. The flares range in fluence from a few per cent to approximately 100% of the fluence of the prompt emission (the GRB). Repetitive flares are seen, with more than four successive flares detected by the XRT in some afterglows. The rise and fall times of the flares are typically considerably smaller than the time since the burst. These characteristics suggest that the flares are related to the prompt emission mechanism, but at lower photon energies. We conclude that the most likely cause of these flares is late-time activity of the GRB central engine. PMID:17293338

  5. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase. PMID:17293318

  6. Optical and near-infrared observations of the GRB020405 afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Simoncelli, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Maiorano, E.; Levan, A.; Christensen, L.; Rol, E.; Savaglio, S.; Falomo, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Hjorth, J.; Delsanti, A.; Pannella, M.; Mohan, V.; Pandey, S. B.; Sagar, R.; Amati, L.; Burud, I.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Frontera, F.; Fruchter, A. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Nicastro, L.; Pedersen, H.; Rhoads, J.; Salamanca, I.; Tanvir, N.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van den Heuvel, E. P. J.

    2003-06-01

    We report on photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric monitoring of the optical and near-infrared (NIR) afterglow of GRB020405. Ground-based optical observations, performed with 8 different telescopes, started about 1 day after the high-energy prompt event and spanned a period of ~ 10 days; the addition of archival HST data extended the coverage up to ~ 150 days after the GRB. We report the first detection of the afterglow in NIR bands. The detection of Balmer and oxygen emission lines in the optical spectrum of the host galaxy indicates that the GRB is located at redshift z =0.691. Fe II and Mg II absorption systems are detected at z= 0.691 and at z = 0.472 in the afterglow optical spectrum. The latter system is likely caused by absorbing clouds in the galaxy complex located ~ 2'' southwest of the GRB020405 host. Hence, for the first time, the galaxy responsible for an intervening absorption line system in the spectrum of a GRB afterglow is spectroscopically identified. Optical and NIR photometry of the afterglow indicates that, between 1 and 10 days after the GRB, the decay in all bands is consistent with a single power law of index alpha = 1.54+/- 0.06. The late-epoch VLT J-band and HST optical points lie above the extrapolation of this power law, so that a plateau (or ``bump") is apparent in the VRIJ light curves at 10-20 days after the GRB. The light curves at epochs later than day ~ 20 after the GRB are consistent with a power-law decay with index alpha ' = 1.85+/- 0.15. While other authors have proposed to reproduce the bump with the template of the supernova (SN) 1998bw, considered the prototypical ``hypernova'', we suggest that it can also be modeled with a SN having the same temporal profile as the other proposed hypernova SN2002ap, but 1.3 mag brighter at peak, and located at the GRB redshift. Alternatively, a shock re-energization may be responsible for the rebrightening. A single polarimetric R-band measurement shows that the afterglow is polarized

  7. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    PubMed

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. PMID:16355217

  8. On Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Ravi, V.; Mooley, K.; Frail, D.; Hallinan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    A radio source that faded over six days, with a redshift of z ≈ 0.5 host, has been identified by Keane et al. as the transient afterglow to a fast radio burst (FRB 150418). We report follow-up radio and optical observations of the afterglow candidate and find a source that is consistent with an active galactic nucleus. If the afterglow candidate is nonetheless a prototypical FRB afterglow, existing slow-transient surveys limit the fraction of FRBs that produce afterglows to 0.25 for afterglows with fractional variation, m=2| {S}1-{S}2| /({S}1+{S}2)≥slant 0.7, and 0.07 for m ≥ 1, at 95% confidence. In anticipation of a barrage of bursts expected from future FRB surveys, we provide a simple framework for statistical association of FRBs with afterglows. Our framework properly accounts for statistical uncertainties, and ensures consistency with limits set by slow-transient surveys.

  9. DISCOVERY OF RADIO AFTERGLOW FROM THE MOST DISTANT COSMIC EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Poonam; Frail, Dale A.; Fox, Derek; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Harrsion, Fiona; Kasliwal, Mansi; Berger, Edo; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bock, Douglas C.-J.

    2010-03-20

    We report on the discovery of radio afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB 090423, which exploded at a redshift of 8.3, making it the object with the highest known redshift in the universe. By combining our radio measurements with existing X-ray and infrared observations, we estimate the kinetic energy of the afterglow, the geometry of the outflow, and the density of the circumburst medium. Our best-fit model suggests a quasi-spherical, high-energy explosion in a low, constant-density medium. GRB 090423 had a similar energy release to the other well-studied high redshift GRB 050904 (z = 6.26), but their circumburst densities differ by 2 orders of magnitude. We compare the properties of GRB 090423 with a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at moderate redshifts. We find that the high energy and afterglow properties of GRB 090423 are not sufficiently different from other GRBs to suggest a different kind of progenitor, such as a Population III (Pop III) star. However, we argue that it is not clear that the afterglow properties alone can provide convincing identification of Pop III progenitors. We suggest that the millimeter and centimeter radio detections of GRB 090423 at early times contained emission from the reverse shock. If true, this may have important implications for the detection of high-redshift GRBs by the next generation of radio facilities.

  10. A HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO COMPOSITE SPECTRUM OF GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Prochaska, J. X.; Jakobsson, P.

    2011-02-01

    We present a composite spectrum of 60 long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows with redshifts in the range 0.35 < z < 6.7 observed with low-resolution optical spectra. The composite spectrum covers the wavelength range 700-6600 A in the rest frame and has a mean signal-to-noise ratio of 150 per 1 A pixel and reaches a maximum of {approx}300 in the range 2500-3500 A. Equivalent widths are measured from metal absorption lines from the Ly{alpha} line to {approx}5200 A, and associated metal and hydrogen lines are identified between the Lyman break and Ly{alpha} line. The average transmission within the Lyman forest is consistent with that found along quasar lines of sight. We find a temporal variation in fine-structure lines when dividing the sample into bursts observed within 2 hr from their trigger and those observed later. Other lines in the predominantly neutral gas show variations too, but this is most likely a random effect caused by weighting of individual strong absorption lines and which mimics a temporal variation. Bursts characterized with high- or low-prompt GRB energy release produce afterglows with similar absorption line strengths, and likewise for bursts with bright or faint optical afterglows. Bursts defined as dark from their optical to X-ray spectral index have stronger absorption lines relative to the optically bright bursts. The composite spectrum has strong Ca II and Mg II absorption lines as commonly found in dusty galaxies, however, we find no evidence for dust or a significant molecular content based on the non-detection of diffuse interstellar bands. Compared to starburst galaxy spectra, the GRB composite has much stronger fine-structure lines, while metal absorption lines are weaker.

  11. A High Signal-to-noise Ratio Composite Spectrum of Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Prochaska, J. X.; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Jakobsson, P.

    2011-02-01

    We present a composite spectrum of 60 long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows with redshifts in the range 0.35 < z < 6.7 observed with low-resolution optical spectra. The composite spectrum covers the wavelength range 700-6600 Å in the rest frame and has a mean signal-to-noise ratio of 150 per 1 Å pixel and reaches a maximum of ~300 in the range 2500-3500 Å. Equivalent widths are measured from metal absorption lines from the Lyα line to ~5200 Å, and associated metal and hydrogen lines are identified between the Lyman break and Lyα line. The average transmission within the Lyman forest is consistent with that found along quasar lines of sight. We find a temporal variation in fine-structure lines when dividing the sample into bursts observed within 2 hr from their trigger and those observed later. Other lines in the predominantly neutral gas show variations too, but this is most likely a random effect caused by weighting of individual strong absorption lines and which mimics a temporal variation. Bursts characterized with high- or low-prompt GRB energy release produce afterglows with similar absorption line strengths, and likewise for bursts with bright or faint optical afterglows. Bursts defined as dark from their optical to X-ray spectral index have stronger absorption lines relative to the optically bright bursts. The composite spectrum has strong Ca II and Mg II absorption lines as commonly found in dusty galaxies, however, we find no evidence for dust or a significant molecular content based on the non-detection of diffuse interstellar bands. Compared to starburst galaxy spectra, the GRB composite has much stronger fine-structure lines, while metal absorption lines are weaker.

  12. A bolometer array for the spectral energy distribution (SPEED) camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Ali, S.; Bier, A.; Campano, B.; Chen, T. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Crawford, T. M.; Downes, T.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Logan, D.; Meyer, S. S.; O'dell, C.; Perera, T.; Sharp, E. H.; Timbie, P. T.; Wilson, G. W.

    2004-03-01

    The Spectral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies. Its initial use will be on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope and eventually on the Large Millimeter Telescope. SPEED requires a small cryogenic detector array of 2×2 pixels with each pixel having four frequency bands in the 150-375GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high-efficiency Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB). The FSB design provides the multi-pixel, multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact stackable array. The SPEED bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors as their temperature-sensing element, allowing for higher levels of electronic multiplexing in future applications.

  13. Decay phases of Swift X-ray afterglows and the forward-shock model.

    PubMed

    Panaitescu, A

    2007-05-15

    The X-ray flux of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows monitored by the Swift satellite from January 2005 to July 2006 displays one to four phases of flux power-law decay. In chronological order, they are: the GRB tail, the 'hump', the standard decay and the post-jet-break decay. More than half of the GRB tails can be identified with the large-angle emission produced during the burst (but arriving later at observer). The remaining, slower GRB tails imply that the gamma-ray mechanism continues to radiate after the burst, as also suggested by the frequent occurrence of X-ray flares during the burst tail. The several GRB tails exhibiting a slow unbroken power-law decay until 100ks must be attributed to the forward shock. In fact, the decay of most GRB tails is also consistent with that of the forward-shock emission from a narrow jet. The X-ray light-curve hump may be due to an increase of the kinetic energy per solid angle of the forward-shock region visible to the observer, caused by either the transfer of energy from ejecta to the forward shock or the emergence of the emission from an outflow seen from a location outside the jet opening. The decay following the X-ray light-curve hump is consistent with the emission from an adiabatic blast wave but, contrary to expectations, the light-curve decay index and spectral slope during this phase are not correlated. The X-ray light curves of two dozens X-ray afterglows that followed for more than a week do not exhibit a jet break, in contrast with the behaviour of pre-Swift optical afterglows, which displayed jet breaks at 0.5-2 days. Nevertheless, the X-ray light curves of several Swift afterglows show a second steepening break at 0.4-3 days that is consistent with the break expected for a jet when its edge becomes visible to the observer. PMID:17293326

  14. High-Energy Spectral Signatures in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal results obtained by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the detection of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) above 100 MeV. The broad-band spectra obtained for these bursts gave no indication of any high energy spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes (ACTs), thus motivating several TeV observational programs. This paper explores the expectations for the spectral properties in the TeV and sub-TeV bands for bursts, in particular how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source modifies the spectrum to produce distinctive spectral signatures. The energy of spectral breaks and the associated spectral indices provide valuable information that can constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow at a given time. These characteristics define palpable observational goals for ACT programs, and strongly impact the observability of bursts in the TeV band.

  15. High-Energy Spectral Signatures in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the principal results obtained by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the detection of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) above 100 MeV. The broad-band spectra obtained for these bursts gave no indication of any high-energy spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes (ACTs), thus motivating several TeV observational programs. This paper explores the expectations for the spectral properties in the TeV and sub-TeV bands for bursts, in particular how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source modifies the spectrum to produce distinctive spectral signatures. The energy of spectral breaks and the associated spectral indices provide valuable information that can constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow at a given time. These characteristics define palpable observational goals for ACT programs, and strongly impact the observability of bursts in the TeV band.

  16. Comprehensive x-ray spectral code for high energy astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Mauche, C W

    2000-08-18

    The aim of this project has been to develop a spectral analysis tool with a level of quality and completeness commensurate to that expected in data from the current generation of X-ray observatories. The code is called LXSS (Livermore X-Ray Spectral Synthesizer). X-ray-emitting astrophysical plasmas are rarely, if ever, in LTE, so they have adopted the detailed level accounting approach, in which rates for processes that populate or depopulate atomic energy levels are treated explicitly. This entails the generation of a large quantity of atomic data, most of which is calculated using ''in-house'' computer codes. Calculations are benchmarked against laboratory data, and spectral models have been used to provide first-time interpretations of astrophysical X-ray spectra. The design of a versatile graphical user interface that allows access to and manipulation of the atomic database comprises the second major part of the project.

  17. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SNe). We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳10-100 yr. In the rapidly rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Secondly, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (≲10-100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  18. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z. P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D. M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A. J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets.

  19. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A.

    PubMed

    Wiersema, K; Covino, S; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Götz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; di Serego Alighieri, S; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Fariña, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovsky, V; Willingale, R

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets. PMID:24776800

  20. Polarization Evolution of the Afterglow of GRB 030329

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The association of a supernova with GRB 030329l strongly supports the collapsar model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because of their cosmological distances. Their existence is conjectured based on breaks in GRB afterglow light curves and the theoretical desire to reduce the GRB energy requirements. Temporal evolution of polarization may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization (approx. 1-3%) has been reported for a few bursts, but the temporal evolution of polarization properties could not be established. Here, we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB 030329 with high signal-to-noise and high sampling frequency. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the percent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB 02120618. Our results suggest a different structure and origin of the magnetic field in the prompt vs. afterglow emission regions.

  1. Spectrophotometric analysis of gamma-ray burst afterglow extinction curves with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japelj, J.; Covino, S.; Gomboc, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Goldoni, P.; Selsing, J.; Cano, Z.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hammer, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Kopač, D.; Krühler, T.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Watson, D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We use gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra observed with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph to measure rest-frame extinction in GRB lines-of-sight by modelling the broadband near-infrared (NIR) to X-ray afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our sample consists of nine Swift GRBs, of which eight belong to the long-duration and one to the short-duration class. Dust is modelled using the average extinction curves of the Milky Way and the two Magellanic Clouds. We derive the rest-frame extinction of the entire sample, which fall in the range 0 ≲ AV ≲ 1.2. Moreover, the SMC extinction curve is the preferred extinction curve template for the majority of our sample, a result that is in agreement with those commonly observed in GRB lines of sights. In one analysed case (GRB 120119A), the common extinction curve templates fail to reproduce the observed extinction. To illustrate the advantage of using the high-quality, X-Shooter afterglow SEDs over the photometric SEDs, we repeat the modelling using the broadband SEDs with the NIR-to-UV photometric measurements instead of the spectra. The main result is that the spectroscopic data, thanks to a combination of excellent resolution and coverage of the blue part of the SED, are more successful in constraining extinction curves and therefore dust properties in GRB hosts with respect to photometric measurements. In all cases but one the extinction curve of one template is preferred over the others. We show that themodelled values of the extinction AV and the spectral slope, obtained through spectroscopic and photometric SED analysis, can differ significantly for individual events, though no apparent trend in the differences is observed. Finally we stress that, regardless of the resolution of the optical-to-NIR data, the SED modelling gives reliable results only when the fit is performed on a SED covering a broader spectral region (in our case extending to X-rays). Based on observations collected at the European

  2. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitiez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Marshall, F.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  3. Spectral light management for solar energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Cameron; Mojiri, Ahmad; Rosengarten, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Due to the inherent broadband nature of the solar radiation, combined with the narrow spectral sensitivity range of direct solar to electricity devices, there is a massive opportunity to manipulate the solar spectrum to increase the functionality and efficiency of solar energy conversion devices. Spectral splitting or manipulation facilitates the efficient combination of both high-temperature solar thermal systems, which can absorb over the entire solar spectrum to create heat, and photovoltaic cells, which only convert a range of wavelengths to electricity. It has only recently been possible, with the development of nanofabrication techniques, to integrate micro- and nano-photonic structures as spectrum splitters/manipulators into solar energy conversion devices. In this paper, we summarize the recent developments in beam splitting techniques, and highlight some relevant applications including combined PV-thermal collectors and efficient algae production, and suggest paths for future development in this field.

  4. CMB spectral distortions and energy release in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    Measuring the spectral deviation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the blackbody spectrum has become a focus of attention as a probe of the thermal history of the Universe. It has been more than 20 years since COBE/FIRAS's measurement, which showed excellent agreement between the CMB spectrum and a perfect blackbody spectrum. Significant developments in the technology since then have allowed us to improve the sensitivity of the absolute spectrum measurement by a factor of {˜ }10^4. Therefore, the physics related to the generation of CMB spectral distortions should now be investigated in greater detail. To probe the physics in the early universe and to open an observational window for new physics, various energy release mechanisms both in and beyond standard cosmology need to be studied. In this paper, we provide a review of the physics of CMB distortions and the energy release that creates CMB distortions in the early universe.

  5. Study of argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V.; Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the reaction kinetics in argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure argon was created in quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 60 W. The nitrogen was added into the afterglow at the distance of 9 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. The argon spectral lines and after nitrogen addition also nitrogen second positive system (SPS) were identified in the spectra. The measurement of spatial dependence of SPS intensity showed a very slow decay of the intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the nitrogen concentration. In order to explain this behavior a kinetic model for reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that C {sup 3}Π{sub u} state of molecular nitrogen, which is the upper state of SPS emission, is produced by excitation transfer from argon metastables to nitrogen molecules. However, the argon metastables are also produced at Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ion recombination with electrons and this limits the decay of argon metastable concentration and it results in very slow decay of SPS intensity.

  6. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woosley, Stan E.; Patel, Sandeep K.; Rol, Evert; In'TZand, Jean J. M.; VanDerHorst, Alexander J.; Wuers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425,030329,031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with Type Ic supernovae and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution and estimate the total energy budget based on broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and subrelativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  7. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Woosley, S.E.; Patel, S.K.; Rol, E.; Zand, J.J.M.in't; a; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Strom, R.; /USRA, Huntsville /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht, Astron. Inst. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /NFRA, Dwingeloo

    2006-07-12

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ic supernovae, and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution, and estimate the total energy budget based upon broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and sub-relativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  8. Alternate Search for Jet Breaks in Long GRB X-ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    In the standard fireball models of GRB afterglows, the jet opening angle can be determined from the achromatic jet break by measuring the time at which this break in the light curves occurs. This measure allows us to estimate the energy budget of the GRB explosion. Swift XRT observations have shown that jet breaks are not observed in the first several days or weeks of a typical X-ray afterglow. We have already exploited Chandra's better sensitivity to observe late XRT afterglows and put more stringent constraints on jet break times, and started a program to interpret results with more realistic jet models. We propose to observe 3 more exceptionally bright X-ray afterglows of GRBs from the past year that in absence of jet break would still be detectable in this cycle.

  9. Hidden in the light: Magnetically induced afterglow from trapped chameleon fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Mota, David F.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an afterglow phenomenon as a unique trace of chameleon fields in optical experiments. The vacuum interaction of a laser pulse with a magnetic field can lead to a production and subsequent trapping of chameleons in the vacuum chamber, owing to their mass dependence on the ambient matter density. Magnetically induced reconversion of the trapped chameleons into photons creates an afterglow over macroscopic timescales that can conveniently be searched for by current optical experiments. We show that the chameleon parameter range accessible to available laboratory technology is comparable to scales familiar from astrophysical stellar energy-loss arguments. We analyze quantitatively the afterglow properties for various experimental scenarios and discuss the role of potential background and systematic effects. We conclude that afterglow searches represent an ideal tool to aim at the production and detection of cosmologically relevant scalar fields in the laboratory.

  10. A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Robert F.; Campano, Barbara; Chen, Tina C.; Cheng, Edward; Cottingham, David A.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Downes, Tom; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Logan, Dan; Meyer, Stephan S.; Perera, Thushara; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wilson, Grant W.

    2004-10-01

    The SPEED camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in X-ray clusters and other cold objects in the universe. Its initial runs will be done on the 10 m Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT), with later runs using the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). SPEED requires a 2x2 pixel cryogenic detector array of Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB). Each of the pixels will have four frequency bands in the ~150-350 GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high efficiency FSBs. The FSB design provides the multi-pixel multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact, light weight, stackable array. The SPEED FSB bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) as their temperature-sensing element permitting significantly higher levels of electronic multiplexing in future applications where larger numbers of detectors may be required.

  11. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.

  12. Theoretical Implications of Optical and X-ray Observations of Swift GRB Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.

    2007-08-21

    The Swift satellite has measured the X-ray emission of GRB afterglows starting from the burst epoch, filling thus a gap of about 2 decades in the temporal coverage of X-ray afterglows previously achieved. At the same time, the accurate localizations provided by Swift and their rapid dissemination has allowed ground-based telescopes to monitor the optical afterglow emission at comparably early epochs. Such optical and X-ray observations allows us to test more thoroughly the basic predictions of the relativistic blast-wave. Perhaps it is not an understatement to say that there were more surprises than anyone expected. A majority of Swift X-ray afterglows exhibit a slow-decay phase from 500 s to about 1 h after trigger, which indicates a long-lived process of energy injection into the blast-wave. At around 1 h, the X-ray decay steepens, indicating the end of significant energy addition to the forward shock. This steeper decay is consistent with the blast-wave model expectations but the 1 h break is, generally, not accompanied by a steepening of the optical light-curve, which indicates that forward-shock microphysical parameters are not constant, as was previously assumed and allowed by afterglow observations. A subsequent steepening of the X-ray light-curve decay, at about 1 d, was observed by Swift for only a few afterglows. This second break appears consistent with originating from the blast-wave collimation (a jet), but a better optical coverage is required to test that it is, indeed, a jet-break. Although the jet model has been the subject of many tens of papers, pre-Swift optical and X-ray observations of GRB afterglows have provided little proof that the 1 d optical breaks observed in a dozen afterglows are consistent with the expectations for a collimated outflow.

  13. a Three-Stage Model for the Inner Engine of GRBs:. Prompt Emission and Early Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, J.; Niebergal, B.; Ouyed, R.

    We describe a model within the "quark-nova" scenario to interpret the recent observations of early X-ray afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the Swift satellite. This is a three-stage model within the context of a core-collapse supernova. STAGE 1 is an accreting (proto-) neutron star leading to a possible delay between the core collapse and the GRB. STAGE 2 is accretion onto a quark star, launching an ultrarelativistic jet generating the prompt GRB. This jet also creates the afterglow as the jet interacts with the surrounding medium creating an external shock. Slower shells ejected from the quark star (during accretion), can re-energize the external shock leading to a flatter segment in the X-ray afterglow. STAGE 3, which occurs only if the quark star collapses to form a black hole, consists of an accreting black hole. The jet launched in this accretion process interacts with the preceding quark star jet, and could generate the flaring activity frequently seen in early X-ray afterglows. Alternatively, a STAGE 2b can occur in our model if the quark star does not collapse to a black hole. The quark star in this case can then spin down due to magnetic braking, and the spin down energy may lead to flattening in the X-ray afterglow as well. This model seems to account for both the energies and the timescales of GRBs, in addition to the newly discovered early X-ray afterglow features.

  14. SYNCHROTRON SELF-COMPTON EMISSION AS THE ORIGIN OF THE GAMMA-RAY AFTERGLOW OBSERVED IN GRB 980923

    SciTech Connect

    Fraija, N.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Lee, W. H. E-mail: magda@astro.unam.mx

    2012-05-20

    GRB 980923 was one of the brightest bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment. Previous studies have detected two distinct components in addition to the main prompt episode, which is well described by a Band function. The first of these is a tail with a duration of {approx_equal} 400 s, while the second is a high-energy component lasting {approx_equal} 2 s. We summarize the observations and argue for a unified model in which the tail can be understood as the early {gamma}-ray afterglow from forward shock synchrotron emission, while the high-energy component arises from synchrotron self-Compton from the reverse shock. Consistency between the main assumption of thick shell emission and agreement between the observed and computed values for fluxes, break energies, starting times, and spectral indices leads to a requirement that the ejecta must be highly magnetized.

  15. GRB 050502B optical afterglow: a jet-break at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, P.; Greiner, J.; Pian, E.; Covino, S.; Malesani, D.; Küpcü Yoldaş, A.; Krühler, T.; Clemens, C.; McBreen, S.; Rau, A.; Giannios, D.; Hjorth, J.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: Swift GRB 050502B is well known for the very bright flare displayed in its X-ray light curve. Despite extensive studies, however, the optical light curve has never been discussed and its redshift is unconstrained. Possible correlations between optical and X-ray data are analysed. Methods: Photometric data from TNG in the R and I bands were used to compare the optical afterglow with the X-ray light curve. The HyperZ package and a late-time VLT host observation were used to derive redshift estimates. Results: The I-band afterglow decay followed a power law of index α = 2.1±0.6, after a late break at ~ 1.3×105 s. The R-I colour is remarkably red and the broadband spectral index βOX = 0.9±0.1 is consistent with the X-ray spectral slope βX. Although a photometric redshift of z > 4 is the most conservative result to consider, a photometric redshift of z = 5.2±0.3 is suggested with no extinction in the host, based on which an isotropic energy Eγ,iso = (3.8±0.7)×1052 erg and a jet opening angle θ ~ 3.7° are subsequently derived. Conclusions: The combined X-ray and optical data suggest an achromatic break, which we interpret as a jet-break. The post jet-break slope roughly obeys the closure relation for the jet's slow cooling model. Because of the afterglow's very red colour, in order for the redshift to be low (z < 1), extinction must be significantly high if present in the host. Since the optical-to-X-ray index is consistent with the X-ray spectrum, and there is no XRT evidence for excess NH, GRB 050502B was likely at high redshift. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (programme AOT11-59) and with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatories under programme ID 177.A-0591.

  16. High-energy spectral breaks in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Model fits are presented for 18 gamma-ray burst spectra from 100 keV to 27 MeV made with the BATSE spectroscopy detectors on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Most of the bursts are well fitted as power laws with spectral indices between -1.36 and -2.29; however, five bursts show definite departures from a simple power-law fit at high energies. Three of these bursts are well fitted with broken power-law spectra and break energies of from 400 to 690 keV, such as might arise from photon-photon interactions. If so, then the source compactness and hence distance will be sharply constrained. Two of the bursts have spectra with sharply confined slope changes and are well fitted with broken power-law spectra with break energies of 1.2 and 1.6 MeV at peak, such as might arise from photon-magnetic field interactions. If so, then these spectral breaks provide strong evidence for the existence of high magnetic fields in the burst emission region.

  17. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Pozanenko, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E. E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  18. Planck/LFI measures of Planets Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Michele; Romelli, Erik; Gregorio, Anna; Zacchei, Andrea; Tomasi, Maurizio; Vassallo, Thomas; Sandri, Maura

    2015-08-01

    The spectral energy distribution at millimetric wavelengths of planets is an important benchmark to inter-calibrate different CMB experiments and a source of information on the atmospheric structure of planets. Planck/LFI observed Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune from three to eight times during its mission. In particular, as a calibrator Jupiter allows accurate comparison due to its high S/N ratio. Since planets are moving objects, the measure must account for their proper motion as well as a number of second order effects. Here we present the results of accurate measurements of brightness temperature Tb of planets, and we compare them with WMAP.

  19. Five Years of Multi-frequency Monitoring of GRB030329 Afterglow Using the GMRT and WSRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Atish; van der Horst, A. J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Wijers, Ralph; Chandra, C. H. Ishwara; Resmi, L.; Rol, Evert; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Strom, R.

    2009-05-01

    GRB 030329 displayed one of the brightest optical afterglows ever. We have followed the radio afterglow of GRB 030329 for over 5 years using the GMRT and WSRT at low radio frequencies. This is the longest as well as the lowest frequency follow up of any GRB afterglow ever. Radio observations of a GRB afterglow provide a unique probe of the physics of the blast wave at late times, when the expansion of the fireball slows down to non-relativistic speeds. Our GMRT-WSRT observations suggest that the afterglow of GRB030329 entered the non-relativistic phase around 60 days after the burst. The estimate of the fireball energy content, ~1051 erg, in this near-isotropic phase is much less susceptible to the collimation-related uncertainties arising in the relativistic phase. We have also been closely monitoring the evolution of the afterglow to look for possible signatures of emission from a counter jet, but no conclusive evidence has so far been found.

  20. Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Various Clinical Vascular Applications.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Shen, Yun; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko

    2016-01-01

    Single-source dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) with fast switching of tube voltage allows projection-based image reconstruction, substantial reduction of beam-hardening effects, reconstruction of accurate monochromatic images and material decomposition images (MDIs), and detailing of material composition by using x-ray spectral information. In vascular applications, DE CT is expected to overcome limitations of standard single-energy CT angiography, including patient exposure to nephrotoxic contrast medium and carcinogenic radiation, insufficient contrast vascular enhancement, interference from metallic and beam-hardening artifacts and severe vessel calcification, and limited tissue characterization and perfusion assessment. Acquisition of low-energy monochromatic images and iodine/water MDIs can reasonably reduce contrast agent dose and improve vessel enhancement. Acquisition of virtual noncontrast images, such as water/iodine MDIs, can reduce overall radiation exposure by replacing true noncontrast CT in each examination. Acquisition of monochromatic images by using metal artifact reduction software or acquisition of iodine/water MDIs can reduce metal artifacts with preserved or increased vessel contrast, and subtraction of monochromatic images between two energy levels can subtract coils composed of dense metallic materials. Acquisition of iodine/calcium (ie, hydroxyapatite) MDIs permits subtraction of vessel calcification and improves vessel lumen delineation. Sensitive detection of lipid-rich plaque can be achieved by using fat/water MDIs, the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (energy level vs CT attenuation), and a histogram of effective atomic numbers included in an image. Various MDIs are useful for accurate differentiation among materials with high attenuation values, including contrast medium, calcification, and fresh hematoma. Iodine/water MDIs are used to assess organ perfusion, such as in the lungs and myocardium. Understanding these DE CT

  1. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  2. PROBING EXTRAGALACTIC DUST THROUGH NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S. L.; Li Aigen E-mail: lia@missouri.ed

    2010-02-10

    The quantities and wavelength dependencies of the dust extinction along the lines of sight toward 33 nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts z < 2 are derived from fitting their afterglow spectral energy distributions. Unlike previous studies which often assume a specific extinction law like that of the Milky Way (MW) and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC), our approach-we call it the 'Drude' approach-is more flexible in determining the true wavelength dependence of the extinction (while the shape of the extinction curve inferred from that relying on a priori assumption of a template extinction law is, of course, fixed). The extinction curves deduced from the Drude approach display a wide diversity of shapes, ranging from relatively flat curves to curves which are featureless and steeply rise toward the far-ultraviolet, and from curves just like that of the MW, LMC, and SMC to curves resembling that of the MW and LMC but lacking the 2175 A bump. The visual extinction A{sub V} derived from the Drude approach is generally larger by a factor of {approx}2-5 than that inferred by assuming a SMC-type template extinction law. Consistent with previous studies, the extinction-to-gas ratio is mostly smaller than that of the MW, and does not seem to correlate with the shape of the extinction curve. It is shown that the standard silicate-graphite interstellar grain model closely reproduces the extinction curves of all 33 GRBs host galaxies. For these 33 bursts at z < 2, we find no evidence for the evolution of the dust extinction, dust sizes, and relative abundances of silicate to graphite on redshifts.

  3. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and super-luminous supernovae. We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly-rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳ 10 - 100 yr. In the rapidly-rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Second, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (˜10 - 100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  4. Wave spectral energy variability in the northeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromirski, P.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Flick, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant characteristics of wave energy variability in the eastern North Pacific are described from NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy data collected from 1981 to 2003. Ten buoys at distributed locations were selected for comparison based on record duration and data continuity. Long-period (LP) [T > 12] s, intermediate-period [6 ??? T ??? 12] s, and short-period [T < 6] s wave spectral energy components are considered separately. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of monthly wave energy anomalies reveal that all three wave energy components exhibit similar patterns of spatial variability. The dominant mode represents coherent heightened (or diminished) wave energy along the West Coast from Alaska to southern California, as indicated by composites of the 700 hPa height field. The second EOF mode reveals a distinct El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated spatial distribution of wave energy, which occurs when the North Pacific storm track is extended unusually far south or has receded to the north. Monthly means and principal components (PCs) of wave energy levels indicate that the 1997-1998 El Nin??o winter had the highest basin-wide wave energy within this record, substantially higher than the 1982-1983 El Nin??o. An increasing trend in the dominant PC of LP wave energy suggests that storminess has increased in the northeast Pacific since 1980. This trend is emphasized at central eastern North Pacific locations. Patterns of storminess variability are consistent with increasing activity in the central North Pacific as well as the tendency for more extreme waves in the south during El Nin??o episodes and in the north during La Nin??a. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  6. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ∼30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (∼95%) or optical (∼70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  7. Dust Cloud Dynamics in Complex Plasma Afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Layden, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    Experimental observations of dust cloud dynamics in a RF discharge afterglow are presented. Image analysis is used to extract information from videos taken of the plasma. Estimations of the mean confining electric field have been made for different experimental conditions using a model for the contraction of the dust cloud. Dust particle trajectories in the late afterglow evidence the co-existence of positively and negatively charged dust particles.

  8. Short GRB 130603B: Discovery of a jet break in the optical and radio afterglows, and a mysterious late-time X-ray excess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Migliori, G.; Zauderer, B. A.; Lunnan, R.; Laskar, T.; Metzger, B. D.; Foley, R. J.; Desch, S. J.; Meech, K. J.; Sonnett, S.; Dickey, C.; Hedlund, A.; Harding, P.

    2014-01-10

    We present radio, optical/NIR, and X-ray observations of the afterglow of the short-duration Swift and Konus-Wind GRB 130603B, and uncover a break in the radio and optical bands at ≈0.5 day after the burst, best explained as a jet break with an inferred jet opening angle of ≈4°-8°. GRB 130603B is only the third short GRB with a radio afterglow detection to date, and represents the first time that a jet break has been evident in the radio band. We model the temporal evolution of the spectral energy distribution to determine the burst explosion properties and find an isotropic-equivalent kinetic energy of ≈(0.6-1.7) × 10{sup 51} erg and a circumburst density of ≈5 × 10{sup –3}-30 cm{sup –3}. From the inferred opening angle of GRB 130603B, we calculate beaming-corrected energies of E {sub γ} ≈ (0.5-2) × 10{sup 49} erg and E {sub K} ≈ (0.1-1.6) × 10{sup 49} erg. Along with previous measurements and lower limits we find a median opening angle of ≈10°. Using the all-sky observed rate of 10 Gpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1}, this implies a true short GRB rate of ≈20 yr{sup –1} within 200 Mpc, the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO sensitivity range for neutron star binary mergers. Finally, we uncover evidence for significant excess emission in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 130603B at ≳ 1 day and conclude that the additional energy component could be due to fall-back accretion or spin-down energy from a magnetar formed following the merger.

  9. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K.

    2012-10-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, τ, for the standard Swift energy bands 50-100 keV and 100-200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L iso (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, LX , of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical X-Ray Telescope GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T brk. We also present the LX -T brk relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (ρ = -0.65 for the L iso-τ and ρ = -0.88 for the LX -T brk relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power-law indices (-1.19 ± 0.17 for L iso-τ and -1.10 ± 0.03 for LX -T brk). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although τ and T brk represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L iso-τ) extrapolates into the second one for timescales τ ~= T brk. This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  10. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, tau, for the standard Swift energy bands 50 - 100 keV and 100 - 200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L(sub iso) (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift GRBs taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, L(sub x), of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical XRT GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T(sub brk). We also present the L(sub x) - T(sub brk) relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (rho = -0.65 for the L(sub iso) - tao and rho = -0.88 for the L(sub x) -T(sub brk) relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power law indices (-1.19 +/- 0.17 for L(sub iso) - tau and -1.10 +/- 0.03 for L(sub x) - T(sub brk)). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although tau and T(sub brk) represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L(sub iso) - tao) extrapolates into the second one for timescales tau similar to T(sub brk) This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  11. The spectral energy distribution of Zeta Puppis and HD 50896

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, A. V.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectral energy distribution of the O5f star Zeta Pup and the WN5 star HD 50896 are derived from OAO-2 observations with the calibration of Bless, Code, and Fairchild (1976). An estimate of the interstellar reddening (0.12 magnitude) of the Wolf-Rayet star is determined from the size of the characteristic interstellar extinction bump at 4.6 inverse microns. After correction for extinction, both stars show a flat energy distribution in the ultraviolet. The distribution of HD 50896 from 1100 A to 2 microns is in good agreement with results of extended model atmospheres, but some uncertainty remains because of the interstellar-extinction correction. The absolute energy distribution of Zeta Pup is fitted by a 42,000-K plane-parallel model if the model's flux is adjusted for the effects of electron scattering in the stellar wind and for UV line blanketing that was determined empirically from high-resolution Copernicus satellite observations. To achieve this fit, it is necessary to push both the spectroscopically determined temperature and the ultraviolet calibration to the limits of their probable errors.

  12. Gamma-ray burst radio afterglows from Population III stars: simulation methods and detection prospects with SKA precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, D.; Coward, D.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the prospects of detecting radio afterglows from long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) from Population III (Pop III) progenitors using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) precursor instruments MWA (Murchison Widefield Array) and ASKAP (Australian SKA Pathfinder). We derive a realistic model of GRB afterglows that encompasses the widest range of plausible physical parameters and observation angles. We define the best case scenario of Pop III GRB energy and redshift distributions. Using probability distribution functions fitted to the observed microphysical parameters of long GRBs, we simulate a large number of Pop III GRB afterglows to find the global probability of detection. We find that ASKAP may be able to detect 35 per cent of Pop III GRB afterglows in the optimistic case, and 27 per cent in the pessimistic case. A negligible number will be detectable by MWA in either case. Detections per image for ASKAP, found by incorporating intrinsic rates with detectable time-scales, are as high as ˜6000 and as low as ˜11, which shows the optimistic case is unrealistic. We track how the afterglow flux density changes over various time intervals and find that, because of their very slow variability, the cadence for blind searches of these afterglows should be as long as possible. We also find Pop III GRBs at high redshift have radio afterglow light curves that are indistinguishable from those of regular long GRBs in the more local Universe.

  13. THE LATE PEAKING AFTERGLOW OF GRB 100418A

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F. E.; Holland, S. T.; Sakamoto, T.; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Siegel, M. H.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Evans, P. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Liang, E. W.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-02-01

    GRB 100418A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) at redshift z = 0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves. After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least {approx}7 x 10{sup 3} s after the trigger, peak at {approx}5 x 10{sup 4} s, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in GRB afterglows. Observations with Rapid Eye Mount during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 4} s. The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the jet of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is {>=}10{sup 2} times the 10{sup 51} erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis jet model would require the intrinsic T{sub 90} for the GRB jet viewed on-axis to be very short, {approx}10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs. The non-detection of a jet break up to t {approx} 2 x 10{sup 6} s indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least {approx}14{sup 0}, and a relatively high-collimation-corrected jet energy of E{sub jet} {>=} 10{sup 52} erg.

  14. The Late Peaking Afterglow of GR8 100418A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Frank; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Covino, S.; dePasquale, M.; Evans, P. A.; Fugazza, D.; Holland, S. T.; Liang, E. W.; OBrien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Sakamoto, T.; Siegel, M. H.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 100418A is a long Gamma-Ray Burst at redshift z=0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves ' After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least approx.7 ks after the trigger, peak at approx.50 ks, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in 6R8 afterglows. Observations with REM during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at approx.25 ks, The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the 'et of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is >100 times the 10(exp 51) erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis 'et model would require the intrinsic $T f801$ for the GR8 'et viewed on-axis to be very short, approx.10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs^ The non-detection of a 'et break up to approx.2 Ms indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least 14 degrees, and a relatively high collimation-corrected 'et energy of at least 10(exp 52) erg.

  15. Radio afterglow rebrightening: evidence for multiple active phases in gamma-ray burst central engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-Biao; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Rice, Jared

    2015-09-01

    The rebrightening phenomenon is an interesting feature in some X-ray, optical, and radio afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here, we propose a possible energy-supply assumption to explain the rebrightenings of radio afterglows, in which the central engine with multiple active phases can supply at least two GRB pulses in a typical GRB duration time. Considering the case of double pulses supplied by the central engine, the double pulses have separate physical parameters, except for the number density of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Their independent radio afterglows are integrated by the ground detectors to form the rebrightening phenomenon. In this Letter, we firstly simulate diverse rebrightening light curves under consideration of different and independent physical parameters. Using this assumption, we also give our best fit to the radio afterglow of GRB 970508 at three frequencies of 1.43, 4.86, and 8.46 GHz. We suggest that the central engine may be active continuously at a timescale longer than that of a typical GRB duration time as many authors have suggested (e.g., Zhang et al., Astrophys. J. 787:66, 2014; Gao and Mészáros, Astrophys. J. 802:90, 2015), and that it may supply enough energy to cause the long-lasting rebrightenings observed in some GRB afterglows.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, David M.; Lenert, Andrej; Chan, Walker R.; Bhatia, Bikram; Celanović, Ivan; Soljačić, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-06-01

    Solar thermophotovoltaic devices have the potential to enhance the performance of solar energy harvesting by converting broadband sunlight to narrow-band thermal radiation tuned for a photovoltaic cell. A direct comparison of the operation of a photovoltaic with and without a spectral converter is the most critical indicator of the promise of this technology. Here, we demonstrate enhanced device performance through the suppression of 80% of unconvertible photons by pairing a one-dimensional photonic crystal selective emitter with a tandem plasma–interference optical filter. We measured a solar-to-electrical conversion rate of 6.8%, exceeding the performance of the photovoltaic cell alone. The device operates more efficiently while reducing the heat generation rates in the photovoltaic cell by a factor of two at matching output power densities. We determined the theoretical limits, and discuss the implications of surpassing the Shockley–Queisser limit. Improving the performance of an unaltered photovoltaic cell provides an important framework for the design of high-efficiency solar energy converters.

  17. The Spectral Energy Distribution of HH 100 IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the modeling of the radiative transfer in star forming regions has lead to improved dusty envelope models. Such models can now explain in great detail the observed infrared spectrum. The success of such models suggests that input parameters correspond to the true physical situation of the environment of the young stellar object. However, so far only minor attention has been given to models which include the spectroscopic signature of ice bands. Such models are applied to the Herbig-Haro energy source HH100 IRS. Calculations have been performed to interpret the spectral energy distribution as a function of dust parameters such as the grain size, the ice volume fraction, and the 'fluffiness' of the particles. The infrared spectrum together with the strength of the water ice band of HH 100 IRS is successfully reproduced if an upper limit of the grain size below 1 micron is used. Comet-like grains, with sizes above 1 micron, result in a poor fit of the observations.

  18. Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blastwave Physics: Absorption by Host Galaxy Gas and Dust, Circumburst Media and the Distribution of P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; Wijers, R. a. M. J.; Curran, P.; Rol, E.; Wiersema, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderHorst, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    We use a new approach to obtain limits on the absorbing columns towards a sample of 10 Gamma-ray Bursts observed by BeppoSAX from simultaneous fits to X-ray, optical and IR data, in counts space and including the effects of metallicity. For half the afterglows the best-fitting model to the SED includes SMC-like extinction (as opposed to LMC or MW) and in one LMC-like extinction, and in no cases is there a preference for MW-like extinction. Gas-to-dust ratios generally do not match those of the 3 standard and most well-known extinction models of SMC, LMC and MW, but tend to be higher. We compare the results from this method to those of previous works using other methods. We constrain the jet models for a subsample of the bursts by constraining the cooling break position and power law spectral slopes, allowing the injected electron energy index to be measured. We derive secure values of p from our spectral fits and comparison with the temporal optical and X-ray slopes for 4 afterglows. The mean of these single value, suggesting that either external factors such as circumburst medium play a strong role or that the microphysics is not identical for each GRB. For GRB 971214 we find that the circumburst medium has a wind-like density profile and the cooling frequency appears to be moving to higher frequencies.

  19. Modeling the Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts for Arbitrary Viewing Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dominic; Morsony, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present models of GRB afterglow light curves for simulated GRBs. We describe a method by which the energy distribution of the system can be determined for an arbitrary viewing angle relative to the jet axis. From this distribution, we calculate the time-evolution of the expanding shockwave from the stellar explosion. With relativistic considerations, we can model the synchrotron radiation emitted in this shockwave and construct the time-evolution of the afterglows seen by an observer at an arbitrary angle. We will present results of the calculated afterglow spectra as functions of time for energy distributions from numerical simulations as well as for simple jet models. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  20. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V. Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2014-10-21

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems – the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 {sup 3}P{sub 1}), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −6} was determined from the experimental data. Also

  1. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Krčma, F.

    2014-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems - the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 3P1), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N2(A ^3 Σ ^+_u) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10-6 was determined from the experimental data. Also sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to

  2. Propagation of spectral functions and dilepton production at SIS energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Gy.; Kaempfer, B.; Zetenyi, M.

    2012-06-15

    The time evolution of vector meson spectral functions is studied within a BUU-type transport model. Applications focus on {rho} and {omega} mesons being important pieces for the interpretation of the dielectron invariant mass spectrum. Since the evolution of the spectral functions is driven by the local density, the inmedium modifications turn out to compete, in this approach, with the known vacuum contributions.

  3. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Laskar, T.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R.; Dupuy, T. J.; Levan, A.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Mangano, V.; Fox, D. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Menten, K. M.; Hjorth, J.; Roth, K.

    2013-03-10

    We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB

  4. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the infrared emission in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose strength is comparable to the optical/ultraviolet (OUV) emission, is generally thought to be a combination of thermal emission from dust and non-thermal, synchrotron emission. Although data are sparse, particularly in the far-infrared, the broad wavelength range of this emission suggests a wide range of temperatures and a combination of AGN and starburst heating mechanisms. The strength of the non-thermal emission is expected to be related to the radio emission. While this scenario is well-established, basic questions, such as the spatial and temperature distribution of the dust, the relative importance of AGN and starburst heating, and the significance of the non-thermal contribution remain largely undetermined. The wide wavelength range of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) combined with its arcmin spatial resolution and increased sensitivity facilitated the observation of a larger subset of the AGN population than previously covered, allowing these questions to be investigated in more detail. This paper will review the spectral energy distributions (SED) of AGN with particular emphasis on the infrared emission and on ISO's contributions to our knowledge. Preliminary results from ISO observations of X-ray selected and high-redshift AGN will be described.

  5. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Interacting Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Sandra; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Besla, Gurtina; Patton, David R.; Privon, George C.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the TiNy Titans survey, the first systematic study of interactions between dwarf galaxies. Galaxy interactions are known to be of fundamental importance to the evolution of massive galaxies -- they have been observed to impact morphology, star formation rates, and ISM composition. Such interactions also occur frequently between low mass dwarf galaxies, but this process is poorly understood and largely overlooked in comparison. Although the majority of mergers at all redshifts are expected to take place between low mass galaxies, until now there have not been comparable systematic studies of dwarf galaxy interactions, leaving open the question of whether interactions between low mass galaxies can strongly affect their own evolution. The TiNy Titans survey, a complete sample of isolated dwarf galaxy pairs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), is specifically designed to address this gap in our understanding of galaxy evolution. The SEDs presented here, generated from archival WISE, SDSS, and GALEX photometric data, allow us to characterize the typical interacting dwarf galaxy, as well as quantify the deviations from this average distribution. We also present trends in the SEDs as a function of projected radial separation, a proxy for interaction stage.

  6. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Dwarf Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of G77-61 (Dahn et al. 1977) -- a star with a carbon-rich spectrum a mere 58 pc away and therefore of relatively low luminosity -- led to the recognition that _dwarf_ carbon (dC) stars exist. As more dCs are now known, the accepted paradigm of the presence of atmospheric carbon is that dCs must contain a white dwarf secondary. While the white dwarf companion was going through an AGB stage, it deposited carbon-rich material in the atmosphere of the lower-mass (and now brighter) dwarf star. Indeed, a handful of the dC's have exhibited radial velocity signatures consistent with this picture. To allow for the carbon to still be present in the atmosphere past the AGB stage, a replenishing outer shell or disk has been proposed. Current understanding of the formation and evolution of a dC is, however, limited by the small number of objects and observations. We present a full range of fluxes and flux limits from 1 - 160 um including 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel observations for a list of the nearest carbon dwarfs. We reconstruct the spectral energy distribution exploring the mid-infrared region where any residual debris disks would be detectable. The carbon dwarfs have been historically studied in the visible, and these new infrared observations provide a picture of the circumstellar dust.

  7. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars; Hayward, Christopher C.; Brassington, Nicola

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  8. SATMC: Spectral energy distribution Analysis Through Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. P.; Wilson, G. W.; Tang, Y.; Scott, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the general purpose spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting tool SED Analysis Through Markov Chains (SATMC). Utilizing Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) algorithms, SATMC fits an observed SED to SED templates or models of the user's choice to infer intrinsic parameters, generate confidence levels and produce the posterior parameter distribution. Here, we describe the key features of SATMC from the underlying MCMC engine to specific features for handling SED fitting. We detail several test cases of SATMC, comparing results obtained from traditional least-squares methods, which highlight its accuracy, robustness and wide range of possible applications. We also present a sample of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) that have been fitted using the SED synthesis routine GRASIL as input. In general, these SMGs are shown to occupy a large volume of parameter space, particularly in regards to their star formation rates which range from ˜30 to 3000 M⊙ yr-1 and stellar masses which range from ˜1010 to 1012 M⊙. Taking advantage of the Bayesian formalism inherent to SATMC, we also show how the fitting results may change under different parametrizations (i.e. different initial mass functions) and through additional or improved photometry, the latter being crucial to the study of high-redshift galaxies.

  9. Gastric Cancer Staging with Dual Energy Spectral CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zilai; Pang, Lifang; Ding, Bei; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Wang, Baisong; Song, Qi; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Fuhua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical utility of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) in staging and characterizing gastric cancers. Materials and Methods 96 patients suspected of gastric cancers underwent dual-phasic scans (arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP)) with DEsCT mode. Three types of images were reconstructed for analysis: conventional polychromatic images, material-decomposition images, and monochromatic image sets with photon energies from 40 to 140 keV. The polychromatic and monochromatic images were compared in TNM staging. The iodine concentrations in the lesions and lymph nodes were measured on the iodine-based material-decomposition images. These values were further normalized against that in aorta and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) values were statistically compared. Results were correlated with pathological findings. Results The overall accuracies for T, N and M staging were (81.2%, 80.0%, and 98.9%) and (73.9%, 75.0%, and 98.9%) determined with the monochromatic images and the conventional kVp images, respectively. The improvement of the accuracy in N-staging using the keV images was statistically significant (p<0.05). The nIC values between the differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes were significantly different both in AP (p = 0.02, respectively) and PP (p = 0.01, respectively). Among metastatic lymph nodes, nIC of the signet-ring cell carcinoma were significantly different from the adenocarcinoma (p = 0.02) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01) in PP. Conclusion The monochromatic images obtained with DEsCT may be used to improve the N-staging accuracy. Quantitative iodine concentration measurements may be helpful for differentiating between differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma, and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:23424614

  10. The puzzling afterglow of GRB 050721: a rebrightening seen in the optical but not in the X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, L. A.; Romano, P.; Testa, V.; D'Elia, V.; Guetta, D.; Torii, K.; Malesani, D.

    2007-08-21

    We present here the analysis of the early and late multiwavelength afterglow emission, as observed by Swift a small robotic telescope, and the VLT. We compare early observations with late afterglow observations obtained with Swift and the VLT and we observe an intense rebrightening in the optical band at about one day after the burst which is not present in the X-ray band. The lack of detection in X-ray of such a strong rebrightening at lower energies may be described with a variable external density profile. In such a scenario, the combined X-ray and optical observations allow us to derive that the matter density located at {approx} 1017 cm from the burst is about a factor of 10 higher than in the inner region. This is the first time in which a rebrightening has been observed in the optical afterglow of a GRB that is clearly absent in the X-ray afterglow.

  11. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  12. rf-generated ambient-afterglow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Shariff; Mynampati, Sandhya; Pashaie, Bijan; Dhali, Shirshak K.

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained importance due to their potential application in polymer surface treatment, surface cleaning of metals, thin film deposition, and destruction of biological hazards. In this paper a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure afterglow plasma source in argon and helium is discussed. The light intensity measurement shows that the radio-frequency discharge is continuous in time unlike the intermittent nature of a low frequency dielectric-barrier discharge. The discharge, under ambient conditions, can be generated in argon, helium, and nitrogen. Spectroscopic measurements show that metastables are capable of producing oxygen atoms and other excited species. The argon afterglow, in particular, is capable of dissociating oxygen molecules in the ambient gas. An afterglow model has been developed to study the interaction of the plasma with the ambient gas. Results from applications of the plasma to surface treatment of metals and polymers, and bacterial decontamination are briefly discussed.

  13. GRB afterglows in the nonrelativistic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. F.; Lu, T.

    2008-10-01

    When discussing the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts analytically, it is usually assumed that the external shock is always ultra-relativisitc, with the bulk Lorentz factor much larger than 1. However, we show that the deceleration of the external shock is actually very quick. The afterglow may typically enter the nonrelativistic phase in several days to teens of days, and may even enter the deep Newtonian phase in tens of days to several months. One thus should be careful in using those familiar analytical expressions that are derived only under the ultra-relativistic assumption. To explain the observed afterglows that typically last for a few weeks to several months, we need to consider the dynamics and radiation in the nonrelativisitic phase.

  14. Constraints on the Source for Gamma-ray bursts from Observed X-Ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant; Ruffini, Remo

    2015-04-01

    X-ray afterglows from long-duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with energetic type Ic supernovae and the late time behavior of the afterglow from all GRBs follows the same universal normalization and power-law behavior at late times (~104 - 107 sec) when plotted relative to the time of the initial GRB trigger. We describe constraints from this afterglow on the engine for GRBs in the context of simple model for X-ray emission from accelerated relativistic electrons within an outgoing relativistic shock. We show that this universal scaling imposes 3 constraints: 1) The shock breakout energy is the same (~1051 ergs) for all bursts independently of the observed GRB luminosity; 2) After breakout, the shock propagates through an optically thin low-density (~ 1 - 10 g cm-3 medium; 3) The energy radiated by the shock is a small fraction of the total shock energy. These suggest that the late-time power-law afterglow emission derives from the underlying energetic supernova with a similar total shock energy. The correlation of the of the observed GRB energy with the luminosity of the plateau suggests a GRB engine occurring at different radii within the expanding SN consistent with the induced gravitational collapse paradigm. Work at the University of Notre Dame (GJM) supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Nuclear Theory Grant DE-FG02-95-ER40934.

  15. The bright optical flash and afterglow from the gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Panaitescu, A; Wozniak, P R; Davis, H; Palmer, D M; Vianello, G; Omodei, N; Xiong, S; Briggs, M S; Elphick, M; Paciesas, W; Rosing, W

    2014-01-01

    The optical light generated simultaneously with x-rays and gamma rays during a gamma-ray burst (GRB) provides clues about the nature of the explosions that occur as massive stars collapse. We report on the bright optical flash and fading afterglow from powerful burst GRB 130427A. The optical and >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma-ray flux show a close correlation during the first 7000 seconds, which is best explained by reverse shock emission cogenerated in the relativistic burst ejecta as it collides with surrounding material. At later times, optical observations show the emergence of emission generated by a forward shock traversing the circumburst environment. The link between optical afterglow and >100-MeV emission suggests that nearby early peaked afterglows will be the best candidates for studying gamma-ray emission at energies ranging from gigaelectron volts to teraelectron volts. PMID:24263131

  16. The Flat Decay Phase in the Early X-Ray Afterglows of Swift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-03-27

    Many Swift GRBs show an early phase of shallow decay in their X-ray afterglows, lasting from t {approx} 10{sup 2.5} s to {approx} 10{sup 4} s after the GRB, where the flux decays as {approx} t{sup -0.2} - t{sup -0.8}. This is perhaps the most mysterious of the new features discovered by Swift in the early X-ray afterglow, since it is still not clear what causes it. I discuss different possible explanations for this surprising new discovery, as well as their potential implications for the gamma-ray efficiency, the afterglow kinetic energy, and perhaps even for the physics of collisionless relativistic shocks.

  17. The Early Time Properties of GRBs - Canonical Afterglows and the Importance of Prolonged Central Engine Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Steele, I. A.; Smith, R. J.; Carter, D.; Bode, M. F.; Guidorzi, C.; Gomboc, A.

    2009-05-25

    Using a new, comprehensive multiwavelength survey of 63 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with unprecedented temporal coverage, we classify the observed afterglows into four main classes and discuss the underlying physics that can explain them. The presence or absence of temporal breaks in X-ray and optical bands is used to examine the emission in the context of the standard model; a number of GRBs are shown to deviate from the forward shock model even with the inclusion of energy injection or ambient density gradients. We show that additional emission in the early-time X-ray afterglow due to late-time central engine activity is key and may explain both GRBs whose afterglows do not fit the standard model and those GRBs that appear to be optically dark even at early times.

  18. Revisiting the Dispersion Measure of Fast Radio Bursts Associated with Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    Some fast radio bursts (FRBs) are expected to be associated with the afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), while a short-lived, supermassive neutron star (NS) forms during the GRBs. I investigate the possible contributions to the dispersion measure (DM) of the FRBs from the GRB ejecta and the wind blown from the precollapsing NS. On the one hand, sometimes an internal X-ray plateau afterglow could be produced by the NS wind, which indicates that a great number of electron-positron pairs are carried by the wind. If the pair-generation radius satisfies a somewhat rigorous condition, the relativistic and dense wind would contribute a high DM to the associated FRB, which can be comparable to and even exceed the DM contributed by the intergalactic medium. On the other hand, if the wind only carries a Goldreich-Julian particle flux, its DM contribution would become negligible; meanwhile, the internal plateau afterglow would not appear. Alternatively, the FRB should be associated with a GRB afterglow produced by the GRB external shock, i.e., an energy-injection-caused shallow-decay afterglow or a normal single-power-law afterglow if the impulsive energy release of the GRB is high enough. In the latter case, the DM contributed by the high-mass GRB ejecta could be substantially important, in particular, for an environment of main-sequence stellar wind. In summary, a careful assessment on the various DM contributors could be required for the cosmological application of the expected FRB-GRB association. The future DM measurements of GRB-associated FRBs could provide a constraint on the physics of NS winds.

  19. Revisiting the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    Some fast radio bursts (FRBs) are expected to be associated with the afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), while a short-lived, supermassive neutron star (NS) forms during the GRBs. I investigate the possible contributions to the dispersion measure (DM) of the FRBs from the GRB ejecta and the wind blown from the precollapsing NS. On the one hand, sometimes an internal X-ray plateau afterglow could be produced by the NS wind, which indicates that a great number of electron-positron pairs are carried by the wind. If the pair-generation radius satisfies a somewhat rigorous condition, the relativistic and dense wind would contribute a high DM to the associated FRB, which can be comparable to and even exceed the DM contributed by the intergalactic medium. On the other hand, if the wind only carries a Goldreich-Julian particle flux, its DM contribution would become negligible; meanwhile, the internal plateau afterglow would not appear. Alternatively, the FRB should be associated with a GRB afterglow produced by the GRB external shock, i.e., an energy-injection-caused shallow-decay afterglow or a normal single-power-law afterglow if the impulsive energy release of the GRB is high enough. In the latter case, the DM contributed by the high-mass GRB ejecta could be substantially important, in particular, for an environment of main-sequence stellar wind. In summary, a careful assessment on the various DM contributors could be required for the cosmological application of the expected FRB-GRB association. The future DM measurements of GRB-associated FRBs could provide a constraint on the physics of NS winds.

  20. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions As A Function Of Physical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Shonda; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Derseweh, J. A.; Richmond, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). In turn, models of outflows have shown particular sensitivity to the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED), depending on the UV luminosity to transfer momentum to the gas, the X-ray luminosity to regulate how efficiently that transfer can be, etc. To investigate how SED changes with physical properties, we follow up on Richards et al. (2006), who constructed SEDs with varying luminosity. Here, we construct SEDs as a function of redshift, and physical property (black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio) for volume limited samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with photometry supplemented from 2MASS, WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, and Chandra. To estimate black hole masses, we adopt the scaling relations from Greene & Ho (2005) based on the H-alpha emission line FWHM. This requires redshifts less than 0.4. To construct volume-limited subsamples, we begin by adopting g=19.8 as a nominal limiting magnitude over which we are guaranteed to detect z<0.4 quasars. At redshift 0.4, we are complete down to Mg=-21.8, which yields 3300 objects from Data Release 7. At z=0.1, we are complete down to Mg=-18.5. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  1. Constructing and Analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions with the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurino, Omar; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Doe, S.; Evans, J.; Pevunova, O.; Norris, P.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are a common and useful means of assessing the relative contributions of different emission processes occurring within an object. Iris, the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) SED tool, seamlessly combines key features of several existing astronomical software applications to streamline and enhance the SED analysis process. With Iris, users may build and display SEDs, browse data and metadata and apply filters to them, fit models to SEDs, and calculate confidence limits on best-fit parameters. SED data may be built from a number of sources using the SED Builder. Iris supports the Simple Application Messaging Protocol for interoperability with other Virtual Observatory applications, like the VAO Data Discovery tool, and can directly fetch SEDs from the NASA Extragalactic Database SED service. Particular attention has been paid to the integration of user spectrophotometric data from files in several different formats. File readers for custom formats can be provided at runtime, as well as custom models to fit the data, as template libraries for template fitting or arbitrary python functions. New functionalities can be added by installing plugins, i.e. third party components that are developed using the Iris Software Development Kit. The VAO was established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. Iris Individual components have also been supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA contract NAS8-03060, and by the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  2. Optical and NIR observations of the afterglow of GRB 020813

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, S.; Malesani, D.; Tavecchio, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arkharov, A.; Di Paola, A.; Fugazza, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Larionov, V.; Lazzati, D.; Mannucci, F.; Masetti, N.; Barrena, R.; Benetti, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fiore, F.; Frontera, F.; Fruchter, A.; Ghinassi, F.; Gladders, M.; Hall, P. B.; Israel, G. L.; Klose, S.; Magazzù, A.; Palazzi, E.; Pedani, M.; Pian, E.; Romano, P.; Stefanon, M.; Stella, L.

    2003-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of the bright afterglow of GRB 020813. Our data span from 3 hours to 4 days after the GRB event. A rather sharp achromatic break is present in the light curve, 14 hours after the trigger. In the framework of jetted fireballs, this break corresponds to a jet half-opening angle of 1.9degr +/-0.2degr , the smallest value ever inferred for a GRB. We discuss our results in the framework of currently available models, and find that they have problems in explaining the joint temporal and spectral properties, and in particular the slow decay before the break. Based on observations partly made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under programme Id 69.D-0461 and with the Italian TNG telescope under programme TAC 8_01(47).

  3. The Achromatic Light Curve of the Optical Afterglow of GRB 030226 at a Redshift of z Approximately 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, S.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Henden, A. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Zeh, A.; Masetti, N.; Guenther, E.; Stecklum, B.; Lindsay, K.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. We report on optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up observations of the afterglow of GRB 030226, mainly performed with the telescopes at ESO La Silla and Paranal, with additional data obtained at other places. Our first observations started 0.2 days after the burst when the afterglow was at a magnitude of R approximately equal to 19 . One week later the magnitude of the afterglow had fallen to R=25, and at two weeks after the burst it could no longer be detected (R > 26). Our VLT blueband spectra show two absorption line systems at redshifts z = 1.962 +/- 0.001 and at z = 1.986 +/- 0.001, placing the redshift of the burster close to 2. Within our measurement errors no evidence for variations in the line strengths has been found between 0.2 and 1.2 days after the burst. An overabundance of alpha-group elements might indicate that the burst occurred in a chemically young interstellar region shaped by the nucleosynthesis from type II supernovae. The spectral slope of the afterglow shows no signs for cosmic dust along the line of sight in the GRB host galaxy, which itself remained undetected (R > 26.2). At the given redshift no supernova component affected the light from the GRB afterglow, so that the optical transient was essentially only powered by the radiation from the GRB fireball, allowing for a detailed investigation of the color evolution of the afterglow light. In our data set no obvious evidence for color changes has been found before, during, or after the smooth break in the light curve approximately 1 day after the burst. In comparison with investigations by others, our data favor the interpretation that the afterglow began to develop into a homogeneous interstellar medium before the break in the light curve became apparent.

  4. Observation on long afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Haoyi; Hu, Yihua; Kang, Fengwen; Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ju, Guifang; Mu, Zhongfei

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The afterglow of Tb{sup 3+} is observed in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. The main emission of the afterglow is ascribed to the {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 6}. Emission due to {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5} is weak. The cross-relaxation dominate the afterglow emission and it enhances the transition from {sup 5}D{sub 4} whereas from {sup 5}D{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A green long afterglow is observed from Tb{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4} matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two traps which may have a strong influence on the afterglow properties are revealed by TL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism model based on energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} followed by cross-relaxation is proposed. -- Abstract: The Tb{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphors are synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that small amount of Tb{sup 3+} does not have a significant influence on the structure of CaWO{sub 4}. A broad absorption band of the WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group is observed from photoluminescence and the energy transfer from WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} group to Tb{sup 3+} ions induces the f-f transition. The cross-relaxation between two adjacent Tb{sup 3+} ions weakens {sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions and enhances the {sup 5}D{sub 4}-{sup 7}F{sub j} transitions, leading to a green long afterglow of the phosphors. The thermoluminescence curves centered around 75 Degree-Sign C reveal the trap depth for afterglow generation is about 0.74-0.77 eV. The optimum Tb{sup 3+} concentration for afterglow properties is about 1%. A deep hole trap is induced when Tb{sup 3+} concentration exceeds 1% and it suppresses the thermoluminescence and the decay properties.

  5. The behaviour of negative oxygen ions in the afterglow of a reactive HiPIMS discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, M.; Bradley, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    Using a single Langmuir probe, the temporal evolution of the oxygen negative ion, n-, and electron, ne, densities in the afterglow of a reactive HiPIMS discharge operating in argon-oxygen gas mixtures have been determined. The magnetron was equipped with a titanium target and operated in ‘poisoned’ mode at a frequency of 100 Hz with a pulse width of 100 µs for a range of oxygen partial pressures, {p_{O_{2}}}/{p_{total}} = 0.0{{-}}0.5 . In the initial afterglow, the density of the principle negative ion in the discharge (O-) was of the order of 1016 m-3 for all conditions. The O- concentration was found to decay slowly with characteristic decay times between 585 µs and 1.2 ms over the oxygen partial pressure range. Electron densities were observed to fall more rapidly, resulting in long-lived highly electronegative afterglow plasmas where the ratio, α = n-/ne, was found to reach values up to 672 (±100) for the highest O2 partial pressure. By comparing results to a simple plasma-chemical model, we speculate that with increased {p_{O_{2}}}/{p_{total}} ratio, more O- ions are formed in the afterglow via dissociative electron attachment to highly excited metastable oxygen molecules, with the latter being formed during the active phase of the discharge. After approximately 2.5 ms into the off-time, the afterglow degenerates into an ion-ion plasma and negative ions are free to impinge upon the chamber walls and grounded substrates with flux densities of the order of 1018 m-2 s-1, which is around 10% of the positive ion flux measured during the on-time. This illustrates the potential importance of the long afterglow in reactive HiPIMS, which can act as a steady source of low energy O- ions to a growing thin film at the substrate during periods of reduced positive ion bombardment.

  6. Afterglow Organic Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Kabe, Ryota; Notsuka, Naoto; Yoshida, Kou; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-27

    An afterglow organic light-emitting diode (OLED) that displays electroluminescence with long transient decay after it is turned off is demonstrated. This OLED exhibits blue and green dual emission originating from fluorescence and phosphorescence, respectively. A phosphorescence lifetime of 4.3 s is achieved. PMID:26599764

  7. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    WISE J085510.83–071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855–0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (∼250 K) and the fourth-closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855–0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N ∼ 3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449 ± 0.008″ (2.23 ± 0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855–0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. and Morley et al. that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our estimates of Y ‑ J and J ‑ H for WISE 0855–0714 are redder than colors of other Y dwarfs, confirming a predicted reversal of near-IR colors to redder values at temperatures below 300–400 K. In color–magnitude diagrams, no single suite of models provides a clearly superior match to the sequence formed by WISE 0855–0714 and other Y dwarfs. Instead, the best-fitting model changes from one diagram to the next. Similarly, all of the models have substantial differences from the SED of WISE 0855–0714. As a result, we are currently unable to constrain the presence of clouds or nonequilibrium chemistry in its atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  8. IN SEARCH OF PROGENITORS FOR SUPERNOVALESS GAMMA-RAY BURSTS 060505 AND 060614: RE-EXAMINATION OF THEIR AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Sollerman, J.; Watson, D.; Hjorth, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Yost, S.; Foley, S.

    2009-05-01

    GRB 060505 and GRB 060614 are nearby long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) without accompanying supernovae (SNe) down to very strict limits. They thereby challenge the conventional LGRB-SN connection and naturally give rise to the question: are there other peculiar features in their afterglows which would help shed light on their progenitors? To answer this question, we combine new observational data with published data and investigate the multiband temporal and spectral properties of the two afterglows. We find that both afterglows can be well interpreted within the framework of the jetted standard external shock wave model, and that the afterglow parameters for both bursts fall well within the range observed for other LGRBs. Hence, from the properties of the afterglows there is nothing to suggest that these bursts should have another progenitor than other LGRBs. Recently, Swift-discovered GRB 080503 also has the spike + tail structure during its prompt {gamma}-ray emission seemingly similar to GRB 060614. We analyze the prompt emission of this burst and find that this GRB is actually a hard-spike + hard-tail burst with a spectral lag of 0.8 {+-} 0.4 s during its tail emission. Thus, the properties of the prompt emission of GRB 060614 and GRB 080503 are clearly different, motivating further thinking of GRB classification (and even identification of faint core-collapse SNe). Finally, we note that, whereas the progenitor of the two SN-less bursts remains uncertain, the core-collapse origin for the SN-less bursts would be quite certain if a windlike environment can be observationally established, e.g., from an optical decay faster than the X-ray decay in the afterglow's slow cooling phase.

  9. GRB 021211 as a Faint Analogue of GRB 990123: Exploring the Similarities and Differences in the Optical Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Bersier, David; Bloom, J. S.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Caldwell, Nelson; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert; Luhman, Kevin; McLeod, Brian; Stanek, K. Z.

    2004-01-01

    We present BVR(sub c)JHK(sub s) photometry of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 021211 taken at the Magellan, MMT, and WIYN observatories between 0.7 and 50 days after the burst. We find an intrinsic spectral slope at optical and near-infrared wavelengths of 0.69 +/- 0.14 at 0.87 days. The optical decay during the first day is almost identical to that of GRB 990123 except that GRB 021211's optical afterglow was intrinsically approximately 38 times fainter and the transition from the reverse shock to the forward shock may have occurred earlier than it did for GRB 990123. We find no evidence for a jet break or the cooling break passing through optical frequencies during the first day after the burst. There is weak evidence for a break in the J-band decay between 0.89 and 1.87 days which may be due to a jet. The optical and infrared data are consistent with a relativistic fireball where the shocked electrons are in the slow cooling regime and the electron index is 2.3 +/- 0.1. The burst appears to have occurred in a homogeneous ambient medium. Our analysis suggests that the jet of GRB 021211 may have a small opening angle (1.4 deg-4.4 deg) and that the total gamma-ray energy is much less than the canonical value of 1.33 x 10(exp 51) erg. If, this is the case then most of the energy of the burst may be in another form such as a frozen magnetic field, in supernova ejecta, or in a second jet component. The host galaxy of GRB 021211 is subluminous and has a star formation rate of at least 1 solar mass/yr.

  10. On the Afterglow and Progenitor of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Keane et al. recently detected a fading radio source following FRB 150418, leading to the identification of a putative host galaxy at z = 0.492 ± 0.008. Assuming that the fading source is the afterglow of FRB 150418, I model the afterglow and constrain the isotropic energy of the explosion to be a few 1050 erg, comparable to that of a short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB). The outflow may have a jet opening angle of ∼0.22 rad, so that the beaming-corrected energy is below 1049 erg. The results rule out most fast radio burst (FRB) progenitor models for this FRB, but may be consistent with either of the following two scenarios. The first scenario invokes a merger of an NS–NS binary, which produced an undetected short GRB and a supra-massive neutron star, which subsequently collapsed into a black hole, probably hundreds of seconds after the short GRB. The second scenario invokes a merger of a compact star binary (BH–BH, NS–NS, or BH–NS) system whose pre-merger dynamical magnetospheric activities made the FRB, which is followed by an undetected short GRB-like transient. The gravitational-wave (GW) event GW 150914 would be a sister of FRB 150418 in this second scenario. In both cases, one expects an exciting prospect of GW/FRB/GRB associations.

  11. From Engine to Afterglow: Collapsars Naturally Produce Top-heavy Jets and Early-time Plateaus in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that the steep decay and long plateau in the early phases of gamma-ray burst X-ray afterglows are naturally produced in the collapsar model, by a means ultimately related to the dynamics of relativistic jet propagation through a massive star. We present two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations that start from a collapsar engine and evolve all the way through the late afterglow phase. The resultant outflow includes a jet core that is highly relativistic after breaking out of the star, but becomes baryon loaded after colliding with a massive outer shell, corresponding to mass from the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor star which became trapped in front of the jet core at breakout. The prompt emission produced before or during this collision would then have the signature of a high Lorentz factor jet, but the afterglow is produced by the amalgamated post-collision ejecta that has more inertia than the original highly relativistic jet core and thus has a delayed deceleration. This naturally explains the early light curve behavior discovered by Swift, including a steep decay and a long plateau, without invoking late-time energy injection from the central engine. The numerical simulation is performed continuously from engine to afterglow, covering a dynamic range of over 10 orders of magnitude in radius. Light curves calculated from the numerical output demonstrate that this mechanism reproduces basic features seen in early afterglow data. Initial steep decays are produced by internal shocks, and the plateau corresponds to the coasting phase of the outflow.

  12. New method for evaluation of finite-energy few-electron spectral function expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Penc, K.; Sacramento, P. D.; Claessen, R.

    2004-04-01

    We present a method for the calculation of few-electron spectral functions of the one-dimen- sional Hubbard model which relies on a pseudofermion description introduced recently in Ref. [6]. The spectral functions are expressed as a convolution of pseudofermion dynamical correlation functions. Our general method involves the direct evaluation of the matrix elements of pseudofermion operators between the ground state and the excited states. We briefly discuss the application of our general method to the study of the unusual finite-energy spectral properties observed in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ. Key words. correlation effects spectral properties organic conductors

  13. Energies of GRB blast waves and prompt efficiencies as implied by modelling of X-ray and GeV afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Nava, Lara; Duran, Rodolfo Barniol; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-11-01

    We consider a sample of 10 gamma-ray bursts with long-lasting ( ≳ 102 s) emission detected by Fermi/Large Area Telescope and for which X-ray data around 1 d are also available. We assume that both the X-rays and the GeV emission are produced by electrons accelerated at the external forward shock, and show that the X-ray and the GeV fluxes lead to very different estimates of the initial kinetic energy of the blast wave. The energy estimated from GeV is on average ˜50 times larger than the one estimated from X-rays. We model the data (accounting also for optical detections around 1 d, if available) to unveil the reason for this discrepancy and find that good modelling within the forward shock model is always possible and leads to two possibilities: (i) either the X-ray emitting electrons (unlike the GeV emitting electrons) are in the slow-cooling regime or (ii) the X-ray synchrotron flux is strongly suppressed by Compton cooling, whereas, due to the Klein-Nishina suppression, this effect is much smaller at GeV energies. In both cases the X-ray flux is no longer a robust proxy for the blast wave kinetic energy. On average, both cases require weak magnetic fields (10-6 ≲ ɛB ≲ 10-3) and relatively large isotropic kinetic blast wave energies 10^{53} erg<{E}_{0,kin}<10^{55} erg corresponding to large lower limits on the collimated energies, in the range 10^{52} erg<{E}_{θ ,kin}<5× 10^{52} erg for an ISM (interstellar medium) environment with n ˜ 1 cm-3 and 10^{52} erg<{E}_{θ ,kin}<10^{53} erg for a wind environment with A* ˜ 1. These energies are larger than those estimated from the X-ray flux alone, and imply smaller inferred values of the prompt efficiency mechanism, reducing the efficiency requirements on the still uncertain mechanism responsible for prompt emission.

  14. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith I.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  15. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; de Pasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; Roming, P.; Sakamoto, T.; Swenson, C.; Virgili, F.; Wanderman, D.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multiwavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  16. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; Roming, P.; Sakamoto, T.; Swenson, C.; Troja, E.; Vasileiou, V.; Virgili, F.; Wanderman, D.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  17. FERMI AND SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW POPULATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Racusin, J. L.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.; Sakamoto, T.; Troja, E.; Vasileiou, V.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; Koch, S.; Roming, P.; Swenson, C.; Piran, T.; Wanderman, D.; Virgili, F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-10

    The new and extreme population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows several new features in high-energy gamma rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last six years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT-detected GRBs and the well-studied, fainter, and less energetic GRBs detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  18. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-05-22

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis.

  19. Relaxation of the electron energy distribution function in the afterglow of a N2 microwave discharge including space-charge field effects.

    PubMed

    Guerra, V; Sá, P A; Loureiro, J

    2001-04-01

    The relaxation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in the post-discharge of an omega/(2pi)=2.45 GHz microwave discharge in N2 has been investigated by solving the time-dependent Boltzmann equation, including a term taking into account electron losses by diffusion under the presence of a space-charge field. It is shown that although the high-energy tail of the EEDF is rapidly depleted in times of 10(-7) s (p=2 and 10 Torr), the electron density n(e)(t), the electron transport parameters, and the rate coefficients for some processes induced by electron impact, with energy thresholds typically smaller than approximately 2-3 eV, such as, e.g., stepwise excitation of N2(B (3)Pi(g)) and N2(C (3)Pi(u)) states from N2(A (3)Sigma(+)(u)) metastables and excitation of N2(X (1)Sigma(+)(g),v) levels, are only slowly modified in the time interval t approximately 10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) s due to the large characteristic times for ambipolar diffusion. As a result of modifications in n(e)(t), the change from ambipolar to free diffusion regimes occurs abruptly at t approximately 3 x 10(-4) and approximately 10(-3) s for p=2 and 10 Torr, respectively. PMID:11308953

  20. Cosmic ray spectral deformation caused by energy determination errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; Wannemark, Conny

    2005-08-01

    Using simulation methods, distortion effects on energy spectra caused by errors in the energy determination have been investigated. For cosmic ray proton spectra falling steeply with kinetic energy E as E-2.7, significant effects appear. When magnetic spectrometers are used to determine the energy, the relative error increases linearly with the energy and distortions with a sinusoidal form appear starting at an energy that depends significantly on the error distribution but at an energy lower than that corresponding to the maximum detectable rigidity of the spectrometer. The effect should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different experiments, often having different error distributions.

  1. Spin Evolution of Millisecond Magnetars with Hyperaccreting Fallback Disks: Implications for Early Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. G.; Liu, Ruo-Yu

    2012-11-01

    The shallow decay phase or plateau phase of early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), discovered by Swift, is currently understood as being due to energy injection to a relativistic blast wave. One natural scenario for energy injection invokes a millisecond magnetar as the central engine of GRBs because the conventional model of a pulsar predicts a nearly constant magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity within the spin-down timescale. However, we note that significant brightening occurs in some early afterglows, which apparently conflicts with the above scenario. Here we propose a new model to explain this significant brightening phenomena by considering a hyperaccreting fallback disk around a newborn millisecond magnetar. We show that for typical values of the model parameters, sufficient angular momentum of the accreted matter is transferred to the magnetar and spins it up. It is this spin-up that leads to a dramatic increase of the magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity with time and thus significant brightening of an early afterglow. Based on this model, we carry out numerical calculations and fit well early afterglows of 12 GRBs assuming sufficiently strong fallback accretion. If the accretion is very weak, our model turns out to be the conventional energy-injection scenario of a pulsar. Therefore, our model can provide a unified explanation for the shallow decay phase, plateaus, and significant brightening of early afterglows.

  2. SPIN EVOLUTION OF MILLISECOND MAGNETARS WITH HYPERACCRETING FALLBACK DISKS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z. G.; Liu Ruoyu E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn

    2012-11-01

    The shallow decay phase or plateau phase of early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), discovered by Swift, is currently understood as being due to energy injection to a relativistic blast wave. One natural scenario for energy injection invokes a millisecond magnetar as the central engine of GRBs because the conventional model of a pulsar predicts a nearly constant magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity within the spin-down timescale. However, we note that significant brightening occurs in some early afterglows, which apparently conflicts with the above scenario. Here we propose a new model to explain this significant brightening phenomena by considering a hyperaccreting fallback disk around a newborn millisecond magnetar. We show that for typical values of the model parameters, sufficient angular momentum of the accreted matter is transferred to the magnetar and spins it up. It is this spin-up that leads to a dramatic increase of the magnetic-dipole-radiation luminosity with time and thus significant brightening of an early afterglow. Based on this model, we carry out numerical calculations and fit well early afterglows of 12 GRBs assuming sufficiently strong fallback accretion. If the accretion is very weak, our model turns out to be the conventional energy-injection scenario of a pulsar. Therefore, our model can provide a unified explanation for the shallow decay phase, plateaus, and significant brightening of early afterglows.

  3. The Swift XRT: Observations of Early X-ray Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, David N.; Kennea, J. A.; Nousek, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Giommi, P.; Zhang, B.

    2006-05-19

    During the first year of operations of the Swift observatory, the X-ray Telescope has made a number of discoveries concerning the nature of X-ray afterglows of both long and short GRBs. We highlight the key findings, which include rapid declines at early times, a standard template of afterglow light curve shapes, common flaring, and the discovery of the first short GRB afterglow.

  4. BRIGHT BROADBAND AFTERGLOWS OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM MERGERS OF BINARY NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao He; Ding Xuan; Wu Xuefeng; Zhang Bing; Dai Zigao E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2013-07-10

    If double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, then a bright early afterglow can follow the gravitational wave burst (GWB) even if there is no short gamma-ray burst (SGRB)-GWB association or if there is an association but the SGRB does not beam toward Earth. Besides directly dissipating the proto-magnetar wind, as suggested by Zhang, here we suggest that the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process and, under certain conditions, would reach a relativistic speed. Such a magnetar-powered ejecta, when interacting with the ambient medium, would develop a bright broadband afterglow due to synchrotron radiation. We study this physical scenario in detail and present the predicted X-ray, optical, and radio light curves for a range of magnetar and ejecta parameters. We show that the X-ray and optical light curves usually peak around the magnetar spin-down timescale ({approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} s), reaching brightnesses readily detectable by wide-field X-ray and optical telescopes, and remain detectable for an extended period. The radio afterglow peaks later, but is much brighter than the case without a magnetar energy injection. Therefore, such bright broadband afterglows, if detected and combined with GWBs in the future, would be a probe of massive millisecond magnetars and stiff equations of state for nuclear matter.

  5. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  6. Energy-Discriminative Performance of a Spectral Micro-CT System

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Yu, Hengyong; Bennett, James; Ronaldson, Paul; Zainon, Rafidah; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phil; Wei, Biao; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the energy-discriminative performance of a spectral (multi-energy) micro-CT system. The system, designed by MARS (Medipix All Resolution System) Bio-Imaging Ltd. (Christchurch, New Zealand), employs a photon-counting energy-discriminative detector technology developed by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). We used the K-edge attenuation characteristic of some known materials to calibrate the detector’s photon energy discrimination. For tomographic analysis, we used the compressed sensing (CS) based ordered-subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques (OS-SART) to reconstruct sample images, which is effective to reduce noise and suppress artifacts. Unlike conventional CT, the principal component analysis (PCA) method can be applied to extract and quantify additional attenuation information from a spectral CT dataset. Our results show that the spectral CT has a good energy-discriminative performance and provides more attenuation information than the conventional CT. PMID:24004864

  7. The X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D.

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are renowned for being the brightest explosions since the Big Bang. They are extremely useful probes with which to study the cosmos, primarily because of their bright afterglows. While the afterglow is panchromatic, the X-ray afterglow has proved extremely useful: the first localisations of both short and long-duration GRBs were made via their X-ray afterglows, an X-ray afterglow is associated with almost every burst, and spectroscopy of the X-ray afterglow informs us of the material close to the GRB as well as providing an unobscured measurement of the afterglow flux for virtually every GRB. We now have an incredibly rich database of ten years worth of GRBs and their afterglows from the Swift satellite, where its rapid autonomous repointing has allowed its X-Ray Telescope to be on target only minutes after the GRB. Here I will review what we have learnt from the X-ray afterglows of GRBs and describe some exciting recent results.

  8. Pink splash of active nitrogen in the discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Akishev, Yu. S.; Grushin, M. E.; Karal'nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Trushkin, N. I.

    2007-09-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the glow dynamics of active nitrogen in the stage of its excitation by a current pulse and during the discharge afterglow. The mechanism is proposed for the generation of a light splash in a highly activated nitrogen after the end of its pulsed excitation. The key role in the generation of this splash is played by the D-V processes, by which the dissociation energy is transferred to the vibrational degrees of freedom in the course of recombination of nitrogen atoms, and the V-E processes, by which the vibrational energy of highly excited molecules N{sub 2}(X, v {>=} 25-27) is transferred to the emitting electronic states N{sub 2}(B, v) after the V-V delay. Results of simulations based on the mechanism proposed are also presented.

  9. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  10. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Fidalgo, D. Carreto; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Mendez, C. Delgado; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. Garrido; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Munoz, A. González; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. La; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López-Coto, R.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Bouvier, A.; Hayashida, M.; Tajima, H.; Longo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known since the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope observations during the 1990s and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy (VHE) photons (E > 30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z = 1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blastwave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. The results we obtained are compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the VHE range.

  11. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  12. Spectrally Selective Surface Coatings for Energy Efficiency and Solar Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines how the radiative properties of a surface can be tailored so as to be favorable for efficient utilization of energy. The radiative properties of concern are transmittance, reflectance, absorptance, and emittance. (JN)

  13. Spectral Evolution of Swift Gamma-ray Burst Tails: an Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, V.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2010-10-15

    The detailed study of the spectral evolution during the steep decay phase of early X-ray light curves of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) is a very important task that can give us information on different emission components contributing to the prompt-to-afterglow transition. Time resolved spectral analysis of bright GRBs detected by Swift has shown that a good modeling of the early X-ray light curves can be obtained with Band or cut-off power-law broad band spectra with evolving parameters (e.g., decaying peak energy). We developed a procedure to simultaneously fit the temporal evolution of all the spectral parameters of a GRB during the prompt to afterglow transition based on the analysis of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) count rate and hardness ratio light curves. The procedure has been tested on GRB 060614 and GRB 090618, two very peculiar bright GRB detected by Swift that show a long exponentially decaying tail with strong softening and peak energy crossing the XRT energy band.

  14. GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW SCALING RELATIONS FOR THE FULL BLAST WAVE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2012-03-10

    We demonstrate that gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra and light curves can be calculated for arbitrary explosion and radiation parameters by scaling the peak flux and the critical frequencies connecting different spectral regimes. Only one baseline calculation needs to be done for each jet opening angle and observer angle. These calculations are done numerically using high-resolution relativistic hydrodynamical afterglow blast wave simulations which include the two-dimensional dynamical features of expanding and decelerating afterglow blast waves. Any light curve can then be generated by applying scaling relations to the baseline calculations. As a result, it is now possible to fully fit for the shape of the jet break, e.g., at early-time X-ray and optical frequencies. In addition, late-time radio calorimetry can be improved since the general shape of the transition into the Sedov-Taylor regime is now known for arbitrary explosion parameters so the exact moment when the Sedov-Taylor asymptote is reached in the light curve is no longer relevant. When calculating the baselines, we find that the synchrotron critical frequency {nu}{sub m} and the cooling break frequency {nu}{sub c} are strongly affected by the jet break. The {nu}{sub m} temporal slope quickly drops to the steep late-time Sedov-Taylor slope, while the cooling break {nu}{sub c} first steepens and then rises to meet the level of its shallow late-time asymptote.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Scaling Relations for the Full Blast Wave Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate that gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra and light curves can be calculated for arbitrary explosion and radiation parameters by scaling the peak flux and the critical frequencies connecting different spectral regimes. Only one baseline calculation needs to be done for each jet opening angle and observer angle. These calculations are done numerically using high-resolution relativistic hydrodynamical afterglow blast wave simulations which include the two-dimensional dynamical features of expanding and decelerating afterglow blast waves. Any light curve can then be generated by applying scaling relations to the baseline calculations. As a result, it is now possible to fully fit for the shape of the jet break, e.g., at early-time X-ray and optical frequencies. In addition, late-time radio calorimetry can be improved since the general shape of the transition into the Sedov-Taylor regime is now known for arbitrary explosion parameters so the exact moment when the Sedov-Taylor asymptote is reached in the light curve is no longer relevant. When calculating the baselines, we find that the synchrotron critical frequency ν m and the cooling break frequency ν c are strongly affected by the jet break. The ν m temporal slope quickly drops to the steep late-time Sedov-Taylor slope, while the cooling break ν c first steepens and then rises to meet the level of its shallow late-time asymptote.

  16. CORRELATED OPTICAL AND X-RAY FLARES IN THE AFTERGLOW OF XRF 071031

    SciTech Connect

    Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; McBreen, S.; Afonso, P.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; Yoldas, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; Szokoly, G. P.

    2009-05-20

    We present a densely sampled early light curve of the optical/near-infrared (NIR) afterglow of the X-Ray Flash (XRF) 071031 at z = 2.692. Simultaneous and continuous observations in seven photometric bands from g' to K{sub S} with GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-InfraRed Detector) at the 2.2-m MPI/ESO telescope on LaSilla were performed between 4 minutes and 7 hr after the burst. The light curve consists of 547 individual points which allows us to study the early evolution of the optical transient associated with XRF 071031 in great detail. The optical/NIR light curve is dominated by an early increase in brightness which can be attributed to the apparent onset of the forward shock emission. There are several bumps which are superimposed onto the overall rise and decay. Significant flaring is also visible in the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curve from early to late times. The availability of high-quality, broadband data enables detailed studies of the connection between the X-ray and optical/NIR afterglow and its color evolution during the first night postburst. We find evidence of spectral hardening in the optical bands contemporaneous with the emergence of the bumps from an underlying afterglow component. The bumps in the optical/NIR light curve can be associated with flares in the X-ray regime suggesting late central engine activity as the common origin.

  17. [Determination of UV-Vis reflective spectra of long after-glow phosphorescent material].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-qi; Huang, Jia-mu; Li, Zhi-xia

    2002-12-01

    The long after-glow phosphorescent materials were fabricated by using "wet" method. The component materials were dissolved in water solution so that their homogeneous mix was reached at molecular level. The approach that metal nitrates and organic reductants would react spontaneously and get into combustion at a moderately low ambient temperature through oxido-reduction reaction was introduced into our fabrication of long after-glow phosphorescent samples. The ambient temperature to generate the combustion could go down to 500 degrees C, and the reaction completed within 1-2 minutes, producing a fluffy resultant with small crystal structure and even composition, which is easy to grind, and with low bulk density for its powder. UV-Vis reflective spectrophotometer was used to determine and analyze the characteristics of the sample before and after its absorption of light. The result shows that the properties of the samples fabricated from both "wet" and "dry" techniques are similar except their bulk densities, and the UV-Vis reflective spectrum was able to clearly describe the spectral characteristics of long after-glow phosphorescent materials. PMID:12914158

  18. Guided-wave approaches to spectrally selective energy absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments designed to demonstrate spectrally selective absorption in dielectric waveguides on semiconductor substrates are reported. These experiments were conducted with three waveguides formed by sputtering films of PSK2 glass onto silicon-oxide layers grown on silicon substrates. The three waveguide samples were studied at 633 and 532 nm. The samples differed only in the thickness of the silicon-oxide layer, specifically 256 nm, 506 nm, and 740 nm. Agreement between theoretical predictions and measurements of propagation constants (mode angles) of the six or seven modes supported by these samples was excellent. However, the loss measurements were inconclusive because of high scattering losses in the structures fabricated (in excess of 10 dB/cm). Theoretical calculations indicated that the power distribution among all the modes supported by these structures will reach its steady state value after a propagation length of only 1 mm. Accordingly, the measured loss rates were found to be almost independent of which mode was initially excited. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment leads to the conclusion that low loss waveguides confirm the predicted loss rates.

  19. An empirical method for correcting the detector spectral response in energy-resolved CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-03-01

    Energy-resolving photon-counting detectors have the potential for improved material decomposition compared to dual-kVp approaches. However, material decomposition accuracy is limited by the nonideal spectral response of the detectors. This work proposes an empirical method for correcting the nonideal spectral response, including spectrum-tailing effects. Unlike previous correction methods which relied on synchrotron measurements, the proposed method can be performed on the scanner. The proposed method estimates a spectral-response matrix by performing x-ray projection measurements through a range of known thicknesses of two or more calibration materials. Once estimated, the spectral-response matrix is incorporated into conventional material decomposition algorithms. A simulation study investigated preliminary feasibility of the proposed method. The spectral-response matrix was estimated using simulated projection measurements through PMMA, aluminum, and gadolinium. An energy-resolved acquisition of a thorax phantom with gadolinium in the blood pool was simulated assuming a five-bin detector with realistic spectral response. Energy-bin data was decomposed into Compton, photoelectric, and gadolinium basis projections with and without the proposed correction method. Basis images were reconstructed by filtered backprojection. Results demonstrated that the nonideal spectral response reduced the ability to distinguish gadolinium from materials such as bone, while images reconstructed with the proposed correction method successfully depicted the contrast agent. The proposed correction method reduced errors from 9% to 0.6% in the Compton image, 90% to 0.6% in the photoelectric image and from 40% to 6% in the gadolinium image when using a three-material calibration. Overall, results support feasibility of the proposed spectral-response correction method.

  20. Delayed stimulated afterglow from holmium ions in crystals with coactivators

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.V.; Tkachuk, A.M.

    1980-12-01

    Delayed stimulated afterglow from holmium ions in ..cap alpha beta..-SrF/sub 2/-YF/sub 3/ crystals was observed and investigated. This took the form of several series of emission spikes separated by dark intervals after the action of a single pump pulse. The effect is attributed to some features of the mechanism for population of the upper active level of the lasing holmium ion in the presence of sensitizer ions. It is found that in order to observe the effect, the system must incorporate a metastable level from which energy transfer to the active level provides an independent ''additional pumping'' system for the holmium ions acting over times much longer than the pump pulse duration.

  1. Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E

    2016-08-26

    Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials. PMID:27610856

  2. Afterglows from the largest explosions in the universe

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1999-01-01

    The distinction of “largest explosions in the universe” has been bestowed on cosmic gamma-ray bursts. Their afterglows are brighter than supernovae and therefore are called hypernovae. Photometry and spectroscopy of these afterglows have provided major breakthroughs in our understanding of this mysterious phenomenon. PMID:10220364

  3. Energy levels and spectral lines of tungsten, W III through W LXXIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.; Shirai, T.

    2009-05-01

    The energy levels and spectral lines of multiply ionized tungsten atoms, W 2+ through W 73+, have been compiled. Experimental data on spectral lines and energy levels exist for the spectra of W III through W VII, W XXVIII through W LI, W LIII, and W LV through LXV. For W VIII, the four lowest energy levels were derived from the series limits of W VII. For W LXIV (Na-like) and W LVI (K-like), we supplement experimental data on energy levels and wavelengths with predicted values found by accurate interpolations and extrapolations along the isoelectronic sequences. For W LXXIII (He-like) and W LXXIV (H-like), theoretical data on energy levels and line wavelengths are compiled. For W III, we include experimentally determined radiative transition probabilities where available. The ground state configurations and terms were determined for all stages of ionization. A value of ionization energy is included for each ion.

  4. High-frequency spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    We establish that the difference of the spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy in matter from the Planck formula in the high-frequency range is determined by the imaginary part of the transverse dielectric permittivity of the matter. Based on this, we show that in a rarified high-temperature fully ionized nonrelativistic plasma, the high-frequency spectral distribution of the equilibrium radiation energy differs essentially from the Planck formula because of the power-law character of the decrease in the frequency, which is due to the presence of matter.

  5. Evidence for a Canonical GRB Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift/XRT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grupe, D.; Page, K.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Patel, S. K.; Burrows, D. N.; Mangano, V.; Barthelmy, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present new observations of the early X-ray afterglows of the first 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The early X-ray afterglows show a canonical behavior, where the light curve broadly consists of three distinct power law segments. These power law segments are separated by two corresponding break times. On top of this canonical behavior of the early X-ray light curve, many events have superimposed X-ray flares, which are most likely caused by internal shocks due to long lasting sporadx activity of the central engine, up to several hours after the GRB. We find that the initial steep decay is consistent with it being the tail of the prompt emission: from photons that are radiated at large angles relative to our line of sight. The first break in the light curve takes place when the forward shock emission becomes dominant, with the intermediate shallow flux decay likely caused by the continuous energy injection into the external shock. When this energy injection stops, a second break is then observed in the light curve. This energy injection increases the energy of the afterglow shock by at least a factor of f greater than or approx. equal to 4, and augments the already severe requirements for the efficiency of the prompt gamma-ray emission.

  6. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A.

    2006-08-15

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  7. Nonthermal X-ray Spectral Flattening toward Low Energies in Early Impulsive Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to nonthermal electron distributions is critical to the calculation of the nonthermal energy in solar flares. The most direct evidence for low-energy cutoffs is flattening of the power-law, nontherma1 X-ray spectra at low energies. However, because of the plasma preheating often seen in flares, the thermal emissions at low energies may hide such spectral flattening of the nonthermal component. We select a category of flares, which we call "early impulsive flares", in which the > 25 keV hard X-ray (HXR) flux increase is delayed by less than 30 s after the flux increase at lower energies. Thus, the plasma preheating in these flares is minimal, so the nonthermal spectrum can be determined to lower energies than in flares with significant preheating. Out of a sample of 33 early impulsive flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopy Imager (RHESSI), 9 showed spectral flattening toward low energies. In these events, the break energy of the double power-law fit to the HXR spectra lies in the range of 10-50 keV, significantly lower than the value we have seen for other flares that do not show such early impulsive emissions. In particular, it correlates with the HXR flux. After correcting the spatially-integrated spectra for albedo from isotropically emitted X-rays and using RHESSI imaging spectroscopy to exclude the extended albedo halo, we find that albedo associated with isotropic or nearly isotropic electrons can only account for the spectral flattening in 3 flares near Sun center. The spectral flattening in the remaining 6 flares is found to be consistent with the existence of a low-energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, falling in the range of 15-50 keV, which also correlates with the HXR flux.

  8. Discovery of Spectral Variability of Markarian 421 at TeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krennrich, F.; Bond, I. H.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Cui, W.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Gaidos, J. A.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Hall, T. A.; Hillas, A. M.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Jordan, M.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Kosack, K.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Moriarty, P.; Müller, D.; Ong, R. A.; Pallassini, R.; Petry, D.; Quinn, J.; Reay, N. W.; Reynolds, P. T.; Rose, H. J.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sidwell, R.; Stanton, N.; Swordy, S. P.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.

    2002-08-01

    The detection of spectral variability of the γ-ray blazar Mrk 421 at TeV energies is reported. Observations with the Whipple Observatory 10 m γ-ray telescope taken in 2000/2001 revealed exceptionally strong and long-lasting flaring activity. Flaring levels of 0.4-13 times that of the Crab Nebula flux provided sufficient statistics for a detailed study of the energy spectrum between 380 GeV and 8.2 TeV as a function of the flux level. These spectra are well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff: dN/dE~E-αe-E/E0 m-2 s-1 TeV-1. There is no evidence for variation in the cutoff energy with flux, and all spectra are consistent with an average value for the cutoff energy of 4.3 TeV. The spectral index varies between 1.89+/-0.04stat+/-0.05syst in a high flux state and 2.72+/-0.11stat+/-0.05syst in a low state. The correlation between spectral index and flux is tight when averaging over the total 2000/2001 data set. Spectral measurements of Mrk 421 from previous years (1995/1996 and 1999) by the Whipple collaboration are consistent with this flux-spectral index correlation, which suggests that this may be a constant or a long-term property of the source. If a similar flux-spectral index correlation were found for other γ-ray blazars, this universal property could help disentangle the intrinsic emission mechanism from external absorption effects.

  9. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  10. Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

  11. Superelastic collisions under low temperature plasma and afterglow conditions: A golden rule to estimate their quantitative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, Giuliano; Colonna, Gianpiero; Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2015-03-01

    A simple equation describing the formation of plateaux induced by superelastic collisions in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of low temperature and afterglow plasmas is derived. The EEDFs predicted from this equation are in good agreement with those obtained from the numerical solution of the full Boltzmann equation in the presence of excited states.

  12. Localness of energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence, II. Sharp spectral filter

    SciTech Connect

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scale-locality of subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux and interband energy transfers defined by the sharp spectral filter. We show by rigorous bounds, physical arguments, and numerical simulations that the spectral SGS flux is dominated by local triadic interactions in an extended turbulent inertial range. Interband energy transfers are also shown to be dominated by local triads if the spectral bands have constant width on a logarithmic scale. We disprove in particular an alternative picture of 'local transfer by nonlocal triads,' with the advecting wavenumber mode at the energy peak. Although such triads have the largest transfer rates of all individual wavenumber triads, we show rigorously that, due to their restricted number, they make an asymptotically negligible contribution to energy flux and log-banded energy transfers at high wavenumbers in the inertial range. We show that it is only the aggregate effect of a geometrically increasing number of local wavenumber triads which can sustain an energy cascade to small scales. Furthermore, nonlocal triads are argued to contribute even less to the space-average energy flux than is implied by our rigorous bounds, because of additional cancellations from scale-decorrelation effects. We can thus recover the -4/3 scaling of nonlocal contributions to spectral energy flux predicted by Kraichnan's abridged Lagrangian-history direct-interaction approximation and test-field model closures. We support our results with numerical data from a 512{sup 3} pseudospectral simulation of isotropic turbulence with phase-shift dealiasing. We also discuss a rigorous counterexample of Eyink [Physica D 78, 222 (1994)], which showed that nonlocal wavenumber triads may dominate in the sharp spectral flux (but not in the SGS energy flux for graded filters). We show that this mathematical counter example fails to satisfy reasonable physical requirements for a turbulent velocity field, which are employed in our proof of scale

  13. ENERGY LEVELS AND SPECTRAL LINES OF SINGLY IONIZED MANGANESE (Mn II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramida, Alexander; Sansonetti, Jean E.

    2013-04-01

    This compilation revises the previously recommended list of energy levels of singly ionized manganese (Mn II) and provides a comprehensive list of observed spectral lines and transition probabilities in this spectrum. The new level optimization takes into account critically assessed uncertainties of measured wavelengths and includes about a hundred high-precision wavelengths determined by laser spectroscopy and Fourier transform techniques. Uncertainties of 63% of energy levels and 74% of Ritz wavelengths are reduced by a factor of three on average.

  14. An Array of Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB) for the Spectral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Ali, S.; O'Dell, C.; Timbie, P. T.; Bier, A.; Campano, B.; Chen, T. C.; Cottingham, D. A.; Sharp, E.; Cheng, E. S.

    2003-01-01

    The SPEED camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies using the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT) in Arizona. SPEED requires a small cryogenic detector array of 2x2 pixels with each pixel having four frequency bands in the 150-350 GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high efficiency FSBs. The FSB design provides the multi-pixel multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact stackable array. The SPEED bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors as their temperature-sensing element allowing for higher levels of multiplexing in future applications.

  15. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Taka; Shady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Yi-Zhong, Fan; Zhi-Ping, Jin; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; D'Elia, Valerio; Chincarini, Guido; Fiore, Fabrizio; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM and ROTSE telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx. 100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 5000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.

  16. GRB 081029: A GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH A MULTI-COMPONENT AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen T.; Sakamoto, Takanori; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Schady, Patricia; Mao, Jirong; Covino, Stefano; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Chincarini, Guido; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Antonelli, Angelo; D'Elia, Valerio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2012-01-20

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3 m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to {approx}100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A-16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray-burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray-burst jets are complex and will require detailed modeling to fully understand them.

  17. An Atlas of Galaxy Spectral Energy Distributions from the Ultraviolet to the Mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Moustakas, John; Smith, J.-D. T.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Jarrett, T. H.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Armus, Lee; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Peek, J. E. G.

    2014-06-01

    We present an atlas of 129 spectral energy distributions for nearby galaxies, with wavelength coverage spanning from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared. Our atlas spans a broad range of galaxy types, including ellipticals, spirals, merging galaxies, blue compact dwarfs, and luminous infrared galaxies. We have combined ground-based optical drift-scan spectrophotometry with infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer and Akari with gaps in spectral coverage being filled using Multi-wavelength Analysis of Galaxy Physical Properties spectral energy distribution models. The spectroscopy and models were normalized, constrained, and verified with matched-aperture photometry measured from Swift, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Space Explorer images. The availability of 26 photometric bands allowed us to identify and mitigate systematic errors present in the data. Comparison of our spectral energy distributions with other template libraries and the observed colors of galaxies indicates that we have smaller systematic errors than existing atlases, while spanning a broader range of galaxy types. Relative to the prior literature, our atlas will provide improved K-corrections, photometric redshifts, and star-formation rate calibrations.

  18. Quantitative multiphoton spectral imaging and its use for measuring resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Christopher; Koushik, Srinagesh V; Blank, Paul S; Vogel, Steven S

    2005-10-01

    Protein labeling with green fluorescent protein derivatives has become an invaluable tool in cell biology. Protein quantification, however, is difficult when cells express constructs with overlapping fluorescent emissions. Under these conditions, signal separation using emission filters is inherently inefficient. Spectral imaging solves this problem by recording emission spectra directly. Unfortunately, linear unmixing, the algorithm used for quantifying individual fluorophores from emission spectra, fails when resonance energy transfer (RET) is present. We therefore sought to develop an unmixing algorithm that incorporates RET. An equation for spectral emission incorporating RET was derived and an assay based on this formalism, spectral RET (sRET), was developed. Standards with defined RET efficiencies and with known Cerulean/Venus ratios were constructed and used to test sRET. We demonstrate that sRET analysis is a comprehensive, photon-efficient method for imaging RET efficiencies and accurately determines donor and acceptor concentrations in living cells. PMID:16040744

  19. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and... REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of..., Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  20. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and... REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of... E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  1. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and... REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of..., Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  2. Low-Energy Study of Gamma-Ray Bursts Having Spectral Line Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangia, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are energetic, short-duration emissions of gamma-rays. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) that was onboard NASA s Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has done much to advance our understanding of GRBs. Perhaps foremost is to establish that GRBs originate from astronomical sources that exist well beyond our galaxy. Another area in which BATSE has been instrumental is to provide high-resolution data that can be used in spectral studies. Before BATSE, there were many reports of GRB spectra containing what appeared to be spectral absorption lines, whereas Briggs, after an extensive computer search of 117 bright BATSE GRBs, reported finding only one case that might be an absorption line and ten cases that might be emission lines. None of the eleven BATSE cases were definitively identified as spectral lines, and Briggs indicated reasons as to why the pre-BATSE reports should not be taken as conclusive. It remains an open question as to what these spectral-like features are, or if they are even real. The purpose of this work is, for the subset of the eleven BATSE GRBs for which low-energy data are available from two BATSE's Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs), to include these data in the spectral analysis. Such a study will provide additional constraints on the model spectral functions to better ascertain the reality of the line features. The spectral analysis program used was RMFIT. Of the six GRBs that met the selection criteria, the analysis was performed on only three of them due to a lack of time.

  3. A spectral-Lagrangian Boltzmann solver for a multi-energy level gas

    SciTech Connect

    Munafò, Alessandro; Haack, Jeffrey R.; Gamba, Irene M.; Magin, Thierry E.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a spectral-Lagrangian method is proposed for the full, non-linear Boltzmann equation for a multi-energy level gas typical of a hypersonic re-entry flow. Internal energy levels are treated as separate species and inelastic collisions (leading to internal energy excitation and relaxation) are accounted for. The formulation developed can also be used for the case of a gas mixture made of monatomic gases without internal energy (where only elastic collisions occur). The advantage of the spectral-Lagrangian method lies in the generality of the algorithm in use for the evaluation of the elastic and inelastic collision operators, as well as the conservation of mass, momentum and energy during collisions. The latter is realized through the solution of constrained optimization problems. The computational procedure is based on the Fourier transform of the partial elastic and inelastic collision operators and exploits the fact that these can be written as weighted convolutions in Fourier space with no restriction on the cross-section model. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical examples for both space homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems. Computational results are compared with those obtained by means of the DSMC method in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed spectral-Lagrangian method.

  4. The X-shooter sample of GRB afterglow spectra: Properties of the absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Since its commissioning at ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2009, the X-shooter spectrograph has become the reference instrument in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectroscopy. During this time our collaboration has collected more than 70 spectra of GRB afterglows, with redshifts ranging from 0.06 to 6.3. Thanks to their extreme luminosity and simple intrinsic shape, GRB spectra are optimal tools for the study of galactic environments at basically any redshift. Being produced by the death of short-lived massive stars, they are also tracers of star formation.I will present the sample of absorption spectral features identified in X-shooter's GRB spectra describing observation and analysis techniques. The different features are compared with the characteristics of the explosion (duration, spectral shape, energetics, etc.) and with the properties of the host galaxy (mass, age, etc.) to improve our understanding of the nature of the explosions and how they interact with their environments. Using the large redshift range of the spectra collection we perform studies of the evolution of GRB environments across the history of the Universe and their relation with the evolution of star formation.

  5. Spectral energy distributions of the BL Lac PKS 2155 - 304 from XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Gupta, Alok C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2014-11-01

    We have used all 20 archival XMM-Newton observations of PKS 2155 - 304 with simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical data to study its long-term flux and spectral variability. We find significant variations, in all bands, on time-scales of years with an rms amplitude of ˜35-45 per cent, though the optical/UV variations are not correlated with those in the X-ray. We constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that span more than three orders of magnitude in frequency and we first fitted them with a log-parabolic model; such models have been applied many times in the past for this, and other, blazars. These fits were poor, so we then examined combined power-law and log-parabolic fits that are improvements. These models indicate that the optical/UV and X-ray flux variations are mainly driven by model normalization variations, but the X-ray band flux is also affected by spectral variations, as parametrized with the model `curvature' parameter, b. Overall, the energy at which the emitted power is maximum correlates positively with the total flux. As the spectrum shifts to higher frequencies, the spectral `curvature' increases, in contrast to what is expected if a single log-parabolic model were an acceptable representation of the broad-band SEDs. Our results suggest that the optical/UV and X-ray emissions in this source may arise from different lepton populations.

  6. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blast Wave Physics. II. The Distribution of rho and Structure of the Circumburst Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltervrede, P.

    2008-01-01

    We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media ofa subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical, and NIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects ofmetallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behavior. Using the blast wave model and some assumptions which include on-axis viewing and standard jet structure, constant blast wave energy, and no evolution of the microphysical parameters, we find a mean value ofp for the sample as a whole of 9.... oa -0.003.0" 2 a_ statistical analysis of the distribution demonstrates that the p-values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value forp at the 3 _ level or greater, which has significant implications for particle acceleration models. This approach provides us with a measured distribution ofcircumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k ----0 (homogeneous) and k - 2 (windlike). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly windlike. The fifth source has a value of 0 < k < 1, consistent with a homogeneous circumburst medium.

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Light Curves from a Lorentz-boosted Simulation Frame and the Shape of the Jet Break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The early stages of decelerating gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets have been notoriously difficult to resolve numerically using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations even at very high resolution, due to the extreme thinness of the blast wave and high outflow Lorentz factors. However, these resolution issues can be avoided by performing the simulations in a boosted frame, which makes it possible to calculate afterglow light curves from numerically computed flows in sufficient detail to accurately quantify the shape of the jet break and the post-break steepening of the light curve. Here, we study afterglow jet breaks for jets with opening angles of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 radians decelerating in a surrounding medium of constant density, observed at various angles ranging from on-axis to the edge of the jet. A single set of scale-invariant functions describing the time evolution of afterglow synchrotron spectral break frequencies and peak flux, depending only on jet opening angle and observer angle, are all that is needed to reconstruct light curves for arbitrary explosion energy, circumburst density and synchrotron particle distribution power law slope p. These functions are presented in the paper. Their time evolutions change directly following the jet break, although an earlier reported temporary post-break steepening of the cooling break is found to have been resolution-induced. We compare synthetic light curves to fit functions using sharp power law breaks as well as smooth power law transitions. We confirm our earlier finding that the measured jet break time is very sensitive to the angle of the observer and can be postponed significantly. We find that the difference in temporal indices across the jet break is larger than theoretically anticipated and is about -(0.5 + 0.5p) below the cooling break and about -(0.25 + 0.5p) above the cooling break, both leading to post-break slopes of roughly about 0.25 - 1.3p, although different observer angles, jet opening

  8. GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES FROM A LORENTZ-BOOSTED SIMULATION FRAME AND THE SHAPE OF THE JET BREAK

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2013-04-20

    The early stages of decelerating gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets have been notoriously difficult to resolve numerically using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations even at very high resolution, due to the extreme thinness of the blast wave and high outflow Lorentz factors. However, these resolution issues can be avoided by performing the simulations in a boosted frame, which makes it possible to calculate afterglow light curves from numerically computed flows in sufficient detail to accurately quantify the shape of the jet break and the post-break steepening of the light curve. Here, we study afterglow jet breaks for jets with opening angles of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 radians decelerating in a surrounding medium of constant density, observed at various angles ranging from on-axis to the edge of the jet. A single set of scale-invariant functions describing the time evolution of afterglow synchrotron spectral break frequencies and peak flux, depending only on jet opening angle and observer angle, are all that is needed to reconstruct light curves for arbitrary explosion energy, circumburst density and synchrotron particle distribution power law slope p. These functions are presented in the paper. Their time evolutions change directly following the jet break, although an earlier reported temporary post-break steepening of the cooling break is found to have been resolution-induced. We compare synthetic light curves to fit functions using sharp power law breaks as well as smooth power law transitions. We confirm our earlier finding that the measured jet break time is very sensitive to the angle of the observer and can be postponed significantly. We find that the difference in temporal indices across the jet break is larger than theoretically anticipated and is about -(0.5 + 0.5p) below the cooling break and about -(0.25 + 0.5p) above the cooling break, both leading to post-break slopes of roughly about 0.25 - 1.3p, although different observer angles, jet opening

  9. Optimizing indoor illumination quality and energy efficiency using a spectrally tunable lighting system to augment natural daylight.

    PubMed

    Hertog, W; Llenas, A; Carreras, J

    2015-11-30

    This article demonstrates the benefits of complementing a daylight-lit environment with a spectrally tunable illumination system. The spectral components of daylight present in the room are measured by a low-cost miniature spectrophotometer and processed through a number of optimization algorithms, carefully trading color fidelity for energy efficiency. Spectrally-tunable luminaires provide only those wavelengths that ensure that either the final illumination spectrum inside the room is kept constant or carefully follows the dynamic spectral pattern of natural daylight. Analyzing the measured data proves that such a hybrid illumination system brings both unprecendented illumination quality and significant energy savings. PMID:26698804

  10. Latitudinal and Energy Dependence of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral Indices Measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F.; Dayeh, M. A.; Funsten, H.; Heerikhuisen, J.; McComas, D. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Pogorelov, N.; Schwadron, N. A.; Zank, G. P.; Zirnstein, E. J.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the latitudinal and energy dependence of the globally distributed 0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 3 yrs of the mission. Our results are: (1) the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ˜2.29 and ˜3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur ±30° of the equator. (2) The latitudinal dependence of the spectral indices at different energies can be represented by the cosine function γ ={{a}0}+{{a}1}cos ({{a}2}θ ) with unique offsets, amplitudes, and phase angles; the higher energy ENA indices transition to successively larger amplitudes within ±45° of the equator. Our results confirm the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere. While earlier studies showed that the ˜0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, our new results indicate that this is an over-simplification because the spectral indices have an energy and latitude dependence. This dependence is an important factor that must be taken into consideration by models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere.

  11. Deriving star formation histories from photometry using energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2015-10-01

    Panchromatic spectral energy distribution fitting is a critical tool for determining the physical properties of distant galaxies, such as their stellar mass and star formation rate. One widely used method is the publicly available MAGPHYS code. We build on our previous analysis by presenting some modifications which enable MAGPHYS to automatically estimate galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), including uncertainties, based on ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry. We use state-of-the art synthetic photometry derived by performing three-dimensional dust radiative transfer on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated disc and merging galaxies to test how well the modified MAGPHYS is able to recover SFHs under idealized conditions, where the true SFH is known. We find that while the SFH of the model with the best fit to the synthetic photometry is a poor representation of the true SFH (showing large variations with the line of sight to the galaxy and spurious bursts of star formation), median-likelihood SFHs generated by marginalizing over the default MAGPHYS libraries produce robust estimates of the smoothly varying isolated disc simulation SFHs. This preference for the median-likelihood SFH is quantitatively underlined by our estimates of χ ^2_SFH (analogous to the χ2 goodness-of-fit estimator) and Δ M / M (the integrated absolute mass discrepancy between the model and true SFH) that strongly prefer the median-likelihood SFHs over those that best fit the UV-to-far-IR photometry. In contrast, we are unable to derive a good estimate of the SFH for the merger simulations (either best fit or median likelihood) despite being able to obtain a reasonable fit to the simulated photometry, likely because the analytic SFHs with bursts superposed in the standard MAGPHYS library are insufficiently general/realistic.

  12. Imprints of Electron–Positron Winds on the Multiwavelength Afterglows of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J. J.; Wu, X. F.; Huang, Y. F.; Li, L.; Dai, Z. G.

    2016-07-01

    Optical rebrightenings in the afterglows of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are unexpected within the framework of the simple external shock model. While it has been suggested that the central engines of some GRBs are newly born magnetars, we aim to relate the behaviors of magnetars to the optical rebrightenings. A newly born magnetar will lose its rotational energy in the form of Poynting-flux, which may be converted into a wind of electron–positron pairs through some magnetic dissipation processes. As proposed by Dai, this wind will catch up with the GRB outflow and a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) would form. By applying this scenario to GRB afterglows, we find that the RS propagating back into the electron–positron wind can lead to an observable optical rebrightening and a simultaneous X-ray plateau (or X-ray shallow decay). In our study, we select four GRBs (i.e., GRB 080413B, GRB 090426, GRB 091029, and GRB 100814A), of which the optical afterglows are well observed and show clear rebrightenings. We find that they can be well interpreted. In our scenario, the spin-down timescale of the magnetar should be slightly smaller than the peak time of the rebrightening, which can provide a clue to the characteristics of the magnetar.

  13. Electrical characterization of the flowing afterglow of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} microwave plasmas at reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Afonso Ferreira, J.; Stafford, L. Leonelli, R.; Ricard, A.

    2014-04-28

    A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to analyze the spatial distribution of the number density of positive ions and electrons as well as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in the flowing afterglow of a 6 Torr N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasma sustained by a propagating electromagnetic surface wave in the microwave regime. In pure N{sub 2} discharges, ion densities were in the mid 10{sup 14} m{sup −3} in the pink afterglow and in the mid 10{sup 12} m{sup −3} early in the late afterglow. In both pink and late afterglows, the ion population was much higher than the electron population, indicating non-macroscopically neutral media. The EEDF was close to a Maxwellian with an electron temperature of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV, except in the pink afterglow where the temperature rose to 1.1 ± 0.2 eV. This latter behavior is ascribed to N{sub 2} vibration-vibration pumping in the pink afterglow that increases the concentration of high N{sub 2} vibrational states and thus rises the electron temperature by vibration-electron collisions. After addition of small amounts of O{sub 2} in the nominally pure N{sub 2} discharge, the charged particles densities and average electron energy first strongly increased and then decreased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration. Based on these data and the evolution of the N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) band emission intensities, it is concluded that a significant change in the positive ion composition of the flowing afterglow occurs, going from N{sub 2}{sup +} in nominally pure N{sub 2} discharges to NO{sup +} after addition of trace amounts of O{sub 2} in N{sub 2}.

  14. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-09-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97-1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20-4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17-0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  15. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-09-21

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97-1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20-4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17-0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  16. The ISPM experiment for spectral, composition and anistropy measurements of charged particles at low energie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gold, R. E.; Anderson, K. A.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lin, R. P.; Krimigis, S. M.; Pick, M.; Roelof, E. C.; Sarris, E. T.; Simnett, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Heliosphere Instrument for Spectral, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HI-SCALE) designed to measure interplanetary ions and electrons is described. Ions and electrons are detected by five separate solid-state detector telescopes oriented to give complete pitch angle coverage from the spinning spacecraft. Ion elemental abundances are determined by a telescope using a thin front detector element in a three-element telescope. Experiment operation is controlled by a microprocessor-based data system. Inflight calibration is provided by radioactive sources mounted on closable telescope covers. Ion and electron spectral information is determined using broad-energy-range rate channels, and a pulse-height analyzer for more detailed spectra. The instrument weighs 5.775 kg and uses 4.0 W power.

  17. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  18. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Seyfert Galaxy Ton S180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Romano, P.; Kraemer, S. B.; George, I. M.; Yaqoob, T.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Storm, J.; Alloin, D.; Lazzaro, D.; DaSilva, L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present spectral results from a multi-satellite, broad-band campaign on the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ton S180 performed at the end of 1999. We discuss the spectral-energy distribution of the source, combining simultaneous Chandra, ASCA and EUVE data with contemporaneous FUSE, HST, and ground-based optical and infrared data. The resulting SED shows that most of the, energy is emitted in the 10 - 100 eV regime, which must be dominated by the primary energy source. No spectral turnover is evident in the UV regime. This, the strong soft X-ray emission, and the overall shape of the SED indicate that emission from the accretion disk peaks between 15 and 100 eV. High resolution FUSE spectra showing UV absorption due to OVI and the lack of detectable X-ray absorption in the Candra spectrum demonstrate the presence of a low column density of highly ionized gas along our line of sight.

  19. Latitude, Energy, and Time Variations of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral indices Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Mihir; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; McComas, David; Funsten, Herbert; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Zank, Gary; Schwadron, Nathan; Fuselier, Stephen; Allegrini, Frederic; Dayeh, Maher A.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the latitude, energy, and time variations of the globally distributed 0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 5 years of the mission. Our previous results based on the first 3 years of IBEX observations showed that the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ˜2.29 and ˜3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur within ±30° of the equator. While these results confirmed the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere, we also showed that, unlike previous reports, the ˜0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could not be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, and that they depend on energy and latitude. In this paper we extend the above results to include years 4 and 5 of IBEX observations and investigate if the spectral indices vary as a function of time. Finally, we discuss implications of our results on models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere.

  20. Latitude, Energy, and Time Variations of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral indices Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; McComas, D. J.; Dayeh, M. A.; Funsten, H. O.; Schwadron, N.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Pogorelov, N.; Zank, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the latitude, energy, and time variations of the globally distributed ~0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 5 years of the mission. Our previous results based on the first 3 years of IBEX observations showed that the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (~0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ~2.29 and ~3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur ±30° of the equator. While these results confirmed the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere, we also showed that, unlike previous reports, the ~0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could not be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, and that they depend on energy and latitude. In this work we extend the above results to include years 4 and 5 of IBEX observations and investigate if the spectral indices vary as a function of time. Finally, we discuss implications of our results on models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere.

  1. On the construction of a new 3d atlas of stellar spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. V.; Zakharov, A. I.; Moshkalev, V. G.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, E. Yu.

    Modern spectrophotometric atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. In particular, the problems of spectrum calibration in the ultraviolet region are not solved; different parts of the spectrum are not thoroughly fit to each other; spectra of (even bright) stars, obtained by different authors, display large discrepancies. Here we discuss a possibility to construct a new atlas of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a large set of stars by comparison of empirical stellar spectra in dozens of modern spectrophotometric atlases, as well as the comparison of synthetic and observed color indices in different multicolor photometric systems. In this way we suppose to exclude most of systematic errors and construct a new three-dimensional (spectral class, luminosity class, metallicity) atlas of empirical stellar spectra for several thousand stars. After exclusion of interstellar reddenings, a semi-empirical atlas of average SEDs can be constructed for about 150--200 spectral subtypes. This would allow us to make calibrations of spectrophotometric and photometric parameters in terms of spectral types and physical parameters (Teff, log g, [m/H]) and to verify the accuracy of model stellar atmospheres.

  2. The puzzling afterglow of GRB 050721: a rebrightening seen in the optical but not in the X-ray.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, L Angelo; Testa, Vincenzo; Romano, Patrizia; Guetta, Dafne; Torii, Ken'ichi; D'Elia, Valerio; Malesani, Daniele

    2007-05-15

    We present here the analysis of the early and late multiwavelength afterglow emission, as observed by Swift a small robotic telescope and very large telescope (VLT). We compare early observations with late afterglow observations obtained with Swift and the VLT and we observe an intense rebrightening in the optical band at about 1 day after the burst, which is not present in the X-ray band. The lack of detection in X-ray of such a strong rebrightening at lower energies may be described with a variable external density profile. In such a scenario, the combined X-ray and optical observations allow us to derive that the matter density located at approximately 1017 cm from the burst is approximately a factor of 10 higher than in the inner region. This is the first time in which a rebrightening has been observed in the optical afterglow of a gamma-ray burst that is clearly absent in the X-ray afterglow. PMID:17293339

  3. The Needle in the 100 deg2 Haystack: Uncovering Afterglows of Fermi GRBs with the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.; Anderson, Gemma E.; Anupama, G. C.; Arcavi, Iair; Bhalerao, Varun; Bue, Brian D.; Cao, Yi; Connaughton, Valerie; Corsi, Alessandra; Cucchiara, Antonino; Fender, Rob P.; Fox, Derek B.; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Gorosabel, J.; Horesh, Assaf; Hurley, Kevin; Johansson, Joel; Kann, D. A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Huang, Kuiyun; Kulkarni, S. R.; Masci, Frank; Nugent, Peter; Rau, Arne; Rebbapragada, Umaa D.; Staley, Tim D.; Svinkin, Dmitry; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Urata, Yuji; Weinstein, Alan

    2015-06-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi GRB Monitor instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts’ host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target-of-opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: 8 afterglow discoveries out of 35 searches. Two of the bursts with detected afterglows (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z = 0.145 and 0.384, respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line Type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility, we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.

  4. From radio to TeV: the surprising spectral energy distribution of AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, D. A.; Giebels, B.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.; Szostek, A.; Fegan, S.; Baczko, A.-K.; Finke, J.; Kadler, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Following the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 10 MeV) and very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae, its electromagnetic spectrum is studied over 60 octaves in energy. Contemporaneous data in radio, optical and UV together with the (non-simultaneous) γ-ray data are used to construct the most precise spectral energy distribution of this source. The data have been found to be modelled with difficulties with single-zone homogeneous leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) radiative scenarios due to the unprecedented width of the HE component when compared to the lower-energy component. The two other LBL objects also detected at VHE appear to have similar modelling difficulties. Nevertheless, VHE γ-rays produced in the extended jet could account for the VHE flux observed by HESS.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova, and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-09-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E iso > 1054 erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ~17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v ph ~ 15, 000 km s-1). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v ph ~ 30, 000 km s-1), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ~4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M ⊙ yr-1), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  6. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Cenko, S. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Misra, K.

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  8. Coasting External Shock in Wind Medium: An Origin for the X-ray Plateau Decay Component in Swift GRB Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rongfeng; Matzner, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    The plateaus observed in about one half of the early X-ray afterglows are the most puzzling feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift. By analyzing the temporal and spectral indices of a large X-ray plateau sample, we find that 55% can be explained by external, forward shock synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic ejecta coasting in a ρ r-2, wind-like medium; no energy injection into the shock is needed. After the ejecta collects enough medium and transitions to the adiabatic, decelerating blastwave phase, it produces the post-plateau decay. For those bursts consistent with this model, we find an upper limit for the initial Lorentz factor of the ejecta, Γ0 ≤ 46 (ɛe/0.1)-0.24 (ɛB/0.01)0.17 the isotropic equivalent total ejecta energy is Eiso 1053 (ɛe/0.1)-1.3 (ɛB/0.01)-0.09 (tb/104 s) erg, where ɛe and ɛB are the fractions of the total energy at the shock downstream that are carried by electrons and the magnetic field, respectively, and tb is the end of the plateau. Our finding supports Wolf-Rayet stars as the progenitor stars of some GRBs. It raises intriguing questions about the origin of an intermediate-Γ0 ejecta, which we speculate is connected to the GRB jet emergence from its host star. For the remaining 45% of the sample, the post-plateau decline is too rapid to be explained in the coasting-in-wind model, and energy injection appears to be required.

  9. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blastwave Physics II: The Distribution of p and Structure of the Circumburst Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltevrede, P.

    2007-01-01

    We constrain blastwave parameters and the circumburst media of a subsample of BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Bursts. For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical and nIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects of metallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behaviour. Assuming the fireball model, we can find a mean value of p for the sample as a whole of 2.035. A statistical analysis Of the distribution demonstrates that the p values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value for p at the 3sigma level or greater. This approach provides us with a measured distribution of circumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k = 0 (homogeneous) and k = 2 (wind-like). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly wind-like. The fifth source has a value of 0 less than or equal to k less than or equal to 1, consistent with a homogeneous circumburst medium.

  10. Emission spectrum of a sporadic fireball afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-07-01

    A mag. -11 fireball was imaged over southern Spain on April 14, 2013 at 22:35:49.8 ± 0.1s UTC. Its emission spectrum was also obtained. This event was assigned the SPMN code 140413 after the recording date. By the end of its atmospheric path, it exhibited a very bright flare which resulted in a persistent train whose spectrum was recorded. Here we present a preliminary analysis of this event and focus special attention on the evolution of the main emission lines in the spectrum of the afterglow. An array of low-lux CCD video devices (models 902H and 902H Ultimate from Watec Co.) operating from our stations at Sevilla and El Arenosillo was employed to record the SPMN140413 fireball. The operation of these systems is explained in [1,2]. Some of these are configured as spectrographs by attaching holographic diffraction gratings (1000 lines/mm) to the objective lens [3]. To calculate the atmospheric trajectory, radiant, and orbit we have employed our AMALTHEA software, which follows the planes intersection method [4]. The spectrum was analyzed with our CHIMET application [5]. The parent meteoroid impacted the atmosphere with an initial velocity of 28.9 ± 0.3 km/s and the fireball began at a height of 104.4 ± 0.5 km. The event ended at 80.7 ± 0.5 km above the ground level, with the main flare taking place at 83 ± 0.5 km. The calculated radiant and orbital parameters confirm the sporadic nature of the bolide. The calibrated emission spectrum shows that the most important contributions correspond to the Na I-1 (588.9 nm) and Mg I-2 (517.2 nm) multiplets. In the ultraviolet, the contribution from the H and K lines from Ca was also identified. As usual in meteor spectra, most of the lines correspond to Fe I. The train spectrum was recorded during about 0.12 seconds. This provided the evolution with time of the intensity of the emission lines in this signal. The contributions from Mg I, Na I, Ca I, Fe I, Ca II, and O I were identified in the afterglow, with the Na I-1

  11. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  12. New Applications of Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual-Energy, Spectral, and Molecular CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A; Willemink, Martin J; Min, James K

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool, and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Because of its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease, and noninvasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of cardiologists. In the past few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred, including dual-energy CT, spectral CT, and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion, and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  13. Chemical abundances associated with gamma-ray bursts: nucleosynthesis in afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta carries huge amounts of energy expanding into the surrounding medium and heats up these materials, making it possible that nucleosynthesis can take place in such hot sites in afterglow stage. Here, we study possible changes in chemical abundances in the GRB afterglow processes of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star wind environments (Case A) and constant density surroundings (Case B). We find that the light element of lithium-beryllium-boron could occur in the afterglows via He+He process and spallation reactions. Some isotopes of F, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Fe-group elements are also new species formed in the afterglows via proton-, neutron- and α-capture. The results show that the nucleosynthetic yields might be a diagnostic of the GRB's ambient environment. Our calculations indicate that Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have trended to appear in Case A, while Ne, Ti and Ni trend to occur in Case B. Furthermore, although some species have occurred both in Cases A and B, their mass fractions are quite different in these two cases. Here, we show that the mass fractions of 7Li, 7Be, 24Mg and 30Si are higher in Case A than that in Case B, but 18F gives an opposite conclusion. Nucleosynthetic outputs might also be an indice to estimate the luminosity-temperature relation factor β. In this study, when β reduces, the mass abundances of 11B and 20Ne are higher in Case B than that in Case A; in contrast, as the β becomes larger, this trend would be reversed; therefore, perhaps we could select the above elements as the indicators to estimate the properties of the surroundings around the GRBs. We also suggest that the spectroscopic observations of a GRB afterglow could only reveal the nucleosynthetic outputs from the interaction site between the GRB jet and its ambient matter, but could not represent the original composition of the pre-GRB surrounding medium.

  14. 5 to 160 keV continuous-wave x-ray spectral energy distribution and energy flux density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tallon, R.W.; Koller, D.C.; Pelzl, R.M.; Pugh, R.D.; Bellem, R.D. . Microelectronics and Photonics Research Branch)

    1994-12-01

    In 1991, the USAF Phillips Laboratory Microelectronics and Photonics Research Branch installed a low energy x-ray facility (LEXR) for use in microelectronics radiation-effects analysis and research. Techniques developed for measuring the x-ray spectral energy distribution (differential intensity) from a tungsten-target bremsstrahlung x-ray source are reported. Spectra with end-point energies ranging from 20 to 160 keV were recorded. A separate effort to calibrate the dosimetry for the Phillips Laboratory low-energy x-ray facility established a need to know the spectral energy distributions at some point within the facility (previous calibration efforts had relies on spectra obtained from computer simulations). It was discovered that the primary discrepancy between the simulated and measured spectra was in the L- K-line data. The associated intensity (energy flux density) of the measured distributions was found to be up to 30% higher. Based on the measured distributions, predicted device responses were within 10% of the measured response as compared to about 30% accuracy obtained with simulated distributions.

  15. Practical energy response estimation of photon counting detectors for spectral X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2010-04-01

    Spectral X-ray imaging is a promising technique to drastically improve the diagnostic quality of radiography and computed tomography (CT), since it enables material decomposition and/or identification based on the energy dependency of material-specific X-ray attenuation. Unlike the charge-integration based X-ray detectors, photon counting X-ray detectors (PCXDs) can discriminate the energies of incident X-ray photons and thereby multi-energy images can be obtained in single exposure. However, the measured data are not accurate since the spectra of incident X-rays are distorted according to the energy response function (ERF) of a PCXD. Thus ERF should be properly estimated in advance for accurate spectral imaging. This paper presents a simple method for ERF estimation based on a polychromatic X-ray source that is widely used for medical imaging. The method consists of three steps: source spectra measurement, detector spectra reconstruction, and ERF inverse estimation. Real spectra of an X-ray tube are first measured at all kVs by using an X-ray spectrometer. The corresponding detector spectra are obtained by threshold scans. The ERF is then estimated by solving the inverse problem. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the concept of the proposed method.

  16. Spectral wave flow attenuation within submerged canopies: Implications for wave energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Ryan J.; Falter, James L.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Atkinson, Marlin J.

    2007-05-01

    Communities of benthic organisms can form very rough surfaces (canopies) on the seafloor. Previous studies have shown that an oscillatory flow induced by monochromatic surface waves will drive more flow inside a canopy than a comparable unidirectional current. This paper builds on these previous studies by investigating how wave energy is attenuated within canopies under spectral wave conditions, or random wave fields defined by many frequencies. A theoretical model is first developed to predict how flow attenuation within a canopy varies among the different wave components and predicts that shorter-period components will generally be more effective at driving flow within a canopy than longer-period components. To investigate the model performance, a field experiment was conducted on a shallow reef flat in which flow was measured both inside and above a model canopy array. Results confirm that longer-period components in the spectrum are significantly more attenuated than shorter-period components, in good agreement with the model prediction. This paper concludes by showing that the rate at which wave energy is dissipated by a canopy is closely linked to the flow structure within the canopy. Under spectral wave conditions, wave energy within a model canopy array is dissipated at a greater rate among the shorter-period wave components. These observations are consistent with previous observations of how wave energy is dissipated by the bottom roughness of a coral reef.

  17. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-06-20

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659-152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  18. Evidence for a Canonical GRB Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift/XRT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Nousek, J.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grupe, D.; Page, K.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Patel, S.K.; Burrows, D.N.; Mangano, V.; Barthelmy, S.; Beardmore, A.P.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Falcone, A.D.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Goad, M.; Godet, O.; Hurkett, C.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /NASA, Marshall /IASF, Palermo /Brera Observ. /Frascati /Milan Bicocca U. /NASA, Goddard

    2005-08-17

    We present new observations of the early X-ray afterglows of the first 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The early X-ray afterglows show a canonical behavior, where the light curve broadly consists of three distinct power law segments: (1) an initial very steep decay ({infinity} t{sup -a} with 3 {approx}< a{sub 1} {approx}< 5) , followed by (2) a very shallow decay (0.2 {approx}< a{sub 2} {approx}< 0.8), and finally (3) a somewhat steeper decay (1 {approx}< a{sub 3} {approx}< 1.5). These power law segments are separated by two corresponding break times, 300 s {approx}< t{sub break,1} {approx}< 500 s and 10{sup 3} s {approx}< t{sub break,2} {approx}< 10{sup 4} s. On top of this canonical behavior of the early X-ray light curve, many events have superimposed X-ray flares, which are most likely caused by internal shocks due to long lasting sporadic activity of the central engine, up to several hours after the GRB. We find that the initial steep decay is consistent with it being the tail of the prompt emission, from photons that are radiated at large angles relative to our line of sight. The first break in the light curve (t{sub break,1}) takes place when the forward shock emission becomes dominant, with the intermediate shallow flux decay (a{sub 2}) likely caused by the continuous energy injection into the external shock. When this energy injection stops, a second break is then observed in the light curve (t{sub break,2}). This energy injection increases the energy of the afterglow shock by at least a factor of f {approx}> 4, and augments the already severe requirements for the efficiency of the prompt gamma-ray emission.

  19. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  20. THE NEXT GENERATION ATLAS OF QUASAR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM RADIO TO X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Shang Zhaohui; Li Jun; Xie Yanxia; Brotherton, Michael S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Green, Richard F.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Tang, Baitian

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  1. The Next Generation Atlas of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions from Radio to X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhaohui; Brotherton, Michael S.; Wills, Beverley J.; Wills, D.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Dale, Daniel A.; Green, Richard F.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Hines, Dean C.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Li, Jun; Tang, Baitian; Xie, Yanxia

    2011-09-01

    We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared.

  2. Low-energy spectral features of supernova (anti)neutrinos in inverted hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Marrone, A.; Tamborra, I.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.

    2008-11-01

    In the dense supernova core, self-interactions may align the flavor polarization vectors of {nu} and {nu} and induce collective flavor transformations. Different alignment Ansaetze are known to describe approximately the phenomena of synchronized or bipolar oscillations and the split of {nu} energy spectra. We discuss another phenomenon observed in some numerical experiments in inverted hierarchy, showing features akin to a low-energy split of {nu} spectra. The phenomenon appears to be approximately described by another alignment Ansatz which, in the considered scenario, reduces the (nonadiabatic) dynamics of all energy modes to only two {nu} plus two {nu} modes. The associated spectral features, however, appear to be fragile when passing from single to multiangle simulations.

  3. Latitude, Energy, and Time Variations of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral indices Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Mihir; McComas, David; Dayeh, Maher; Funsten, Herbert; Schwadron, Nathan; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Fuselier, Stephen; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Zank, Gary; Allegrini, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the latitude, energy, and time variations of the globally distributed 0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 5 years of the mission. Our previous results based on the first 3 years of IBEX observations showed that the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ˜2.29 and ˜3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur ±30° of the equator. While these results confirmed the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere, we also showed that, unlike previous reports, the ˜0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could not be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, and that they depend on energy and latitude. In this work we extend the above results to include years 4 and 5 of IBEX observations and investigate if the spectral indices vary as a function of time. Finally, we discuss implications of our results on models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere. We also discuss the implications of these new results for observational requirements for upcoming missions like IMAP.

  4. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  5. Photoelectric spectrophotometry of OQ 172 and OH 471. [spectral energy distributions for red shift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oke, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute spectral energy distributions for the large redshift quasars OQ 172 and OH 471 are discussed along with similar data for two other quasars 4C05.34 and PHL 957. Assuming cosmological redshifts, OQ 172 and OH 471 are not as luminous as PHL 957. If these quasars are basically similar and if radiative processes dominate, the strength of Ly alpha and the behavior of the continuum at the Lyman limit strongly suggest that these objects consist of a central ionizing source surrounded by discrete clouds, filaments or a gaseous structure such as a disk. This gaseous matter does not cover the whole solid angle surrounding the source.

  6. Positions and Spectral Energy Distributions of 41 Star Clusters in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Xue, Sui-Jian; Zhu, Jin

    2002-06-01

    We present accurate positions and multi-color photometry for 41 star clusters detected by Melnick & D'odorico in the nearby spiral galaxy M33 as a part of the BATC Color Survey of the sky in 13 intermediate-band filters from 3800 to 10,000 Å. The coordinates of the clusters are found from the HST Guide Star Catalog. By aperture photometry, we obtain the spectral energy distributions of the clusters. Using the relations between the BATC intermediate-band system and UBVRI broadband system, we derive their V magnitudes and B-V colors and find that most of them are blue, which is consistent with previous findings.

  7. Discharge characteristics of dielectric materials examined in mono-, dual-, and spectral energy electron charging environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, P.; Treadway, M.; Wild, N.; Kitterer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of midenergy electrons on the charge and discharge characteristics of spacecraft dielectric materials and the data base from which basic discharge models can be formulated is expanded. Thin dielectric materials were exposed to low, mid combined low and mid, and spectral energy electron environments. Three important results are presented: (1) it determined electron environments that lead to dielectric discharges at potentials less negative than -5 kV; (2) two types of discharges were identified that dominate the kinds of discharges seen; and (3) it is shown that, for the thin dielectric materials tested, the worst-case discharges observed in the various environments are similar.

  8. Spectral X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction with a Combination of Energy-Integrating and Photon-Counting Detectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Xi, Yan; Wang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an algorithm for hybrid spectral computed tomography (CT) which combines energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors. While the energy-integrating scan is global, the photon-counting scan can have a local field of view (FOV). The algorithm synthesizes both spectral data and energy-integrating data. Low rank and sparsity prior is used for spectral CT reconstruction. An initial estimation is obtained from the projection data based on physical principles of x-ray interaction with the matter, which provides a more accurate Taylor expansion than previous work and can guarantee the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical simulation with clinical CT images are performed. The proposed algorithm produces very good spectral features outside the FOV when no K-edge material exists. Exterior reconstruction of K-edge material can be partially achieved. PMID:27171153

  9. Spectral X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction with a Combination of Energy-Integrating and Photon-Counting Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Xi, Yan; Wang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an algorithm for hybrid spectral computed tomography (CT) which combines energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors. While the energy-integrating scan is global, the photon-counting scan can have a local field of view (FOV). The algorithm synthesizes both spectral data and energy-integrating data. Low rank and sparsity prior is used for spectral CT reconstruction. An initial estimation is obtained from the projection data based on physical principles of x-ray interaction with the matter, which provides a more accurate Taylor expansion than previous work and can guarantee the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical simulation with clinical CT images are performed. The proposed algorithm produces very good spectral features outside the FOV when no K-edge material exists. Exterior reconstruction of K-edge material can be partially achieved. PMID:27171153

  10. GRB-081029: A Step Towards Understanding Multiple Afterglow Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst-081029 at a redshift of z = 3.8474. We combine X-ray and optical observations from (Swift) with optical and infrared data from REM to obtain a detailed data set extending from approx 10(exp 2)s to approx 10(exp 5)s after the BAT trigger, and from approx.10 keV to 16,000 AA. The X-ray afterglow showed a shallow initial decay followed by u rapid decay after about 18,000 s. The optical afterglow, however, shows an uncharecteristic rise at about 5000 s that has no corresponding feature in the X-ray light curve. The data are not consistent with a single-component jet. It is possible that there are multiple physical components contributing to the afterglow of GRB-081029.

  11. Prompt, early and afterglow optical observations of five γ-ray bursts: GRB 100901A, GRB 100902A, GRB 100905A, GRB 100906A and GRB 101020A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunova, G. V.; Lipunov, V. M.; Kornilov, V. G.; Belinski, A. A.; Shatskiy, N. I.; Tyurina, N. V.; Kuvshinov, D. A.; Balanutsa, P. V.; Chazov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D. S.; Kornilov, M. V.; Sankovich, A. V.; Krylov, A.; Ivanov, K. I.; Chvalaev, O.; Poleschuk, V. A.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Gress, O. A.; Yazev, S. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Krushinski, V. V.; Zalozhnich, I. S.; Popov, A. A.; Tlatov, A. G.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Senik, V.; Yurkov, V. V.; Sergienko, Yu. P.; Varda, D.; Kudelina, I. P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Jelinek, M.; Tello, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of the prompt, early and afterglow optical observations of five γ-ray bursts (GRBs): GRB 100901A, GRB 100902A, GRB 100905A, GRB 100906A and GRB 101020A. These observations were made with the Mobile Astronomical System of TElescope-Robots in Russia (MASTER-II Net), the 1.5-m telescope of the Sierra Nevada Observatory and the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope. For two sources, GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, we detected optical counterparts and obtained light curves starting before the cessation of γ-ray emission, at 113 and 48 s after the trigger, respectively. Observations of GRB 100906A were conducted in two polarizing filters. Observations of the other three bursts gave the upper limits on the optical flux; their properties are briefly discussed. A more detailed analysis of GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, supplemented by Swift data, provides the following results and indicates different origins for the prompt optical radiation in the two bursts. The light-curve patterns and spectral distributions suggest that there is a common production site for the prompt optical and high-energy emission in GRB 100901A. The results of the spectral fits for GRB 100901A in the range from optical to X-ray favour power-law energy distributions and a consistent value of the optical extinction in the host galaxy. GRB 100906A produced a smoothly peaking optical light curve, suggesting that the prompt optical radiation in this GRB originated in a front shock. This is supported by a spectral analysis. We have found that the Amati and Ghirlanda relations are satisfied for GRB 100906A. We obtain an upper limit on the value of the optical extinction on the host of GRB 100906A.

  12. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    2015-10-01

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  13. Power spectral analysis of Jupiter’s clouds and kinetic energy from Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, Adam P.

    2011-12-01

    We present suggestive evidence for an inverse energy cascade within Jupiter’s atmosphere through a calculation of the power spectrum of its kinetic energy and its cloud patterns. Using Cassini observations, we composed full-longitudinal mosaics of Jupiter’s atmosphere at several wavelengths. We also utilized image pairs derived from these observations to generate full-longitudinal maps of wind vectors and atmospheric kinetic energy within Jupiter’s troposphere. We computed power spectra of the image mosaics and kinetic energy maps using spherical harmonic analysis. Power spectra of Jupiter’s cloud patterns imaged at certain wavelengths resemble theoretical spectra of two-dimensional turbulence, with power-law slopes near -5/3 and -3 at low and high wavenumbers, respectively. The slopes of the kinetic energy power spectrum are also near -5/3 at low wavenumbers. At high wavenumbers, however, the spectral slopes are relatively flatter than the theoretical prediction of -3. In addition, the image mosaic and kinetic energy power spectra differ with respect to the location of the transition in slopes. The transition in slope is near planetary wavenumber 70 for the kinetic energy spectra, but is typically above 200 for the image mosaic spectra. Our results also show the importance of calculating spectral slopes from full 2D velocity maps rather than 1D zonal mean velocity profiles, since at large wavenumbers the spectra differ significantly, though at low wavenumbers, the 1D zonal and full 2D kinetic energy spectra are practically indistinguishable. Furthermore, the difference between the image and kinetic energy spectra suggests some caution in the interpretation of power spectrum results solely from image mosaics and its significance for the underlying dynamics. Finally, we also report prominent variations in kinetic energy within the equatorial jet stream that appear to be associated with the 5 μm hotspots. Other eddies are present within the flow collar of

  14. Signatures of particle acceleration on Gamma Ray Burst afterglow light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the X-ray lightcurves in the afterglow phase of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB), after taking into account the maximum electron Lorentz factor (gamma_max) as an additional parameter of the problem. First, we treat gamma_max as a free parameter and we examine the lightcurves that one obtains for different values of the ratio gamma_max/gamma_min, where gamma_min is the minimum electron energy. We find that the lightcurves depend strongly on this ratio showing a variety of morphologies, with some having a strong resemblance to the observations. As a next step, we introduce particle acceleration and calculate gamma_max in a self-consistent way by balancing the energy losses with the energy gains of the accelerating electrons. The physical picture corresponds to particles injected at low energies and accelerated in the downstream region of the external GRB shock wave. We simulate that by introducing an acceleration term in the equation that describes the evolution of the electron distribution. We show some first results of the radiated synchrotron photon spectra obtained at various radii of the blast wave. Finally, we discuss possible implications of such 'one-zone' acceleration models for GRB afterglows.

  15. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems. PMID:25321890

  16. Spectral reconstruction of high energy photon beams for kernel based dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Hinson, William H; Bourland, J Daniel

    2002-08-01

    A kernel-based dose computation method with finite-size pencil beams (FSPBs) requires knowledge of the photon spectrum. Published methods of indirect spectral measurements using transmission measurements through beam attenuators use mathematical fits with a large number of parameters and constraints. In this study, we examine a simple strategy for fitting transmission data that models important physical characteristics of photon beams produced in clinical linear accelerators. The shape of an unattenuated bremsstrahlung spectrum is known, varying linearly from a maximum at zero energy to a value of zero at a maximum energy. This unattenuated spectrum is altered primarily by absorption of low energy photons by the flattening filter, causing the true spectrum to roll off to zero at low photon energies. A fitting equation models this behavior and has these advantages over previous methods: (1) the equation describes the shape of a bremsstrahlung spectrum based on physical expectations; and (2) only three fit parameters are required with a single constraint. Results for 4 MV and 6 MV accelerators for central axis and off-axis beams show good agreement with the maximum, average and modal energies for known spectra. Previously published models, representations of beam fluence (energy fluence, dN/dE), experimental methods, and the fitting process are discussed. PMID:12201426

  17. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region. PMID:17363631

  18. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Schady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; D'Elia, Valerio; Ohincarini, Guido; Fiore, Fabrizio; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift Ultra Violet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3-m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx.100,000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data covers a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18,000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.injection

  19. The origin of the plateau and late rebrightening in the afterglow of GRB 120326A

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, S. J.; Lu, J. F.; Geng, J. J.; Wang, K.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.

    2014-04-20

    GRB 120326A is an unusual gamma-ray burst (GRB) that has a long plateau and a very late rebrightening in both X-ray and optical bands. The similar behavior of the optical and X-ray light curves suggests that they may share a common origin. The long plateau starts at several hundred seconds and ends at tens of thousands of seconds, and the peak time of the late rebrightening is about 30,000 s. We analyze the energy injection model by means of numerical and analytical solutions, considering both the wind environment and the interstellar medium environment for GRB afterglows. We particularly study the influence of the injection starting time, ending time, stellar wind density (or density of the circumburst environment), and injection luminosity on the shape of the afterglow light curves, respectively. In the wind model, we find that the light curve is largely affected by the parameters and that there is a 'bump' in the late stage. In the wind environment, we found that the longer the energy is injected, the more obvious the rebrightening will be. We also find that the peak time of the bump is determined by the stellar wind density. We use the late continuous injection model to interpret the unusual afterglow of GRB 120326A. The model fits the observational data well; however, we find that the timescale of the injection must be higher than 10,000 s, which implies that the timescale of the central engine activity must also be more than 10,000 s. This information can give useful constraints on the central engines of GRBs—we consider a newborn millisecond pulsar with a strong magnetic field to be the central engine. On the other hand, our results suggest that the circumburst environment of GRB 120326A is very likely a stellar wind.

  20. Predicting Electron Energy Flux Using Ground-Based Multi-Spectral Auroral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. A.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Redmon, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution, multi-spectral auroral observations can now be routinely acquired using the Multi-spectral Observatory Of Sensitive EMCCDs (MOOSE), currently installed in Poker Flat, AK. Observations from the past 2 auroral seasons have yielded many simultaneous auroral observations in 4 different emission lines (427.8 nm, 557.7 nm, 630 nm, and 844.6 nm). From these data, the brightness of the absolute auroral emissions will be calculated. Combined with atmospheric modeling, auroral emission brightness will be used to predict the total energy flux and characteristic energy of the electrons responsible for the aurora. The theory behind this method is only developed for auroral measurements in the magnetic zenith, and therefore it is not known to what extent it can be applied off zenith. All-sky auroral image data will be examined and compared with DMSP satellite overpasses to quantify the extent to which the model can make predictions off-zenith, creating an empirical model that could then be applied to the many cases without overpasses. This will lead to large-scale 2-D maps of electron precipitation characteristics which can contribute to global ionospheric models.

  1. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  2. Reaching the peak of the quasar spectral energy distribution - I. Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, James S.; Ward, Martin J.; Done, Chris; Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2015-05-01

    We perform a spectral analysis of a sample of 11 medium redshift (1.5 ≲ z ≲ 2.2) quasars. Our sample all have optical spectra from the SDSS, infrared spectra from GNIRS and TripleSpec, and X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton. We first analyse the Balmer broad emission line profiles which are shifted into the IR spectra to constrain black hole masses. Then we fit an energy-conserving, three component accretion model of the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) to our multiwavelength data. 5 out of the 11 quasars show evidence of an SED peak, allowing us to constrain their bolometric luminosity from these models and estimate their mass accretion rates. Based on our limited sample, we suggest that estimating bolometric luminosities from L_{5100 A} and L2-10 keV may be unreliable, as has been also noted for a low-redshift, X-ray selected active galactic nucleus sample.

  3. Nonlinear spectral and lifetime management in upconversion nanoparticles by controlling energy distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Renren; Xie, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-17

    Optical tuning of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention over the past decade because this development allows the advance of new frontiers in energy conversion, materials science, and biological imaging. Here we present a rational approach to manipulating the spectral profile and lifetime of lanthanide emission in upconversion nanoparticles by tailoring their nonlinear optical properties. We demonstrate that the incorporation of energy distributors, such as surface defects or an extra amount of dopants, into a rare-earth-based host lattice alters the decay behavior of excited sensitizers, thus markedly improving the emitters' sensitivity to excitation power. This work provides insight into mechanistic understanding of upconversion phenomena in nanoparticles and also enables exciting new opportunities of using these nanomaterials for photonic applications. PMID:26948717

  4. Effective bridge spectral density for long-range biological energy and charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Oliver; Rupasov, Valery; Mukamel, Shaul

    1996-04-01

    The role of medium-induced relaxation of intermediate (bridge) sites in energy and charge transfer processes in molecular aggregates of arbitrary size and geometry is explored by means of Green's function techniques. The coupling of electronic and (solvent and intramolecular) nuclear degrees of freedom is incorporated using the Brownian oscillator model, which allows an exact calculation of the necessary two-point and four-point correlation functions of exciton operators. The signatures of energy transfer and spectral diffusion in time- and frequency-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy are studied. A unified expression for the frequency-dependent transfer rate is derived, which interpolates between the sequential and superexchange limits. Numerical results and a Liouville space pathway analysis for a donor-acceptor system coupled through a single bridge molecule are presented.

  5. Engineering Spectral Control Using Front Surface Filters for Maximum TPV Energy Conversion System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    T Rahmlow, Jr; J Lazo-Wasem, E Gratrix; J Azarkevich; E Brown; D DePoy; D Eno; P Fourspring; J Parrington; R Mahorter; B Wernsman

    2004-10-14

    Energy conversion efficiencies of better than 23% have been demonstrated for small scale tests of a few thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells using front surface, tandem filters [1, 2]. The engineering challenge is to build this level of efficiency into arrays of cells that provide useful levels of energy. Variations in cell and filter performance will degrade TPV array performance. Repeated fabrication runs of several filters each provide an initial quantification of the fabrication variation for front surface, tandem filters for TPV spectral control. For three performance statistics, within-run variation was measured to be 0.7-1.4 percent, and run-to-run variation was measured to be 0.5-3.2 percent. Fabrication runs using a mask have been shown to reduce variation across interference filters from as high as 8-10 percent to less than 1.5 percent. Finally, several system design and assembly approaches are described to further reduce variation.

  6. Degravitation, inflation and the cosmological constant as an afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Subodh P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we adopt the phenomenological approach of taking the degravitation paradigm seriously as a consistent modification of gravity in the IR, and investigate its consequences for various cosmological situations. We motivate degravitation — where Netwon's constant is promoted to a scale dependent filter function — as arising from either a small (resonant) mass for the graviton, or as an effect in semi-classical gravity. After addressing how the Bianchi identities are to be satisfied in such a set up, we turn our attention towards the cosmological consequences of degravitation. By considering the example filter function corresponding to a resonantly massive graviton (with a filter scale larger than the present horizon scale), we show that slow roll inflation, hybrid inflation and old inflation remain quantitatively unchanged. We also find that the degravitation mechanism inherits a memory of past energy densities in the present epoch in such a way that is likely significant for present cosmological evolution. For example, if the universe underwent inflation in the past due to it having tunneled out of some false vacuum, we find that degravitation implies a remnant `afterglow' cosmological constant, whose scale immediately afterwards is parametrically suppressed by the filter scale (L) in Planck units Λ ~ l2pl/L2. We discuss circumstances through which this scenario reasonably yields the presently observed value for Λ ~ O(10-120). We also find that in a universe still currently trapped in some false vacuum state, resonance graviton models of degravitation only degravitate initially Planck or GUT scale energy densities down to the presently observed value over timescales comparable to the filter scale. We argue that different functional forms for the filter function will yield similar conclusions. In this way, we argue that although the degravitation models we study have the potential to explain why the cosmological constant is not large in addition to

  7. Nonlinear spectral and lifetime management in upconversion nanoparticles by controlling energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Renren; Xie, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-01

    Optical tuning of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention over the past decade because this development allows the advance of new frontiers in energy conversion, materials science, and biological imaging. Here we present a rational approach to manipulating the spectral profile and lifetime of lanthanide emission in upconversion nanoparticles by tailoring their nonlinear optical properties. We demonstrate that the incorporation of energy distributors, such as surface defects or an extra amount of dopants, into a rare-earth-based host lattice alters the decay behavior of excited sensitizers, thus markedly improving the emitters' sensitivity to excitation power. This work provides insight into mechanistic understanding of upconversion phenomena in nanoparticles and also enables exciting new opportunities of using these nanomaterials for photonic applications.Optical tuning of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention over the past decade because this development allows the advance of new frontiers in energy conversion, materials science, and biological imaging. Here we present a rational approach to manipulating the spectral profile and lifetime of lanthanide emission in upconversion nanoparticles by tailoring their nonlinear optical properties. We demonstrate that the incorporation of energy distributors, such as surface defects or an extra amount of dopants, into a rare-earth-based host lattice alters the decay behavior of excited sensitizers, thus markedly improving the emitters' sensitivity to excitation power. This work provides insight into mechanistic understanding of upconversion phenomena in nanoparticles and also enables exciting new opportunities of using these nanomaterials for photonic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00812g

  8. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  9. Infrared to x-ray spectral energy distributions of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Olga; Cutri, Roc M.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Rieke, Marcia; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed 14 quasars with z greater than 2.8 with the ROSAT-PSPC, and detected 12 of them, including the z=4.11 quasar 0000-263. We present the first x-ray spectrum of a radio quiet quasar with z greater than 3, 1946+768. Its x-ray spectrum is consistent with a power law with spectral index alpha(sub E)=1.8(sup +2.1, sub -1.4) and no evidence for absorption in excess of the galactic column (alpha(sub E)=1.00(sup +0.28, sub -0.32) assuming N(sub H)=N(sub H)(Gal)). A Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) hardness ratio is used to constrain the x-ray spectral properties of the quasars for which there were less than 100 photons detected. For the radio quiet quasars, (alpha(sub E)) approximately equals 1.2, if one assumes that there is no absorption in excess of the galactic column. We combine the x-ray data with new ground based optical and near-IR spectrophotometry obtained at the Steward 2.3 m and Multiple Mirror Telescope, and data from the literature. The spectral energy distributions are compared to those of low redshift objects. For the radio quiet quasars with z greater than 2.5, the mean (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.8. This is larger than the mean for quasars with z less than 2.5, but consistent with the expected value for quasars with the high optical luminosities of the objects in this sample. For the radio-loud quasars, (alpha(sub ox)) is approximately 1.4, independent of redshift. This is smaller than the expected value for the optically luminous, high redshift objects in this sample, if they are mostly GHz peaked radio sources and hence comparable to steep-spectrum, compact radio sources at lower redshift. Finally, we compare the spectral energy distributions of two representative objects to the predicted spectrum of a thin accretion disk in the Kerr geometry, and discuss the uncertainties in deriving black hole masses and mass accretion rates.

  10. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D

    2013-09-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements. PMID:23955030

  11. Multiwavelength observations of the energetic GRB 080810: detailed mapping of the broad-band spectral evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Holland, S. T.; McBreen, S.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rol, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.; Aceituno, F. J.; Akerlof, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Briggs, M. S.; Burrows, D. N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Connaughton, V.; Evans, P. A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gehrels, N.; Guidorzi, C.; Howard, A. W.; Kennea, J. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pagani, C.; Preece, R.; Perley, D.; Steele, I. A.; Yuan, F.

    2009-11-01

    GRB 080810 was one of the first bursts to trigger both Swift and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It was subsequently monitored over the X-ray and UV/optical bands by Swift, in the optical by Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and a host of other telescopes, and was detected in the radio by the Very Large Array. The redshift of z = 3.355 +/- 0.005 was determined by Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and confirmed by RTT150 and NOT. The prompt gamma/X-ray emission, detected over 0.3-103 keV, systematically softens over time, with Epeak moving from ~600 keV at the start to ~40 keV around 100s after the trigger; alternatively, this spectral evolution could be identified with the blackbody temperature of a quasi-thermal model shifting from ~60 to ~3keV over the same time interval. The first optical detection was made at 38s, but the smooth, featureless profile of the full optical coverage implies that this is originated from the afterglow component, not from the pulsed/flaring prompt emission. Broad-band optical and X-ray coverage of the afterglow at the start of the final X-ray decay (~8ks) reveals a spectral break between the optical and X-ray bands in the range of 1015-2 × 1016Hz. The decay profiles of the X-ray and optical bands show that this break initially migrates blueward to this frequency and then subsequently drifts redward to below the optical band by ~3 × 105s. GRB 080810 was very energetic, with an isotropic energy output for the prompt component of 3 × 1053 and 1.6 × 1052 erg for the afterglow; there is no evidence for a jet break in the afterglow up to 6d following the burst. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Martin Turner, who sadly passed away during its writing. Martin was an influential figure in X-ray Astronomy and an excellent PhD supervisor. He will be greatly missed. E-mail: kpa@star.le.ac.uk ‡ NASA postdoctoral program fellow.

  12. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Afterglows: a Multi-Wavelength Study in the Swift Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are generally followed by long-lasting low-frequency afterglow emission, are short and intense pulses of gamma-rays observed from the sky in arbitrary directions. In order to observe the multi-wavelength emission at the early afterglow phase and even the prompt emission phase, NASA launched the Swift satellite on Nov. 20th 2004. Swift can localize GRBs within about 10 seconds. A brief review on the recent progress in observations and theories in the Swift era is given in Chapter 1. This paper focuses on the features of the early afterglows and the multi-wavelength prompt emission. In Chapters 2 and 3, we try to explain the shallow-decaying X-ray afterglows and X-ray flares, both of which are unaccountable in the standard afterglow model. (1) It is widely accepted that the shallow decay phase indicates a continuous energy injection into the GRB blast wave, and this energy could be released from the central engine after the burst. Based on the knowledge of the evolution of a pulsar wind, we argue that the injected flow interacting with the GRB blast wave is an ultra-relativistic kinetic-energy flow (i.e., wind) rather than pure electromagnetic waves. Therefore, a relativistic wind bubble (RWB) including a pair of shocks will be formed. Our numerical calculations and the fitting results show that the emission from an RWB can well account for the X-ray shallow decay phase. (2) For the X-ray flares that are attributed to some intermediate late activities of the central engine, we analyze the detailed dynamics of late internal shocks which directly produce the flare emission. Comparing the theoretical results with the lower limits of the observational luminosities and the profiles of the flare light curves, we find some constraints on the properties of the pre-collision shells, which are directly determined by the central object. In Chapter 4, we investigate the high-energy afterglow emission during the shallow decay phase in two models, i

  13. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Afterglows: a Multi-Wavelength Study in the Swift Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are generally followed by long-lasting low-frequency afterglow emission, are short and intense pulses of gamma-rays observed from the sky in arbitrary directions. In order to observe the multi-wavelength emission at the early afterglow phase and even the prompt emission phase, NASA launched the Swift satellite on Nov. 20th 2004. Swift can localize GRBs within about 10 seconds. A brief review on the recent progress in observations and theories in the Swift era is given in Chapter 1. This paper focuses on the features of the early afterglows and the multi-wavelength prompt emission. In Chapters 2 and 3, we try to explain the shallow-decaying X-ray afterglows and X-ray flares, both of which are unaccountable in the standard afterglow model. (1) It is widely accepted that the shallow decay phase indicates a continuous energy injection into the GRB blast wave, and this energy could be released from the central engine after the burst. Based on the knowledge of the evolution of a pulsar wind, we argue that the injected flow interacting with the GRB blast wave is an ultra-relativistic kinetic-energy flow (i.e., wind) rather than pure electromagnetic waves. Therefore, a relativistic wind bubble (RWB) including a pair of shocks will be formed. Our numerical calculations and the fitting results show that the emission from an RWB can well account for the X-ray shallow decay phase. (2) For the X-ray flares that are attributed to some intermediate late activities of the central engine, we analyze the detailed dynamics of late internal shocks which directly produce the flare emission. Comparing the theoretical results with the lower limits of the observational luminosities and the profiles of the flare light curves, we find some constraints on the properties of the pre-collision shells, which are directly determined by the central object. In Chapter 4, we investigate the high-energy afterglow emission during the shallow decay phase in two models, i

  14. Nitric oxide kinetics in the afterglow of a diffuse plasma filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D.; Montello, A.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2014-08-01

    A suite of laser diagnostics is used to study kinetics of vibrational energy transfer and plasma chemical reactions in a nanosecond pulse, diffuse filament electric discharge and afterglow in N2 and dry air at 100 Torr. Laser-induced fluorescence of NO and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence of O and N atoms are used to measure absolute, time-resolved number densities of these species after the discharge pulse, and picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is used to measure time-resolved rotational temperature and ground electronic state N2(v = 0-4) vibrational level populations. The plasma filament diameter, determined from plasma emission and NO planar laser-induced fluorescence images, remains nearly constant after the discharge pulse, over a few hundred microseconds, and does not exhibit expansion on microsecond time scale. Peak temperature in the discharge and the afterglow is low, T ≈ 370 K, in spite of significant vibrational nonequilibrium, with peak N2 vibrational temperature of Tv ≈ 2000 K. Significant vibrational temperature rise in the afterglow is likely caused by the downward N2-N2 vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Simple kinetic modeling of time-resolved N, O, and NO number densities in the afterglow, on the time scale longer compared to relaxation and quenching time of excited species generated in the plasma, is in good agreement with the data. In nitrogen, the N atom density after the discharge pulse is controlled by three-body recombination and radial diffusion. In air, N, NO and O concentrations are dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, N + NO → N2 + O, and ozone formation reaction, O + O2 + M → O3 + M, respectively. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules and excited N atoms on NO formation kinetics is estimated to be negligible. The results suggest that NO formation in the nanosecond pulse discharge is dominated by reactions of excited electronic states of nitrogen, occurring on

  15. A dynamic attenuator improves spectral imaging with energy-discriminating, photon counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2015-03-01

    Energy-discriminating, photon counting (EDPC) detectors have high potential in spectral imaging applications but exhibit degraded performance when the incident count rate approaches or exceeds the characteristic count rate of the detector. In order to reduce the requirements on the detector, we explore the strategy of modulating the X-ray flux field using a recently proposed dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator. A previous paper studied this modulation for photon counting detectors but did not explore the impact on spectral applications. In this work, we modeled detection with a bipolar triangular pulse shape (Taguchi et al., 2011) and estimated the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of material selective and equivalent monoenergetic images, assuming deterministic errors at high flux could be corrected. We compared different materials for the dynamic attenuator and found that rare earth elements, such as erbium, outperformed previously proposed materials such as iron in spectral imaging. The redistribution of flux reduces the variance or dose, consistent with previous studies on benefits with conventional detectors. Numerical simulations based on DICOM datasets were used to assess the impact of the dynamic attenuator for detectors with several different characteristic count rates. The dynamic attenuator reduced the peak incident count rate by a factor of 4 in the thorax and 44 in the pelvis, and a 10 Mcps/mm (2) EDPC detector with dynamic attenuator provided generally superior image quality to a 100 Mcps/mm (2) detector with reference bowtie filter for the same dose. The improvement is more pronounced in the material images. PMID:25265628

  16. A Different View of Solar Cycle Spectral Variations: Total Energy during Isolated Solar Outburst Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) varies on all time scales, and these variations are highly dependent on wavelength. The daily and 27-day solar rotation variations are best understood from many different satellite observations over the past five decades. There has also been much progress in understanding the longer term 11-year solar activity cycle variations. However, instrument degradation corrections are not as accurate as sometimes needed for long-term studies, thus there can be challenges in understanding the solar cycle variations at some wavelengths. In particular, the Harder et al. (GRL, 36, L07801, 2009) results for the near ultraviolet (NUV), visible, and near infrared (NIR) have indicated more NUV variation and some out-of-phase variation for some visible and NIR wavelengths. These variations have been challenged as they are inconsistent with some prior measurements and with some SSI models. A different approach to study the solar cycle variations, but without the need for long-term instrument degradation corrections, is to examine the total energy during isolated solar outburst periods. A solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes about seven months to decay and disperse back into the quiet Sun network. The isolated outburst period refers to when only one major active region dominates the irradiance variation. The solar outburst energy, which includes all phases of active region evolution, could be considered to be the primary cause for solar cycle variations. Using TIMED, SDO, and SORCE extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet observations, the outburst energy (7 months) spectral variation is found to be very similar to their multi-year (solar cycle) variation. The same approach is applied for studying the NUV-Visible-NIR variations from SORCE, and these new results provide a different, and perhaps more accurate, indicator of SSI variation.

  17. SINGLE-STAR H II REGIONS AS A PROBE OF MASSIVE STAR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Pellegrini, E. W.

    2013-06-01

    The shape of OB-star ionizing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is a critical component in many diagnostics of galaxy and interstellar medium properties. To quantitatively examine the shape of the OB-star SED, we compare long slit observations of single-star, Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions to the predictions from CLOUDY photoionization simulations that use CoStar, TLUSTY, and WM-basic stellar atmosphere models as the ionizing source. For each atmosphere model, we run grids of H II region simulations with the effective temperature (T{sub eff}) of the star as a free parameter. The best SEDs from each atmosphere code are found by matching the predicted emission-line spectra with those observed from the nebulae. By assuming a clumpy gas distribution, all atmosphere codes are able to reproduce the observed emission lines, except at the highest energy transitions {approx}> 40 eV. Taking into account both low and high energy transitions, we find that simulations using WM-basic produce the best agreement with the observed line ratios. The rates of ionizing photons from different atmosphere models vary systematically with the relative hardness of the SEDs. However, in general the rates produced by the model SEDs, for standard log(g) = 4.0 models, are consistent with the rates derived from the H{alpha} luminosities. We find that our effective temperatures inferred from the nebular ionization balance are consistent with those predicted by conventional photospheric-based calibrations from the literature. We suggest that future spectral type to T{sub eff} calibrations can be constructed from nebular data.

  18. Multicolor observations of the afterglow of the short/hard GRB 050724

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malesani, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Fugazza, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Ballo, L.; Campana, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Della Valle, M.; Goldoni, P.; Guidorzi, C.; Israel, G. L.; Lazzati, D.; Melandri, A.; Pellizza, L. J.; Romano, P.; Stratta, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2007-10-01

    Context: New information on short/hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is being gathered thanks to the discovery of their optical and X-ray afterglows. However, some key aspects are still poorly understood, including the collimation level of the outflow, the duration of the central engine activity, and the properties of the progenitor systems. Aims: We want to constrain the physical properties of the short GRB 050724 and of its host galaxy, and make some inferences on the global short GRB population. Methods: We present optical observations of the afterglow of GRB 050724 and of its host galaxy, significantly expanding the existing dataset for this event. We compare our results with models, complementing them with available measurements from the literature. We study the afterglow light curve and spectrum including X-ray data. We also present observations of the host galaxy. Results: The observed optical emission was likely related to the large flare observed in the X-ray light curve. The apparent steep decay was therefore not due to the jet effect. Available data are indeed consistent with low collimation, in turn implying a large energy release, comparable to that of long GRBs. The flare properties also constrain the internal shock mechanism, requiring a large Lorentz factor contrast between the colliding shells. This implies that the central engine was active at late times, rather than ejecting all shells simultaneously. The host galaxy has red colors and no ongoing star formation, consistent with previous findings on this GRB. However, it is not a pure elliptical, and has some faint spiral structure. Conclusions: GRB 050724 provides the most compelling case for association between a short burst and a galaxy with old stellar population. It thus plays a pivotal role in constraining progenitors models, which should allow for long delays between birth and explosion. Based on observations carried out at ESO telescopes under programmes Id 075.D-0787, 075.D-0468 and 078.D-0809.

  19. Modeling the Multi-band Afterglow of GRB 130831A: Evidence for a Spinning-down Magnetar Dominated by Gravitational Wave Losses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Huang, Y. F.; Zong, H. S.

    2016-06-01

    The X-ray afterglow of GRB 130831A shows an “internal plateau” with a decay slope of ∼0.8, followed by a steep drop at around 105 s with a slope of ∼6. After the drop, the X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical afterglow exhibits two segments of plateaus separated by a luminous optical flare, followed by a normal decay with a slope basically consistent with that of the late-time X-ray afterglow. The decay of the internal X-ray plateau is much steeper than what we expect in the simplest magnetar model. We propose a scenario in which the magnetar undergoes gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability, and the spin-down is dominated by gravitational wave losses up to the end of the steep plateau, so that such a relatively steep plateau can be interpreted as the internal emission of the magnetar wind and the sharp drop can be produced when the magnetar collapses into a black hole. This scenario also predicts an initial X-ray plateau lasting for hundreds of seconds with an approximately constant flux which is compatible with observation. Assuming that the magnetar wind has a negligible contribution in the optical band, we interpret the optical afterglow as the forward shock emission by invoking the energy injection from a continuously refreshed shock following the prompt emission phase. It is shown that our model can basically describe the temporal evolution of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 130831A.

  20. DISCOVERY AND REDSHIFT OF AN OPTICAL AFTERGLOW IN 71 deg{sup 2}: iPTF13bxl AND GRB 130702A

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Brown, Duncan A.; Bradley Cenko, S.; Gehrels, Neil; McEnery, Julie; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Mulchaey, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bellm, Eric; Barlow, Tom; Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Nugent, Peter E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Masci, Frank J.; and others

    2013-10-20

    We report the discovery of the optical afterglow of the γ-ray burst (GRB) 130702A, identified upon searching 71 deg{sup 2} surrounding the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) localization. Discovered and characterized by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF13bxl is the first afterglow discovered solely based on a GBM localization. Real-time image subtraction, machine learning, human vetting, and rapid response multi-wavelength follow-up enabled us to quickly narrow a list of 27,004 optical transient candidates to a single afterglow-like source. Detection of a new, fading X-ray source by Swift and a radio counterpart by CARMA and the Very Large Array confirmed the association between iPTF13bxl and GRB 130702A. Spectroscopy with the Magellan and Palomar 200 inch telescopes showed the afterglow to be at a redshift of z = 0.145, placing GRB 130702A among the lowest redshift GRBs detected to date. The prompt γ-ray energy release and afterglow luminosity are intermediate between typical cosmological GRBs and nearby sub-luminous events such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218. The bright afterglow and emerging supernova offer an opportunity for extensive panchromatic follow-up. Our discovery of iPTF13bxl demonstrates the first observational proof-of-principle for ∼10 Fermi-iPTF localizations annually. Furthermore, it represents an important step toward overcoming the challenges inherent in uncovering faint optical counterparts to comparably localized gravitational wave events in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo era.

  1. IPHAS and the symbiotic stars. III. New discoveries and their IR spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Flores, E. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.; García-Alvarez, D.; Munari, U.; Greimel, R.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Santander-García, M.

    2014-07-01

    Context. The IPHAS Hα survey provides a rich database to search for emission-line sources in the northern Galactic plane. Aims: We are systematically searching for symbiotic stars in the Milky Way using IPHAS. Our final goal, a complete census of this class of objects in the Galaxy, is a fundamental figure for discussing their overall properties and relevance to other classes of stars. Methods: Candidate symbiotic stars were selected using a refined combination of IPHAS and 2MASS photometric colours. Optical spectroscopy, together with the analysis of their spectral energy distribution in the IR, were obtained to confirm their nature and determine their main properties. Results: Five new symbiotic stars have been confirmed from spectroscopy at the 10.4 m GTC telescope. In one case, confirming the presence of a red giant star required near infrared spectroscopy. In another case, its symbiotic nature was adopted based on the strong similarity of its optical spectrum and spectral energy distribution to those of other genuinely symbiotic stars. The spectral energy distribution of the two S-types found is well fitted by red-giant model atmospheres up to 22 μm without evidence of IR excesses due to dust. In contrast, the three D-types mostly show emission from hot dust with a temperature around 1000 K. We also present the spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of the symbiotic star IPHASJ190832.31+051226.6 that was originally discovered in outburst, and it has now returned to a lower luminosity status. The spectra of thirteen other sources, all classified as young stellar objects except for a new compact planetary nebula, are also presented. Conclusions: The refinement of our discovery method, the completion of the IPHAS survey and photometric calibration, and the start of the twin survey in the south, VPHAS+, provide excellent perspectives for completing a reliable census of symbiotic stars in the Galaxy in the next few years. Appendices are available in electronic

  2. Erratum: The Late Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990712

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, J.; Holland, S.; Courbin, F.; Dar, A.; Olsen, L. F.; Scodeggio, M.

    2000-08-01

    In the Letter ``The Late Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990712'' by J. Hjorth, S. Holland, F. Courbin, A. Dar, L. F. Olsen, & M. Scodeggio (ApJ, 534, L147 [2000]), there was an error in the flux calibration of the spectrum. The y-axis scale of Figure 2 and the fluxes in the last column of Table 1 should be multiplied by a factor of 3.47 to read 2.25, 0.86, 1.61, and 3.79×10-16 ergs s-1 cm-2. The error affects the luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) presented in the third and fourth paragraphs of § 5 as follows. In the third paragraph, the total SFR based on the continuum flux should be 0.91-1.41 Msolar yr-1 instead of 0.29-0.45 the [O II] luminosity should be L3727=1.5×1041 ergs s-1 instead of 6.3×1040 and the implied [O II] SFR should be 2.12+/-0.60 Msolar yr-1 instead of 0.88+/-0.25. Consequently, the last two sentences of this paragraph are revised to read ``The derived SFR (from the [O II] flux) is about half of the SFR found by Bloom et al. (1999b) for the host of GRB 990123 and 2-3 times that of the host of GRB 970508 (Bloom et al. 1998). The specific SFR per unit luminosity of the GRB 990712 host galaxy is comparable to that of the host galaxies of GRB 990123 and GRB 970508.'' In the fourth paragraph, the total V-band flux in the feature should be 0.405+/-0.004 μJy instead of 0.323+/-0.003 the power-law spectral index should be β=-2.57 instead of -2.93 and the SFR in the feature should be 0.11-0.17 Msolar instead of 0.03-0.05. The main results and conclusions of the original Letter are unaffected by the error. The authors thank P. M. Vreeswijk for bringing this error to their attention.

  3. Complicated variations in the early optical afterglow of GRB 090726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, V.; Polášek, C.; Jelínek, M.; Hudec, R.; Štrobl, J.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We report on the detection of an early rising phase of optical afterglow (OA) of a long GRB 090726. We resolve a complicated profile of the optical light curve. We also investigate the relation of the optical and X-ray emission of this event. Methods: We made use of the optical photometry of this OA obtained by the 0.5 m telescope of AI AS CR, supplemented by the data obtained by other observers, and the X-ray Swift/XRT data. Results: The optical emission peaked at ˜17.5 mag(R) at t - T0 ≈ 500 s. We find a complex profile of the light curve during the early phase of this OA: an approximately power-law rise, a rapid transition to a plateau, a weak flare superimposed on the center of this plateau, and a slowly steepening early decline followed by a power-law decay. We discuss several possibilities for explaining the short flare on the flat top of the optical light curve at t-T0 ≈ 500 s. Activity of the central engine is favored, although reverse shock cannot be ruled out. We show that power-law outflow with Θ_obs/Θc > 2.5 is the best case for the OA of GRB 090726. The initial Lorentz factor is Γ0 ≈ 230-530 in the case of propagation of the blast wave in a homogeneous medium, while propagation of this wave in a wind environment gives Γ0 ≈ 80-300. The value of Γ0 in GRB 090726 thus falls into the lower half of the range observed in GRBs and it may even lie on the lower end. We also show that both the optical and X-ray emission decayed simultaneously and that the spectral profile from X-ray to the optical band did not vary. This is true for both the time periods before and after the break in the X-ray light curve. This break can be regarded as achromatic. The available data show that neither the dust nor the gaseous component of the circumburst medium underwent any evolution during the decay of this OA, that is, after t-T0 < 3000 s. We also show that this OA belongs to the least luminous ones in the phase of its power-law decay, corresponding to what

  4. The spectral energy distribution of compact jets powered by internal shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzac, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity are likely to power the radio-to-IR emission of the compact jets of X-ray binaries. The dynamics of internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) of the jet are very sensitive to the time-scales and amplitudes of the velocity fluctuations injected at the base of the jet. I present a new code designed to simulate the synchrotron emission of a compact jet powered by internal shocks. I also develop a semi-analytical formalism allowing one to estimate the observed SED of the jet as a function of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the Lorentz factor. I discuss the cases of a sine modulation of the Lorentz factor and Lorentz factor fluctuations with a power-law PSD shape. Independently of the details of the model, the observed nearly flat SEDs are obtained for PSDs of Lorentz factor fluctuations that are close to a flicker noise spectrum (i.e. P(f ) ∝ 1/f ). The model also presents a strong wavelength-dependent variability that is similar to that observed in these sources.

  5. Iris: Constructing and Analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions with the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurino, O.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Doe, S.; Evans, J.; Pevunova, O.

    2014-05-01

    We present Iris 2.0, the latest release of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory application for building and analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). With Iris, users may read in and display SEDs inspect and edit any selection of SED data, fit models to SEDs in arbitrary spectral ranges, and calculate confidence limits on best-fit parameters. SED data may be loaded into the application from VOTable and FITS files compliant with the International Virtual Observatoy Alliance interoperable data models, or retrieved directly from NED or the Italian Space Agency Science Data Center; data in non-standard formats may also be converted within the application. Users may seamlessy exchange data between Iris and other Virtual Observatoy tools using the Simple Application Messaging Protocol. Iris 2.0 also provides a tool for redshifting, interpolating, and measuring integratd fluxes, and allows simple aperture corrections for individual points and SED segments. Custom Python functions, template models and template libraries may be imported into Iris for fitting SEDs. Iris may be extended through Java plugins; users can install third-party packages, or develop their own plugin using Iris' Software Development Kit. Iris 2.0 is available for Linux and Mac OS X systems.

  6. Co Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Orion Sources: Templates for Extragalactic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, Edwin

    2015-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled the observation of CO emission lines originating in the J=5 through J=48 rotational levels. Surveys of active galaxies (e.g., starbursts, Seyferts, ULIRGs) detect emission from levels as high as J=30, but the precise excitation mechanisms responsible for producing the observed CO SLEDs (Spectral Line Energy Distribution) remain ambiguous. To better constrain the possible excitation mechanisms in extragalactic sources, we investigate the CO SLEDs arising from sources with known characteristics in the nearby Orion region. Targets include Orion-KL (high-mass star forming region containing a hot core, embedded protostars, outflows, and shocks), Orion South (high-mass star forming region containing embedded protostars, outflows, and a photodissociation region), Orion H_2 Peak 1 (molecular shock), and the Orion Bar (a photodissociation region). Emission lines from complex sources are decomposed using velocity information from high spectral resolution observations made with Herschel-HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared). Each source and/or component is taken as a template for a particular excitation mechanism, and then applied to interpret excitation in more distant regions within the Galaxy, as well as external galaxies.

  7. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Orion Sources: Templates for Extragalactic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, Edwin A.; Goicoechea, Javier; Schilke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Relative populations in the excited rotational levels of CO are sensitive to conditions in the interstellar medium. Emission lines originating in these levels can thus be used in constraining parameters such as density, temperature, and radiation field. The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled the observation of CO emission lines arising from the J=4 through J=48 rotational levels, many of which are detected in different sources within the Orion star-forming region. We present observations of CO emission toward Orion KL, Orion H2 Peak 1, Orion South, and the Orion Bar, all of which show distinctive CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) indicating the different excitation mechanisms at work. Using the high spectral resolution HIFI observations, we decompose emission line profiles into multiple components (e.g., shock, outflow, photodissociation region, ambient cloud) in order to characterize the CO SLED associated with each component. In doing so, we generate templates for the various excitation mechanisms that can be applied toward understanding the processes occurring in unresolved star-forming regions where CO observations have been made.

  8. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A. E-mail: ohad@unt.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  9. The Optical Afterglow of a Short Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Flynbo, Johan P.U.; Price, Paul A.; Jensen, Brian L.; Jorgensen, Uffe G.; Kubas, Daniel; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobssonk, Pall; Sollerman, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that there are two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), principally distinguished by their durations. The breakthrough in our understanding of long-duration GRBs (greater than 2 seconds in duration), that ultimately linked them with energetic Type Ic supernovae, came about from the discovery of their long-lived X-ray and optical "afterglow", when precise and rapid localizations of the sources could finally be obtained. Recently, X-ray localizations have become available for short (less than 2 seconds in duration) GRBs, a hitherto elusive GRB population, that has evaded optical detection for more than thirty years. Here we report the discovery of transient optical emission (R approximately 23 mag) associated with a short GRB. This first short GRB afterglow is localized with sub-arcsecond accuracy onto the outskirts of a blue dwarf galaxy. Unless the optical and X-ray afterglow arise from different mechanisms our observations 33 h after the GRB suggest that, analogously to long GRBs, we observe synchrotron emission from ultrarelativistic ejecta (ZZZ CAN WE LIMIT GAMMA?). In contrast, we did not detect a bright supernova, as found in most nearby long GRB afterglows, which suggests a different origidstrongly constrain the nature of the short GRB progenitors.

  10. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  11. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  12. ON PARTICLE ACCELERATION RATE IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Sagi, Eran; Nakar, Ehud

    2012-04-10

    It is well known that collisionless shocks are major sites of particle acceleration in the universe, but the details of the acceleration process are still not well understood. The particle acceleration rate, which can shed light on the acceleration process, is rarely measured in astrophysical environments. Here, we use observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, which are weakly magnetized relativistic collisionless shocks in ion-electron plasma, to constrain the rate of particle acceleration in such shocks. We find, based on X-ray and GeV afterglows, an acceleration rate that is most likely very fast, approaching the Bohm limit, when the shock Lorentz factor is in the range of {Gamma} {approx} 10-100. In that case X-ray observations may be consistent with no amplification of the magnetic field in the shock upstream region. We examine the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729, which is observed for 642 days showing a sharp decay in the flux starting about 400 days after the burst, when the shock Lorentz factor is {approx}5. We find that inability to accelerate X-ray-emitting electrons at late time provides a natural explanation for the sharp decay, and that also in that case acceleration must be rather fast, and cannot be more than a 100 times slower than the Bohm limit. We conclude that particle acceleration is most likely fast in GRB afterglows, at least as long as the blast wave is ultrarelativistic.

  13. Afterglow processes responsible for memory effect in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Pejovic, M. M.; Nesic, N. T.; Pejovic, M. M.; Zivanovic, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms responsible for memory effect in nitrogen at 6.6 mbars have been analysed based on experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay as a function of afterglow period. The analysis has shown that positive ions remaining from previous discharge, as well as metastable and highly vibrationally excited molecules, are responsible for memory effect in the early afterglow. These molecules lead to the formation of positive ions in mutual collisions in the afterglow. Positive ions initiate secondary electron emission from the cathode of a nitrogen-filled tube when voltage higher than static breakdown voltage is applied on the electrodes. On the other hand, N({sup 4}S) atoms have a large influence on memory effect in late afterglow. They recombine on the cathode surface forming metastable molecules, which release secondary electrons in collision with the cathode. The higher values of electrical breakdown time delay in the case of the tube with borosilicate glass walls than in the case of the tube with copper walls are a consequence of faster de-excitation of neutral active particles on the glass. Indirect confirmation of this assumption has been obtained when the tubes were irradiated with gamma radiation.

  14. Radio afterglows and host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long-Biao; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Yong-Feng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Kong, Si-Wei; Li, Di; Chang, Heon-Young; Choi, Chul-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Considering the contribution of emission from the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to radio afterglows, we investigate the effect of host galaxies on observations statistically. For the three types of event, i.e. low-luminosity, standard and high-luminosity GRBs, it is found that a tight correlation exists between the ratio of the radio flux (RRF) of the host galaxy to the total radio peak emission and the observational frequency. Towards lower frequencies, in particular, the contribution from the host increases significantly. The correlation can be used to obtain a useful estimate for the radio brightness of those host galaxies that only have very limited radio afterglow data. Using this prediction, we reconsidered the theoretical radio afterglow light curves for four kinds of event: high-luminosity, low-luminosity, standard and failed GRBs, taking into account the contribution from host galaxies and aiming to explore the detectability of these events by the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). Lying at a typical redshift of z = 1, most of the events can be detected easily by FAST. For the less fierce low-luminosity GRBs, their radio afterglows are not strong enough to exceed the sensitivity limit of FAST at such distances. However, since a large number of low-luminosity bursts actually happen very near to us, it is expected that FAST will still be able to detect many of them.

  15. The First Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope GRB Afterglow Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Koch, T. S.; Oates, S. R.; Porterfield, B. L.; Vanden Berk, D. E.; Boyd, P. T.; Holland, S. T.; Hoversten, E. A.; Immler, S.; Marshall, F. E.; Page, M. J.; Racusin, J. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Breeveld, A. A.; Brown, P. J.; Chester, M. M.; Cucchiara, A.; DePasquale, M.; Gronwall, C.; Hunsberger, S. D.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Landsman, W. B.; Schady, P.; Still, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow catalog. The catalog contains data from over 64,000 independent UVOT image observations of 229 GRBs first detected by Swift, the High Energy Transient Explorer 2 (HETE2), the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). The catalog covers GRBs occurring during the period from 2005 January 17 to 2007 June 16 and includes ~86% of the bursts detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The catalog provides detailed burst positional, temporal, and photometric information extracted from each of the UVOT images. Positions for bursts detected at the 3σ level are provided with a nominal accuracy, relative to the USNO-B1 catalog, of ~0farcs25. Photometry for each burst is given in three UV bands, three optical bands, and a "white" or open filter. Upper limits for magnitudes are reported for sources detected below 3σ. General properties of the burst sample and light curves, including the filter-dependent temporal slopes, are also provided. The majority of the UVOT light curves, for bursts detected at the 3σ level, can be fit by a single power-law, with a median temporal slope (α) of 0.96, beginning several hundred seconds after the burst trigger and ending at ~1 × 105 s. The median UVOT v-band (~5500 Å) magnitude at 2000 s for a sample of "well"-detected bursts is 18.02. The UVOT flux interpolated to 2000 s after the burst, shows relatively strong correlations with both the prompt Swift BAT fluence, and the Swift X-ray flux at 11 hr after the trigger.

  16. GRB Orphan Afterglows in Present and Future Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Burlon, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Bernardini, M. G.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Melandri, A.; Murphy, T.; Nava, L.; Vergani, S. D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2014-05-01

    Orphan Afterglows (OA) are slow transients produced by Gamma Ray Bursts seen off-axis that become visible on timescales of days/years at optical/NIR and radio frequencies, when the prompt emission at high energies (X and γ rays) has already ceased. Given the typically estimated jet opening angle of GRBs θjet ~ 3°, for each burst pointing to the Earth there should be a factor ~ 700 more GRBs pointing in other directions. Despite this, no secure OAs have been detected so far. Through a population synthesis code we study the emission properties of the population of OA at radio frequencies. OAs reach their emission peak on year-timescales and they last for a comparable amount of time. The typical peak fluxes (which depend on the observing frequency) are of few μJy in the radio band with only a few OA reaching the mJy level. These values are consistent with the upper limits on the radio flux of SN Ib/c observed at late times. We find that the OA radio number count distribution has a typical slope - 1.7 at high fluxes and a flatter ( - 0.4) slope at low fluxes with a break at a frequency-dependent flux. Our predictions of the OA rates are consistent with the (upper) limits of recent radio surveys and archive searches for radio transients. Future radio surveys like VAST/ASKAP at 1.4 GHz should detect ~ 3 × 10- 3 OA deg- 2 yr- 1, MeerKAT and EVLA at 8.4 GHz should see ~ 3 × 10- 1 OA deg- 2 yr- 1. The SKA, reaching the μJy flux limit, could see up to ~ 0.2 - 1.5 OA deg- 2 yr- 1. These rates also depend on the duration of the OA above a certain flux limit and we discuss this effect with respect to the survey cadence.

  17. ATLAS Versus NextGen Model Atmospheres: A Combined Analysis of Synthetic Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Chávez, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.

    2004-08-01

    We carried out a critical appraisal of the two theoretical models, Kurucz' ATLAS9 and PHOENIX/NextGen, for stellar atmosphere synthesis. Our tests relied on the theoretical fit of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of 334 target stars along the whole spectral-type sequence, from the classical optical catalogs of Gunn & Stryker and Jacoby et al. The best-fitting physical parameters (Teff, logg) of stars allowed an independent calibration of the temperature and bolometric scale versus empirical classification parameters (i.e., spectral type and MK luminosity class); in addition, the comparison of the synthetic templates from the ATLAS and NextGen grids allowed us to probe the capability of the models to match spectrophotometric properties of real stars and assess the impact of the different input physics. We can sketch the following main conclusions of our analysis: (1) Fitting accuracy of both theoretical libraries drastically degrades at low Teff at which both ATLAS and NextGen models still fail to properly account for the contribution of molecular features in the observed SED of K-M stars. (2) Compared with empirical calibrations, both ATLAS and NextGen fits tend, on average, to predict slightly warmer (by 4%-8%) Teff for both giant and dwarf stars of fixed spectral type, but ATLAS provides, in general, a sensibly better fit (a factor of 2 lower σ of flux residuals) than NextGen. (3) There is a striking tendency of NextGen to label target stars with an effective temperature and surface gravity higher than that of ATLAS. The effect is especially evident for MK I-III objects for which about one in four stars is clearly misclassified by NextGen in logg. This is a consequence of some ``degeneracy'' in the solution space, partly induced by the different input physics and geometry constraints in the computation of the integrated emerging flux (ATLAS model atmospheres assume standard plane-parallel layers, while NextGen adopts, for low-gravity stars, a

  18. Weibel Filament Decay and Thermalization in Collisionless Shocks and Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Nakar, Ehud

    2006-04-01

    Models for the synchrotron emission of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the magnetic field is generated in the shock wave that forms as relativistic ejecta plow through the circumburst medium. Transverse Weibel instability efficiently generates magnetic fields near equipartition with the postshock energy density. The detailed saturated state of the instability, as seen in particle-in-cell simulations, consists of magnetically self-pinched current filaments. The filaments are parallel to the direction of propagation of the shock and are about a plasma skin depth in radius, forming a quasi-two-dimensional structure. We argue that the Weibel filaments are susceptible to pressure-driven instabilities and use a rudimentary analytical model to illustrate the development of a particular, kinklike unstable mode. The instabilities destroy the quasi-two-dimensional structure of the Weibel filaments. For wavelengths longer than the skin depth, the kinklike mode grows at the rate equal to the speed of light divided by the wavelength. We calculate the transport of collisionless test particles in the filaments experiencing the instability and show that the particles diffuse in energy. This diffusion marks the beginning of thermalization in the shock transition layer and causes initial magnetic field decay as particles escape from the filaments. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of the shock and the polarization of the afterglow.

  19. Spectral and energy parameters of multiband barrier-discharge KrBr excilamps

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeev, S M; Erofeev, M V; Skakun, V S; Sosnin, E A; Suslov, A I; Tarasenko, V F; Schitz, D V

    2008-07-31

    The spectral and energy characteristics of multiband barrier-discharge coaxial KrBr excilamps are studied experimentally at pressures from a few tens of Torr to 0.4 atm. It is shown that an increase in the Br{sub 2} concentration reduces the emission intensity of KrBr* molecules with respect to the emission intensity of Br{sub 2}* molecules and reduces the total emission power of the excilamp. This can be explained by the nonradiative decay of exciplex KrBr* molecules caused by their quenching by molecular bromine. The emission power and efficiency in the Kr:Br{sub 2} = 400:1 mixture at a pressure of {approx}230 Torr and a discharge gap of 8.5 mm were 4.8 W and 2.4%, respectively. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  1. A LEPTONIC-HADRONIC MODEL FOR THE AFTERGLOW OF GAMMA-RAY BURST 090510

    SciTech Connect

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2010-11-20

    We model multiwavelength afterglow data from the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 090510 using a combined leptonic-hadronic model of synchrotron radiation from an adiabatic blast wave. High-energy, {approx_gt}100 MeV, emission in our model is dominated by proton-synchrotron radiation, while electron-synchrotron radiation dominates in the X-ray and ultraviolet wavelengths. The collimation-corrected GRB energy, depending on the jet-break time, in this model could be as low as 3 x 10{sup 51} erg but two orders of magnitude larger than the absolute {gamma}-ray energy. We also calculated the opacities for electron-positron pair production by {gamma}-rays and found that TeV {gamma}-rays from proton-synchrotron radiation can escape the blast wave at early time, and their detection can provide evidence of a hadronic emission component dominating at high energies.

  2. Energy transfer in spectrally inhomogeneous light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of purple bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, S; Akesson, E; Cogdell, R J; Pullerits, T; Sundström, V

    1995-01-01

    Energy transfer within the peripheral light-harvesting antenna of the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris was studied by one- and two-color pump-probe absorption spectroscopy with approximately 100-fs tunable pulses at room temperature and at 77 K. The energy transfer from B800 to B850 occurs with a time constant of 0.7 +/- 0.05 ps at room temperature and 1.8 +/- 0.2 ps at 77 K and is similar in both species. Anisotropy measurements suggest a limited but fast B800 <--> B800 transfer time (tau approximately 0.3 ps). This is analyzed as incoherent hopping of the excitation in a system of spectrally inhomogeneous antenna pigment-protein complexes, by a master equation approach. The simulations show that the measured B800 dynamics is well described as energy transfer with a characteristic average nearest-neighbor pairwise transfer time of 0.35 ps among approximately 10 Bchl molecules in a circular arrangement, in good agreement with the recent high-resolution structure of LH2. The possible presence of fast intramolecular relaxation processes within the Bchl a molecule was investigated by measurement of time-resolved difference absorption spectra and kinetics of Bchl a in solution and in low-temperature glasses. From these measurements it is concluded that fast transients observed at room temperature are due mainly to solvation processes, whereas at 77 K predominantly slower (> 10-ps) relaxation occurs. Images FIGURE 11 PMID:8599629

  3. Energy dependence of power-spectral noise in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger; Yu, Wenfei

    2014-08-01

    Black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show variability on time-scales ranging from milliseconds to years. In the last two decades a detailed phenomenological picture of short-term variability in low-mass X-ray binaries has emerged mainly based on RXTE observations that cover energies above 3 keV. This picture comprises periodic or quasi-periodic variability, seen as spikes or humps in power density spectra, that are superposed on broad noise components. The overall shape of the noise components as well as the occurrence of quasi-periodic oscillations is known to vary with the state of the X-ray binary. We are accomplishing a comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations in timing or burst mode of more than ten black hole and more than thirty neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries to investigate the variability properties of these sources at softer energies where the thermal disk component starts to emerge.Here we present some results of the energy dependence of the noise component in power density spectra: a discussion of the energy dependence of the power spectral state that we found in the “plateau” state of GRS 1915+105 and the intermediate state of 4U 1630-47; the dependence of the break-frequency of the band-limited noise component as well as the quasi-periodic oscillations on the studied energy band in several X-ray binaries like GX 339-4 or Swift J1753.5-0127. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

  4. Spectral Energy Transfer and Dissipation of Magnetic Energy from Fluid to Kinetic Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, K.; Li, H.

    2007-01-19

    We investigate the magnetic energy transfer from the fluid to kinetic scales and dissipation processes using three-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The nonlinear evolution of a sheet pinch is studied where we show that it exhibits both fluid scale global relaxation and kinetic scale collisionless reconnection at multiple resonant surfaces. The interactions among collisionless tearing modes destroy the original flux surfaces and produce stochastic fields, along with generating sheets and filaments of intensified currents. In addition, the magnetic energy is transferred from the original shear length scale both to the large scales due to the global relaxation and to the smaller, kinetic scales for dissipation. The dissipation is dominated by the thermal or pressure effect in the generalized Ohm's law, and electrons are preferentially accelerated.

  5. Spectral energy transfer and dissipation of magnetic energy from fluid to kinetic scales.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K; Li, H

    2007-01-19

    We investigate the magnetic energy transfer from the fluid to kinetic scales and dissipation processes using three-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The nonlinear evolution of a sheet pinch is studied where we show that it exhibits both fluid scale global relaxation and kinetic scale collisionless reconnection at multiple resonant surfaces. The interactions among collisionless tearing modes destroy the original flux surfaces and produce stochastic fields, along with generating sheets and filaments of intensified currents. In addition, the magnetic energy is transferred from the original shear length scale both to the large scales due to the global relaxation and to the smaller, kinetic scales for dissipation. The dissipation is dominated by the thermal or pressure effect in the generalized Ohm's law, and electrons are preferentially accelerated. PMID:17358690

  6. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  7. Spectral heterogeneity and carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 light-harvesting complexes from Allochromatium vinosum.

    PubMed

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Hacking, Kirsty; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gibson, George N; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic organisms produce a vast array of spectral forms of antenna pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar energy and also to adapt to growth under the variable environmental conditions of light intensity, temperature, and nutrient availability. This behavior is exemplified by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium that produces different types of LH2 light-harvesting complexes in response to variations in growth conditions. In the present work, three different spectral forms of LH2 from Alc. vinosum, B800-820, B800-840, and B800-850, were isolated, purified, and examined using steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The pigment composition of the LH2 complexes was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all were found to contain five carotenoids: lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin, spirilloxanthin, rhodopin, and rhodovibrin. Spectral reconstructions of the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra based on the pigment composition revealed significantly more spectral heterogeneity in these systems compared to LH2 complexes isolated from other species of purple bacteria. The data also revealed the individual carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiencies which were correlated with the kinetic data from the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic experiments. This series of LH2 complexes allows a systematic exploration of the factors that determine the spectral properties of the bound pigments and control the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer. PMID:26048106

  8. OFF-AXIS GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW MODELING BASED ON A TWO-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eerten, Hendrik; Zhang Weiqun; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2010-10-10

    Starting as highly relativistic collimated jets, gamma-ray burst outflows gradually slow down and become nonrelativistic spherical blast waves. Although detailed analytical solutions describing the afterglow emission received by an on-axis observer during both the early and late phases of the outflow evolution exist, a calculation of the received flux during the intermediate phase and for an off-axis observer requires either a more simplified analytical model or direct numerical simulations of the outflow dynamics. In this paper, we present light curves for off-axis observers covering the long-term evolution of the blast wave, calculated from a high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulation using a synchrotron radiation model. We compare our results to earlier analytical work and calculate the consequence of the observer angle with respect to the jet axis both for the detection of orphan afterglows and for jet break fits to the observational data. We confirm earlier results in the literature finding that only a very small number of local type Ibc supernovae can harbor an orphan afterglow. For off-axis observers, the observable jet break can be delayed up to several weeks, potentially leading to overestimation of the beaming-corrected total energy. In addition we find that, when using our off-axis light curves to create synthetic Swift X-ray data, jet breaks are likely to remain hidden in the data.

  9. Global spectral energy distributions of the Large Magellanic Cloud with interstellar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungeun; Kwon, Eunjoo; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Kim, Kihun; Cho, Chiyoung; Chung, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dust on infrared emission vary among galaxies of different morphological types. We investigated integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in infrared and submillimeter/millimeter emissions from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) and near- to mid-infrared observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). We also used IRAS and WMAP observations to constrain the SEDs and present the results of radiative transfer calculations using the spectrophotometric galaxy model. We explain the observations by using dust models with different grain size distributions in the interstellar medium of the LMC, noting that the LMC has undergone processes that differ from those in the Milky Way. We determined a spectral index and a normalization factor in the range of -3.5 to -3.45 with grain radii in the range of 1 nm-300 nm for the silicate grain and 2 nm-1 μm for the graphite grain. The best fit to the observed SED was obtained with a spectral index of -3.47, similar to the value derived by Piovan et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 366(3):923, 2006a). The grain size distribution is described using a power law but with a break that is introduced below a b , where a larger exponent is used. Changing the graphite grain size distribution significantly changed the SED pattern within the observational uncertainties. Based on the SED fits to the observations from submillimeter wavelengths to infrared radiation from the LMC using GRASIL (Silva et al., Astrophys. J. 509(1):103, 1998), we obtained a reasonable set of parameter values in chemical and geometric space together with the grain size distributions (Weingartner and Draine, Astrophys. J. 548(1):296, 2001) and a modified MRN model with the LMC extinction curve (Piovan et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 366(3):923, 2006a). For a given set of parameters including the disc scale height, synthesis of the starlight spectrum, optical depth, escape time scale

  10. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Müller, C.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims: We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. Methods: We use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. Results: The peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. Conclusions: The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin. Tables of the fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  11. Applying an accurate spherical model to gamma-ray burst afterglow observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventis, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; van Eerten, H. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present results of model fits to afterglow data sets of GRB 970508, GRB 980703 and GRB 070125, characterized by long and broad-band coverage. The model assumes synchrotron radiation (including self-absorption) from a spherical adiabatic blast wave and consists of analytic flux prescriptions based on numerical results. For the first time it combines the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations through different stages of the outflow dynamics with the flexibility of simple heuristic formulas. The prescriptions are especially geared towards accurate description of the dynamical transition of the outflow from relativistic to Newtonian velocities in an arbitrary power-law density environment. We show that the spherical model can accurately describe the data only in the case of GRB 970508, for which we find a circumburst medium density n ∝ r-2. We investigate in detail the implied spectra and physical parameters of that burst. For the microphysics we show evidence for equipartition between the fraction of energy density carried by relativistic electrons and magnetic field. We also find that for the blast wave to be adiabatic, the fraction of electrons accelerated at the shock has to be smaller than 1. We present best-fitting parameters for the afterglows of all three bursts, including uncertainties in the parameters of GRB 970508, and compare the inferred values to those obtained by different authors.

  12. FTIR Analysis of Flowing Afterglow from a High-Frequency Spark Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen; Hieftje, Gary M.; Ray, Steve; Pfeuffer, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Plasmas are often used as ionization sources for ambient mass spectrometry (AMS). Here, the flowing afterglow of a novel high-energy spark discharge system, operated in nitrogen at high repetition rates, is investigated as a source for AMS. The spark discharge here is the same as that of an automobile ignition circuit.Combustion in automobile engines is initiated by a spark ignition system that is designed to deliver short-duration,high-voltage sparks to multiple engine cylinders. The arrangement utilized in this study is a modified discharge configuration designed to produce similarly short-duration, high-voltage discharges. It consists of an automotive ignition coil that is activated by a spark initiation circuit that discharges in turn into a cell with neutral gas input flow and ultimately into the collection orifice of a mass spectrometer. The discharge voltage is approximately 40kV at 800 Hz. High-frequency spark discharges in a nitrogen flow produce reagent ions such as NO+. In order to better evaluate the effectiveness of the discharge in producing reagent ions, an FTIR is utilized to measure IR active species such as nitric oxide, hydroxide, ozone, and water in the afterglow of the spark discharge during variation of discharge parameters. Time-resolved IR emission spectra provide additional insight into the reagent ion production mechanisms.

  13. A frequency selective bolometer camera for measuring millimeter spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Daniel William

    2009-06-01

    Bolometers are the most sensitive detectors for measuring millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astrophysical signals. Cameras comprised of arrays of bolometers have already made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. A challenge for bolometer cameras is obtaining observations at multiple wavelengths. Traditionally, observing in multiple bands requires a partial disassembly of the instrument to replace bandpass filters, a task which prevents immediate spectral interrogation of a source. More complex cameras have been constructed to observe in several bands using beam splitters and dichroic filters, but the added complexity leads to physically larger instruments with reduced efficiencies. The SPEctral Energy Distribution camera (SPEED) is a new type of bolometer camera designed to efficiently observe in multiple wavebands without the need for excess bandpass filters and beam splitters. SPEED is a ground-based millimeter-wave bolometer camera designed to observe at 2.1, 1.3, 1.1, and 0.85 mm simultaneously. SPEED makes use of a new type of bolometer, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB), to observe all of the wavebands within each of the camera's four pixels. FSBs incorporate frequency selective dipole surfaces as absorbing elements allowing each detector to absorb a single, narrow band of radiation and pass all other radiation with low loss. Each FSB also contains a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) that acts as a sensitive thermistor for measuring the temperature of the FSB. This thesis describes the development of the SPEED camera and FSB detectors. The design of the detectors used in the instrument is described as well as the the general optical performance of frequency selective dipole surfaces. Laboratory results of both the optical and thermal properties of millimeter- wave FSBs are also presented. The SPEED instrument and its components are highlighted and the optical design of the optics which couple SPEED to the Heinrich Hertz

  14. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Spectral Energy Distributions and Fits Using a Grid of Protostellar Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, E.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Tobin, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Poteet, C. A.; Booker, J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Allen, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, and submillimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2–870 μm and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ∼100 μm. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30,400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate constraints on protostellar envelope properties. We find that most protostars, and in particular the flat-spectrum sources, are well fit. The median envelope density and median inclination angle decrease from Class 0 to Class I to flat-spectrum protostars, despite the broad range in best-fit parameters in each of the three categories. We also discuss degeneracies in our model parameters. Our results confirm that the different protostellar classes generally correspond to an evolutionary sequence with a decreasing envelope infall rate, but the inclination angle also plays a role in the appearance, and thus interpretation, of the SEDs.

  15. Protein interaction quantified in vivo by spectrally resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We describe a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based method for finding in living cells the fraction of a protein population (αT) forming complexes, and the average number (n) of those protein molecules in each complex. The method relies both on sensitized acceptor emission and on donor de-quenching (by photobleaching of the acceptor molecules), coupled with full spectral analysis of the differential fluorescence signature, in order to quantify the donor/acceptor energy transfer. The approach and sensitivity limits are well suited for in vivo microscopic investigations. This is demonstrated using a scanning laser confocal microscope to study complex formation of the sterile 2 α-factor receptor protein (Ste2p), labelled with green, cyan, and yellow fluorescent proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP respectively), in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A theoretical model is presented that relates the efficiency of energy transfer in protein populations (the apparent FRET efficiency, Eapp) to the energy transferred in a single donor/acceptor pair (E, the true FRET efficiency). We determined E by using a new method that relies on Eapp measurements for two donor/acceptor pairs, Ste2p–CFP/Ste2p–YFP and Ste2p–GFP/Ste2p–YFP. From Eapp and E we determined αT≈1 and n≈2 for Ste2 proteins. Since the Ste2p complexes are formed in the absence of the ligand in our experiments, we conclude that the α-factor pheromone is not necessary for dimerization. PMID:15352875

  16. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: anita.reimer@uibk.ac.at E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil

    2011-08-01

    We report on the {gamma}-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) {gamma}-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index {Gamma} = 1.78 {+-} 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor {approx}3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in {gamma}-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Markarian 421: The Missing Piece of its Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Georganopoulos, M.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Yatsu, Y.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Chen, W. P.; Jordan, B.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; McBreen, B.; Larionov, V. M.; Lin, C. S.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) during the first 1.5 years of Fermi operation, from 2008 August 5 to 2010 March 12. We find that the Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum above 0.3 GeV can be well described by a power-law function with photon index Γ = 1.78 ± 0.02 and average photon flux F(> 0.3 GeV) = (7.23 ± 0.16) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. Over this time period, the Fermi-LAT spectrum above 0.3 GeV was evaluated on seven-day-long time intervals, showing significant variations in the photon flux (up to a factor ~3 from the minimum to the maximum flux) but mild spectral variations. The variability amplitude at X-ray frequencies measured by RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT is substantially larger than that in γ-rays measured by Fermi-LAT, and these two energy ranges are not significantly correlated. We also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign on Mrk 421, which included the VLBA, Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments that provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign (2009 January 19 to 2009 June 1). During this campaign, Mrk 421 showed a low activity at all wavebands. The extensive multi-instrument (radio to TeV) data set provides an unprecedented, complete look at the quiescent spectral energy distribution (SED) for this source. The broadband SED was reproduced with a leptonic (one-zone synchrotron self-Compton) and a hadronic model (synchrotron proton blazar). Both frameworks are able to describe the average SED reasonably well, implying comparable jet powers but very different characteristics for the blazar emission site.

  18. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, T. R.; Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M.; Weiß, A.; Henkel, C.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aalto, S.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Fischer, J.; Gao, Y.; González-Alfonso, E.; Harris, A.; Naylor, D. A.; Smith, H. A.; Spaans, M.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  19. The Giant Flare From SGR 1806-20 And Its Radio Afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.B.; Granot, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-09-26

    The multi-wavelength observations of the 2004 December 27 Giant Flare (GF) from SGR 1806-20 and its long-lived radio afterglow are briefly reviewed. The GF appears to have been produced by a dramatic reconfiguration of the magnetic field near the surface of the neutron star, possibly accompanied by fractures in the crust. The explosive release of over 10{sup 46} erg (isotropic equivalent) powered a one-sided mildly relativistic outflow. The outflow produced a new expanding radio nebula, that is still visible over a year after the GF. Also considered are the constraints on the total energy in the GF, the energy and mass in the outflow, and on the external density, as well as possible implications for short {gamma}-ray bursts and potential signatures in high energy neutrinos, photons, or cosmic rays. Some possible future observations of this and other GFs are briefly discussed.

  20. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  1. Spectral formation in accreting X-ray pulsars: bimodal variation of the cyclotron energy with luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P. A.; Klochkov, D.; Schönherr, G.; Nishimura, O.; Ferrigno, C.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Wolff, M. T.; Wilms, J.; Staubert, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Accretion-powered X-ray pulsars exhibit significant variability of the cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF) centroid energy on pulse-to-pulse timescales, and also on much longer timescales. Two types of spectral variability are observed. For sources in group 1, the CRSF energy is negatively correlated with the variable source luminosity, and for sources in group 2, the opposite behavior is observed. The physical basis for this bimodal behavior is currently not well understood. Aims: We explore the hypothesis that the accretion dynamics in the group 1 sources is dominated by radiation pressure near the stellar surface, and that Coulomb interactions decelerate the gas to rest in the group 2 sources. Methods: We derive a new expression for the critical luminosity, Lcrit, such that radiation pressure decelerates the matter to rest in sources with X-ray luminosity LX > Lcrit. The formula for Lcrit is based on a simple physical model for the structure of the accretion column in luminous X-ray pulsars that takes into account radiative deceleration, the energy dependence of the cyclotron cross section, the thermodynamics of the accreting gas, the dipole structure of the pulsar magnetosphere, and the diffusive escape of radiation through the column walls. We show that for typical neutron star parameters, Lcrit = 1.5 × 1037 B1216/15 erg s-1, where B12 is the surface magnetic field strength in units of 1012 G. Results: The formula for the critical luminosity is evaluated for five sources, using the maximum value of the CRSF centroid energy to estimate the surface magnetic field strength B12. The results confirm that the group 1 sources are supercritical (LX > Lcrit) and the group 2 sources are subcritical (LX < Lcrit), although the situation is less clear for those highly variable sources that cross over the line LX = Lcrit. We also explain the variation of the CRSF energy with luminosity as a consequence of the variation of the characteristic emission

  2. Spectral Analysis of Submesoscale Energy Cascades Using Subtropical North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskin, E.; Schloesser, F.; Cornillon, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mixing parameterizations of current climate models could be improved by a better understanding of energy cascades in the submesoscale ocean (1 - 10 km). This study uses spectral analysis to compare energy cascades in two different data sets that resolve processes of about 1 km scale. The first data set consists of 20 years of in situ measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP, temperature and velocity) and about 10 years of in situ data from a thermosalinograph (TSG, temperature and salinity) both mounted on the Oleander, a container vessel that makes weekly trips from New Jersey to Bermuda. The second data set consists of global sea surface skin temperature data from the Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) mounted on the Soumi-NPP NASA spacecraft. The slopes of the ADCP and TSG potential energy spectra are between -2.4 and -2.6, the similarity suggesting they represent the same physical processes. Because the TSG produces higher resolution data than the ADCP, the TSG energy spectrum better resolves processes at scales < 10 km. When separated by region, the TSG energy spectra have different slopes in three distinct regions along the Oleander track: on the continental shelf and in the Gulf Stream the slopes are about -2.7, and in the Sargasso Sea the slope is about -2.5. All slopes determined from the temperature structure functions for the same regions are between 1.0 and 1.3, with the Sargasso Sea slope being the lowest of the four (the three separated regions and the entire Oleander track). In theory, the energy spectrum slope (n) and the structure function slope (p) should be related by n = p + 1 if the underlying physical processes are both isotropic and homogeneous. The deviations from theory may result from failure of this assumption and/or from the contribution of multiple processes to the spectra, which are combined differently for structure functions than for energy spectra. Of interest here is that our estimates show

  3. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars. Spectral Energy Distribution Modeling and High-Energy Polarization Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Reimer, Anita; Zhang, Haocheng

    2013-12-01

    We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 - 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.

  4. Implication of the Observable Spectral Cutoff Energy Evolution in XTE J1550-564

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for production of the non-thermal emission in accreting black holes should be imprinted in the observational appearances of the power law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Variety of spectral states observed from galactic black hole binaries by it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) allow examination of the photon upscattering under different accretion regimes. We revisit of RXTE data collected from the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 focusing on the behavior of the high energy cutoff of the power law part of the spectrum. For the 1998 outburst the Iran- sition from the low-hard state to the intermediate state was accompanied by a gradual decrease in the cutoff energy which then showed a sharp reversal to a clear increasing trend during the further evolution towards the very high and high-soft states. However, the 2000 outburst showed only the decreasing part of this pattern. Notably, the photon indexes corresponding to the cutoff increase for the 1998 event are much higher than the index values reached during the 2000 rise transition. We attribute this difference in the cutoff' energy behav- for to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization in photon upscattering. Namely, during the 1998 event the higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to the Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions the bulk motion takes a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. Monte Carlo simulations of the The physical mechanisms responsible for production of the non-thermal emission in accreting black holes should be imprinted in the observational apperances of the power law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Variety of spectral states observed from galactic black hole binaries by it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) allow

  5. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  6. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection...

  7. Implication of the Observed Spectral Cutoff Energy Evolution in XTE J1550-564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-12-01

    The physical mechanisms responsible for the production of non-thermal emission in accreting black holes (BHs) should be imprinted in the observational appearances of the power-law tails in the X-ray spectra from these objects. Phenomenology of different spectral states exhibited by galactic BH binaries allows us to establish the physics of the photon upscattering under different accretion regimes. We revisit the data collected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the BH X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 focusing on the behavior of the high-energy cutoff of the power-law part of the spectrum. For the 1998 outburst, the transition from the low-hard state to the intermediate state was accompanied by a gradual decrease in the cutoff energy. This was followed by an extended minimum which then showed an abrupt reversal to a clear increasing trend as the source evolved to the very high and high-soft states. The 2000 outburst showed only the decreasing and extended minimum portions of this pattern. We attribute this difference in the cutoff energy behavior to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization. Namely, during the 1998 event the higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to the Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions, the bulk motion takes a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. Recent Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent & Titarchuk strongly support this scenario.

  8. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  9. Effect of secondary emission on the argon plasma afterglow with large dust density

    SciTech Connect

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A.; Burmaka, G. P.; Stefanović, I.

    2015-02-15

    A zero-dimensional, space-averaged model for argon plasma afterglow with large dust density is developed. In the model, three groups of electrons in the plasma afterglow are assumed: (i) thermal electrons with Maxwellian distribution, (ii) energetic electrons generated by metastable-metastable collisions (metastable pooling), and (iii) secondary electrons generated at collisions of ions with the electrodes, which have sufficiently large negative voltages in the afterglow. The model calculates the time-dependencies for electron densities in plasma afterglow based on experimental decay times for metastable density and electrode bias. The effect of secondary emission on electron density in the afterglow is estimated by varying secondary emission yields. It is found that this effect is less important than metastable pooling. The case of dust-free plasma afterglow is considered also, and it is found that in the afterglow the effect of secondary emission may be more important than metastable pooling. The secondary emission may increase thermal electron density n{sub e} in dust-free and dusty plasma afterglows on a few ten percentages. The calculated time dependencies for n{sub e} in dust-free and dusty plasma afterglows describe well the experimental results.

  10. Exploring the behaviour of long gamma-ray bursts with intrinsic afterglow correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Samantha

    2016-07-01

    We present a correlation observed in both the optical and X-ray afterglows of long duration Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), between the initial luminosity (measured at restframe 200s) and average afterglow decay rate. This correlation does not depend on the presence of specific light curve features and is potentially applicable to all long GRB afterglows. We explore how the correlation parameters from the optical and X-ray bands relate to each other and to the prompt emission phase. We will also explore the implications and test if the observations are consistent with the expectations of the standard afterglow model.

  11. The rapid decay phase of the afterglow as the signature of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanail, A.; Strantzalis, A.; Contopoulos, I.

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are believed to be powered by the electromagnetic extraction of spin energy from a black hole endowed with a magnetic field supported by electric currents in a surrounding disc (Blandford & Znajek). A generic feature of this mechanism is that, under certain fairly general assumptions, the energy loss rate decays exponentially. In this work, we are looking precisely for such exponential decay in the light curves of long-duration GRBs observed with the X-ray telescope (XRT) instrument on the Swift satellite. We found out that almost 30 per cent of XRT light curves show such behaviour before they reach the afterglow plateau. According to Blandford & Znajek, the duration of the burst depends on the magnetic flux accumulated on the event horizon. This allows us to estimate the surface magnetic field of a possible progenitor. Our estimations are consistent with magnetic fields observed in Wolf-Rayet stars.

  12. Plastic Damping of Alfvén Waves in Magnetar Flares and Delayed Afterglow Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyu; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetar flares generate Alfvén waves bouncing in the closed magnetosphere with energy up to ∼ {10}46 erg. We show that on a timescale of 10 ms the waves are transmitted into the star and form a compressed packet of high energy density. This packet strongly shears the stellar crust and initiates a plastic flow, heating the crust and melting it hundreds of meters below the surface. A fraction of the deposited plastic heat is eventually conducted to the stellar surface, contributing to the surface afterglow months to years after the flare. A large fraction of heat is lost to neutrino emission or conducted into the core of the neutron star.

  13. The Late Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990712.

    PubMed

    Hjorth; Holland; Courbin; Dar; Olsen; Scodeggio

    2000-05-10

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, as well as ground-based imaging and spectroscopy, of the optical afterglow associated with the long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 and its host galaxy. The data were obtained 48-123 days after the burst occurred. The magnitudes of the host (R=21.9, V=22.5) and optical afterglow (R=25.4, V=25.8, 47.7 days after the burst) favor a scenario in which the optical light follows a pure power-law decay with an index of alpha approximately -1.0. We find no evidence for a contribution from a supernova like SN 1998bw. This suggests that either there are multiple classes of long-duration gamma-ray bursts or that the peak luminosity of the supernova was more than 1.5 mag fainter than SN 1998bw. The HST images and EFOSC2 spectra indicate that the gamma-ray burst was located in a bright, extended feature (possibly a star-forming region) 1.4 kpc from the nucleus of a 0.2L*B galaxy at z=0.434, possibly a Seyfert 2 galaxy. The late-time afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 990712 bear some resemblance to those of GRB 970508. PMID:10813669

  14. Was the X-ray Afterglow of GRB 970815 Detected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabal, N.; Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Mukherjee, R.

    2004-09-01

    GRB 970815 was a well-localized gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for which no afterglow was identified despite follow-up ASCA and ROSAT pointings and optical imaging to limiting magnitude R > 23. While an X-ray source, AX/RX J1606.8+8130, was detected just outside the ASM error box, it was never associated with the GRB because it was not clearly fading and because no optical afterglow was ever discovered. We recently made deep optical observations of the AX/RX J1606.8+8130 position, which is blank to a limit of V > 24.3 and I > 24.0, implying an X-ray-to-optical flux ratio fX/fV > 500. In view of this extreme limit, we analyze and reevaluate the ASCA and ROSAT data and conclude that the X-ray source AX/RX J1606.8+8130 was indeed the afterglow of GRB 970815, which corresponds to an optically ``dark'' GRB. Alternatively, if AX/RX J1608+8130 is discovered to be a persistent source, then it could be associated with EGRET source 3EG J1621+8203, whose error box includes this position.

  15. Measurement of energy contrast of amplified ultrashort pulses using cross-polarized wave generation and spectral interferometry.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Marin; Meier, Amanda K; Galloway, Benjamin; Adams, Daniel E; Squier, Jeff A; Durfee, Charles G

    2014-07-28

    We present a method using spectral interferometry (SI) to characterize a pulse in the presence of an incoherent background such as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The output of a regenerative amplifier is interfered with a copy of the pulse that has been converted using third-order cross-polarized wave generation (XPW). The ASE shows as a pedestal background in the interference pattern. The energy contrast between the short-pulse component and the ASE is retrieved. The spectra of the interacting beams are obtained through an improvement to the self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) analysis. PMID:25089416

  16. Impact of covariance modeling in dual-energy spectral CT image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Zhou; Zou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recent advancement in CT technology, which can potentially reduce artifacts and provide accurate quantitative information for diagnosis. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) methods were introduced to DECT for radiation dose reduction. The statistical noise modeling of measurement data plays an important role in SIR and impacts on the image quality. Contrary to the conventional CT projection data, of which noise is independent from ray to ray, in spectral CT the basis material sinogram data has strong correlations. In order to analyze the image quality improvement by applying correlated noise model, we compare the effects of two different noise models (i.e., correlated noise model and independent model by ignoring correlations) by analyzing the bias and variance trade-off. The results indicate that in the same bias level, the correlated noise modeling results in up to 20.02% noise reduction compared to the independent noise model. In addition, their impacts to different numerical are also evaluated. The results show that using the non-diagonal covariance matrix in SIR is challenging, where some numerical algorithms such as a direct application of separable paraboloidal surrogates (SPS) cannot converge to the correct results.

  17. Long-wavelength, free-free spectral energy distributions from porous stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, R.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of macroclumps for free-free spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of ionized winds is considered. The goal is to emphasize distinctions between microclumping and macroclumping effects. Microclumping can alter SED slopes and flux levels if the volume filling factor of the clumps varies with radius; however, the modifications are independent of the clump geometry. To what extent does macroclumping alter SED slopes and flux levels? In addressing the question, two specific types of macroclump geometries are explored: shell fragments (pancake-shaped) and spherical clumps. Analytic and semi-analytic results are derived in the limiting case that clumps never obscure one another. Numerical calculations based on a porosity formalism is used when clumps do overlap. Under the assumptions of a constant expansion, isothermal, and fixed ionization wind, the fragment model leads to results that are essentially identical to the microclumping result. Mass-loss rate determinations are not affected by porosity effects for shell fragments. By contrast, spherical clumps can lead to a reduction in long-wavelength fluxes, but the reductions are only significant for extreme volume filling factors.

  18. Completing the CO spectral line energy distribution for luminous starburst galaxies discovered with the SPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, Manuel; Weiss, Axel; de Breuck, Carlos; Stark, Antony A.; Marrone, Dan; McIntyre, Vince; Vieira, Joaquin; Greve, Thomas; Chapman, Scott; Murphy, Eric; Aguirre, James; Bothwell, Matt; Gullberg, Bitten

    2013-04-01

    We propose to use ATCA to observe the CO J=3-2 line emission in three gravitationally lensed, highly magnified dusty star-forming galaxies at z~2.5 discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) millimeter survey. The redshifts of all targets were identified by the detection of several J>6 CO emission lines with APEX/Z-Spec and confirmed with VLT optical spectroscopy. Two of the sources have significant detections of the CO 1-0 line with ATCA, while CO 1-0 observations of the other source are being requested in a companion proposal. The proposed observations are critical to complete the CO spectral energy distribution (SLED) of these sources and thus "fill the gap" between the high-J CO observed with APEX/Z-Spec and the CO 1-0 line detected with ATCA. This will allow us to constrain the physical conditions of the interstellar medium by comparing the line strengths with large velocity gradient models. The strong magnification is key, allowing us to characterize the CO emission in galaxies that would be otherwise hard to detect.

  19. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF WHITE DWARFS IN 47 Tucanae: THE DISTANCE TO THE CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, K. A.; Goldsbury, R.; Richer, H. B.; Heyl, J. E-mail: rgoldsb@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca; and others

    2012-02-15

    We present a new distance determination to the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae by fitting the spectral energy distributions of its white dwarfs (WDs) to pure hydrogen atmosphere WD models. Our photometric data set is obtained from a 121-orbit Hubble Space Telescope program using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS/IR channels, capturing F390W, F606W, F110W, and F160W images. These images cover more than 60 arcmin{sup 2} and extend over a radial range of 5-13.7 arcmin (6.5-17.9 pc) within the globular cluster. Using a likelihood analysis, we obtain a best-fitting unreddened distance modulus of (m - M){sub o} = 13.36 {+-} 0.02 {+-} 0.06 corresponding to a distance of 4.69 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.13 kpc, where the first error is random and the second is systematic. We also search the WD photometry for infrared excess in the F160W filter, indicative of low-mass companions, and find no convincing cases within our sample.

  20. SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook

    2012-04-10

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority ({approx}90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

  1. Iris: An extensible application for building and analyzing spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurino, O.; Budynkiewicz, J.; D'Abrusco, R.; Bonaventura, N.; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Doe, S. M.; Ebert, R.; Evans, J. D.; Norris, P.; Pevunova, O.; Refsdal, B.; Thomas, B.; Thompson, R.

    2014-11-01

    Iris is an extensible application that provides astronomers with a user-friendly interface capable of ingesting broad-band data from many different sources in order to build, explore, and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Iris takes advantage of the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, but hides the technicalities of such standards by implementing different layers of abstraction on top of them. Such intermediate layers provide hooks that users and developers can exploit in order to extend the capabilities provided by Iris. For instance, custom Python models can be combined in arbitrary ways with the Iris built-in models or with other custom functions. As such, Iris offers a platform for the development and integration of SED data, services, and applications, either from the user's system or from the web. In this paper we describe the built-in features provided by Iris for building and analyzing SEDs. We also explore in some detail the Iris framework and software development kit, showing how astronomers and software developers can plug their code into an integrated SED analysis environment.

  2. The spectral energy distribution of the z=3 quasar: HS 1946+7658

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, O.; Bechtold, J.; Cutri, R.; Elvis, M.; Rieke, M.

    1995-01-01

    For the bright z = 3.02 radio-quiet quasar, HS 1946+7658, we have obtained radio to X-ray data within the past year: 5 GHz and 1415 MHz data from the Very Large Array (VLA); IR photometry at J, H, K, L prime (3.4 micrometers and N; IR spectroscopy; UBVRI photometry; optical spectrophotometry and high-resolution spectra; and an X-ray spectrum from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed from these data is compared to the mean SED for a set of low-redshift quasars, and while they appear generally similar, there are several differences. In relation to the low-redshift mean, the SED of HS 1946+7658 shows (1) only an upper limit at 10 micrometers (a rest wavelength of 2.5 micrometers, indicating that HS 1946+7658 does not have a strong near-IR excess such as hot dust would produce; (2) relatively weak Fe II and Balmer continuum emission at approximately 3000 A; and (3) a steeper turndown shortward of Ly alpha, even after correction for the Ly alpha forest absorption lines.

  3. Spectral energy analysis of locally resonant nanophononic metamaterials by molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarvar, Hossein; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2016-02-01

    A nanophononic metamaterial is a new type of nanostructured material that features an array, or a forest, of intrinsically distributed resonating substructures. Each substructure exhibits numerous local resonances, each of which may hybridize with the phonon dispersion of the underlying host material, causing significant reductions in the group velocities and consequently a reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity. In this Rapid Communication, molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to investigate both the dynamics and the thermal transport properties of a nanophononic metamaterial configuration consisting of a freely suspended silicon membrane with an array of silicon nanopillars standing on the surface. The simulations yield results consistent with earlier lattice-dynamics-based predictions which showed a reduction in the thermal conductivity due to the presence of the local resonators. Using a spectral energy density approach, in which only simulation data are utilized and no a priori information on the nanostructure resonant phonon modes is provided, we show direct evidence of the existence of resonance hybridizations as an inherent mechanism contributing to the slowing down of thermal transport in the host medium.

  4. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of the red giant in RS Ophiuchi: evidence for irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kaminsky, B.; Rushton, M. T.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. E.; Helton, L. A.; O'Brien, T. J.; Jones, D.; Elkin, V.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of optical and infrared spectra of the recurrent nova RS Oph obtained during between 2006 and 2009. The best fit to the optical spectrum for 2006 September 28 gives Teff = 3900 K for log g = 2.0, while for log g = 0.0 we find Teff = 4700 K, and a comparison with template stellar spectra provides Teff ˜ 4500 K. The observed spectral energy distribution (SED), and the intensities of the emission lines, vary on short (≲1 d) time-scales, due to disc variability. We invoke a simple one-component model for the accretion disc, and a model with a hot boundary layer, with high (˜3.9 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1) and low (˜2 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1) accretion rates, respectively. Fits to the accretion disc-extracted infrared spectrum (2008 July 15) yield effective temperatures for the red giant of {T_eff}= 3800 ± 100 K (log g = 2.0) and {T_eff}= 3700 ± 100 K (log g = 0.0). Furthermore, using a more sophisticated approach, we reproduced the optical and infrared SEDs of the red giant in the RS Oph system with a two-component model atmosphere, in which 90 per cent of the surface has Teff = 3600 K and 10 per cent has Teff = 5000 K. Such structure could be due to irradiation of the red giant by the white dwarf.

  5. Coasting External Shock in Wind Medium: An Origin for the X-Ray Plateau Decay Component in Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rongfeng; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    The plateaus observed in about one half of the early X-ray afterglows are the most puzzling feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift. By analyzing the temporal and spectral indices of a large X-ray plateau sample, we find that 55% can be explained by external, forward shock synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic ejecta coasting in a ρvpropr -2, wind-like medium; no energy injection into the shock is needed. After the ejecta collects enough medium and transitions to the adiabatic, decelerating blast wave phase, it produces the post-plateau decay. For those bursts consistent with this model, we find an upper limit for the initial Lorentz factor of the ejecta, Γ0 <= 46(epsilon e /0.1)-0.24(epsilon B /0.01)0.17; the isotropic equivalent total ejecta energy is E iso ~ 1053(epsilon e /0.1)-1.3(epsilon B /0.01)-0.09(tb /104 s) erg, where epsilon e and epsilon B are the fractions of the total energy at the shock downstream that are carried by electrons and the magnetic field, respectively, and tb is the end of the plateau. Our finding supports Wolf-Rayet stars as the progenitor stars of some GRBs. It raises intriguing questions about the origin of an intermediate-Γ0 ejecta, which we speculate is connected to the GRB jet emergence from its host star. For the remaining 45% of the sample, the post-plateau decline is too rapid to be explained in the coasting-in-wind model, and energy injection appears to be required.

  6. Spectral spin diffusion and magnetic dipolar energy in the NMR of 13CH3 compounds.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, E E; Kankaanpää, M; Punkkinen, M

    2006-06-01

    Spin diffusion between 13CH3 groups in solids is studied both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be dominated by mutual spin flip-flops of protons belonging to neighbouring methyl groups. Also nonmethyl protons may contribute significantly if present in the sample. The spin-rotational ground state of 13CH3 consists of 16 sublevels. When their populations are used to describe spin diffusion, eight population combinations are shown to be important, two of them corresponding to the 13C-proton and proton-proton intra-methyl magnetic dipolar energies, Dc and Dp, respectively. Spin-diffusion transitions modulate these combinations so that a further reduction to two sets of four combinations is possible, with no coupling between the sets. Coupled differential equations are derived to describe the time dependence of the combinations in each set. They are solved numerically and compared with experimental results on a single crystal of aspirin with 13C-labelled methyl groups at the carbon resonance. The 13C NMR induction signal was observed as a function of time after the preparation either at the carbon resonance (a two-pulse sequence) or at the proton resonance (proton saturation). Usually carbon spectra were computed first and then three of the mentioned population combinations were obtained from the individual spectral components. Some results on the time dependence of Dc were also obtained directly from the amplitude of the out-of-phase induction signal. Theoretical predictions are found to describe semiquantitatively the overall time dependence of these three combinations and especially their variation with different initial conditions, which are discussed in detail. Also the partial transfer of the magnetic dipolar energy between Dc and Dp is nicely explained. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed. PMID:16361090

  7. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  8. Spectral computed tomography for quantitative decomposition of vulnerable plaques using a dual-energy technique: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, B. D.; Park, S.-J.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-02-01

    A spectral computed tomography (CT) system based on an energy-resolved photon-counting Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector with a dual energy technique can provide spectral information and can possibly distinguish between two or more materials with a single X-ray exposure using energy thresholds. This work provides the potential for three-material decomposition of vulnerable plaques using two inverse fitting functions. Additionally, there exists the possibility of using gold nanoparticles as a contrast agent for the spectral CT system in conjunction with a CZT photon-counting detector. In this simulation study, we used fan beam CT geometry that consisted of a 90 kVp X-ray spectrum and performed calculations by using the SpekCal program (REAL Software, Inc.) with Monte Carlo simulations. A basic test phantom was imaged with the spectral CT system for the calibration and decomposition process. This phantom contained three different materials, including lipid, iodine and gold nanoparticles, with six holes 3 mm in diameter. In addition to reducing pile-up and charge sharing effect, the photon counting detector was considered an ideal detector. Then, the accuracy of material decomposition techniques with two inverse fitting functions were evaluated between decomposed images and reference images in terms of root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that decomposed images had a good volumetric fraction for each material, and the RMSE between the measured and true volumes of lipid, iodine and gold nanoparticle fractions varied from 12.51% to 1.29% for inverse fitting functions. The study indicated that spectral CT in conjunction with a CZT photon-counting detector in conjunction with a dual energy technique can be used to identifying materials and may be a promising modality for quantifying material properties of vulnerable plaques.

  9. The X-Ray Afterglow of Dark GRB 970815: A Common Origin for Gamma-Ray Bursts and X-Ray Flashes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabal, N.; Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Mukherjee, R.

    2005-02-01

    GRB 970815 is a well-localized gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for which no afterglow was identified despite follow-up ASCA and ROSAT pointings and optical imaging to limiting magnitude R>23. Although an X-ray source, AX/RX J1606.8+8130, was detected just outside the ASM error box, it was never associated with the GRB because it was not clearly fading and because no optical afterglow was ever found. We recently obtained an upper limit for this source with Chandra that is at least a factor of 100 fainter than the ASCA detection. We also made deep optical observations of the AX/RX J1606.8+8130 position, which is blank to limits V>25.2 and I>24.0. In view of these extreme limits, we conclude that AX/RX J1606.8+8130 is indeed the afterglow of GRB 970815, which corresponds to an optically ``dark'' GRB. AX/RX J1606.8+8130 can therefore be ruled out as the counterpart of the persistent EGRET source 3EG J1621+8203. The early light curves from BATSE and the RXTE ASM show spectral softening between multiple peaks of prompt emission. We propose that GRB 970815 might be a case in which the properties of an X-ray flash and a ``normal'' GRB coincide in a single event.

  10. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  11. ON THE FORMATION OF Lyalpha EMISSION FROM RESONANTLY SCATTERED CONTINUUM PHOTONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST's AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Wen; Wu Xiangping

    2010-02-20

    The continuum spectrum of gamma-ray burst's (GRB) afterglow at Lyalpha wavelength is known to be otherwise featureless except for the existence of a pair of smooth damping wings. Resonant scattering of photons with the ambient neutral hydrogen around the GRB may alter this picture. We study the formation and evolution of the spectral imprint of these resonantly scattered photons in the context of GRB's afterglow. Based on an analytic model that includes photons that are scattered only once, as well as a complete treatment of all the scatterings using Monte Carlo simulations, we are able to calculate the spectrum and luminosity of this Lyalpha emission from a very early moment up to a late epoch. We find that the amount, the motion, and the geometry of the neutral hydrogen around the GRB, together with the time behavior of the source are the crucial factors that affect the predicted luminosity and spectral profile. The flux of the Lyalpha emission is found to be mainly contributed by photons that are scattered only once. The flux is of the order 10{sup -4}-10{sup -9} relative to the undecayed maximum flux of the transmitted continuum, making the feature negligible but potentially observable. If not obscured by the host galaxy's damped Lyalpha absorption systems or intergalactic neutral hydrogen, the feature may appear sometime from 1 hr to several years when the directly transmitted light has faded away. This scattered emission feature can be distinguished from Lyalpha photons of other origins by its luminosity evolution and by its gradual narrowing of profile with time. The typical timescale for spectral variance is that of the light crossing time of a hydrogen clump close to the GRB. If observed, the resonant peaks' time-dependent behavior is a scanning probe on the distribution of neutral hydrogen in GRB's immediate neighborhood.

  12. BayeSED: A GENERAL APPROACH TO FITTING THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yunkun; Han, Zhanwen E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    We present a newly developed version of BayeSED, a general Bayesian approach to the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies. The new BayeSED code has been systematically tested on a mock sample of galaxies. The comparison between the estimated and input values of the parameters shows that BayeSED can recover the physical parameters of galaxies reasonably well. We then applied BayeSED to interpret the SEDs of a large K{sub s} -selected sample of galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with stellar population synthesis models. Using the new BayeSED code, a Bayesian model comparison of stellar population synthesis models has been performed for the first time. We found that the 2003 model by Bruzual and Charlot, statistically speaking, has greater Bayesian evidence than the 2005 model by Maraston for the K{sub s} -selected sample. In addition, while setting the stellar metallicity as a free parameter obviously increases the Bayesian evidence of both models, varying the initial mass function has a notable effect only on the Maraston model. Meanwhile, the physical parameters estimated with BayeSED are found to be generally consistent with those obtained using the popular grid-based FAST code, while the former parameters exhibit more natural distributions. Based on the estimated physical parameters of the galaxies in the sample, we qualitatively classified the galaxies in the sample into five populations that may represent galaxies at different evolution stages or in different environments. We conclude that BayeSED could be a reliable and powerful tool for investigating the formation and evolution of galaxies from the rich multi-wavelength observations currently available. A binary version of the BayeSED code parallelized with Message Passing Interface is publicly available at https://bitbucket.org/hanyk/bayesed.

  13. Spectral Energy Distribution Models for Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) represent the bulk of the AGN population in the present-day universe and they trace the low-level accreting supermassive black holes. In order to probe the accretion and jet physical properties in LLAGNs as a class, we model the broadband radio to X-rays spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 21 LLAGNs in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) with a coupled accretion-jet model. The accretion flow is modeled as an inner ADAF outside of which there is a truncated standard thin disk. We find that the radio emission is severely underpredicted by ADAF models and is explained by the relativistic jet. The origin of the X-ray radiation in most sources can be explained by three distinct scenarios: the X-rays can be dominated by emission from the ADAF, or the jet, or the X-rays can arise from a jet-ADAF combination in which both components contribute to the emission with similar importance. For 3 objects both the jet and ADAF fit equally well the X-ray spectrum and can be the dominant source of X-rays whereas for 11 LLAGNs a jet-dominated model accounts better than the ADAF-dominated model for the data. The individual and average SED models that we computed can be useful for different studies of the nuclear emission of LLAGNs. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine powering LLAGNs in LINERs, such as the mass accretion rate and the mass-loss rate in the jet and the jet power - relevant for studies of the kinetic feedback from jets.

  14. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies: introducing the artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L.; Schurer, A.; Granato, G. L.; Almeida, C.; Baugh, C. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Lacey, C. G.; Paoletti, L.; Petrella, A.; Selvestrel, D.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies is a complex function of the star formation history and geometrical arrangement of stars and gas in galaxies. The computation of the radiative transfer of stellar radiation through the dust distribution is time-consuming. This aspect becomes unacceptable in particular when dealing with the predictions by semi-analytical galaxy formation models populating cosmological volumes, to be then compared with multi-wavelength surveys. Mainly for this aim, we have implemented an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm into the spectro-photometric and radiative transfer code GRASIL in order to compute the SED of galaxies in a short computing time. This allows to avoid the adoption of empirical templates that may have nothing to do with the mock galaxies output by models. The ANN has been implemented to compute the dust emission spectrum (the bottleneck of the computation), and separately for the star-forming molecular clouds (MC) and the diffuse dust (due to their different properties and dependencies). We have defined the input neurons effectively determining their emission, which means this implementation has a general applicability and is not linked to a particular galaxy formation model. We have trained the net for the disc and spherical geometries, and tested its performance to reproduce the SED of disc and starburst galaxies, as well as for a semi-analytical model for spheroidal galaxies. We have checked that for this model both the SEDs and the galaxy counts in the Herschel bands obtained with the ANN approximation are almost superimposed to the same quantities obtained with the full GRASIL. We conclude that this method appears robust and advantageous, and will present the application to a more complex SAM in another paper.

  15. Spectral energy distributions of an AKARI-SDSS-GALEX sample of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buat, V.; Giovannoli, E.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Heinis, S.; Yuan, F.-T.; Burgarella, D.; Noll, S.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The nearby universe remains the best laboratory to understand the physical properties of galaxies and is a reference for any comparison with high redshift observations. The all sky (or very large) surveys that have been performed from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared (far-IR) provide us with large datasets of very large wavelength coverage to perform a reference study. Aims: We investigate the dust attenuation characteristics, as well as the star formation rate (SFR) calibrations of a sample of nearby galaxies observed over 13 bands from 0.15 to 160 μm. Methods: A sample of 363 galaxies is built from the AKARI /FIS all sky survey cross-correlated with the SDSS and GALEX surveys. Broad-band spectral energy distributions are fitted with the CIGALE code optimized to analyse variations in the dust attenuation curves and SFR measurements and based on an energetic budget between the stellar and dust emission. Results: Our galaxy sample is primarily selected in far-IR and mostly constituted of massive, actively star-forming galaxies. There is some evidence for a dust attenuation law that is slightly steeper than that used for starburst galaxies but we are unable to constrain the presence or not of a bump at 220 nm. We confirm that a time-dependent dust attenuation is necessary to perform the best fits. Various calibrations of the dust attenuation in the UV as a function of UV-optical colours are discussed. A calibration of the current SFR combining UV and total IR emissions is proposed with an accurate estimate of dust heating by old stars. For the whole sample, 17% of the total dust luminosity is unrelated to the recent star formation.

  16. HerMES: Spectral Energy Distributions of Submillimeter Galaxies at z > 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Dai, Y.; Bock, J. J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A. J.; Wang, L.; Page, M.; Riechers, D.; Roseboom, I.; Symeonidis, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Yun, M.; Webb, T. M. A.; Efstathiou, A.

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties for a sample of seven spectroscopically confirmed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z > 4.0. By combining ground-based near-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS, Herschel SPIRE, and ground-based submillimeter/millimeter photometry, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a composite model to fit the SEDs. The model includes a stellar emission component at λrest < 3.5 μm, a hot dust component peaking at λrest ~ 5 μm, and cold dust component which becomes significant for λrest > 50 μm. Six objects in the sample are detected at 250 and 350 μm. The dust temperatures for the sources in this sample are in the range of 40-80 K, and their L FIR ~ 1013 L ⊙ qualifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The mean FIR-radio index for this sample is around langqrang = 2.2 indicating no radio excess in their radio emission. Most sources in the sample have 24 μm detections corresponding to a rest-frame 4.5 μm luminosity of Log10(L 4.5/L ⊙) = 11 ~ 11.5. Their L 4.5/L FIR ratios are very similar to those of starburst-dominated SMGs at z ~ 2. The L CO - L FIR relation for this sample is consistent with that determined for local ULIRGs and SMGs at z ~ 2. We conclude that SMGs at z > 4 are hotter and more luminous in the FIR but otherwise very similar to those at z ~ 2. None of these sources show any sign of the strong QSO phase being triggered. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes; Rodón, Javier A. E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  18. The Effects of Dust on the Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. D.; Witt, A. N.

    1994-05-01

    The effects of dust on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst regions of galaxies was investigated using Monte Carlo techniques to model the transport of radiation in systems where the dust and stars are mixed. In a recent paper, Calzetti, Kinney, & Storchi-Bergmann (ApJ, 10 July 1994) derive an extinction curve from observations of starburst galaxies assuming the dust is in a screen geometry. This gives an extinction curve where the geometrical effects of mixing of the dust and stars are convolved with the extinguishing effects of the dust. The resulting extinction curve is greyer than the Galactic extinction curve and featureless in the ultraviolet, i.e. lacking both the 2200 Angstroms bump and far-UV rise. In an attempt to explain this ``effective'' starburst extinction curve we have modeled the effects of dust on the SED of starbursts. A simple starburst model was used to determine the different populations of stars as a function of the starburst age. The flux at 23 wavelengths, ranging between 1000 Angstroms to 5500 Angstroms, was computed using Monte Carlo techniques assuming the dust and stars were spherically distributed. The dust was assumed to have similar properties as dust in our Galaxy. The distribution of different star types ranged from mostly centrally located for O stars to constant density for A and later stars. In addition, the fraction of stars lying outside the dust ranged from very few for O stars to a majority for A and later stars. Combining the two models, it was found that the SED was strongly dependent on the distribution of the different types of stars relative to the dust, the age of the starburst, and the amount of dust. The ``effective'' UV extinction curve became greyer and featureless as the amount of dust was increased. For example, the 2200 Angstroms bump was almost non-existent for large amounts of dust. This work was supported by NASA LTSA Grant NAGW-3168.

  19. Dual Energy Spectral CT Imaging for Colorectal Cancer Grading: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baigorri, Brian F.; Yin, Yan; Geng, Xiao-chuan; Xu, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the diagnostic value of dual energy spectral CT imaging for colorectal cancer grading using the quantitative iodine density measurements in both arterial phase (AP) and venous phase (VP). Methods 81 colorectal cancer patients were divided into two groups based on their pathological findings: a low grade group including well (n = 13) and moderately differentiated cancer (n = 24), and a high grade group including poorly differentiated (n = 42) and signet ring cell cancer (n = 2). Iodine density (ID) in the lesions was derived from the iodine-based material decomposition (MD) image and normalized to that in the psoas muscle to obtain normalized iodine density (NID). The difference in ID and NID between AP and VP was calculated. Results The ID and NID values of the low grade cancer group were, 14.65±3.38mg/mL and 1.70±0.33 in AP, and 21.90±3.11mg/mL and 2.05± 0.32 in VP, respectively. The ID and NID values for the high grade cancer group were 20.63±3.72mg/mL and 2.95±0.72 in AP, and 26.27±3.10mg/mL and 3.51±1.12 in VP, respectively. There was significant difference for ID and NID between the low grade and high grade cancer groups in both AP and VP (all p<0.001). ROC analysis indicated that NID of 1.92 in AP provided 70.3% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity in differentiating low grade cancer from high grade cancer. Conclusions The quantitative measurement of iodine density in AP and VP can provide useful information to differentiate low grade colorectal cancer from high grade colorectal cancer with NID in AP providing the greatest diagnostic value. PMID:26859405

  20. BayeSED: A General Approach to Fitting the Spectral Energy Distribution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yunkun; Han, Zhanwen

    2014-11-01

    We present a newly developed version of BayeSED, a general Bayesian approach to the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies. The new BayeSED code has been systematically tested on a mock sample of galaxies. The comparison between the estimated and input values of the parameters shows that BayeSED can recover the physical parameters of galaxies reasonably well. We then applied BayeSED to interpret the SEDs of a large Ks -selected sample of galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with stellar population synthesis models. Using the new BayeSED code, a Bayesian model comparison of stellar population synthesis models has been performed for the first time. We found that the 2003 model by Bruzual & Charlot, statistically speaking, has greater Bayesian evidence than the 2005 model by Maraston for the Ks -selected sample. In addition, while setting the stellar metallicity as a free parameter obviously increases the Bayesian evidence of both models, varying the initial mass function has a notable effect only on the Maraston model. Meanwhile, the physical parameters estimated with BayeSED are found to be generally consistent with those obtained using the popular grid-based FAST code, while the former parameters exhibit more natural distributions. Based on the estimated physical parameters of the galaxies in the sample, we qualitatively classified the galaxies in the sample into five populations that may represent galaxies at different evolution stages or in different environments. We conclude that BayeSED could be a reliable and powerful tool for investigating the formation and evolution of galaxies from the rich multi-wavelength observations currently available. A binary version of the BayeSED code parallelized with Message Passing Interface is publicly available at https://bitbucket.org/hanyk/bayesed.

  1. A spectral energy distribution analysis of AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Civano, Francesca M.; Hasinger, Guenther; Elvis, Martin; Marchesi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We present the host galaxy properties of a large sample of ~ 4000 X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey to investigate the connection between BH accretion and host galaxy. The COSMOS Legacy survey reaching X-ray fluxes of 2x10-16 (cgs) in the 0.5-2 keV band, bridges the gap between large area shallow surveys and pencil beamed one. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available for 96.6% of the sources, COSMOS Legacy survey provides a uniquely large sample to derive host galaxy properties for both obscured and unobscured sources. We perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared (500 μm) when available to UV (1500 Å) using a 3-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, galaxy and starburst components) for obscured AGN and a 4-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, AGN big blue bump, galaxy, and starburst components) for unobscured AGN. Galaxy templates are from the stellar population synthesis models of Bruzual & Charlot (2003), nuclear hot dust templates are taken from Silva et al. (2004), and AGN big blue bump templates are from Richards et al. (2006). We use the column density information measured in the X-ray to constrain the AGN in the infrared band when available. Through detailed analysis of the broad-band spectral energy distribution, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates of the host galaxy as well as the nuclear and galaxy contribution at each frequency. We study the dependence of host galaxy properties on redshifts, luminosities, and black hole masses to infer the growth history of galaxies and black holes and we compare with a sample of inactive galaxies.

  2. HerMES: Spectral energy distributions of submillimeter galaxies at z > 4

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clements, D. L.; Dai, Y.; Fazio, G. G.; Bock, J. J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A. J.; Wang, L.; Page, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Riechers, D.; Roseboom, I.; and others

    2014-03-20

    We present a study of the infrared properties for a sample of seven spectroscopically confirmed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z > 4.0. By combining ground-based near-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS, Herschel SPIRE, and ground-based submillimeter/millimeter photometry, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a composite model to fit the SEDs. The model includes a stellar emission component at λ{sub rest} < 3.5 μm, a hot dust component peaking at λ{sub rest} ∼ 5 μm, and cold dust component which becomes significant for λ{sub rest} > 50 μm. Six objects in the sample are detected at 250 and 350 μm. The dust temperatures for the sources in this sample are in the range of 40-80 K, and their L {sub FIR} ∼ 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉} qualifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The mean FIR-radio index for this sample is around (q) = 2.2 indicating no radio excess in their radio emission. Most sources in the sample have 24 μm detections corresponding to a rest-frame 4.5 μm luminosity of Log{sub 10}(L {sub 4.5}/L {sub ☉}) = 11 ∼ 11.5. Their L {sub 4.5}/L {sub FIR} ratios are very similar to those of starburst-dominated SMGs at z ∼ 2. The L {sub CO} – L {sub FIR} relation for this sample is consistent with that determined for local ULIRGs and SMGs at z ∼ 2. We conclude that SMGs at z > 4 are hotter and more luminous in the FIR but otherwise very similar to those at z ∼ 2. None of these sources show any sign of the strong QSO phase being triggered.

  3. Early-Time Observations of GRBs afterglow with 2-m Robotic Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Carter, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Monfardini, A.

    2007-08-21

    In the era of rapid and accurate localisation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Swift satellite, high quality early time multi-wavelength light curves, obtained by space and ground-based robotic telescopes, have shown that the standard 'smooth temporal power law decays' typical of late-time afterglow emission can be substantially modified at early times by e.g. energy injection from long-lived central engines, and/or interactions between the ejecta and clumps in the surrounding circumburst medium. Well-sampled optical light curves (covering a wide range in time, brightness and redshift) together with early-time polarimetry provide a powerful probe of the physics of GRBs, their ejecta and their environments. Here we summarise the GRB followup programme being conducted on a network of the world's three largest robotic telescopes that aims to obtain early-time multicolour photometric and polarimetric measurements crucial for the understanding of GRB physics.

  4. The simultaneous low state spectral energy distribution of 1ES 2344+514 from radio to very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; AGILE Team; Bastieri, D.; Sbarra, C.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Sievers, A.; Zensus, J. A.; F-GAMMA program; Antonyuk, K. A.; Baumgartner, W.; Berduygin, A.; Carini, M.; Cook, K.; Gehrels, N.; Kadler, M.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krauss, F.; Krimm, H. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pasanen, M.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sainio, J.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Tornikoski, M.; Tueller, J.; Weidinger, M.; Wilms, J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. BL Lacertae objects are variable at all energy bands on time scales down to minutes. To construct and interpret their spectral energy distribution (SED), simultaneous broad-band observations are mandatory. Up to now, the number of objects studied during such campaigns is very limited and biased towards high flux states. Aims: We present the results of a dedicated multi-wavelength study of the high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae (HBL) object and known TeV emitter 1ES 2344+514 by means of a pre-organised campaign. Methods: The observations were conducted during simultaneous visibility windows of MAGIC and AGILE in late 2008. The measurements were complemented by Metsähovi, RATAN-600, KVA+Tuorla, Swift and VLBA pointings. Additional coverage was provided by the ongoing long-term F-GAMMA and MOJAVE programs, the OVRO 40-m and CrAO telescopes as well as the Fermi satellite. The obtained SEDs are modelled using a one-zone as well as a self-consistent two-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Results: 1ES 2344+514 was found at very low flux states in both X-rays and very high energy gamma rays. Variability was detected in the low frequency radio and X-ray bands only, where for the latter a small flare was observed. The X-ray flare was possibly caused by shock acceleration characterised by similar cooling and acceleration time scales. MOJAVE VLBA monitoring reveals a static jet whose components are stable over time scales of eleven years, contrary to previous findings. There appears to be no significant correlation between the 15 GHz and R-band monitoring light curves. The observations presented here constitute the first multi-wavelength campaign on 1ES 2344+514 from radio to VHE energies and one of the few simultaneous SEDs during low activity states. The quasi-simultaneous Fermi-LAT data poses some challenges for SED modelling, but in general the SEDs are described well by both applied models. The resulting parameters are typical for TeV emitting HBLs

  5. Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution Decomposition of WISE-selected, Hyperluminous Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submillimeter/millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submillimeter-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs), with spectroscopic redshift ranging from 1.7 to 4.6. We compare the Bayesian evidence of a torus plusgraybody (Torus+GB) model with that of a torus-only (Torus) model and find that the Torus+GB model has higher Bayesian evidence for all 22 Hot DOGs than the torus-only model, which presents strong evidence in favor of the Torus+GB model. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are as follows. (1) Hot DOGs in our submillimeter-detected sample are hyperluminous ({L}{IR}≥slant {10}13{L}ȯ ), with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, contributing on average ˜ 24% of total IR luminosity. (2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submillimeter at rest frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at ˜ 10{--}50 μ {{m}}, suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. (3) Hot DOGs have high dust temperatures ({T}{dust}˜ 72 K) and high IR luminosity of cold dust. The {T}{dust}{--}{L}{IR} relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust temperature, rather than dust mass. Hot DOGs have lower dust masses than submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and QSOs within a similar redshift range. Both high IR luminosity of cold dust and relatively low dust mass in Hot DOGs can be expected by their relatively high dust temperatures. (4) Hot DOGs have high dust-covering factors (CFs), which deviate from the previously proposed trend of the dust CF decreasing with increasing bolometric luminosity. Finally, we can reproduce the observed

  6. Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution Decomposition of WISE-selected, Hyperluminous Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submillimeter/millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submillimeter-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs), with spectroscopic redshift ranging from 1.7 to 4.6. We compare the Bayesian evidence of a torus plusgraybody (Torus+GB) model with that of a torus-only (Torus) model and find that the Torus+GB model has higher Bayesian evidence for all 22 Hot DOGs than the torus-only model, which presents strong evidence in favor of the Torus+GB model. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are as follows. (1) Hot DOGs in our submillimeter-detected sample are hyperluminous ({L}{IR}≥slant {10}13{L}ȯ ), with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, contributing on average ∼ 24% of total IR luminosity. (2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submillimeter at rest frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at ∼ 10{--}50 μ {{m}}, suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. (3) Hot DOGs have high dust temperatures ({T}{dust}∼ 72 K) and high IR luminosity of cold dust. The {T}{dust}{--}{L}{IR} relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust temperature, rather than dust mass. Hot DOGs have lower dust masses than submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and QSOs within a similar redshift range. Both high IR luminosity of cold dust and relatively low dust mass in Hot DOGs can be expected by their relatively high dust temperatures. (4) Hot DOGs have high dust-covering factors (CFs), which deviate from the previously proposed trend of the dust CF decreasing with increasing bolometric luminosity. Finally, we can reproduce the observed

  7. GRB off-axis afterglows and the emission from the accompanying supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are likely produced in the shock that is driven as the GRB jet interacts with the external medium. Long-duration GRBs are also associated with powerful supernovae (SNe). We consider the optical and radio afterglows of long GRBs for both blasts viewed along the jet axis (`on-axis' afterglows) and misaligned observes (`off-axis' afterglows). Comparing the optical emission from the afterglow with that of the accompanying SN, using SN 1998bw as an archetype, we find that only a few per cent of afterglows viewed off-axis are brighter than the SN. For observable optical off-axis afterglows, the viewing angle is at most twice the half-opening angle of the GRB jet. Radio off-axis afterglows should be detected with upcoming radio surveys within a few hundred Mpc. We propose that these surveys will act as `radio triggers', and that dedicated radio facilities should follow-up these sources. Follow-ups can unveil the presence of the radio SN remnant, if present. In addition, they can probe the presence of a mildly relativistic component, either associated with the GRB jet or the SN ejecta, expected in these sources.

  8. Emphasize the difference: On the energy dependance of power spectral states in Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger; Yu, W.

    2014-01-01

    Transient black hole X-ray binaries usually evolve through different energy spectral states that show characteristic spectral and variability properties. These characteristics mainly resulted from the energy spectra and the power density spectra obtained by the RXTE in the energy band above 3 keV. This picture has been challenged through our recent study on MAXI J1659-152, in which we found a clear energy dependence of the power spectral state; the thermal disk spectral component in the hard and the intermediate state is of a power-law noise with a possible cut-off at a frequency below the characteristic frequencies of the band-limited noise and QPOs seen simultaneously in the Comptonized component, which is similar to the power spectrum of the soft state. Here, we present the results of our comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations of black hole X-ray binaries, which comprises GRS 1915+105, GX 339-4, H1743-322 and other sources. For the observations of GRS 1915+105 in the "plateau" state we will discuss the overall shape of the power density spectra related to the noise component and the presence or absence of quasi-periodic oscillations in different energy bands. Furthermore, we will present a summary of the power density spectra and related time lags in the observations of GX 339-4. The presence of quasi-periodic oscillations and band-limited noise in the power density spectra above ~2 keV and the simultaneous domination by a power-law noise in the power density spectra at lower energies imply that the quasi-periodic oscillations and the band-limited noise are in the Comptonized component and the optically thick disk contributes to a power-law noise which is independent of the energy spectral state. We will discuss the implications of this finding for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

  9. Discovery of an Afterglow Extension of the Prompt Phase of Two Gamma Ray Bursts Observed by Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathelmy, S. D.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Cusumano, G.; OBrien, P. T.; Vaughan, S.; Zhang, B.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.

    2005-01-01

    Contemporaneous BAT and XRT observations of two recent well-covered GRBs observed by Swift, GRB 050315 and GRB 050319, show clearly a prompt component joining the onset of the afterglow emission. The rapid slewing capability of the spacecraft enables X-ray observations immediately after the burst, typically 100 s following the initiation of the prompt y-ray phase. By fitting a power law form to the y-ray spectrum, we extrapolate the time dependent fluxes measured by the BAT, in the energy band 15 - 350 keV, into the spectral regime observed by the XRT 0.2 - 10 keV, and examine the functional form of the rate of decay of the two light curves. We find that the BAT and XRT light curves merge to form a unified curve. There is a period of steep decay up to 300 s, followed by a flatter decay. The duration of the steep decay, 100 s in the source frame after correcting for cosmological time dilation, agrees roughly with a theoretical estimate for the deceleration time of the relativistic ejecta as it interacts with circumstellar material. For GRB 050315, the steep decay can be characterized by an exponential form, where one e-folding decay time Te (BAT) = 24 f 2 s, and Te,(XRT) = 35 f 2 s. For GRB 050319, a power law decay - d l n f / d l n t = n, where n approx. = 3, provides a reasonable fit. The early time X-ray fluxes are consistent with representing the lower energy tail of the prompt emission, and provide our first quantitative measure of the decay of the prompt y-ray emission over a large dynamic range in flux. The initial steep decay is expected due to the delayed high latitude photons from a curved shell of relativistic plasma illuminated only for a short interval. The overall conclusion is that the prompt phase of GRBs remains observable for hundreds of seconds longer than previously thought.

  10. Enhancing Inhibition-Induced Plasticity in Tinnitus – Spectral Energy Contrasts in Tailor-Made Notched Music Matter

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Junghoefer, Markus; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM). Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC) in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts. PMID:25951605

  11. Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus--spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Junghoefer, Markus; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM). Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC) in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts. PMID:25951605

  12. The Evolving Physical Processes In Interacting Galaxies Traced By Their Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard

    Mergers and interactions have profound effects on the evolution of galaxies and on the various physical processes associated with star formation and the fueling of active nuclei (AGN). There remains, however, an incomplete understanding of how interactions affect such processes or how important they are in controlling the appearance of today's universe. We propose to study 180 interacting galaxies in 101 systems spanning early to late stage mergers for which newly archived NASA data enable detailed analyses of their ultraviolet-to-far infrared (UV-FIR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our goal is an improved understanding of how a wide range of key galaxy parameters vary across the interaction sequence. Our derived physical parameters will include the total optical- infrared luminosity, star formation rate, specific star formation rate, stellar mass, dust temperatures and dust masses, compactness, photo-dissociation region (PDR) fractions, and AGN contributions to the FIR SED. Our sample is taken from the Keel-Kennicutt catalog of merging galaxies (based only on apparent galaxy separations and hence free of morphological bias) and the Surace IRAS sample of bright mergers. Our sample contains virtually all bright mergers with UV-FIR data in the archives, including (but not limited to) data from missions GALEX, Swift, Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel. We will re-reduce, recalibrate, and extract the photometry in up to 23 wavelength bands from the UV to the FIR. Our analysis plan emphasizes three new SED modeling tools, one of which we have recently developed. Nearly all of the sources also have Spitzer IRS spectral data (primarily of the circumnuclear regions), and we will use the IRS data to supplement the SED conclusions via our own algorithm which also infers metallicity, interstellar medium (ISM) ambient pressure, and embedded young star fractions. Finally, we will compare each merger to the simulated photometry/ morphology of a suite of simulations based on

  13. On the optical and X-ray afterglows of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dado, S.; Dar, A.; De Rújula, A.

    2002-06-01

    We severely criticize the consuetudinary analysis of the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the conical-ejection fireball scenarios. We argue that, instead, recent observations imply that the long-duration GRBs and their afterglows are produced by highly relativistic jets of cannonballs (CBs) emitted in supernova explosions. The CBs are heated by their collision with the supernova shell. The GRB is the boosted surface radiation the CBs emit as they reach the transparent outskirts of the shell. The exiting CBs further decelerate by sweeping up interstellar matter (ISM). The early X-ray afterglow is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung from the cooling CBs, the optical afterglow by synchrotron radiation from the ISM electrons swept up by the CBs. We show that this model fits simply and remarkably well all the measured optical afterglows of the 15 GRBs with known redshift, including that of GRB 990123, for which unusually prompt data are available. We demonstrate that GRB 980425 was a normal GRB produced by SN1998bw, with standard X-ray and optical afterglows. We find that the very peculiar afterglow of GRB 970508 can be explained if its CBs encountered a significant jump in density as they moved through the ISM. The afterglows of the nearest 8 of the known-redshift GRBs show various degrees of evidence for an association with a supernova akin to SN1998bw. In all other cases such an association, even if present, would have been undetectable with the best current photometric sensitivities. This gives strong support to the proposition that most, maybe all, of the long-duration GRBs are associated with supernovae. Although our emphasis is on optical afterglows, we also provide an excellent description of X-ray afterglows. Figures \\ref{fig228} to \\ref{X1216} are only available in electronic form at http:/www.edpsciences.org

  14. Significant reduction in energy for plant-growth lighting in space using targeted LED lighting and spectral manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, L.; Massa, G. D.; Morrow, R. C.; Bourget, C. M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems involving photoautotrophic organisms will be necessary to sustain long-duration crewed missions at distant space destinations. Since sufficient sunlight will not always be available for plant growth at many space destinations, efficient electric-lighting solutions are greatly needed. The present study demonstrated that targeted plant lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and optimizing spectral parameters for close-canopy overhead LED lighting allowed the model crop leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Waldmann's Green') to be grown using significantly less electrical energy than using traditional electric-lighting sources. Lettuce stands were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber controlling temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 level. Several red:blue ratios were tested for growth rate during the lag phase of lettuce growth. In addition, start of the exponential growth phase was evaluated. Following establishment of a 95% red + 5% blue spectral balance giving the best growth response, the energy efficiency of a targeted lighting system was compared with that of two total coverage (untargeted) LED lighting systems throughout a crop-production cycle, one using the same proportion of red and blue LEDs and the other using white LEDs. At the end of each cropping cycle, whole-plant fresh and dry mass and leaf area were measured and correlated with the amount of electrical energy (kWh) consumed for crop lighting. Lettuce crops grown with targeted red + blue LED lighting used 50% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated, and the total coverage white LEDs used 32% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated than did the total coverage red + blue LEDs. An energy-conversion efficiency of less than 1 kWh/g dry biomass is possible using targeted close-canopy LED lighting with spectral optimization. This project was supported by NASA grant NNX09AL99G.

  15. Numerical study of spectral shaping in high energy Ho:YLF amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Peter; Ruehl, Axel; Murari, Krishna; Cankaya, Huseyin; Kärtner, Franz X; Hartl, Ingmar; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-05-01

    We present a new chromatic numerical approach to simulate the amplification of laser pulses in multipass laser amplifiers. This enables studies on spectral effects such as gain narrowing and spectral shaping with optical elements expressed by a transmission transfer function. We observe good agreement between our simulations and measurements with a Ho:YLF regenerative amplifier (RA). To demonstrate the capabilities of our simulation model, we numerically integrate an intra-cavity etalon in this laser and find optimum etalon parameters that enhance the peak power of the output pulses up to 65%. PMID:27137602

  16. The Impact of Evolving Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Galaxies on Star Formation Rate Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Magnelli, B.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Fadda, D.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Lagache, G.; Maiolino, R.; Pérez García, A. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Yan, L.

    2012-02-01

    We combine Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) data from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program with Spitzer 24 μm and 16 μm photometry and ultra deep Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared spectra to measure the mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0.7 < z < 2.5 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main sequence (the redshift-dependent relation of star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass). Our very deep data confirm from individual far-infrared detections that z ~ 2 SFRs are overestimated if based on 24 μm fluxes and SED templates that are calibrated via local trends with luminosity. Galaxies with similar ratios of rest-frame νL ν(8) to 8-1000 μm infrared luminosity (LIR) tend to lie along lines of constant offset from the main sequence. We explore the relation between SED shape and offset in specific star formation rate (SSFR) from the redshift-dependent main sequence. Main-sequence galaxies tend to have a similar νL ν(8)/LIR regardless of LIR and redshift, up to z ~ 2.5, and νL ν(8)/LIR decreases with increasing offset above the main sequence in a consistent way at the studied redshifts. We provide a redshift-independent calibration of SED templates in the range of 8-60 μm as a function of Δlog(SSFR) offset from the main sequence. Redshift dependency enters only through the evolution of the main sequence with time. Ultra deep IRS spectra match these SED trends well and verify that they are mostly due to a change in ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to LIR rather than continua of hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Alternatively, we discuss the dependence of νL ν(8)/LIR on LIR. The same νL ν(8)/LIR is reached at increasingly higher LIR at higher redshift, with shifts relative to local by 0.5 and 0.8 dex in log(LIR) at redshifts z ~ 1 and z ~ 2. Corresponding SED template calibrations are provided for use if no stellar masses are on hand. For most of those z ~ 2 SFGs that

  17. Evolution of the stellar-merger red nova V1309 Scorpii: Spectral energy distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylenda, R.; Kamiński, T.

    2016-08-01

    Context. One very important object for understanding the nature of red novae is V1309 Sco. Its pre-outburst observations showed that, before its red-nova eruption in 2008, it was a contact binary quickly evolving to the merger of the components. It thus provided us with a direct evidence that the red novae result from stellar mergers. Aims: We will study the evolution of the post-merger remnant of V1309 Sco over time. Methods: We analyse the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object and its evolution with time. From various optical and infrared surveys and observing programmes carried out with OGLE, HST, VVV, Gemini South, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel we constructed observed SED in 2010 and 2012. Some limited data are also available for the red-nova progenitor in 2007. We analyse the data with our model of a dusty envelope surrounding a central star. Results: Dust was present in the pre-outburst state of V1309 Sco. Its high temperature (900-1000 K) suggests that this was a freshly formed dust in a presumable mass-loss from the spiralling-in binary. Shortly after its 2008 eruption, V1309 Sco became almost completely embedded in dust. The parameters (temperature, dimensions) of the dusty envelope in 2010 and 2012 evidence that we then observed matter lost by the object during the 2008 outburst. Its mass is at least 10-3M⊙. The object remains quite luminous, although since its maximum brightness in September 2008, it has faded in luminosity by a factor of ~50 (in 2012). Far infrared data from Herschel reveal presence of a cold (~30 K) dust at a distance of a few thousand AU from the object. Conclusions: Similarly to other red novae, V1309 Sco formed a slowly-expanding, dense, and optically-thick dusty envelope during its 2008 outburst. The main remnant is thus hidden for us. Far infrared data suggests that the object passed an episode of intense mass loss in its recent history. This conclusion could be verified by submillimeter interferometric observations.

  18. MODELING THE NUCLEAR INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE II ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Lira, Paulina; Videla, Liza; Wu, Yanling; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alexander, David M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-02-20

    We present results from model fitting to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a homogeneous sample of Seyfert II galaxies drawn from the 12 {mu}m Galaxy Sample. Imaging and nuclear flux measurements are presented in an accompanying paper. Here we add Spitzer/IRS observations to further constrain the SEDs after careful subtraction of a starburst component. We use the library of CLUMPY torus models from Nenkova et al. and also test the two-phase models recently produced by Stalevski et al. We find that photometric and spectroscopic observations in the mid-IR ({lambda} {approx}> 5 {mu}m) are crucial to properly constrain the best-fit torus models. About half of our sources show clear near-IR excess of their SEDs above the best-fit models. This problem can be less severe when using the Stalevski et al. models. The nature of this emission is not clear since best-fitted blackbody temperatures are very high ({approx}1700-2500 K) and the Type II classification of our sources would correspond to a small probability to peer directly into the hottest regions of the torus. Crucially, the derived torus parameters are quite robust when using CLUMPY models, independently of whether or not the sources require an additional blackbody component. Our findings suggest that tori are characterized by N{sub 0}{approx}>5, {sigma} {approx}> 40, {tau} {approx}< 25, Angle i {approx}> 40 Degree-Sign , Y {approx}< 50, and A {sup los} {sub v} {approx} 100-300, where N{sub 0} is the number of clouds in the equatorial plane of the torus, {sigma} is the characteristic opening angle of the cloud distribution, {tau} is the opacity of a single cloud, Angle i is the line-of-sight orientation of the torus, Y is the ratio of the inner to the outer radii, and A {sup los} {sub v} is the total opacity along the line of sight. From these, we can determine typical torus sizes and masses of 0.1-5.0 pc and 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, respectively. We find tentative evidence that those nuclei with

  19. The spectral energy distribution of the redshift 7.1 quasar ULAS J1120+0641

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, R.; Warren, S. J.; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Hewett, P. C.; Mortlock, D. J.; Simpson, C.; Venemans, B. P.; Ota, K.; Shibuya, T.

    2015-03-01

    We present new observations of the highest-redshift quasar known, ULAS J1120+0641, redshift z = 7.084, obtained in the optical, at near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths, and in the sub-mm. We combine these results with published X-ray and radio observations to create the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED), with the goals of measuring the bolometric luminosity Lbol, and quantifying the respective contributions from the AGN and star formation. We find three components are needed to fit the data over the wavelength range 0.12-1000 μm: the unobscured quasar accretion disk and broad-line region, a dusty clumpy AGN torus, and a cool 47K modified black body to characterise star formation. Despite the low signal-to-noise ratio of the new long-wavelength data, the normalisation of any dusty torus model is constrained within ±40%. We measure a bolometric luminosity Lbol = 2.6 ± 0.6 × 1047 erg s-1 = 6.7 ± 1.6 × 1013 L⊙, to which the three components contribute 31%,32%,3%, respectively, with the remainder provided by the extreme UV < 0.12 μm. We tabulate the best-fit model SED. We use local scaling relations to estimate a star formation rate (SFR) in the range 60-270 M⊙/yr from the [C ii] line luminosity and the 158 μm continuum luminosity. An analysis of the equivalent widths of the [C ii] line in a sample of z> 5.7 quasars suggests that these indicators are promising tools for estimating the SFR in high-redshift quasars in general. At the time observed the black hole was growing in mass more than 100 times faster than the stellar bulge, relative to the mass ratio measured in the local universe, i.e. compared to MBH/Mbulge ≃ 1.4 × 10-3, for ULAS J1120+0641 we measure ṀBH/Ṁbulge ≃ 0.2. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A31

  20. 200W average power 1mJ pulse energy from spectrally combined pulsed sub-5 ns fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, O.; Ortac, B.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.; Andersen, Thomas V.

    2009-02-01

    In this contribution, we report on spectral combination of four sub-5ns pulsed fiber amplifier systems with an average output power of 200W at 200kHz repetition rate resulting in 1mJ of pulse energy. A dielectric reflection grating is used to combine four individual beams to one output possessing a measured M2 value of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively, independent of power level. Extraction of higher pulse energies and peak powers will be discussed.

  1. ON THE ORIGIN OF > 10 GeV PHOTONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangyu; Liu Ruoyu; Lemoine, Martin

    2013-07-10

    Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbulence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the microturbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation, in which the scattering mean free path is equal to the particle Larmor radius, breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase cannot be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circumburst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.

  2. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Burst Broadband Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broadband afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from 2004 November to 2015 March with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared (NIR), and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent γ-ray and kinetic energies of Eγ,iso ≈ 2 × 1051 erg, and EK,iso ≈ (1-3) × 1051 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n ≈ (3-15) × 10-3 cm-3, and that ≈80%-95% of bursts have densities of n ≲ 1 cm-3. We investigate trends between the circumburst densities and host galaxy properties, and find that events located at large projected offsets of ≳10 effective radii from their hosts exhibit particularly low densities of n ≲ 10-4 cm-3, consistent with an intergalactic medium-like environment. Using late-time afterglow data for 11 events, we find a median jet opening angle of θj = 16 ± 10°. We also calculate a median beaming factor of fb ≈ 0.04, leading to a beaming-corrected total energy release of Etrue ≈ 1.6 × 1050 erg. Furthermore, we calculate a beaming-corrected event rate of {{R}}{{true}}={270}-180+1580 Gpc-3 yr-1, or ≈ {8}-5+47 yr-1 within a 200 Mpc volume, the Advanced LIGO/Virgo typical detection distance for NS-NS binaries.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Dynamics and Afterglow Radiation from Adaptive Mesh Refinement, Special Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  4. Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippazzo, Joe; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Godfrey, Paige A.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    The physical and atmospheric properties of ultracool dwarfs are deeply entangled due to the degenerate effects of mass, age, metallicity, clouds and dust, activity, rotation, and possibly even formation mechanism on observed spectra. Accurate determination of fundamental parameters for a wide diversity of objects at the low end of the IMF is thus crucial to testing stellar and planetary formation theories. To determine these quantities, we constructed and flux calibrated nearly-complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 221 M, L, T, and Y dwarfs using published parallaxes and 0.3-40 μm spectra and photometry. From these homogeneous SEDs, we calculated bolometric luminosity (Lbol), effective temperature (Teff), mass, surface gravity, radius, spectral indexes, synthetic photometry, and bolometric corrections (BCs) for each object. We used these results to derive Lbol, Teff, and BC polynomial relations across the entire very-low-mass star/brown dwarf/planetary mass regime. We use a subsample of objects with age constraints based on nearby young moving group membership, companionship with a young star, or spectral signatures of low surface gravity to define new age-sensitive diagnostics and characterize the reddening of young substellar atmospheres as a redistribution of flux from the near-infrared into the mid-infrared. Consequently we find the SED flux pivots at Ks band, making BCKs as a function of spectral type a tight and age independent relationship. We find that young L dwarfs are systematically 300 K cooler than field age objects of the same spectral type and up to 600 K cooler than field age objects of the same absolute H magnitude. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons of these empirical results to best fit parameters from four different model atmosphere grids via Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis in order to create prescriptions for the reliable and efficient characterization of new ultracool dwarfs.

  5. Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L.; Van Gordon, Mollie M.; Looper, Dagny L.

    2015-09-01

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (Lbol) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (Teff) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as Teff, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR-MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler Teff of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same MH magnitude.

  6. High Energy Emission of V404 Cygni during 2015 outburst with INTEGRAL/SPI: Spectral analysis results, issues and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, Elisabeth; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A strong outburst of the X-ray transient V404 Cygni (= GS2023-338) was observed in 2015 June/July up to a level of 50 Crab in the hard X-ray domain.We have used the INTEGRAL/SPI data to investigate the spectral behavior of the source between 20 and 1000 keV during its maximum of activity. We have found striking variability patterns at all timescales. For the 20-200 keV energy band, the huge signal to noise ratio allows us to scrutinize the source evolution on a never reached timescale (30 s). At higher energy, the spectral shape can be determined on a timescale < 1 h.However, we note that at this level of photon flux, instrument's behavior may be severely tested and that some instrumental artifacts could affect the data analysis. We have performed thorough checks to ensure a correct handling of the SPI data and present how to obtain reliable spectral results on the emission of V404 Cyg. We demonstrate that, with the correct configuration, the hard X-ray emission, up to the MeV region, is well described by a two component model (Comptonisation law + cutoff power law) as observed in Cyg X-1 and for V404 Cygni itself at lower flux levels.

  7. Probing The Stellar, Gaseous, And Dust Properties Of Galaxies Through Analysis Of Their Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies are shaped by their physical properties and they are our primary source of information on galaxies stellar, gaseous, and dust content. Nearby galaxies (less than 100 Mpc away) are spatially resolved by current telescopes from the ultraviolet (UV) to radio wavelengths, allowing the study of the SEDs of subgalactic regions. Such studies are necessary for deriving maps and spatial trends of the physical properties across a galaxy. In principle, the complex history of the formation, growth, and evolution of a galaxy or a region of a galaxy can be inferred from its radiative output. In practice, this task is complicated by the fact that a significant fraction of the star formation activity takes place in dust obscured regions, in which a significant fraction of the stellar radiative output is absorbed, scattered, and reradiated by the gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). This reprocessing of the stellar radiation takes place in ionized interstellar gas regions (H II regions) surrounding massive hot stars, in diffuse atomic gas (H I regions), and in dense molecular clouds. For this work, we have analyzed two galaxies in detail, NGC 6872 and NGC 6946, also known as Condor and Fireworks Galaxy, respectively. The Condor galaxy is the largest-known spiral galaxy. It is part a group of galaxies, the Pavo group, with 12 other galaxies. It has, however, interacted in the past ~150 Myr with a smaller companion, previously believed to have shaped the physical extent of the giant spiral. We have performed detailed SED fitting from the UV to mid-infrared (mid-IR) to obtain star formation histories of seventeen sub-galactic regions across the Condor. These regions are large enough to be galaxies themselves, with 32.3 million light-years in diameter. We find that the Condor was already very massive before this interaction and that it was much less affected by the passage of the companion than previously thought. We also

  8. Spectroscopic classification of optical transients with the SEDM (Spectral Energy Distribution Machine) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, D.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of the optical transients SN 2016czr, SN 2016ejc and AT 2016eki. The candidates were discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS: http://119.78.210.3/ptss2/ ), the Gaia ESA survey (Rixon et al,2014, ATel #6593) and the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ). The observations were performed on 2016-07-28 and 2016-07-29 with the Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope and the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/sedm/, range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R~100) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope.

  9. Transition from interpulse to afterglow plasmas driven by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shail; Sahu, Debaprasad; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2012-08-15

    In the power-off phase, plasmas generated by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field show a transitive nature from interpulse to afterglow as a function of pulse duration t{sub w} = 20-200 {mu}s. The ionized medium can be driven from a highly non equilibrium to an equilibrium state inside the pulses, thereby dictating the behavior of the plasma in the power-off phase. Compared to afterglows, interpulse plasmas observed for t{sub w} < 50 {mu}s are characterized by a quasi-steady-state in electron density that persists for {approx} 20-40 {mu}s even after the end of the pulse and has a relatively slower decay rate ({approx} 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) of the electron temperature, as corroborated by optical measurements. The associated electron energy probability function indicates depletion in low energy electrons which appear at higher energies just after the end of the pulse. The transition occurs at t{sub w} {approx} 50 {mu}s as confirmed by time evolution of integrated electron numbers densities obtained from the distribution function.

  10. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Self-Consistent Radiation for GRB Prompt Emission and Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Guiriec, S.; Fishman, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. This simulation corresponds to a case for gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will simulate colliding shells as an internal shock model for prompt emission. Turbulent magnetic fields generated by a slower shell will be collided by a faster shell. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the shock. We calculate the radiation from deflected electrons in the turbulent magnetic fields. The properties of this radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts

  11. Fast polymer fingerprinting using flowing afterglow atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jecklin, Matthias C; Gamez, Gerardo; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-08-01

    Flowing afterglow atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry (FA-APGD-MS) was used to interrogate different polymer species such as biopolymers, synthetic homo- and co-polymers. The main advantages of FA-APGD-MS for polymer samples include speed (<30 s per sample) and analysis at atmospheric pressures. Moreover, there are essentially no restrictions as to the kind of polymer sample that can be analyzed because FA-APGD-MS can deal with liquid and solid (soluble or insoluble) bulk polymers and granulates, irrespective of their conductivity, without requiring any sample preparation prior to analysis. We will discuss the mechanism of ion formation as well as the limitation of the accessible mass range (m/z < 500) in view of what type of information can be gained from the mass spectra obtained. Monomer units and some fragments were detected for homopolymers, e.g.cis-polyisoprene (IR), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), which allowed identification of the polymer composition. The mass spectra obtained were further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) for a better visualization and assessing of mass-spectral reproducibility. Combination with PCA even allowed differentiation of pectin, amylopectin, and cellulose, chemically very similar polysaccharides whose characteristic differences lie in the nature of the glycosidic linkage. Finally, we were able to detect and identify phthalate plasticizers, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), present in poly(vinyl chloride)-based food wraps. PMID:20448931

  12. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Arthrography of the Shoulder Joint Using Virtual Monochromatic Spectral Imaging: Optimal Dose of Contrast Agent and Monochromatic Energy Level

    PubMed Central

    An, Chansik; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Sungjun; Lee, Young Han; Yun, Min Jeong; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize the dose of contrast agent and the level of energy for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) arthrography of the shoulder joint and to evaluate the benefits of the optimized imaging protocol. Materials and Methods Dual-energy scans with monochromatic spectral imaging mode and conventional single energy scans were performed on a shoulder phantom with 10 concentrations from 0 to 210 mg/mL of iodinated contrast medium at intervals of 15 or 30 mg/mL. Image noise, tissue contrast, and beam hardening artifacts were assessed to determine the optimum dose of contrast agent and the level of monochromatic energy for DECT shoulder arthrography in terms of the lowest image noise and the least beam hardening artifacts while good tissue contrast was maintained. Material decomposition (MD) imaging for bone-iodine differentiation was qualitatively assessed. The optimized protocol was applied and evaluated in 23 patients. Results The optimal contrast dose and energy level were determined by the phantom study at 60 mg/mL and 72 keV, respectively. This optimized protocol for human study reduced the image noise and the beam-hardening artifacts by 35.9% and 44.5%, respectively. Bone-iodine differentiation by MD imaging was not affected by the iodine concentration or level of energy. Conclusion Dual-energy scan with monochromatic spectral imaging mode results in reduced image noise and beam hardening artifacts. PMID:25469086

  13. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves with a Long-lived Reverse Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing; Hascoët, Romain; Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the "mechanical model" that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  14. The radio afterglow of Swift J1644+57 reveals a powerful jet with fast core and slow sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Aloy, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    We model the non-thermal transient Swift J1644+57 as resulting from a relativistic jet powered by the accretion of a tidally disrupted star on to a supermassive black hole. Accompanying synchrotron radio emission is produced by the shock interaction between the jet and the dense circumnuclear medium, similar to a gamma-ray burst afterglow. An open mystery, however, is the origin of the late-time radio re-brightening, which occurred well after the peak of the jetted X-ray emission. Here, we systematically explore several proposed explanations for this behaviour by means of multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled to a self-consistent radiative transfer calculation of the synchrotron emission. Our main conclusion is that the radio afterglow of Swift J1644+57 is not naturally explained by a jet with a one-dimensional top-hat angular structure. However, a more complex angular structure comprised of an ultrarelativistic core (Lorentz factor Γ ˜ 10) surrounded by a slower (Γ ˜ 2) sheath provides a reasonable fit to the data. Such a geometry could result from the radial structure of the super-Eddington accretion flow or as the result of jet precession. The total kinetic energy of the ejecta that we infer of ˜ few 1053 erg requires a highly efficient jet launching mechanism. Our jet model providing the best fit to the light curve of the on-axis event Swift J1644+57 is used to predict the radio light curves for off-axis viewing angles. Implications for the presence of relativistic jets from tidal disruption events (TDEs) detected via their thermal disc emission, as well as the prospects for detecting orphan TDE afterglows with upcoming wide-field radio surveys and resolving the jet structure with long baseline interferometry, are discussed.

  15. DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang Bing; Hascoeet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-20

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the ''mechanical model'' that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  16. Front Surface Spectral Control Development for TPV Energy Conversion (a Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    TD Rahmlow, Jr; JE Lazo-Wasem; EJ Gratrix; PM Fourspring; DM DePoy

    2004-12-09

    This paper discusses the introduction to the potential of alternative materials that provide higher temperature stability than current materials. The outline of this report is: (1) Review briefly the importance of spectral control; (2) Provide current results; (3) Introduce the temperature stability issue; (4) Describe the requirements for alternate materials and (5) Present alternative materials. The conclusions of this report are: (1) Antimony selenide has achieved the highest spectral efficiency to date; (2) Several materials expected to have higher temperature stability have been shown to be viable; (3) So far, with limited development, the performance of the these materials is lower than Antimony selenide; and (4) Additional development will be required to achieve similar or higher performance.

  17. Lineshape, linewidth and spectral density of parametric x-radiation at low electron energy in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberger, J.; Genz, H.; Morokhovskii, V.V.; Richter, A.; Morokhovskii, V.L.; Nething, U.; Zahn, R.; Sellschop, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Applying an absorber technique, the experimental shape and width of a parametric x-radiation line has been determined. The 9 keV radiation was produced by bombarding a diamond crystal of 55 {mu}m thickness with electrons of 6.8 MeV. The variance of the spectral line distribution was found to depend on the tilt angle of the crystal and to have a magnitude of {sigma}=51 eV. Simulations based on a Monte Carlo method exhibit that the observed variance is mainly influenced by multiple scattering of electrons passing through the crystal ({approx}43 eV) and the finite detector opening ({approx}18 eV), leaving for the intrinsic linewidth a value of the order of 1 eV. The spectral density of the line was found to be J{approx}10{sup {minus}7} photons/(electron{times}sr{times}eV). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Spectral energy distributions of H ii regions in M 33 (HerM33es)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaño, M.; Verley, S.; Pérez, I.; Kramer, C.; Calzetti, D.; Xilouris, E. M.; Boquien, M.; Abreu-Vicente, J.; Combes, F.; Israel, F.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; González, M.; Gratier, P.; Lord, S.; Mookerjea, B.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; van der Werf, P.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: Within the framework of the Herschel M 33 extended survey HerM33es and in combination with multi-wavelength data we study the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a set of H ii regions in the Local Group galaxy M 33 as a function of the morphology. We analyse the emission distribution in regions with different morphologies and present models to infer the Hα emission measure observed for H ii regions with well defined morphology. Methods: We present a catalogue of 119 H ii regions morphologically classified: 9 filled, 47 mixed, 36 shell, and 27 clear shell H ii regions. For each object we extracted the photometry at twelve available wavelength bands, covering a wide wavelength range from FUV-1516 Å (GALEX) to IR-250 μm (Herschel), and we obtained the SED for each object. We also obtained emission line profiles in vertical and horizontal directions across the regions to study the location of the stellar, ionised gas, and dust components. We constructed a simple geometrical model for the clear shell regions, whose properties allowed us to infer the electron density of these regions. Results: We find trends for the SEDs related to the morphology of the regions, showing that the star and gas-dust configuration affects the ratios of the emission in different bands. The mixed and filled regions show higher emission at 24 μm, corresponding to warm dust, than the shells and clear shells. This could be due to the proximity of the dust to the stellar clusters in the case of filled and mixed regions. The far-IR peak for shells and clear shells seems to be located towards longer wavelengths, indicating that the dust is colder for this type of object. The logarithmic 100 μm/70 μm ratio for filled and mixed regions remains constant over one order of magnitude in Hα and FUV surface brightness, while the shells and clear shells exhibit a wider range of values of almost two orders of magnitude. We derive dust masses and dust temperatures for each H ii region by fitting

  19. Dust spectral energy distributions of nearby galaxies: an insight from the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Heinis, S.; Galametz, M.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Galliano, F.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S. C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    Although it accounts only for a small fraction of the baryonic mass, dust has a profound impact on the physical processes at play in galaxies. Thus, to understand the evolution of galaxies, it is essential not only to characterize dust properties per se, but also in relation to global galaxy properties. To do so, we derive the dust properties of galaxies in a volume limited, K-band selected sample, the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS). We gather infrared photometric data from 8 μm to 500 μm from Spitzer, WISE, IRAS, and Herschel for all of the HRS galaxies. Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 663, 866) models are fit to the data from which the stellar contribution has been carefully removed. We find that our photometric coverage is sufficient to constrain all of the parameters of the Draine & Li models and that a strong constraint on the 20-60 μm range is mandatory to estimate the relative contribution of the photo-dissociation regions to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). The SED models tend to systematically underestimate the observed 500 μm flux densities, especially for low-mass systems. We provide the output parameters for all of the galaxies, i.e., the minimum intensity of the interstellar radiation field, the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the relative contribution of PDR and evolved stellar population to the dust heating, the dust mass, and the infrared luminosity. For a subsample of gas-rich galaxies, we analyze the relations between these parameters and the main integrated properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, star formation rate, infraredluminosity, metallicity, Hα and H-band surface brightness, and the far-ultraviolet attenuation. A good correlation between the fraction of PAH and the metallicity is found, implying a weakening of the PAH emission in galaxies with low metallicities and, thus, low stellar masses. The intensity of the diffuse interstellar radiation field and the H-band and Hα surface brightnesses are

  20. The near-infrared spectral energy distribution of β Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Boccaletti, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Allard, F.; Mordasini, C.; Beust, H.; Chauvin, G.; Girard, J. H. V.; Homeier, D.; Apai, D.; Lacour, S.; Rouan, D.

    2013-07-01

    Context. A gas giant planet has previously been directly seen orbiting at 8-10 AU within the debris disk of the ~12 Myr old star β Pictoris. The β Pictoris system offers the rare opportunity of both studying the physical and atmospheric properties of an exoplanet placed on a wide orbit and establishing its formation scenario. Aims: We aim to build the 1-5 μm spectral energy distribution of the planet for the first time. Our goal is to provide secure and accurate constraints on its physical and chemical properties. Methods: We obtained J (1.265 μm), H (1.66 μm), and M' (4.78 μm) band angular differential imaging of the system between 2011 and 2012. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of the astrometric data to revise constraints on the orbital parameters of the planet. Photometric measurements were compared to those of ultra-cool dwarfs and young companions. They were combined with existing photometry (2.18, 3.80, and 4.05 μm) and compared to predictions from 7 PHOENIX-based atmospheric models in order to derive the atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g) of β Pictoris b. Predicted properties from ("hot-start", "cold-start", and "warm start") evolutionary models were compared to independent constraints on the mass of β Pictoris b. We used planet-population synthesis models following the core-accretion paradigm to discuss the planet's possible origin. Results: We detect the planetary companion in our four-epoch observations. We estimate J = 14.0 ± 0.3, H = 13.5 ± 0.2, and M' = 11.0 ± 0.3 mag. Our new astrometry consolidates previous semi-major axis (8-10 AU) and excentricity (e ≤ 0.15) estimates of the planet. The location of β Pictoris b in color-magnitude diagrams suggests it has spectroscopic properties similar to L0-L4 dwarfs. This enables one to derive Log10 (L / L⊙) = - 3.87 ± 0.08 for the companion. The analysis with atmospheric models reveals that the planet has a dusty atmosphere with Teff = 1700 ± 100K and log g = 4.0 ± 0.5. "Hot

  1. A new semi-analytical treatment of the effect of supernovae on ULIRG spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Clare Elizabeth

    This work presents a method for generating synthetic spectra of Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGS) using AGN, HII region and supernovae source functions. The AGN element represents the far-infrared contribution to the ULIRG spectrum from an energetic central engine. It is modelled using a quasar source embedded in an axi-symmetric dusty torus. The radiative transfer of flux (RT) is then simulated and the AGN emergent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) generated. The HII region solution is then developed. A stellar evolutionary synthesis code is used to generate instantaneous burst (ISB) source functions which decay in time. The evolution of the gas and dust density in a spherically-symmetric, dense GMC, under the influence of a time-dependent ionizing source flux, is derived. Having irradiated the dust distribution with the source cluster SED, the RT is calculated and the HII region SEDs obtained. The impact of supernovae energy on a GMC already ionized by stellar flux is then considered. Using the standard pressure-driven expansion model of e.g., Weaver et al. (1977) the radial evolution of a superbubble expanding under the influence of a continuous super novae energy function is derived. The superbubble is modelled in both an adiabatic rapid expansion phase and in an isothermal momentum-conserving phase. As the superbubble expands, upstream gas is swept into a thin shell trapped on its surface and the gas density enhancement is modelled using simple shock physics. Having generated expressions for the evolution of the shell gas temperature, it is linked to the dust density via a temperature dependent condensation factor. Finally expressions are developed to quantify the evolution of the optical depth along a line of sight. It is found that the star formation efficiency (SFE) has a profound effect on the radial evolution of the optical depth distributions in GMCs generating marked differences in behaviour between and high and low SFEs. Low SFE models have

  2. iPTF14yb: The First GRB Discovered Outside the Gamma-Ray Bandpass and the Rate of Orphan Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    We report here the discovery by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) of iPTF14yb, the first unambiguous detection of an afterglow-like transient identified outside the γ-ray bandpass. Subsequent to our discovery announcement, the ``parent'' γ-ray burst GRB 140226A was identified by the InterPlanetary Network of high-energy detectors. We demonstrate an association between iPTF14yb and GRB 140226A based both on probabilistic arguments and by comparing iPTF14yb with the known population of long GRB afterglows and host galaxies. We furthermore estimate the rate of iPTF14yb-like transients based on iPTF observations, and demonstrate it is consistent with the rate of on-axis long GRBs. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the non-detection to date of bona fide ``orphan'' afterglows (i.e., those lacking entirely in high-energy emission) on GRB beaming and the degree of baryon loading in these relativistic jets.

  3. Analytically useful spectra excited in an atmospheric pressure active nitrogen afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.W.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure active nitrogen (APAN) discharge has been utilized for producing characteristic molecular emissions from nonmetallic species introduced into the afterglow region of the discharge. The addition of inorganic S-, P-, B-, Cl-, and Br-containing compounds into the afterglow has resulted in the formation of excited S/sub 2/, PN, BO, NCl, and NBr species, respectively. Intense molecular Br/sub 2/ emission and I/sub 2/ emission, as well as atomic I emission, have also been observed. Preliminary analytical utilization of the molecular or atomic emissions observed revealed that the APAN afterglow may serve as a potentially useful detector for the aforementioned elements.

  4. The Swift Discovery of X-ray Afterglows Accompanying Short Bursts from SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K.; Palmer, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray afterglows accompanying two short bursts from SGR1900+14 is presented. The afterglow luminosities at the end of each observation are lower by 30-50% than their initial luminosities, and decay with power law indices p approx. 0.2-0.4. Their initial bolometric luminosities are L approx. 10(exp 34)- 10(exp 35) erg/s. We discuss analogies and differences between the X-ray afterglows of SGR short bursts and short gamma-ray bursts.

  5. DISENTANGLING PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTIONARY STAGES IN CLUSTERED ENVIRONMENTS USING SPITZER-IRS SPECTRA AND COMPREHENSIVE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Forbrich, Jan; Tappe, Achim; Robitaille, Thomas; Muench, August A.; Lada, Charles J.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Stolte, Andrea

    2010-06-20

    When studying the evolutionary stages of protostars that form in clusters, the role of any intracluster medium cannot be neglected. High foreground extinction can lead to situations where young stellar objects (YSOs) appear to be in earlier evolutionary stages than they actually are, particularly when using simple criteria like spectral indices. To address this issue, we have assembled detailed spectral energy distribution characterizations of a sample of 56 Spitzer-identified candidate YSOs in the clusters NGC 2264 and IC 348. For these, we use spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope and ancillary multi-wavelength photometry. The primary aim is twofold: (1) to discuss the role of spectral features, particularly those due to ices and silicates, in determining a YSO's evolutionary stage, and (2) to perform comprehensive modeling of SEDs enhanced by the IRS data. The SEDs consist of ancillary optical-to-submillimeter multi-wavelength data as well as an accurate description of the 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature and of the mid-infrared continuum derived from line-free parts of the IRS spectra. We find that using this approach, we can distinguish genuine protostars in the cluster from T Tauri stars masquerading as protostars due to external foreground extinction. Our results underline the importance of photometric data in the far-infrared/submillimeter wavelength range, at sufficiently high angular resolution to more accurately classify cluster members. Such observations are becoming possible now with the advent of the Herschel Space Observatory.

  6. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  7. The featureless and non-variable optical spectral energy distribution of AXP 4U 0142+61

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Casares, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present GTC-10.4 m spectroscopy and multiband photometry of the faint (r ˜ 26) optical counterpart of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61. The 5000-9000 Å spectrum - the first obtained for a magnetar - is featureless, allowing us to set an equivalent width upper limit EW < 25 Å to the presence of emission lines in the H α region. Multiband photometry in the g, r, i, z Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) bands obtained at different epochs over 12 yr shows no significant variability from minutes-to-years time-scales. The photometry has been calibrated, for the first time, against the SDSS itself, resulting in solid upper limits to variability ranging from ˜0.2 mag in i (over 12 yr) to 0.05 mag in z (over 1.5 yr). The shape of the optical + near-infrared (literature values) spectral energy distribution is not well constrained due to the high extinction along the line of sight. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, we find that it can be described by a power law with a spectral index β = -0.7 ± 0.5 and E(B - V) = 1.5 ± 0.4. We also discuss on the implications of adding hard X-ray flux values from literature to the spectral fitting.

  8. STACEE observations of Markarian 421 above 100 GeV and a new method for high-energy spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jennifer Elaine

    Markarian 421 is a nearby (z =0.03) blazar that is actively studied to constrain both physical blazar models and models of the extragalactic background light. The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), a wavefront- sampling detector sensitive to ~ 100 GeV gamma rays, detected Mkn 421 during a multiwavelength campaign in early 2004. This thesis covers the 2004 STACEE observations of Mkn 421 and their analysis. The goal of the project was to measure the gamma-ray spectrum of Mkn 421; such a spectral result would be STACEE's first and one of the first from any detector in STACEE's energy range. Achieving this goal required the development of a new method for reconstructing gamma-ray energies from the STACEE data. The reconstruction method is described in detail, and the resulting spectrum is presented. Finally, the implications of the results for understanding high-energy emission mechanisms in AGN are discussed.

  9. The Influence of the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution on the Structure and Composition of the Upper Atmosphere of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi

    2016-02-01

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400-900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H+ to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H+ moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50-400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  10. The influence of the nuclear self energy function on the spectral lines of atoms with unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Mutygullina, A. A.; Petrova, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Optical emission from atoms with radioactive nuclei is investigated. The self energy function of the unstable nucleus is constructed. A new arbitrary parameter characterizing the nuclear interaction is introduced. The instability of the atomic nucleus is shown to result in the essential broadening of optical emission lines. The spectral line shape is shown to be of the Lorentz form, with the width being a nonlinear combination of the nuclear and atomic decay widths multiplied by the parameter depending on the peculiarities of nuclear interaction.

  11. Analysis of nuclear materials by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and spectral effects of alpha decay

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectra collected from alpha emitters are complicated by artifacts inherent to the alpha decay process, particularly when using portable instruments. For example, {sup 239}Pu EDXRF spectra exhibit a prominent uranium L X-ray emission peak series due to sample alpha decay rather than source-induced X-ray fluorescence. A portable EDXRF instrument was used to collect spectra from plutonium, americium, and a Pu-contaminated steel sample. The plutonium sample was also analyzed by wavelength dispersive XRF to demonstrate spectral differences observed when using these very different instruments.

  12. Modelling of the spectral energy distribution of Fornax A: leptonic and hadronic production of high-energy emission from the radio lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, B.; Yang, R.; López-Caniego, M.; Briggs, F.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Wayth, R. B.; Offringa, A. R.; Crocker, R.; Bernardi, G.; Procopio, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Tingay, S. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; McDonald, M.; Bell, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, D. A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    We present new low-frequency observations of the nearby radio galaxy Fornax A at 154 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array, microwave flux-density measurements obtained from WMAP and Planck data, and γ-ray flux densities obtained from Fermi data. We also compile a comprehensive list of previously published images and flux-density measurements at radio, microwave and X-ray energies. A detailed analysis of the spectrum of Fornax A between 154 and 1510 MHz reveals that both radio lobes have a similar spatially averaged spectral index, and that there exists a steep-spectrum bridge of diffuse emission between the lobes. Taking the spectral index of both lobes to be the same, we model the spectral energy distribution of Fornax A across an energy range spanning 18 orders of magnitude, to investigate the origin of the X-ray and γ-ray emission. A standard leptonic model for the production of both the X-rays and γ-rays by inverse-Compton scattering does not fit the multiwavelength observations. Our results best support a scenario where the X-rays are produced by inverse-Compton scattering and the γ-rays are produced primarily by hadronic processes confined to the filamentary structures of the Fornax A lobes.

  13. SHOCK CORRUGATION BY RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I. E-mail: macfadyen@nyu.edu

    2014-08-10

    Afterglow jets are Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and therefore turbulent during the early part of their deceleration. There are also several processes which actively cool the jet. In this Letter, we demonstrate that if cooling significantly increases the compressibility of the flow, the turbulence collides with the forward shock, destabilizing and corrugating it. In this case, the forward shock is turbulent enough to produce the magnetic fields responsible for synchrotron emission via small-scale turbulent dynamo. We calculate light curves assuming the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy and discover that dynamic magnetic fields are well approximated by a constant magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of 1%, though there is a sizeable delay in the time of peak flux as the magnetic field turns on only after the turbulence has activated. The reverse shock is found to be significantly more magnetized than the forward shock, with a magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio of the order of 10%. This work motivates future Rayleigh-Taylor calculations using more physical cooling models.

  14. Selective perceptual phase entrainment to speech rhythm in the absence of spectral energy fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Zoefel, Benedikt; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-02-01

    Perceptual phase entrainment improves speech intelligibility by phase-locking the brain's high-excitability and low-excitability phases to relevant or irrelevant events in the speech input. However, it remains unclear whether phase entrainment to speech can be explained by a passive "following" of rhythmic changes in sound amplitude and spectral content or whether entrainment entails an active tracking of higher-level cues: in everyday speech, rhythmic fluctuations in low-level and high-level features always covary. Here, we resolve this issue by constructing novel speech/noise stimuli with intelligible speech but without systematic changes in sound amplitude and spectral content. The probability of detecting a tone pip, presented to human listeners at random moments during our speech/noise stimuli, was significantly modulated by the rhythmic changes in high-level information. Thus, perception can entrain to the speech rhythm even without concurrent fluctuations in sound amplitude or spectral content. Strikingly, the actual entrainment phase depended on the tone-pip frequency, with tone pips within and beyond the principal frequency range of the speech sound modulated in opposite fashion. This result suggests that only those neural populations processing the actually presented frequencies are set to their high-excitability phase, whereas other populations are entrained to the opposite, low-excitability phase. Furthermore, we show that the perceptual entrainment is strongly reduced when speech intelligibility is abolished by presenting speech/noise stimuli in reverse, indicating that linguistic information plays an important role for the observed perceptual entrainment. PMID:25653354

  15. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.

    1989-01-01

    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  16. The Search for High Energy Extended Emission by Fermi-LAT from Swift-Localized Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.; Racusin, J.L.; /NASA, Goddard

    2012-05-01

    The brighter Fermi-LAT bursts have exhibited emission at energies >0.1 GeV that persists as late as {approx}2 ks after the prompt phase has nominally ended. This so-called 'extended emission' could arise from continued activity of the prompt burst mechanism or it could be the start of a high energy afterglow component. The high energy extended emission seen by the LAT has typically followed a t{sup -}{gamma} power-law temporal decay where {gamma} {approx} 1.2-1.7 and has shown no strong indication of spectral evolution. In contrast, the prompt burst emission generally displays strong spectral variability and more complex temporal changes in the LAT band. This differing behavior suggests that the extended emission likely corresponds to an early afterglow phase produced by an external shock. In this study, we look for evidence of high energy extended emission from 145 Swift-localized GRBs that have occurred since the launch of Fermi. A majority of these bursts were either outside of the LAT field-of-view or were otherwise not detected by the LAT during the prompt phase. However, because of the scanning operation of the Fermi satellite, the long-lived extended emission of these bursts may be detectable in the LAT data on the {approx}few ks time scale. We will look for emission from individual bursts and will perform a stacking analysis in order to set bounds on this emission for the sample as a whole. The detection of such emission would have implications for afterglow models and for the overall energy budget of GRBs.

  17. Effect of Dust Extinction on Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lŭ, Gu-Jing; Shao, Lang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming

    2011-10-01

    In order to study the effect of dust extinction on the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we carry out numerical calculations with high precision based on the rigorous Mie theory and the latest optical properties of interstellar dust grains, and analyze the different extinction curves produced by dust grains with different physical parameters. Our results indicate that the absolute extinction quantity is substantially determined by the medium density and metallicity. However, the shape of the extinction curve is mainly determined by the size distribution of the dust grains. If the dust grains aggregate to form larger ones, they will cause a flatter or grayer extinction curve with lower extinction quantity. On the contrary, if the dust grains are disassociated to smaller ones due to some uncertain processes, they will cause a steeper extinction curve with larger amount of extinction. These results might provide an important insight into understanding the origin of the optically dark GRBs.

  18. Determination of hexabromocyclododecane by flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Silberring, Jerzy; Reszke, Edward; Kuc, Joanna; Grochowalski, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The first application of a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS) for the chemical characterization and determination of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is presented. The samples of technical HBCD and expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) containing HBCD as a flame retardant were prepared by dissolving the appropriate solids in dichloromethane. The ionization of HBCD was achieved with a prototype FAPA source. The ions were detected in the negative-ion mode. The ions corresponding to a deprotonated HBCD species (m/z 640.7) as well as chlorine (m/z 676.8), nitrite (m/z 687.8) and nitric (m/z 703.8) adducts were observed in the spectra. The observed isotope pattern is characteristic for a compound containing six bromine atoms. This technique is an effective approach to detect HBCD, which is efficiently ionized in a liquid phase, resulting in high detection efficiency and sensitivity. PMID:25059130

  19. Energy Calibration of a CdTe Photon Counting Spectral Detector with Consideration of its Non-Convergent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components. PMID:27077856

  20. Energy Calibration of a CdTe Photon Counting Spectral Detector with Consideration of its Non-Convergent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components. PMID:27077856

  1. Characterization of the submesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of high-resolution MCS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Mojica, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2016-06-01

    Part of the kinetic energy that maintains ocean circulation cascades down to small scales until it is dissipated through mixing. While most steps of this downward energy cascade are well understood, an observational gap exists at horizontal scales of 103-101 m that prevents characterizing a key step in the chain: the transition from anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea thermocline shows that this transition is likely caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wave number spectra of the reflectors vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves (λx > 100 m), Kelvin-Helmholtz-type shear instabilities (100 m > λx > 33 m), and turbulence (λx < 33 m), indicating that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area.

  2. THERMAL EMISSION IN THE EARLY X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: FOLLOWING THE PROMPT PHASE TO LATE TIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Friis, Mette; Watson, Darach E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk

    2013-07-01

    Thermal radiation, peaking in soft X-rays, has now been detected in a handful of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and has to date been interpreted as shock break-out of the GRB's progenitor star. We present a search for thermal emission in the early X-ray afterglows of a sample of Swift bursts selected by their brightness in X-rays at early times. We identify a clear thermal component in eight GRBs and track the evolution. We show that at least some of the emission must come from highly relativistic material since two show an apparent super-luminal expansion of the thermal component. Furthermore, we determine very large luminosities and high temperatures for many of the components-too high to originate in a supernova shock break-out. Instead, we suggest that the component may be modeled as late photospheric emission from the jet, linking it to the apparently thermal component observed in the prompt emission of some GRBs at gamma-ray and hard X-ray energies. By comparing the parameters from the prompt emission and the early afterglow emission, we find that the results are compatible with the interpretation that we are observing the prompt quasi-thermal emission component in soft X-rays at a later point in its evolution.

  3. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm‑3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  4. Influence of electron collisions with N_2(A ^3Σ_u^+) metastables in the nitrogen afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Vasco; Sá, Paulo A.; Loureiro, Jorge

    2003-10-01

    In this work we present a study of the influence of electron collisions with metastable molecules N_2(A ^3Σ_u^+) during the afterglow of a nitrogen microwave discharge operating at ω/2π=433 MHz and p=3.3 Torr, in a tube with radius R=1.9 cm. In particular, we discuss i) the effect of superelastic collisions e+N_2(A)arrow e+N_2(X) in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and consequently in the electron impact excitation rate coefficients; and ii) the importance of the stepwise excitation processes e+N_2(A)arrow e+N_2(B,C) in the heavy-particle kinetics. This is an important issue since the concentrations of both N_2(A) metastables and electrons initially decrease in the afterglow, but then raise and pass through pronounced maxima, whose origin is in collisions involving very high vibration levels of ground-state molecules (v≥ 38) and N(^4S) atoms. [1] V. Guerra, P. A. Sá and J. Loureiro, accepted for publication in Plasma Sources Sci. and Technol.

  5. Luminescence properties of a new green afterglow phosphor NaBaScSi2O7:Eu(2+).

    PubMed

    Li, Gen; Wang, Yuhua; Zeng, Wei; Chen, Wenbo; Han, Shaochun; Guo, Haijie; Wang, Xicheng

    2015-10-28

    A novel green afterglow phosphor NaBaScSi2O7:Eu(2+) was prepared by a solid state reaction under a reductive atmosphere. The NaBaScSi2O7:Eu(2+) phosphor shows two emission bands centered at about 424 (weak) and 502 nm (strong) due to the substitution of Eu(2+) in both Ba(+) and Na(2+) sites, and energy transfer from EuBa (424 nm) to EuNa (502 nm) was found. Both EuBa and EuNa contribute to the afterglow process while EuNa dominates. Na0.99BaScSi2O7:0.01Eu(2+) exhibits green long lasting phosphorescence, whose duration is more than 1 h. The thermoluminescence properties of NaBaScSi2O7:Eu(2+) and the relationship between thermoluminescence and thermal quenching properties were discussed in detail. This work provides a new and efficient candidate for long lasting phosphorescence materials. PMID:26391314

  6. An Achromatic Break in the Afterglow of the Short GRB 140903A: Evidence for a Narrow Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Cenko, S. B.; Lien, A.; Gehrels, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Ricci, R.; Capone, J.; Toy, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Kawai, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Fruchter, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Jeong, S.; Levan, A.; Perley, D.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Tanvir, N.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the results of our observing campaign on GRB 140903A, a nearby (z = 0.351) short-duration (T 90 ˜ 0.3 s) gamma-ray burst discovered by Swift. We monitored the X-ray afterglow with Chandra up to 15 days after the burst and detected a steeper decay of the X-ray flux after t j ≈ 1 day. Continued monitoring at optical and radio wavelengths showed a similar decay in flux at nearly the same time, and we interpret it as evidence of a narrowly collimated jet. By using the standard fireball model to describe the afterglow evolution, we derive a jet opening angle θ j ≈ 5° and a collimation-corrected total energy release E ≈ 2 × {10}50 erg. We further discuss the nature of the GRB progenitor system. Three main lines disfavor a massive star progenitor: the properties of the prompt gamma-ray emission, the age and low star formation rate of the host galaxy, and the lack of a bright supernova. We conclude that this event likely originated from a compact binary merger.

  7. An Achromatic Break in the Afterglow of the Short GRB 140903A: Evidence for a Narrow Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Cenko, S. B.; Lien, A.; Gehrels, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Ricci, R.; Capone, J.; Toy, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Kawai, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Fruchter, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Jeong, S.; Levan, A.; Perley, D.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Tanvir, N.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the results of our observing campaign on GRB 140903A, a nearby (z = 0.351) short-duration (T 90 ∼ 0.3 s) gamma-ray burst discovered by Swift. We monitored the X-ray afterglow with Chandra up to 15 days after the burst and detected a steeper decay of the X-ray flux after t j ≈ 1 day. Continued monitoring at optical and radio wavelengths showed a similar decay in flux at nearly the same time, and we interpret it as evidence of a narrowly collimated jet. By using the standard fireball model to describe the afterglow evolution, we derive a jet opening angle θ j ≈ 5° and a collimation-corrected total energy release E ≈ 2 × {10}50 erg. We further discuss the nature of the GRB progenitor system. Three main lines disfavor a massive star progenitor: the properties of the prompt gamma-ray emission, the age and low star formation rate of the host galaxy, and the lack of a bright supernova. We conclude that this event likely originated from a compact binary merger.

  8. Influence of plasma diffusion losses on dust charge relaxation in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-07

    The influence of diffusive losses on residual dust charge in a complex plasma afterglow has been investigated. The dust residual charges were simulated based on a model developed to describe complex plasma decay. The experimental and simulated data show that the transition from ambipolar to free diffusion in the decaying plasma plays a significant role in determining the residual dust particle charges. The presence of positively charged dust particles is explained by a broadening of the charge distribution function in the afterglow plasma.

  9. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  10. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  11. Dual-energy approach to contrast-enhanced mammography using the balanced filter method: Spectral optimization and preliminary phantom measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2007-11-15

    Dual-energy contrast agent-enhanced mammography is a technique of demonstrating breast cancers obscured by a cluttered background resulting from the contrast between soft tissues in the breast. The technique has usually been implemented by exploiting two exposures to different x-ray tube voltages. In this article, another dual-energy approach using the balanced filter method without switching the tube voltages is described. For the spectral optimization of dual-energy mammography using the balanced filters, we applied a theoretical framework reported by Lemacks et al. [Med. Phys. 29, 1739-1751 (2002)] to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an iodinated contrast agent subtraction image. This permits the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage and balanced filter material, and the optimization of the latter's thickness with respect to some critical quantity--in this case, mean glandular dose. For an imaging system with a 0.1 mm thick CsI:Tl scintillator, we predict that the optimal tube voltage would be 45 kVp for a tungsten anode using zirconium, iodine, and neodymium balanced filters. A mean glandular dose of 1.0 mGy is required to obtain an SNR of 5 in order to detect 1.0 mg/cm{sup 2} iodine in the resulting clutter-free image of a 5 cm thick breast composed of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. In addition to spectral optimization, we carried out phantom measurements to demonstrate the present dual-energy approach for obtaining a clutter-free image, which preferentially shows iodine, of a breast phantom comprising three major components - acrylic spheres, olive oil, and an iodinated contrast agent. The detection of iodine details on the cluttered background originating from the contrast between acrylic spheres and olive oil is analogous to the task of distinguishing contrast agents in a mixture of glandular and adipose tissues.

  12. First Measurement of the {rho} Spectral Function in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Specht, H.J.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.

    2006-04-28

    We report on a precision measurement of low-mass muon pairs in 158 AGeV indium-indium collisions at the CERN SPS. A significant excess of pairs is observed above the yield expected from neutral meson decays. The unprecedented sample size of 360 000 dimuons and the good mass resolution of about 2% allow us to isolate the excess by subtraction of the decay sources. The shape of the resulting mass spectrum is consistent with a dominant contribution from {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{yields}{rho}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} annihilation. The associated space-time averaged {rho} spectral function shows a strong broadening, but essentially no shift in mass. This may rule out theoretical models linking hadron masses directly to the chiral condensate.

  13. DISCOVERY OF A TIGHT CORRELATION FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS WITH 'CANONICAL' LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Ostrowski, Michal; Willingale, Richard; Capozziello, Salvatore; Cardone, Vincenzo Fabrizio E-mail: mio@oa.uj.edu.p E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.i

    2010-10-20

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts z>8 are fascinating objects to study due to their still unexplained relativistic outburst mechanisms and their possible use to test cosmological models. Our analysis of 77 GRB afterglows with known redshifts revealed a physical subsample of long GRBs with the canonical plateau breaking to power-law light curves with a significant luminosity L*{sub X}-break time T*{sub a} correlation in the GRB rest frame. This subsample forms approximately the upper envelope of the studied distribution. We have also found a similar relation for a small sample of GRB afterglows that belong to the intermediate class between the short and the long ones. It proves that within the full sample of afterglows there exist physical subclasses revealed here by tight correlations of their afterglow properties. The afterglows with regular ('canonical') light curves obey not only the mentioned tight physical scaling, but-for a given T*{sub a}-the more regular progenitor explosions lead to preferentially brighter afterglows.

  14. Synthesis and afterglow properties of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuhui; Wang, Yuhua; Gong, Yu; Li, Yanqin

    2011-11-01

    The MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanophosphors with different particle sizes have been synthesized through a simple and inexpensive precipitate approach followed by a post-annealing process. The structure and morphology of the phosphor are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to XRD and TEM results, the particle size of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ could be controlled via changing the ratio of MgSO4/Al2O3, and the obtained samples possess regular morphology. The afterglow properties of MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ nanophosphors as a function of particle sizes are investigated by afterglow decay curves. Compared with the bulk phosphor, the nanophosphors exhibit longer afterglow time and higher initial afterglow intensity. In nanophosphors, there exist numerous defects on their surfaces due to the large surface to volume ratio, which generally act as luminescent killers, while some of which, however, can probably act as traps beneficial for the generation of afterglow. In the nanosized MgAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor, the thermoluminescence results indeed indicate the existence of more traps which are introduced due to the large surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles and that the high temperature sintering process contributes to the longer afterglow in the nanophosphors. PMID:22413308

  15. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-57Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4]= and 10%-57Fe and 90%-54Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4]= has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3–4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements. PMID:23955030

  16. CALORIMETRY OF GRB 030329: SIMULTANEOUS MODEL FITTING TO THE BROADBAND RADIO AFTERGLOW AND THE OBSERVED IMAGE EXPANSION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Mesler, Robert A.; Pihlstroem, Ylva M.

    2013-09-01

    We perform calorimetry on the bright gamma-ray burst GRB 030329 by fitting simultaneously the broadband radio afterglow and the observed afterglow image size to a semi-analytic MHD and afterglow emission model. Our semi-analytic method is valid in both the relativistic and non-relativistic regimes, and incorporates a model of the interstellar scintillation that substantially effects the broadband afterglow below 10 GHz. The model is fitted to archival measurements of the afterglow flux from 1 day to 8.3 yr after the burst. Values for the initial burst parameters are determined and the nature of the circumburst medium is explored. Additionally, direct measurements of the lateral expansion rate of the radio afterglow image size allow us to estimate the initial Lorentz factor of the jet.

  17. A late-time flattening of light curves in gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Giannios, Dimitrios E-mail: dgiannio@purdue.edu

    2013-12-01

    The afterglow emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually interpreted as synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons accelerated at the GRB external shock. We investigate the temporal decay of the afterglow emission at late times, when the bulk of the shock-accelerated electrons are non-relativistic (the 'deep Newtonian phase', as denoted by Huang and Cheng). We assume that the electron spectrum in the deep Newtonian phase is a power-law distribution in momentum with slope p, as dictated by the theory of Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks. For a uniform circumburst medium, the deep Newtonian phase begins at t{sub DN}∼3 ϵ{sub e,−1}{sup 5/6}t{sub ST}, where t {sub ST} marks the transition of the blast wave to the non-relativistic, spherically symmetric Sedov-Taylor (ST) solution, and ε {sub e} = 0.1 ε {sub e,–1} quantifies the amount of shock energy transferred to the electrons. For typical parameters, the deep Newtonian stage starts ∼0.5 to several years after the GRB. The radio flux in this phase decays as F {sub ν}∝t {sup –3(p+1)/10}∝t {sup –(0.9÷1.2)}, for a power-law slope 2 < p < 3. This is shallower than the scaling F {sub ν}∝t {sup –3(5p–7)/10}∝t {sup –(0.9÷2.4)} derived by Frail et al., which only applies if the GRB shock is non-relativistic, but the electron distribution still peaks at ultra-relativistic energies (a regime that is relevant for a narrow time interval, and only if t {sub DN} ≳ t {sub ST}, namely, ε {sub e} ≳ 0.03). We discuss how the deep Newtonian phase can be reliably used for GRB calorimetry, and we comment on the good detection prospects of trans-relativistic blast waves at 0.1÷10 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and LOw-Frequency ARray.

  18. Characterization of the sub-mesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Moncada, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale ocean dynamics is linked to small-scale mixing by means of turbulence, which enables the exchange of kinetic energy across the scales. At equilibrium, the energy flux that is injected at the production range must be balanced by mixing at the dissipation range. While the physics of the different ranges is now well established, an observational gap exists at the 103-101 m scale that prevents to characterize the transition from the anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. This lack of empirical evidence limits our understanding of the mechanisms governing the downward energy cascade, hampering the predictive capability of ocean circulation models. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) thermocline evidences that this transition is caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wavenumber (kx) spectra of the reflector's vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves [λx>100 m, with λx=kx‑1], Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)-type shear instabilities[100 m> λx>33 m], and turbulence[λx<33 m]. The presence of the transitional subrange in the averaged spectrum indicates that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area. The availability of a system providing observational data at the appropriate scales opens new perspectives to incorporate small-scale mixing in predictive ocean modelling research.

  19. Near-equipartition Jets with Log-parabola Electron Energy Distribution and the Blazar Spectral-index Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Yan, Dahai; Zhang, Li; Finke, Justin D.; Lott, Benoit

    2015-08-01

    Fermi-LAT analyses show that the γ-ray photon spectral indices {{{Γ }}}γ of a large sample of blazars correlate with the ν {F}ν peak synchrotron frequency {ν }s according to the relation {{{Γ }}}γ =d-k{log} {ν }s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between {{{Γ }}}γ and peak Compton frequency {ν }{{C}}. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k={k}{EC}=3b/4 for external Compton (EC) processes and k={k}{SSC}=9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Corrections are made to the spectral-index diagrams for a low-energy power-law EED and departures from equipartition, as constrained by absolute jet power. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compton and EC scattered γ-ray spectra from Lyα broad-line region and IR target photons. The {{{Γ }}}γ versus {ν }s behavior in the model depends strongly on b, with progressively and predictably weaker dependences on γ-ray detection range, variability time, and isotropic γ-ray luminosity. Implications for blazar unification and blazars as ultra-high energy cosmic-ray sources are discussed. Arguments by Ghisellini et al. that the jet power exceeds the accretion luminosity depend on the doubtful assumption that we are viewing at the Doppler angle.

  20. The energy and spectral characteristics of a room-temperature pulsed laser on a ZnS:Fe2+ polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, K. N.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Kazantsev, S. Yu; Kononov, I. G.; Kotereva, T. V.; Savin, D. V.; Timofeeva, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    The energy and spectral characteristics of a laser on a ZnS:Fe2+ polycrystal operating at room temperature have been studied. The laser was pumped by a non-chain electro-discharge HF laser with a full-width at half-maximum pulse duration of ~140 ns. The diameter of the pumping radiation spot on the crystal surface was 3.8 mm. The two-sided diffuse doping of a polycrystalline CVD-ZnS sample with the surfaces preliminarily coated by high-purity iron films was performed in the process of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in an argon atmosphere at a pressure of 100 MPa and temperature of 1290 °С. Increasing the duration of the HIP treatment from 54 h to 72 h made it possible to obtain twice the doping depth, and correspondingly, twice the length of active medium. As a result, the slope laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy was raised by a factor of 1.75 as compared to the value obtained in our earlier work with a polycrystalline sample. The generation energy was 25 mJ at a slope efficiency of η slope  =  35%. It was established that the generation spectra of the laser with a non-selective resonator have a linear structure with intervals between the neighboring lines of δ λ   ≈  6 ÷ 8 nm, which is spurious for solid-state lasers. The spectral structure observed is not related to the elements inside the resonator, which might form Fabry-Perot interferometers.

  1. The 'Supercritical Pile' GRB Model: Afterglows and GRB, XRR, XRF Unification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present the general notions and observational consequences of the "Supercritical Pile" GRB model; the fundamental feature of this model is a detailed process for the conversion of the energy stored in relativistic protons in the GRB Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) into relativistic electrons and then into radiation. The conversion is effected through the $p \\, \\gamma \\rightarrow p \\, e circumflex + e circumflex -$ reaction, whose kinematic threshold is imprinted on the GRB spectra to provide a peak of their emitted luminosity at energy \\Ep $\\sim 1$ MeV in the lab frame. We extend this model to include, in addition to the (quasi--)thermal relativistic post-shock protons an accelerated component of power law form. This component guarantees the production of $e circumflex +e circumflex- - $pairs even after the RBW has slowed down to the point that its (quasi-) thermal protons cannot fulfill the threshold of the above reaction. We suggest that this last condition marks the transition from the prompt to the afterglow GRB phase. We also discuss conditions under which this transition is accompanied by a significant drop in the flux and could thus account for several puzzling, recent observations. Finally, we indicate that the same mechanism applied to the late stages of the GRB evolution leads to a decrease in \\Ep $\\propto \\Gamma circumflex 2(t)\\propto t circumflex {-3/4}$, a feature amenable to future observational tests.

  2. Early emission of rising optical afterglows: the case of GRB 060904B and GRB 070420

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, A.; Gendre, B.; Stratta, G.; Galli, A.; Corsi, A.; Preger, B.; Cutini, S.; Pélangeon, A.; Atteia, J. L.; Boër, M.; Piro, L.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the time-resolved optical emission of gamma-ray bursts GRB 060904B and GRB 070420 during their prompt and early afterglow phases. Methods: We used time resolved photometry from optical data taken by the TAROT telescope and time resolved spectroscopy at high energies from the Swift spacecraft instrument. Results: The optical emissions of both GRBs are found to increase from the end of the prompt phase, passing to a maximum of brightness at t_peak=9.2 min and 3.3 mi