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Sample records for afternoon cortisol levels

  1. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life.

  2. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. PMID:25583378

  3. Morningness/Eveningness, Morning-to-Afternoon Cortisol Ratio, and Antisocial Behavior Problems During Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Dockray, Samantha; Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Herwehe, Suellen; Heaton, Jodi A.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between morningness/eveningness (M/E) and morning-to-afternoon cortisol ratio, pubertal timing, and antisocial behavior was examined in 111 girls and boys ages 8 to 13 years. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after awakening and declined thereafter (p less than .05). Eveningness was related to a composite measure of…

  4. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  5. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  6. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  7. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  8. Cortisol levels in human follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Fateh, M; Ben-Rafael, Z; Benadiva, C A; Mastroianni, L; Flickinger, G L

    1989-03-01

    This study shows that cortisol levels in follicular fluids in stimulated cycles were correlated with oocyte maturity and in vitro fertilizability. The levels were significantly higher than the concentrations found in spontaneous cycles. Our findings suggest that the presence of cortisol in follicular fluid may play a role in follicular development and oocyte maturation.

  9. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  10. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms.

  11. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  12. Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Omisade, Antonina; Buxton, Orfeu M; Rusak, Benjamin

    2010-04-19

    Sleep restriction alters hormone patterns and appetite in men, but less is known about effects on women. We assessed effects of overnight sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels and on appetite in young women. Participants' baseline sleep duration and eating habits were monitored for a week before the study. Salivary cortisol and leptin were sampled from fifteen healthy women (aged 18-25) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline day) and then after a night including only 3h sleep (Post sleep-restriction day). Participants also completed appetite questionnaires on both days. Sleep restriction significantly reduced morning cortisol levels (p=0.02), elevated morning leptin levels (p=0.04), elevated afternoon/evening cortisol area under the curve values (p=0.008), and slowed the decline in cortisol concentration during the day (p=0.04). Hunger and craving scores did not differ significantly between days. A single night of restricted sleep affected cortisol rhythms and morning leptin levels in young women.

  13. Photoperiod effects on plasma cortisol levels in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Audet, C; FitzGerald, G J; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    No diel variations of plasma cortisol levels were found in Gasterosteus aculeatus acclimated to two different photoperiod conditions: 14L:10D and 9L:15D. However, under long photoperiods, G. aculeatus exhibited higher plasma cortisol levels than under short photoperiods, suggesting that elevated plasma cortisol levels are associated with the spring migration and/or reproductive activities. This decrease of plasma cortisol levels is particularly marked in male G. aculeatus. Under the 9L:15D photoperiod, males had lower plasma cortisol levels than females, in contrast to 14L:10D, where no significant sex differences were found. PMID:3940931

  14. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  15. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 wks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 wks gestational age and 6 wks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

  16. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  17. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity.

  18. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp, maternal, and umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Sybulski, S; Goldsmith, W J; Maughan, G B

    1975-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in the fetal circulation prior to delivery. Fetal scalp plasma cortisol levels during labor were significantly lower than those in maternal peripheral plasma but significantly higher than those in cord plasma at delivery. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp plasma did not correlate significantly with those in either maternal or cord plasma. The greater cortisol concentrations in fetal scalp plasma relative to those in cord plasma could have been transient increases caused by fetal adrenal response to the stress of the scalp sampling procedure. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels in maternal and cord plasma, which may mean that a considerable part of the cortisol in the fetal circulation at delivery is of maternal origin.

  19. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  20. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  1. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  2. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  3. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias.

  4. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  5. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24–32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38–41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children’s behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end - study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime - diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at

  6. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  7. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  8. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  9. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  10. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  11. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  12. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  13. Cortisol levels in central adrenal insufficiency: light and shade.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Garofalo, Piernicola

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic. Cortisol and ACTH secretion exhibit significant fluctuation throughout the day. The reference ranges supplied by labs are so wide that they only flag up extremely low cortisol levels. Interpreting the results correctly can be difficult for a physician without an experience in adrenal dysfunctions. The lack of uniformity in these cut-off levels could in part be attributed to differences in study populations, variability of dynainic tests, the use of different serum cortisol assays and dissimilar cut-off peak serum cortisol response indicative of a normal axis response and the difference in the clinical context in which the studies were done. Therefore, Laboratories have to advertise the need to establish reference values for given populations, both for basal or stimulated hormone levels. Failure to apply this rule may elicit false-positive and more critically, false-negative results. LDST (1 pg synthetic ACTH as iv bolus with measurement of serum cortisol) has been proposed as a sensitive test for the diagnosis of CAl. However, the advantage of LDST compared with the high dose test may be offset by the technical difficulties inherent to dilution of 250 pg ampoules. Clinical judgment remains imperative especially regarding the use of glucocorticoid supplementation during extreme stress. PMID:25962205

  14. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  15. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  16. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work. They also reflected that the session evoked a desire to make art in the future. There were weak associations between changes in cortisol level and age, time of day, and participant responses related to learning about one's self and references to an evolving process in art making. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on prior experiences with art making, media choice, or gender. PMID:27695158

  17. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work. They also reflected that the session evoked a desire to make art in the future. There were weak associations between changes in cortisol level and age, time of day, and participant responses related to learning about one's self and references to an evolving process in art making. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on prior experiences with art making, media choice, or gender.

  18. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  19. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Lima, A P; Moura, M D; Rosa e Silva, A A M

    2006-08-01

    Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997). Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis). Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (13.2 +/- 2.1 ng/mL). Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 +/- 1.3 ng/mL) than in controls (10.5 +/- 1.4 ng/mL). Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  20. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory.

  1. Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  2. Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.; Welch, Kathleen B.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Low, Bobbi S.; Strassmann, Beverly I.; England, Barry G.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress is commonly cited as an important risk factor for spontaneous abortion. For humans, however, there is little physiological evidence linking miscarriage to stress. This lack of evidence may be attributable to a paucity of research on maternal stress during the earliest gestational stages. Most human studies have focused on “clinical” pregnancy (>6 weeks after the last menstrual period). The majority of miscarriages, however, occur earlier, within the first 3 weeks after conception (≈5 weeks after the last menstrual period). Studies focused on clinical pregnancy thus miss the most critical period for pregnancy continuance. We examined the association between miscarriage and levels of maternal urinary cortisol during the first 3 weeks after conception. Pregnancies characterized by increased maternal cortisol during this period (within participant analyses) were more likely to result in spontaneous abortion (P < 0.05). This evidence links increased levels in this stress marker with a higher risk of early pregnancy loss in humans. PMID:16495411

  3. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  4. Relationship Status and Relationship Instability, but Not Dominance, Predict Individual Differences in Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes. PMID:24358324

  5. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  6. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  7. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.

  9. Effect of giving birth on the cortisol level in a bonobo groups' (Pan paniscus) saliva.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Clauss, Wolfgang; Hachenburger, Katja; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    This study documents the cortisol levels in the saliva of a bonobo group, especially that of a bonobo female which had given birth for the first time. During a long study in Zoological Garden Frankfurt, Germany, a bonobo baby was born on 3 August 2007. Due to the fission-fusion keeping system employed, the bonobos were divided into two groups on this day. Their behavior was observed regularly and saliva was also collected. The bonobos had been trained to chew cotton wool and to give back the samples. The cortisol response was tested twice a day before birth and three times on the day of parturition. Before birth, no observable indication behavior was seen, but an increase in the cortisol concentration of the expectant mother was found. Parturition occurred at 8 pm. The next morning, the group with the newborn was visibly more active, which correlated with the fact that their cortisol levels were increased in the morning in comparison to the second group. During the day, cortisol decreased in both groups, only it was higher throughout the day in the new mother. In the evening, the two groups showed nearly the same cortisol levels. These data indicate that there is indeed a relation between observable behavior and the cortisol level in bonobo saliva. Therefore, the cortisol level can be regarded as a suitable indicator for verifying behavioral events.

  10. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  11. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  12. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  13. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  14. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  15. Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population.

  16. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Methods Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. Results A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Conclusions Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP. PMID:23678393

  17. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay between these factors is still unclear. This study aims to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD = 1.36; 125 maltreated children and 111 nonmaltreated children, 128 boys and 108 girls) who attended a week-long summer camp for two consecutive years. Saliva was collected during five days at 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.. Means of morning and afternoon cortisol, and cortisol change (difference between morning and afternoon levels, controlled for morning levels) were grouped into low, medium, and high cortisol groups. Prosocial, disruptive/aggressive, and withdrawn behaviors were assessed using information from peers and counselors. Maltreated children showed less prosocial, and more disruptive/aggressive and withdrawn behavior. Results of Structural Equation Modeling analyses indicated that there were indirect effects of maltreatment on year 2 morning cortisol via prosocial disruptive/aggressive behavior: Lower levels of prosocial behavior and higher levels of disruptive/aggressive behavior were related to lower morning cortisol levels one year later. Withdrawn behavior was related to higher afternoon cortisol values one year later. Results of this study suggest that maltreated children are more likely to experience difficulties in social functioning, which in turn is related to cortisol regulation one year later. This altered HPA-axis functioning may put children at risk for later psychopathology. PMID:21823793

  18. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Lower Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Maier, Andrea B.; Pijl, Hanno; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Heemst, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Reported findings are inconsistent whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) signaling becomes hyperactive with increasing age, resulting in increasing levels of cortisol. Our previous research strongly suggests that offspring from long-lived families are biologically younger. In this study we assessed whether these offspring have a lower HPA axis activity, as measured by lower levels of cortisol and higher cortisol feedback sensitivity. Methods Salivary cortisol levels were measured at four time points within the first hour upon awakening and at two time points in the evening in a cohort comprising 149 offspring and 154 partners from the Leiden Longevity Study. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed as a measure of cortisol feedback sensitivity. Age, gender and body mass index, smoking and disease history (type 2 diabetes and hypertension) were considered as possible confounding factors. Results Salivary cortisol secretion was lower in offspring compared to partners in the morning (Area Under the Curve = 15.6 versus 17.1 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.048) and in the evening (Area Under the Curve = 3.32 versus 3.82 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.024). Salivary cortisol levels were not different after dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression between offspring and partners (4.82 versus 5.26 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.28). Conclusion Offspring of nonagenarian siblings are marked by a lower HPA axis activity (reflected by lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels), but not by a difference in cortisol feedback sensitivity. Further in-depth studies aimed at characterizing the HPA axis in offspring and partners are needed. PMID:22348049

  19. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  20. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  1. Night Shift Work and Levels of 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin and Cortisol in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mirick, Dana K.; Bhatti, Parveen; Chen, Chu; Nordt, Frank; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Davis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background Nightshift work is associated with cancer among men, but the biological mechanism is unclear. We investigated whether male nightshift workers demonstrated changes in levels of melatonin and cortisol, potential biomarkers of cancer risk. Methods Urine was collected from 185 nightshift and 158 dayshift-working male healthcare providers, aged 22-55, throughout work and sleep periods and assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol. Morning serum was collected within 90 minutes of completing the night and assayed for cortisol. Results Nightshift workers had significantly lower 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels during daytime sleep, nighttime work, and nighttime sleep on off-nights (57%, 62% and 40% lower, respectively), relative to the dayshift workers during nighttime sleep (p<0.0001); urinary cortisol in nightshift workers was 16% higher during daytime sleep and 13% lower during nighttime sleep on off-nights (p<0.05). Morning serum cortisol post-work and post-sleep in nightshift workers were 24% and 43% lower, respectively, than post-sleep levels among dayshift workers (p<0.0001). Within-subject comparisons among the nightshift workers revealed significantly lower melatonin levels and significantly higher urinary cortisol levels during daytime sleep and nighttime work, relative to nighttime sleep (p<0.01); morning serum cortisol levels post-work were lower than those post-sleep. Conclusions Nightshift workers have substantially lower 6-sulfatoxymelatonin during night work and daytime sleep, and levels remain low when nightshift workers sleep at night. Chronic reduction in melatonin among nightshift workers may be an important carcinogenic mechanism. Cortisol secretion patterns may be impacted by night shift work, which could affect cancer risk. Impact Shiftwork could be an important risk factor for many types of cancer. PMID:23563887

  2. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  3. [Dependence on serum cortisol level or the severity of intellectual impairment in primary degenerative dementias].

    PubMed

    Bilikiewicz, A; Bidzan, L

    1990-01-01

    Basal serum cortisol level was measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia. The diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia was made by the DSM-III-R criteria, and the severity of dementia was measured by use the Rosen et. al. scale. Additionally, the presence of depressive and paraphrenia syndromes was evaluated. The Hamilton scale was used for the evaluation of depression severity. Cortisol level was measured by radioimmune assay. Sixty three patients, 39 female and 24 male, were evaluated. The mean age for women was 69.54 and for men 71 years. Patients were divided into 3 groups: I--simple dementia, II--dementia with depression, III--dementia with paraphrenia. Positive correlation was found between basal cortisol level and the severity of dementia only in group I. Mean cortisol level in patients from group II and III was significantly different than in group I. Among female patients with depression the negative correlation between cortisol level and severity of dementia was found; no other correlations were proved. No correlation was found between the cortisol level and severity of dementia in Hamilton's scale. PMID:2284355

  4. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Paiva, Saul Martins; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  5. Hair as a meaningful measure of baseline cortisol levels over time in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-03-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  6. [Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].

    PubMed

    Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  7. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. Methods During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Conclusions Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. PMID:26219886

  8. Effects of morning hypoglycemia on neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to subsequent afternoon hypoglycemia in normal man.

    PubMed

    Davis, S N; Tate, D

    2001-05-01

    There is general agreement that prior hypoglycemia blunts subsequent hypoglycemic counterregulatory responses. However, there is considerable debate concerning the timing and number of prior hypoglycemic episodes required to cause this blunting effect. The aim of this study was to determine whether one episode of hypoglycemia could modify neuroendocrine, metabolic, and symptom responses to hypoglycemia induced 2 h later. A total of 24 (12 male and 12 female) young, healthy, overnight-fasted subjects participated in a series of glucose clamp studies. A total of 16 individuals underwent 2 randomized studies of either identical 2-h morning and afternoon hyperinsulinemic (490 +/- 60 pmol/L) hypoglycemia (2.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) separated by 2 h or, at least 2 months later, 2-h morning and afternoon hyperinsulinemic (492 +/- 45 pmol/L) euglycemia (5.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L). A total of 8 other subjects participated in a single experiment that consisted of 2-h morning hyperinsulinemic (516 +/- 60 pmol/L) euglycemia (5.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) and 2-h afternoon hyperinsulinemic (528 +/- 66 pmol/L) hypoglycemia (2.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) also separated by 2 h. Morning hypoglycemia significantly (P < 0.01) reduced (33-55%) the responses of epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, GH, cortisol, and pancreatic polypeptide during afternoon hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms (primarily neuroglycopenic) were also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced during afternoon hypoglycemia. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.01), GH, and cortisol (P < 0.05) levels were significantly increased at the start of afternoon hypoglycemia following morning hypoglycemia. Morning hypoglycemia created an insulin-resistant state during afternoon hypoglycemia. Despite blunted neuroendocrine responses, glucose infusion rates required to maintain hypoglycemia and increases in glucose oxidation were significantly attenuated during afternoon compared with morning

  9. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  10. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  11. Associations between salivary testosterone and cortisol levels and neonatal health and growth outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, June I.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Su, Xiaogang; McCormick, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Male vulnerability in health and growth outcomes has often been reported in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. On the basis of gender-difference theories, possible associations were explored between the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone/cortisol and the outcomes of neonatal health/growth. Methods This study used an exploratory and comparative research design. One-hundred-one mother–VLBW preterm neonate pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary medical center in the Southeastern, US. Demographic information, health and growth variables of neonates, and pregnancy and labor variables of mothers were obtained from the medical record reviews and interviews of mothers. Saliva samples from each pair were collected between 9 and 60 days of age. The levels of testosterone and cortisol were determined by using an enzyme immunoassay methodology. Results Linear regression analysis showed that neonatal health problems were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone and cortisol, while growth delays were positively associated with the levels of postnatal salivary testosterone after adjusting for the characteristics of neonates and mothers and day of saliva sampling. The salivary levels of testosterone and cortisol were higher in neonates than in mothers. A positive correlation between the levels of testosterone and cortisol was found in neonates and in mothers. Conclusions The level of postnatal salivary testosterone is a more reliable marker in assessing neonatal health and growth outcomes compared to salivary cortisol. Further research on both testosterone and cortisol measurements at various stages during the neonatal period may elucidate further these associations. PMID:22633533

  12. Efficacy of inpatient treatment for atopic dermatitis evaluated by changes in serum cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Suzuki, Taku; Saotome, Atsuko; Sode, Eri; Mukai, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD), inpatient treatment is useful for alleviating skin symptoms in short periods of time. We previously found that many severe AD patients had low serum cortisol levels at admission. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of inpatient treatment in 29 adults with AD through comparisons of serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at admission with those at the time of discharge. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH levels were significantly higher at discharge. On the other hand, serum TARC and serum LDH were significantly lower at discharge. We examined whether the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function that was seen at admission was attributable to disturbed circadian rhythms due to sleep disorders by analyzing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function in relation to the presence/absence of sleep disorders, serum cortisol levels and daily urinary free cortisol. Of the 17 patients with low serum cortisol levels upon admission, 15 (88.2%) had sleep disorders upon admission. However, the daily urinary free cortisol increased significantly from 8.0 ± 5.5 μg/day (at admission) to 18.5 ± 17.2 μg/day (at discharge). These results suggested that the suppression of endocrine function seen at admission was not attributable to disturbed circadian rhythms due to sleep disorders but represented true suppression of the endocrine system. These results indicated that inpatient care was useful for treating patients with severe AD, enabling efficient improvement of the skin condition and recovery from suppressed endocrine function.

  13. Effects of elevated circulating cortisol levels on hydromineral status and gill tight junction protein abundance in the stenohaline goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-01-15

    A role for cortisol in the regulation of hydromineral balance and gill tight junction (TJ) protein transcript abundance in the stenohaline freshwater goldfish was investigated. Intraperitoneal cortisol implants (50, 100, 200, 400 μg cortisol/g body weight) were used to dose-dependently elevate circulating cortisol levels over a 4 day period. Elevated cortisol did not significantly alter serum osmolality, serum Na(+) or muscle water content, however serum glucose and gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly increased and serum Cl(-) levels were significantly reduced when compared to control groups. Transcript levels for glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the gill remained unchanged by cortisol treatment, however glucocorticoid receptor 2 (GR2) mRNA abundance was significantly down-regulated. Conversely, cortisol treatment significantly increased transcript and protein abundance of the TJ protein occludin in goldfish gill tissue, as well as mRNA abundance for claudin e, 7 and 8d. Goldfish tissue expression profiles demonstrated that transcripts encoding for these claudins are particularly abundant in the gill. Overall, results suggest a 'tightened' gill epithelium in response to elevated cortisol levels in goldfish. However, negative autoregulation of gill GR2 transcript suggests a lessened capacity to respond to cortisol and thus a potentially 'dampened' corticosteroid-mediated effect in the gill. Reduced systemic Cl(-) levels also suggest that sustained cortisol elevation in goldfish may have a detrimental effect on other ionoregulatory tissues.

  14. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  15. Daily or thrice weekly handling of eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx): effects on serum cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Pennington, P M; Pope, C E; MacLean, R A; Galiguis, J; Gentry, L R; Godke, R A; Wirtu, G

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the cortisol response of adult female eland (n=8) that were handled in hydraulic chute daily or 3×/week. Females were divided into two groups and each group (n=4) successively received two estrous cycle synchronization treatments: (1) two injections of prostaglandin (PG-PG) F2α at 11 day intervals and (2) oral administration of altrenogest for 7 days and an injection of PGF2α on day 7 (Alt-PG). Blood samples were collected 3×/week during the synchronization (Synch) and expected luteal phase (Nonintensive) periods, and daily during the expected time of induced (Intensive 1) or natural (Intensive 2) estrus. Overall, mean cortisol levels were highest during Intensive 1, followed by Intensive 2, Synch and Nonintensive periods. Individual eland were the most significant source of variation for cortisol level. The frequency of handling and the synchronization treatment significantly affected cortisol levels in 3/8 and 4/8 females, respectively. In conclusion, in response to increased frequency of handling, eland cortisol levels rose transiently and returned to baseline within few days after more intensive handling. Thus, the eland females were tolerant to and recovered from the effects of repeated daily handling.

  16. Daily or thrice weekly handling of eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx): effects on serum cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Pennington, P M; Pope, C E; MacLean, R A; Galiguis, J; Gentry, L R; Godke, R A; Wirtu, G

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the cortisol response of adult female eland (n=8) that were handled in hydraulic chute daily or 3×/week. Females were divided into two groups and each group (n=4) successively received two estrous cycle synchronization treatments: (1) two injections of prostaglandin (PG-PG) F2α at 11 day intervals and (2) oral administration of altrenogest for 7 days and an injection of PGF2α on day 7 (Alt-PG). Blood samples were collected 3×/week during the synchronization (Synch) and expected luteal phase (Nonintensive) periods, and daily during the expected time of induced (Intensive 1) or natural (Intensive 2) estrus. Overall, mean cortisol levels were highest during Intensive 1, followed by Intensive 2, Synch and Nonintensive periods. Individual eland were the most significant source of variation for cortisol level. The frequency of handling and the synchronization treatment significantly affected cortisol levels in 3/8 and 4/8 females, respectively. In conclusion, in response to increased frequency of handling, eland cortisol levels rose transiently and returned to baseline within few days after more intensive handling. Thus, the eland females were tolerant to and recovered from the effects of repeated daily handling. PMID:23290948

  17. Behaviour problems and cortisol levels in very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Wadsby, Marie; Nelson, Nina; Ingemansson, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Stefan; Leijon, Ingemar

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background. There are still diverging results concerning the behaviour of children with very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and they have been questioned to display different levels of stress hormone than normal-birth-weight (NBW) children. Aims. This study examined behaviour and the stress hormone cortisol in children with VLBW at the ages of 7 and 9 years compared with children with NBW. Results. Fifty-one VLBW and 50 NBW children were studied with the Child Behavior Checklist. Cortisol rhythm was measured through saliva samples three times a day for 2 days. VLBW children displayed more behavioural problems than NBW children, specifically social and attention problems, although still within normal ranges. They showed lower cortisol levels both at 7 and 9 years of age. No strong association between behaviour and cortisol levels was shown. Conclusion. VLBW children display more behaviour problems compared with NBW children but both groups score are within the normal range. Down-regulation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in terms of lower cortisol levels is also noted.

  18. Comparison of Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Acute and Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of serum cortisol and testosterone in acute and chronic central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSC). Methods Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in 30 patients with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results The mean age was 42.43 ± 6.37 years (range, 32 to 56 years). The mean 8:00 to 9.00 a.m. serum cortisol level was 12.61 ± 4.74 µg/dL (range, 6.58 to 27.42 µg/dL). The mean serum testosterone level was 5.88 ± 1.57 ng/dL (range, 2.81 to 9.94 ng/dL). The mean visual acuity was 20 / 65.07 ± 40.56 (range, 20 / 25 to 20 / 200). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions All except one patient in the acute group had normal levels of serum cortisol. Testosterone levels were within the normal range in both the acute and chronic cases of CSC. There is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases, but there may be a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in these groups. PMID:26635454

  19. Catecholamine and Cortisol Levels during Sleep in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Robert L.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Cain, Kevin C.; Jun, Sang-Eun; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are hyper-responsive to environmental, physical, and visceral stimuli. IBS patients also frequently report poor sleep quality. This study compared serum cortisol and plasma catecholamine levels during sleep between women with IBS (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 31), and among subgroups within the IBS sample based on predominant stool patterns, IBS-diarrhea (n = 14), IBS-constipation (n = 7), and IBS-alternators (n = 9). Cortisol was measured from serial blood samples drawn every 20 minutes, and catecholamines every hour, in a sleep laboratory from 8 PM until awakening. Because of the varied sleep schedules of the individual participants, each subject’s hormone series time base was referenced with respect to their onset of Stage-2 sleep. Overall, there were no significant differences in cortisol or catecholamine patterns between women with IBS and controls, nor were there any group by time interactions. However, women with constipation-predominant IBS demonstrated significantly increased norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol levels throughout the sleep interval, and women with diarrhea-predominant IBS were significantly lower on norepinephrine and cortisol. These results suggest that differences in neuroendocrine levels during sleep among IBS predominant bowel pattern subgroups may be greater than differences between IBS women and controls. Neuroendocrine profiles during sleep may contribute to our understanding of symptom expression in IBS. PMID:19573081

  20. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease. PMID:18423090

  1. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, M; McFarlane, J R; Kauter, K G; Quaranta, A; Rogers, L J

    2013-02-01

    Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:00 h and 17:00 h two weeks after the behavioural tests. Results showed that behavioural reactivity to playback of the various stimuli correlates with cortisol levels in hair samples collected at 9:00 h, and the same was the case for the separate measures of behaviour (i.e. hiding, running away, seeking attention from the tester, panting and lowering of the body posture). Hence, levels of cortisol in hair appear to reflect the dog's chronic state of emotional reactivity, or temperament. PMID:22449333

  2. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, M; McFarlane, J R; Kauter, K G; Quaranta, A; Rogers, L J

    2013-02-01

    Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:00 h and 17:00 h two weeks after the behavioural tests. Results showed that behavioural reactivity to playback of the various stimuli correlates with cortisol levels in hair samples collected at 9:00 h, and the same was the case for the separate measures of behaviour (i.e. hiding, running away, seeking attention from the tester, panting and lowering of the body posture). Hence, levels of cortisol in hair appear to reflect the dog's chronic state of emotional reactivity, or temperament.

  3. Estimating between- and within-individual variation in cortisol levels using multilevel models.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M

    2005-08-01

    Cortisol measures often are used to examine variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity as well as broader patterns of differential health. However, substantial within-individual variation renders single cortisol measurements unreliable as estimates for probing differences between individuals and groups. A standard practice to clarify between-individual differences involves collecting multiple samples from each participant and then deriving person-specific averages. By ignoring information about variation at between- and within-individual levels, this technique impedes cross-study comparison of results, ignores data useful for future study design, and hinders the analysis of cross-level interactions. This report describes how multilevel approaches can simultaneously model between- and within-individual variation in diurnal cortisol levels without using crude averages. We apply these models to data from children in Nepal (n=29, 11-15 samples per child), Mongolia (n=47, 8-12 samples per child) and the US (n=1269, 1-6 samples per child). Using the Nepal data, we show how an analysis of crude time-adjusted aggregates does not detect an association between aggressive behavior and cortisol levels, while a multilevel analysis does. More importantly, we argue that the 'roadmap' to variation generated by these multilevel models provides meaningful information about the predictive accuracy--not just statistical significance--of relationships between cortisol levels and individual-level variables, such as psychopathology, age, and gender. The 'roadmap' also facilitates comparison between the results from different studies and estimation of the necessary number of cortisol measurements for future investigations.

  4. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  5. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  6. Perceived stress and cortisol levels predict speed of wound healing in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Ebrecht, Marcel; Hextall, Justine; Kirtley, Lauren-Grace; Taylor, Alice; Dyson, Mary; Weinman, John

    2004-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between perceived stress and impaired cutaneous wound healing in humans using a novel wound assessment technique, and taking into account putative mediating factors such as cortisol levels, health behaviours, and personality factors. The study made use of a prospective, within-subjects design in which 24 male non-smokers participated. Every subject received a standard 4mm-punch biopsy, and the healing progress was monitored via high-resolution ultrasound scanning. Participants completed questionnaires on perceived stress, health behaviours, and personality factors, and sampled saliva for cortisol assessment after awakening at 2 weeks prior, directly after, and 2 weeks after the biopsy. The overall results showed a significant negative correlation between speed of wound healing, and both Perceived Stress scale (PSS) scores (r=-.59; p<.01), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores (r=-.59; p<.01) at the time of the biopsy. The area under the morning cortisol response curve was negatively correlated with speed of wound healing (r=-.55; p<.05), indicating a clear elevation in the morning cortisol slope of those whose wounds were slowest to heal. A median split of the complete sample yielded that the 'slow healing' group showed higher stress levels (PSS t=3.93, p<.01, GHQ t=2.50, p<.05), lower trait optimism (t=3.25, p<.05), and higher cortisol levels to awakening (F=5.60, p<.05) compared with the 'fast healing' group. None of the health behaviours investigated (i.e. alcohol consumption, exercise, healthy eating, and sleep) were correlated with healing speed at any time point. Our data hint at a considerable influence of stress on wound healing, and suggests that elevated cortisol levels, rather than altered health behaviours, play a role in this effect.

  7. Basal cortisol and DHEA levels in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jogems-Kosterman, Bea J M; de Knijff, Dirk W W; Kusters, Ron; van Hoof, Jacques J M

    2007-12-01

    Previous research suggests that in borderline personality disorder (BPD) normal stress regulation, with a main role for cortisol, is disturbed. However, most studies were confounded by their lack of attention to co-morbidity. Relevant patient characteristics such as depression, childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and copying styles were not systematically examined. Moreover, none of the studies incorporated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone that can antagonize the effects of cortisol. Hence, the present pilot study investigates the basic levels of cortisol and DHEA and the ratio (CDR) between the two hormones in BPD patients. Twenty-two women with BPD and 22 healthy female controls provided two diurnal (8 a.m./8 p.m.) salivary samples. Overall cortisol levels were not significantly increased in the patient group as a whole but only in those patients diagnosed with co-morbid PTSD and a history of childhood abuse. The patients' cortisol secretions decreased relatively less steep during the day than it did in the controls. Surprisingly, morning DHEA levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Moreover, the CDR showed a significantly larger and less favourable increase in the BPD group during the day. In the patients lower levels of DHEA in the evening proved significantly related to a stronger tendency to avoid active problem solving and a lowered inclination to seek social support. The current findings underline the relevance of cortisol and DHEA assessments and the need for further scrutiny of their interplay to foster our understanding of the biological basis of stress regulation in BPD.

  8. Cortisol level and perinatal outcome in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Low, Lisa Kane; Ben-Ami, Dorit; Liberzon, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 12% of women in the United States and could affect childbearing via behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. This pilot study collected preliminary data about the extent to which the low cortisol profile found in patients with PTSD also occurs in the hormonal context of pregnancy, as well as the association between PTSD and less optimal processes and outcomes of pregnancy. Standardized psychiatric diagnostic telephone interviews, salivary cortisol assays, and medical records review were evaluated in a community sample of 25 women pregnant with their first child. Higher PTSD symptom counts correlated with worse overall perinatal outcomes summarized by an Optimality Index Score (n = 22; r = -.725; P < .001). The women whose symptoms met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or partial PTSD had lower peak basal salivary cortisol concentrations (n = 14; mean = .4584 versus .8123; P = .010). Further research on the effects of PTSD on pregnancy processes and outcomes is warranted. Differences in cortisol levels were consistent with the pattern seen in nonpregnant women with PTSD. This finding suggests that salivary cortisol would be a useful biological measure to include in perinatal research on PTSD and childbearing.

  9. Clozapine and risperidone influence on cortisol and estradiol levels in male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Piriu, G; Torac, E; Gaman, L E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I C; Delia, C; Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens role in schizophrenia patients is a subject, which has gained an increased attention from the medical community. Estrogens have been shown to inhibit dopamine actions, improve neuronal regeneration, and overall, have a protective role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The adjunctive estrogen therapy for men is currently under debate. Antipsychotic medication is known to influence the hypothalamo-hypophyseal - gonadal axis by inducing variable degrees of hyperprolactinemia. Several studies have found that some of the atypical antipsychotics lower cortisol levels in patients and also in healthy controls. We have investigated the effects of clozapine and risperidone on estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia. We have also evaluated the levels of prolactin and cortisol, taking into account the possible influence of antipsychotic drugs on both these hormones. Both prolactin and cortisol also have the potential to regulate sexual hormones biosynthesis. Our study found decreased estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and risperidone, while prolactin levels were increased only in the risperidone treated group. Cortisol levels are not statistically significant different between groups. PMID:26664488

  10. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Cortisol and Anxiety Levels in Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Methods Twenty patients suffering from myofascial pain were recruited as the study group. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as the control group. The salivary samples collected between 9-9:15 am from both groups were analyzed for cortisol levels with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured using Hamilton's anxiety scale. Results The mean serum cortisol level of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and the salivary cortisol levels in MPDS patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that anxiety plays a vital role in the etio-pathogenesis of MPDS; thus, besides pharmacological treatment, psychological support is also needed. PMID:24478898

  12. The effects of mouthpiece use on cortisol levels during an intense bout of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Garner, Dena P; Dudgeon, Wesley D; McDivitt, Erica J

    2011-10-01

    Research has suggested mouthpiece use during exercise results in an increase in muscle strength and endurance. However, the research is difficult to replicate, and the methodology suggested measures that were too subjective to determine a mouthpiece effect. Thus, the purpose of this study was to use an objective measure to determine a possible physiological mechanism occurring during and after exercise with mouthpiece use. A within-subjects design was used in which 28 division I football players, aged 18-22 years, performed 2 identical bouts of a 1-hour intense resistance exercise, with each subject being randomly assigned the use of a custom-fit mouthpiece either during the first or second session. During both exercise sessions, saliva was analyzed for cortisol at the following time points: pre-exercise, 25, 45, and 60 minutes of exercise, and 10 minutes postexercise. The results revealed a significant difference in cortisol levels with the use of a mouthpiece vs. no mouthpiece (p = 0.019) at 10 minutes postexercise. Additionally, although the expected increase in cortisol levels from pre to 10 minutes postexercise was present in the no-mouthpiece group (p = 0.01), no such increase was observed in the mouthpiece group. These observations are most likely because of the decrease in cortisol from post to 10 minutes post (p = 0.04) in the mouthpiece group. These data demonstrate that although cortisol continued to increase in the no-mouthpiece session, there was a significant decrease in cortisol in the no-mouthpiece condition 10 minutes postexercise.

  13. Neonatal amygdala lesions alter basal cortisol levels in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Raper, Jessica; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is mostly thought to exert an excitatory influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although its role regulating HPA basal tone is less clear, particularly during primate development. The current study examined the effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on basal HPA function and the postnatal testosterone (T) surge of rhesus monkeys reared with their mothers in large outdoor social groups. An early morning basal blood sample was collected at 2.5 months of age, whereas at 5 months samples were collected not only at sunrise, but also at mid-day and sunset to examine the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. At 2.5 months of age sham-operated males exhibited higher cortisol than females, but this sex difference was abolished by neonatal amygdalectomy, with lesioned males also showing lower basal cortisol than controls. Although neonatal amygdalectomy did not alter the postnatal T surge, there was a positive relationship between T and basal cortisol levels. At 5 months of age, neither the sex difference in cortisol, nor its correlation with T levels were apparent any longer. Instead, the diurnal cortisol rhythm of both males and females with amygdalectomy showed a blunted decline from mid-day to sunset compared to controls. These results indicate that neonatal amygdala damage alters basal HPA function in infant rhesus monkeys, affecting males only at early ages (at 2.5 months), while leaving the postnatal T surge intact, and resulting in a flattened diurnal rhythm in both genders at the later ages. Thus, the primate amygdala has a critical influence on the HPA axis in the first few months of life. PMID:23159012

  14. Children's Wellbeing and Cortisol Levels in Home-Based and Center-Based Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether individual variability in children's cortisol levels and wellbeing at childcare can be explained by indices of quality of care and child characteristics. Participants were 71 children from childcare homes and 45 children from childcare centers in the age range of 20-40 months. In both types of settings…

  15. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  16. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, Fatemeh; ADHA, Nikmatul; ZAINOL, Rosilawati; ISAHAK, Marzuki; NEMATI, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels. PMID:26060694

  17. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  18. Baseline Religion Involvement Predicts Subsequent Salivary Cortisol Levels Among Male But not Female Black Youth

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared to Whites, Blacks are exposed to higher levels of chronic stress in the United States. As a result, major Black-White differences exist in the baseline and response of cortisol. Yet, the potential association between baseline religiosity and subsequent cortisol levels of Blacks are not known. Objectives: In the current study we aimed to determine the association between baseline religious behaviors and daytime salivary cortisol level among male and female Black youth. Materials and Methods: With a longitudinal design, data came from wave 1 (1994) and wave 6 (2000) of a cohort from an urban area in the Midwest of the United States. The study followed 227 Black adolescents (109 males and 118 females) for six years. Socio-demographics and religious behaviors (frequency of participation in religious activities) were measured at baseline. Base morning cortisol level at wave 6 was the outcome. We fitted a linear regression model to test the association between baseline religiosity at wave 1 and cortisol level at wave 6, while baseline age, socio-economics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. Results: In the pooled sample, frequency of participation in religious activities at baseline was negatively associated with mean cortisol level at follow up (r = -0.29, P > 0.01) among all, males (r = -0.38, P > 0.01), but not females (r = -.20, P > 0.05). Frequency of participation in religious activities remained a significant predictor of subsequent cortisol level (b = -0.283, 95% CI = -.107 - -0.022) while the effect of age, socioeconomics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. We could only find such an association among male Black youth (b = -0.368, 95% CI = -0.148 - -0.024) but not female Black youth (b = -0.229, 95% CI = -.113 - 0.011). Conclusions: Religiosity has been used as a coping mechanism among Blacks. Religiosity may also be related to stress regulation among Black youth. Future studies need to test complex associations between

  19. The impact of asthma control on salivary cortisol level in adult asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Liu, Jing Nan; Kim, Joo-Hee; Nam, Young-Hee; Choi, Gil Soon; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease causing psychological stress which leads to the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The purpose of this study is to compare morning salivary cortisol levels in persistent asthma patients according to their disease severities and control status. Total 206 adult asthma patients were recruited from four university hospitals. Spirometry, questionnaire of Asthma Quality of Life (AQOL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) were completed, and saliva samples were collected prospectively to measure morning cortisol level. The mean patient age was 56.5±15.3 years with mean asthma duration of 9.1±11.1 years. Sixty five patents (31.6%) were classified as mild persistent asthma, and 141 patients (68.4%) were classified as moderate persistent asthma according to the Expert Panel Report 3. The mean predicted FEV1 was 88.8%±18.4%, and the methacholine PC20 was 9.6±8.5 mg/mL in all study population. The mean ACT score for all patients was 19.9±3.6, and there were 71 (34.5%) patients in poorly controlled and 135 (65.5%) in well controlled asthma. The poorly controlled asthma patients were characterized by significantly lower FEV1 (84.6%±17.6% vs 91.1%±18.5%, P=0.018), lower AQOL scores (46.0±13.9 vs 73.8±26.3, P<0.001), and lower salivary cortisol levels (0.14±0.08 vs 0.18±0.11 µg/dL, P=0.04) compared to well controlled asthma. The ACT score was significantly related to salivary cortisol levels (P=0.034) after adjusting for age. There was no significant difference in salivary cortisol levels (0.17±0.12 vs 0.16±0.08, P=0.725) when analyzed according to the dose of used corticosteroid and lung function. Asthma control status affects morning salivary cortisol level. Measuring the morning salivary cortisol level might be a simple and new way to assess asthma control status.

  20. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  1. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  2. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597

  3. Mental task-induced strain and its after-effect assessed through variations in plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Wittersheim, G; Brandenberger, G; Follenius, M

    1985-09-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 20 healthy men while they carried out mental tasks in intermittent noise. Half the subjects performed a serial short-term memory task and, later on, a multiple-choice task, whereas the other half performed only the multiple-choice task. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether enhanced cortisol release, due to a centrally mediated arousal reaction, depressed the cortisol level when the subjects had to cope with a new task situation. In a previous study, such a regulatory after-effect was revealed in the midday meal-related cortisol peak, but not in a subsequent exercise-induced cortisol peak, although cortisol release in both cases could be related to metabolic changes. The results showed that the second mental task still induced a pronounced rise in cortisol levels. No changes in task performances were found. It is concluded that different regulatory mechanisms are involved in adrenocortical secretion, depending on the origin of the stimulation, and that cortisol responses are closely related to individual coping abilities and strategies.

  4. The relationship between preoperative serum cortisol level and the stability of plaque in carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Sun, Yudong; Hu, Wenping; Wei, Xiaolong; Li, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Stability of plaque has been implicated as risk factor for stroke. Serum cortisol regulates lipoprotein metabolism and immune response, contributing to plaque stability in atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque has not been well characterized. We conducted a serology analysis to identify the relationship between serum cortisol and carotid plaque stability. Methods Between May 2013 to October 2015, 73 patients with carotid stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were enrolled in our study. Serum cortisol was analyzed at 8:00 AM in the morning before surgery via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. According to the classification made by the American Heart Association, hematoxylin-and-eosin staining was performed to divide these patients into either a stable or unstable group, according to the morphology of fibrous cap, lipid core and intima layer. A curve fitting method was used to identify the relationship between preoperative serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify carotid plaque stability-associated serum cortisol. Results Curve fitting’s result represents a U-shape characteristic. A total of 314.92 and 395.23 nmol/L were considered as the cut point for preoperative serum cortisol when trisected the patients. When adjusted for degree of stenosis, hyperlipemia, smoking and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis’ results demonstrated that preoperative serum cortisol can significantly affect carotid plaque stability. The odds ratio values in multivariate logistic regression analysis for C reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and preoperative serum cortisol level were 7.67 and 20.86 respectively. Conclusions Preoperative serum cortisol was associated with stability of carotid plaque in patients

  5. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  6. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  7. Testing the Effect of Medical Positive Reinforcement Training on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bonobos and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  8. Morning cortisol levels and glucose metabolism parameters in moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Josko; Galic, Tea; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Ivkovic, Natalija; Ticinovic Kurir, Tina; Valic, Zoran; Lesko, Josip; Dogas, Zoran

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and alterations in glucose metabolism with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to compare morning plasma cortisol levels and glucose metabolism parameters between moderate (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 15-30 events/h) and severe OSA patients (AHI >30 events/h), with respective controls. A total of 56 male OSA patients, 24 moderate (AHI = 21.1 ± 5.3) and 32 severe (AHI = 49.7 ± 18.1), underwent a full-night polysomnography, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and measurement of morning plasma cortisol levels. These groups were compared to 20 matched subjects in a control group. Morning plasma cortisol levels were statistically lower in severe OSA group than in moderate OSA and control groups (303.7 ± 93.5 vs. 423.9 ± 145.1 vs. 417.5 ± 99.8 pmol/L, P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were found between morning plasma cortisol levels and AHI (r = -0.444, P = 0.002), as well as oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.381, P = 0.011). Fasting plasma glucose (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.009) was higher in the severe OSA group compared to moderate OSA and controls. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher in the severe OSA group compared to moderate OSA and controls (4.6 ± 3.7 vs. 2.7 ± 2.0 and 2.2 ± 1.8, respectively, P = 0.006). In conclusion, our study showed that morning plasma cortisol levels measured at 8 a.m. were significantly lower in severe OSA patients than those in moderate OSA group and controls. Morning plasma cortisol levels showed a negative correlation with AHI and oxygen desaturation index. Additionally, this study confirmed the evidence of glucose metabolism impairment in moderate and severe OSA patients, with more pronounced effect in the severe OSA patients group. PMID:27000083

  9. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats.

  10. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  11. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may

  12. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may

  13. Cortisol and ACTH plasma levels in maternal filicides and violent psychiatric women.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Gradante, Federica; Gradante, Giuseppe; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Maternal filicide may be considered the result of significant interactions between increased individual vulnerability and overwhelming environmental stress. The present study examined whether the biological vulnerability to stress and psychotic depression in criminally insane filicidal women was associated with an imbalance of stress-related hormones. Early-morning plasma levels of hormones associated with depression and chronic stress, i.e., thyroid hormones, Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured in 10 filicidal inpatients recovered in a high-security psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane and 10 matched psychiatric, non-filicidal, criminal mothers with comparable traumatic/abuse records. Filicidal mothers had higher than normative Cortisol levels and significantly higher ACTH levels than both the normative values and plasma levels of non-filicidal women. Levels of thyroid hormones fell within normal ranges, without between-groups differences. In addition, while psychiatric controls had the expected Cortisol-ACTH positive correlation, mothers who killed their children revealed no relationship between the two hormones. HPA in the group of filicide perpetrators was altered despite they had received antidepressant pharmacological treatment. The observed imbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis indicates a possible filicides' reduced sensitivity of the adrenal glands to ACTH, probably due to the pre-hospitalization long-term affective stress which preceded child homicide. The results reveal the existence of large psycho-biological stress-sensitivity in filicides, and careful post-discharge psychiatric follow-up of such women is recommended. PMID:23375405

  14. Changes in mood states and salivary cortisol levels following two months of training in elite female water polo players.

    PubMed

    Di Corrado, Donatella; Agostini, Tiziano; Bonifazi, Marco; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Psychological and physiological markers have been used to maximize competitive sport preparation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two months of training and competitions on mood states and salivary cortisol diurnal variation in 15 female elite water polo players. The results demonstrated that the β coefficient values of the regression slope of cortisol values on sampling time was significantly flatter following the training period. The values of the area under the cortisol curve (AUC) 'with respect to ground' (AUCg) and those of the β coefficients of the slope of the diurnal change in cortisol levels were highly negatively correlated. The slope correlated positively with the dysfunctional Profile of Mood States scale and negatively with the functional scale. AUCg correlated negatively with dysfunctional factors and positively with the vigor index. These findings support the hypothesis that subclinical hypocortisolism and a flattened diurnal rhythm of cortisol may play a role in determining dysfunctional mood states.

  15. Effects of the Higashi-Nihon earthquake: posttraumatic stress, psychological changes, and cortisol levels of survivors.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Pacific side of Japan's northeast was devastated by an earthquake and tsunami. For years, many researchers have been working on ways of examining the psychological effects of earthquakes on survivors in disaster areas who have experienced aftershocks, catastrophic fires, and other damage caused by the earthquake. The goal of this study is to examine scores on psychological measures and salivary cortisol level in these individuals both before and three months after the earthquake. The participants had been measured for these variables before the earthquake. After the earthquake, we carried out PTSD screening using CAPS for participants for another experiment, and then again conducted the aforementioned tests. We collected saliva samples from all survivors. Our results show that social relationship scores on the WHO-QOL26, negative mood scores of the WHO-SUBI, total GHQ score, POMS confusion scores, and CMI emotional status score after the earthquake showed scores indicating significantly decreased compared to before the earthquake. On the other hand, salivary cortisol levels after the earthquake was significantly increased compared to before the earthquake. Moreover, the result of a multiple regression analysis found that negative mood score on the WHO-SUBI and social relationship score on the WHO-QOL26 were significantly related to salivary cortisol levels. Our results thus demonstrate that several psychological stress induced by the earthquake was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol levels. These results show similar findings to previous study. We anticipate that this study will provide a better understanding of posttraumatic responses in the early stages of adaptation to the trauma and expand effective prevention strategies and countermeasures for PTSD. PMID:22558092

  16. An optimized whole-body cortisol quantification method for assessing stress levels in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  17. Effect of marginal ascorbic acid deficiency on saliva level of cortisol in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O; Sawiris, P; Chanaud, N

    1995-08-01

    Male guinea pigs subjected to prolonged marginal ascorbic acid deficiency developed moon facies and oedema, features of functional adrenal hypercorticism. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls fed an adequate diet for a similar period, ascorbate deficiency had no effect on submandibular gland weight but elicited a significant (p < 0.005) reduction in stimulated whole-saliva flow rate. Plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/L) was significantly increased (p < 0.005) in the deficient animals (998.21 +/- 57.19 compared to 254.66 +/- 15.62 for the controls). Associated with marked hypercortisolaemia in the deficient animals was a significant (p < 0.01) but less prominent increase in the whole-saliva cortisol level, resulting in a mean saliva/plasma cortisol ratio of 46% for this group compared to 72% for the controls. Increased corticosteroid levels suppress immunological and inflammatory responses, particularly neutrophil function, impair production of some cytokines, inhibit collagen synthesis, and impair wound healing and bone matrix formation. Numerous conditions such as ageing, stress, smoking, ionizing radiation, ingestion of drugs, protein malnutrition, diabetes, and several other pathological states, which are among the risk factors for xerostomia and periodontal/oral mucosal lesions, promote tissue depletion of ascorbate. This study suggests that increased salivary and blood levels of glucocorticoids in these conditions may be important in reducing the ability of the host to mount an effective immune response to oral pathogens. PMID:7487575

  18. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  19. Effects of coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of plasma cortisol levels on leukocyte transcriptional response to endotoxin challenge in humans.

    PubMed

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sleight, Kirsten; Nguyen, Tung T; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-10-01

    Severe traumas are associated with hypercortisolemia due to both disruption of cortisol secretion rhythm and increase in its total concentration. Understanding the effects of altered cortisol levels and rhythms on immune function is of great clinical interest, to prevent conditions such as sepsis from complicating the recovery. This in vivo study assesses the responses of circulating leukocytes to coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of cortisol, preceding an immune challenge induced by endotoxin administration. Through continuous infusion, plasma cortisol concentration was increased to and kept constant at a level associated with major physiologic stress. In response, transcriptional programming of leukocytes was altered to display a priming response before endotoxin exposure. Enhanced expression of a number of receptors and signaling proteins, as well as lowered protein translation and mitochondrial function indicated a sensitization against potential infectious threats. Despite these changes, response to endotoxin followed very similar patterns in both cortisol and saline pre-treated groups except one cluster including probe sets associated with major players regulating inflammatory response. In sum, altered dose and rhythm of plasma cortisol levels engendered priming of circulating leukocytes when preceded an immune challenge. This transcriptional program change associated with stimulated surveillance function and suppressed energy-intensive processes, emphasized permissive actions of cortisol on immune function.

  20. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  1. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2 h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  2. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  3. Cortisol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum cortisol ... early in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be ... drugs Estrogen Human-made (synthetic) glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone Androgens

  4. Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Cossu, Giulia; Migliaccio, Gian M; Atzori, Claudio; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples. PMID:25006344

  5. Influence of the leptin and cortisol levels on craving and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arthur da Silva; Toffolo, Mayla Cardoso Fernandes; Keulen, Henriqueta Vieira van; Castro e Silva, Flávia Márcia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; de Aguiar, Aline Silva

    2015-09-30

    Leptin inhibits cortisol release and may increase the craving for cigarettes, hindering the process of smoking cessation. We evaluate the influence of the initial concentration of cortisol and serum leptin on craving and smoking status in individuals after one month of treatment for smoking cessation. The leptin concentration was adjusted by the Initial Body Mass Index (BMI) (leptin/BMI) and the initial percentage of body fat (%BF) (leptin/%BF). The craving was assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief). The QSU-Brief was assessed about a score of factor 1 (positive reinforcement by tobacco), and factor 2 (negative reinforcement by tobacco). Correlation was found between QSU-Brief (Factor 1 and 2) with the initial concentration of leptin/BF% among those who continued to smoke. There was a negative correlation between cortisol levels and leptin/%BF in individuals who remained smokers after 1 month. There was a positive correlation between leptin/BMI and leptin/%BF with the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) of 1 month in women who remained smokers (r=0.565; p=0.023) and the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) initial among the abstinent women (r=0.551; p=0.033). The highest concentrations of leptin were associated with greater craving and difficulty in achieve abstinence.

  6. Stress and selective attention: the interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Schwartzman, Alex E; Stewart, Jane; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2002-11-01

    The effects of a stressful challenge on the processing of emotional words were examined in college students. Stress induction was achieved using a competitive computer task, where the individual either repeatedly lost or won against a confederate. Mood, attention, and cortisol were recorded during the study. There were four findings: (1) Participants in the negative stressor condition were faster to shift attention away from negative words than positive or neutral words; (2) attentional shifts away from negative words were associated with stress-induced mood lowering; (3) participants in the negative stress condition with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were slow to disengage attention from all stimuli; and (4) elevated depression scores were associated with lower cortisol change from baseline during the experimental phase, and with higher cortisol levels during the recovery phase. These findings point to information-processing strategies as a means to regulate emotion, and to atypical features of cognitive and adrenocortical function that may serve as putative risk markers of depression.

  7. Cortisol levels of infants in center care across the first year of life: links with quality of care and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Albers, Esther M; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Sweep, Fred C G J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations of older children in childcare centers have been found to be higher than at home. This study focuses on infant cortisol in childcare centers throughout the first year of life, and aims to investigate whether inter-individual differences can be explained by temperament, the quality of maternal behavior, and the quality of center care. Sixty-four infants were followed for 9 months after entering care at 3 months of age. Salivary samples were taken at 10.00 h and 16.00 h in center care (in post-entry weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36) and at home (in post-entry weeks 1, 24, and 36). Prior to entry, mothers completed a temperament questionnaire and the quality of maternal behavior (sensitivity and cooperation) was observed during routine bathing sessions. Subsequently, the infants were visited three times at center care to observe the quality of infant's interactive experiences with their professional caregiver. Longitudinal regression models showed that both morning and afternoon cortisol were higher in center care compared to home. Longitudinal regression models showed that infants receiving higher quality of maternal behavior displayed higher morning cortisol in center care, compared to infants receiving lower quality of maternal behavior. Higher quality of maternal behavior was also related to higher afternoon cortisol in center care, but only in infants high in negative emotionality. Center care quality was not related to cortisol. In sum, young infants show higher cortisol concentrations in center care that are related to infant temperament and quality of maternal behavior at home.

  8. Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Drevets, Wayne C; Price, Joseph L; Bardgett, Mark E; Reich, Theodore; Todd, Richard D; Raichle, Marcus E

    2002-03-01

    In a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study of major depression, we demonstrated that cerebral blood flow was increased in the left amygdala in unipolar depressives with familial pure depressive disease (FPDD) relative to healthy controls [J. Neurosci. 12 (1992) 3628.]. These measures were obtained from relatively low-resolution PET images using a stereotaxic method based upon skull X-ray landmarks. The current experiments aimed to replicate and extend these results using higher-resolution glucose metabolism images and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. The specificity of this finding to FPDD was also investigated by assessing depressed samples with bipolar disorder (BD-D) and depression spectrum disease (DSD). Finally, the relationship between amygdala metabolism and plasma cortisol levels obtained during the scanning procedure was assessed. Glucose metabolism was measured using PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) in healthy control (n=12), FPDD (n=12), DSD (n=9) and BD-D (n=7) samples in the amygdala and the adjacent hippocampus. The left amygdala metabolism differed across groups (P<.001), being increased in both the FPDD and BD-D groups relative to the control group. The left amygdala metabolism was positively correlated with stressed plasma cortisol levels in both the unipolar (r=.69; P<.005) and the bipolar depressives (r=0.68;.1cortisol were evident in post hoc analyses of metabolism in the right amygdala or the hippocampus. Preliminary assessment of BD subjects imaged during remission suggested that amygdala metabolism is also elevated in remitted subjects who are not taking mood-stabilizing drugs, but within the normal range in subjects taking mood stabilizers. These data confirm our previous finding that neurophysiological activity is abnormally increased in FPDD, and extend it to BD-D. These

  9. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  10. Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Mesa, M.G.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD.

  12. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    Thirty-three years after the first manned landing on the Moon, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) has obtained what may be the sharpest image of the lunar surface ever recorded from the ground, cf. PR Photo 19a/02 . It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. The photo shows an area about 700 km from the Apollo XI landing site. The location is in the Eastern hemisphere, just North of the lunar equator, and right between two of the major "seas", Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquillity) and Mare Foecunditatis (Sea of Fertility). The field-of-view measures about 60 x 45 km 2 (taking into account the foreshortening because of the viewing angle [2]), with part of a sunlit, 10-km wide crater named Cameron [1] surrounded by a comparatively level terrain, bordered by some hills and, not least, with an incredible number of smaller craters. The site of this NACO photo is situated at the rim of an older, rather eroded 56-km crater, Taruntius [1]. A small part of the multiple walls of that crater are seen in the upper right corner and also to the left of the bottom centre of PR Photo 19a/02 . The centre of Taruntius is near the lower right corner of the photo. The rather flat terrain to the left in the photo corresponds to an "opening" in the crater walls. At the time of the exposure, the Sun was approximately 7° above the Western horizon to the left [2], and the shadows are therefore quite prominent, approx. 8 times longer than the elevation of the corresponding peaks and hills. The nominal image sharpness is 0.07 arcsec, or about 130 metres on the lunar surface (in the N-S direction). Elevation differences of a few tens of metres only are therefore visible by the shadows they cast. The VLT image represents what an astronaut (with normal eye acuity of 1 arcmin) would see from 400 km above the surface. Lunar surface formations ESO PR Photo 19b/02 ESO PR Photo 19b/02 [Preview - JPEG

  13. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    Thirty-three years after the first manned landing on the Moon, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) has obtained what may be the sharpest image of the lunar surface ever recorded from the ground, cf. PR Photo 19a/02 . It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. The photo shows an area about 700 km from the Apollo XI landing site. The location is in the Eastern hemisphere, just North of the lunar equator, and right between two of the major "seas", Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquillity) and Mare Foecunditatis (Sea of Fertility). The field-of-view measures about 60 x 45 km 2 (taking into account the foreshortening because of the viewing angle [2]), with part of a sunlit, 10-km wide crater named Cameron [1] surrounded by a comparatively level terrain, bordered by some hills and, not least, with an incredible number of smaller craters. The site of this NACO photo is situated at the rim of an older, rather eroded 56-km crater, Taruntius [1]. A small part of the multiple walls of that crater are seen in the upper right corner and also to the left of the bottom centre of PR Photo 19a/02 . The centre of Taruntius is near the lower right corner of the photo. The rather flat terrain to the left in the photo corresponds to an "opening" in the crater walls. At the time of the exposure, the Sun was approximately 7° above the Western horizon to the left [2], and the shadows are therefore quite prominent, approx. 8 times longer than the elevation of the corresponding peaks and hills. The nominal image sharpness is 0.07 arcsec, or about 130 metres on the lunar surface (in the N-S direction). Elevation differences of a few tens of metres only are therefore visible by the shadows they cast. The VLT image represents what an astronaut (with normal eye acuity of 1 arcmin) would see from 400 km above the surface. Lunar surface formations ESO PR Photo 19b/02 ESO PR Photo 19b/02 [Preview - JPEG

  14. Social challenge increases cortisol and hypothalamic monoamine levels in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Serra, Mônica; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-12-01

    The neural circuitry for social behavior and aggression appears to be evolutionarily conserved across the vertebrate subphylum and involves a complex neural network that includes the hypothalamus as a key structure. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and on serum cortisol and plasma glucose of resident matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) submitted to a social challenge (introduction of an intruder in their territory). The fight promoted a significant increase in hypothalamic 5-HT, NA and DA levels and on the metabolites 5-HIAA and DOPAC, and decreased 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios in resident fish. Furthermore, an increase in serum cortisol and plasma glucose was also observed after the fight. Resident fish presented a high aggressiveness even with increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus. The alteration in hypothalamic monoaminergic activity of matrinxã suggests that this diencephalic region is involved in aggression and stress modulation in fish; however, it does not exclude the participation of other brain areas not tested here. PMID:26205527

  15. Cell Damage, Antioxidant Status, and Cortisol Levels Related to Nutrition in Ski Mountaineering During a Two-Day Race

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Elena; Ruiz, Fatima; Hoyos, Itziar; Zubero, Jaime; Gravina, Leyre; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon; Gil, Susana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities (GR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise. Key points A two-day ski mountaineering race produced muscle cell damage and oxidative stress and an increase in cortisol levels. There was a marked insufficient intake of carbohydrates which has been shown to affect performance Those skiers with lowest nutrient intake showed greater cell damage, lower antioxidant

  16. Cortisol coregulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners' physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner's cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  17. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  18. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  20. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  1. Changes in cortisol level in saliva following relaxation-activation autoregulative intervention.

    PubMed

    Machac, M; Machacová, H; Stárka, L; Hampl, R

    1987-09-01

    The relaxation-activation autoregulative method (RAM) is a psychoregulative procedure characterized by typical autonomic patterns of relaxation and activation phases (blood pressure, electric skin resistance, heart beat, EEG, etc.). They are used as feedback information in the training of autoregulative abilities. RAM has a multidimensional (non-specific) tuning effect which is manifested by changes in the psychophysiological state (emotional tuning, physiological functioning and performance). It has a therapeutical effect on disorders with a psychic pathogenic component, e.g., essential hypertension. The increased production of adrenaline following the application of RAM was found in previous experiments.--The present experiment with a sample of six persons well mastering RAM has shown that the cortisol level following this psychoregulative intervention also rises significantly and that this rise has been recorded over three days, i.e., over the whole period of saliva sampling. It may be said that RAM has a non-specific, ergotropic (activating) subsequent effect and that this effect has the character of stress, more accurately eustress. Autogenic training, on the other hand, reduces the cortisol level.

  2. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in relation to inflammatory response and disease severity in children with meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    van Woensel, J B; Biezeveld, M H; Alders, A M; Eerenberg, A J; Endert, E; Hack, E C; von Rosenstiel, I A; Kuijpers, T W

    2001-12-15

    This prospective observational study investigated the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to inflammatory markers and to disease severity in children with meningococcal disease. In total, 32 children were studied: 10 with distinct meningococcal meningitis (MM), 10 with MM and septic shock, and 12 with fulminant meningococcal septicemia (FMS). Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were lowest in the MM group and dramatically elevated in the FMS group. Cortisol and C-reactive protein levels were highest in the MM group and relatively low in the FMS group. Levels of ACTH and inflammatory markers decreased within the first 24 h of admission, but cortisol levels did not fluctuate. Cortisol was significantly inversely correlated with IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 (P < or =.04). These results suggest that the adrenal reserve in children is insufficient to handle the extreme conditions and stress associated with severe meningococcal disease.

  4. Neonatal Pain-Related Stress and NFKBIA Genotype Are Associated with Altered Cortisol Levels in Preterm Boys at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Grunau, Ruth E.; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Brummelte, Susanne; Weinberg, Joanne; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Ladd, Mihoko; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Brant, Rollin; Turvey, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to school age, and if common genetic variants in the promoter region of the NFKBIA gene involved in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, modify the association between early experience and later life stress as indexed by hair cortisol levels, which provide an integrated index of endogenous HPA axis activity. Cortisol was assayed in hair samples from 128 children (83 born preterm ≤32 weeks gestation and 45 born full-term) without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments at age 7 years. We found that hair cortisol levels were lower in preterm compared to term-born children. Downregulation of the HPA axis in preterm children without major impairment, seen years after neonatal stress terminated, suggests persistent alteration of stress system programming. Importantly, the etiology was gender-specific such that in preterm boys but not girls, specifically those with the minor allele for NFKBIA rs2233409, lower hair cortisol was associated with greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term), independent of medical confounders. Moreover, the minor allele (CT or TT) of NFKBIA rs2233409 was associated with higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines, supporting the hypothesis that neonatal pain-related stress may act as a proinflammatory stimulus that induces long-term immune cell activation. These findings are the first evidence that a long-term association between early pain-related stress and cortisol may be mediated by a genetic variants that regulate the activity of NF-κB, suggesting possible involvement of stress/inflammatory mechanisms in HPA programming in boys born very

  5. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (p<0.05) blood glucose levels (CN: 4.43±0.05; GI: 4.46±0.04; PI: 4.68±0.08), insulinemia (CN: 6.93±0.45; GI: 8.87±0.79; PI: 12.77±1.30), insulin resistance (CN: 1.40±0.10; GI: 1.81±0.18; PI: 2.66±0.29) compared with the CN and GI groups. The levels of perceived stress were higher (p<0.05) in PI and GI groups when compared to CN group (CN: 20.5±1.26; GI: 25.8±1.95; PI: 26.6±1.36). There was no significant difference in the concentration of salivary cortisol between the groups (CN: 11.13±0.58; GI: 11.96±0.74; PI: 11.47±0.74). It was concluded that there is a relationship between higher levels of perceived stress, insulin resistance and the occurrence of periodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the

  6. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  7. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  8. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carol, Emily E.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. PMID

  9. The effect of otolith malformation on behavior and cortisol levels in juvenile red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Browning, Zoe S; Wilkes, Allison A; Moore, Erica J; Lancon, Trevor W; Clubb, Fred J

    2012-08-01

    Captive-raised red drum fish were observed with phenotypic abnormalities, including deformities of the spine, jaw, and cephalic region, that were consistent with vitamin C deficiency during the larval stage. In light of their visible exterior skeletal abnormalities, we suspected that the affected fish would also have abnormal otoliths. Otoliths are dense calcareous structures that function in fish hearing. We hypothesized that abnormal fish would have irregular otoliths that would alter behavior and cortisol levels as compared with those of phenotypically normal fish. The normal and abnormal fish had statistically significant differences in behavior, cortisol levels, and otolith volume and density. MicroCT assessment of abnormal fish revealed operculum abnormalities, malocclusions, and several types of otolith malformations. Therefore, the affected fish had not only an abnormal skeletal appearance but also significantly abnormal behavior and cortisol responses. PMID:23043776

  10. Recovery of circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol levels after a 3-day trip between Tokyo and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Tajima, N; Uematsu, M; Asukata, I; Yamamoto, K; Sasaki, M; Hokari, M

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the change in the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol levels following a 3-d trip and a westbound return flight from San Francisco (SFO) to Tokyo. Six healthy male students volunteered for the project. Plasma cortisol levels were monitored 4 times daily for 13 d during the experimental period. In Tokyo, the baseline pattern of cortisol concentrations showed the classical diurnal profile. During the 50-h stay in SFO, phase advancement of 8 h was observed for the initial 32 h. This was followed by a disturbance in the profile for the remaining 18-h period. After returning to Tokyo, the subjects exhibited the original diurnal pattern beginning Day 1. However, complete resynchronization was not apparent until Day 4 after the return.

  11. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  12. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  13. Effects of resistance exercise and obesity level on ghrelin and cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2012-06-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is increasingly recommended by health organizations as a weight management tool. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute high-volume, whole-body RE protocol on the glucoregulatory and ghrelin response in sedentary obese and lean men. Five World Health Organization (WHO) class 1 obese (body mass index [BMI], 30.00-34.99) (age, 21.6 ± 2.5 years; height, 176.3 ± 3.7 cm; body mass, 97.8 ± 8.58 kg; body fat, 34.7% ± 2.95%), 5 WHO 2 (BMI, 35-39.99)/WHO 3 (BMI, ≥40) obese (age, 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height, 177.7 ± 5.15 cm; body mass, 120.8 ± 10.49 kg; body fat, 40.5% ± 5.82 %), and 9 lean men (age, 20.1 ± 2.1 years; height, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg; body fat, 14.7% ± 3.54 %) completed an acute RE testing protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85%-95% 10-repetition maximum with 120- and 90-second rest periods); and blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately postexercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). Resistance exercise produced differences over time in cortisol, insulin, and glucose. Group differences were observed for ghrelin, with the WHO class 2/3 group having significantly greater ghrelin levels than the lean group (d = 0.28, P = .009) and the WHO class 1 group (d = 0.39, P = .002). Higher ghrelin was significantly associated with lower cortisol only in obese individuals. In addition, higher growth hormone was associated with lower ghrelin in lean individuals. Results suggest that glucoregulatory homeostasis is altered with increasing levels of obesity and that these alterations may mediate the response of cortisol and ghrelin in response to RE.

  14. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  15. Stress-System Genes and Life Stress Predict Cortisol Levels and Amygdala and Hippocampal Volumes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol reactivity and differences in limbic brain volumes, yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations are unclear. One main hypothesis is that stress causes these effects. This is supported by animal studies showing that chronic stress or glucocorticoid administration can lead to alterations in hippocampal and amygdala structures. Relatedly, life stress is cited as one of the major risk factors for depression and candidate gene studies have related variation in stress-system genes to increased prevalence and severity of depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic profile scores combining variance across 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms from four stress-system genes (CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) and early life stress would predict increases in cortisol levels during laboratory stressors in 120 preschool-age children (3–5 years old), as well as hippocampal and amygdala volumes assessed with MRI in these same children at school age (7–12 years old). We found that stress-system genetic profile scores positively predicted cortisol levels while the number of stressful/traumatic life events experienced by 3–5 years old negatively predicted cortisol levels. The interaction of genetic profile scores and early life stress predicted left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Cortisol partially mediated the effects of genetic variation and life stress on limbic brain volumes, particularly on left amygdala volume. These results suggest that stress-related genetic and early environmental factors contribute to variation in stress cortisol reactivity and limbic brain volumes in children, phenotypes associated with depression in adulthood. PMID:24304824

  16. [Circadian rhythm and stress in the elderly: a study using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator].

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, S; Koizumi, A

    1989-10-01

    Biological response to stress was studied in the healthy elderly by fluctuations of their circadian rhythms using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator. Social activities per se may not be stressors, but may serve as a "eustress" to the elderly when they are in good health because their rhythm is maintained. Concerning the occupations of the subjects, the rhythms of elderly watchmen showed no disturbance when they slept for three hours between 23:00 and 2:00. However, those who were unable to sleep showed disturbed rhythms. We concluded that disturbance of a rhythm that has been established on the basis of being active during the day time and sleeping at night could be a stressor to the elderly rather than stress due to working as a guard.

  17. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:26024707

  18. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  19. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Malihe; Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT) techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session) for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026). Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants. PMID:27752484

  20. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  1. Adaptation of the mineralocorticoid target tissues to the high circulating cortisol and progesterone plasma levels in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Chrousos, G P; Loriaux, D L; Brandon, D; Shull, J; Renquist, D; Hogan, W; Tomita, M; Lipsett, M B

    1984-07-01

    Many New World primate species have elevated circulating free plasma cortisol concentrations, target tissue resistance to cortisol, and no evidence of sodium retention. A representative New World primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), has plasma cortisol concentrations above those necessary to cause complete suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in an Old World primate, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Despite this, the arterial blood pressure as well as the plasma sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate levels of the squirrel monkey are similar to those of the cynomolgus monkey, and its plasma aldosterone concentrations are approximately 2-fold higher. These findings suggest that cortisol has minimal sodium-retaining effects in this species. Renal cytosol aldosterone receptor concentrations are about 2- to 3-fold lower in the squirrel monkey than in the cynomolgus, whereas the receptor affinities for [3H]aldosterone are similar in the two monkeys. Higher concentrations of cortisol are needed to displace [3H]aldosterone from the mineralocorticoid receptor in the squirrel monkey than from the renal receptor in the cynomolgus [apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) = 7.8 X 10(-7) vs. 2.9 X 10(-8) M, respectively]. In addition, in contrast to man and presumably other Old World primates, plasma aldosterone concentrations in the female squirrel monkey do not increase during the reproductive cycle or pregnancy when progesterone concentrations are 10- to 20-fold higher than those of the male or the reproductively quiescent female. This suggests that progesterone is a poor aldosterone antagonist in this species. We conclude that a low concentration of mineralocorticoid receptors in New World Primates is compensated for by higher aldosterone levels, with a concomitant increase in receptor occupancy. The salt-retaining potency of cortisol is low, presumably because of a decrease in the affinity of the aldosterone receptor for

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  3. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Dowd, Jennifer B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get “under the skin” remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. PMID:22698925

  4. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  5. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    PubMed

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  6. Essential Oil Inhalation on Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hee; Kim, Chan; Seong, Kayeon; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lim, Heon Man; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of essential oil inhalation on the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol level in 83 prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The experimental group (n = 28) was asked to inhale an essential oil blended with lavender, ylang-ylang, marjoram, and neroli (20 : 15 : 10 : 2), whereas the placebo group (n = 27) was asked to inhale an artificial fragrance for 24 hours and the control group received no treatment (n = 28). The SBP (P < .001) and DBP (P = .009) measured at home in the experimental group were significantly decreased compared with the placebo group and the control group after treatment. The daytime SBP during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurement of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in the nighttime SBPs. The daytime DBPs during the 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements of the experimental group presented with significant decreases in comparison with the measurements of the placebo group and the control group (P = .002). There was no significant difference in the night time DBPs. The experimental group showed significant decreases in the concentration of salivary cortisol in comparison with the concentrations of the placebo group and the control group (P = .012). In conclusion, the inhalation of an essential oil had immediate and continuous effects on the home SBP, daytime BP, and the stress reduction. Essential oils may have relaxation effects for controlling hypertension. PMID:23259002

  7. Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multi-level perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-level investigation, resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 677) was examined in relation to the regulation of two stress-responsive adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), as well as the personality constructs of ego resiliency and ego control. Maltreatment status was not related to differences in average levels of morning or afternoon cortisol or DHEA. However, lower morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning, but only in nonmaltreated children. In contrast, among physically abused children, high morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning. Morning and afternoon DHEA was negatively related to resilient functioning. Although diurnal change in cortisol was not related to resilience, for DHEA, maltreated children with high resilience showed an atypical rise in DHEA from morning to afternoon. Morning and afternoon cortisol/DHEA ratios were positively related to resilient functioning, but did not interact with maltreatment status. Ego resiliency and ego control strongly differentiated maltreated and nonmaltreated children, and the personality variables were substantially predictive of resilience. When considered together, demonstrated effects of personality, cortisol, and DHEA maintained independent contributions in predicting resilience among high-risk youth. PMID:17705903

  8. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  9. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  11. Changes in Men's Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman's vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  12. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients’ vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Conclusions: Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings. PMID:27563324

  13. The effect of treatment with whole bee venom on cage activity and plasma cortisol levels in the arthritic dog.

    PubMed

    Vick, J A; Warren, G B; Brooks, R B

    1976-03-01

    A series of 24 mixed-breed dogs were used to study the physiological effects of whole bee venom on canine arthritic-like conditions. 16 were randomly selected normal dogs and 8 were suspect arthritic animals confirmed by X-ray examination and special physical examination. The control dogs were divided into groups I and II and the arthritic groups III and IV. Groups I and III received injections of sterile saline while groups II and IV were given 1 mg whole bee venom subcutaneously on days 30, 37, 50, and 60. Plasma cortisol levels were measured weekly and cage activity recorded daily using a K and R Pedometer. Following bee venom injection plasma cortisol levels increased in both groups II and IV from a control of 5Μg/100 ml to 15Μg/100 ml 15 days after therapy. During this period of time the 4 arthritic dogs in group IV increased daily cage activity from 4 mile/day to 10 mile/day. Groups I, II, and III showed no increase or decrease in cage activity. No injections were given between day 60 and day 90. At 90, 97, 110 and 120 days, groups I and III were given bee venom and groups II and IV sterile saline. As before, bee venom increased plasma cortisol levels in both venom-treated groups and the daily cage activity in group III. At 120 days all injections were discontinued. Plasma cortisol levels returned to normal within 30 days, yet daily cage activity in both groups III and IV remained significantly above control (8 to 11 mile/day). Results indicate that whole bee venom stimulates the production of cortisol and the daily cage activity in dogs exhibiting arthritic-like conditions. No significant side effects were noted in any of the dogs treated with bee venom. PMID:24194426

  14. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18 °C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the

  15. Burnout symptom sub-types and cortisol profiles: what's burning most?

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2014-02-01

    The current study assessed which specific burnout symptoms were most predictive of distinct diurnal cortisol profiles. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed in a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. The 16-item Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to extract burnout sub-scales that included emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional inefficacy, as well as a global burnout average. Consenting workers provided five saliva samples a day (awaking, 30 min after awaking, 1,400 h, 1,600 h, and bedtime) repeated three times over the course of a week (Saturday, Tuesday, Thursday) to capture workday and non-workday variations. Multilevel regression models were estimated from cortisol measurements at each occasion within a day at level-1, workers at level-2, and workplaces at level-3. Multilevel regression analyses found that emotional exhaustion and a global burnout showed the strongest and consistent negative associations to cortisol in the afternoon and evening. In a separate analysis using regression coefficients, emotional exhaustion and a global burnout average were associated with low cortisol levels 30 min upon awakening. By contrast, professional inefficacy was associated only with lower bedtime cortisol. No associations were detected for cynicism and sex did not emerge as a moderator in secondary analyses. Our findings are discussed in a theoretical framework postulating different pathophysiological stages of burnout development. Specifically, professional inefficacy may be the earliest warning signal culminating with emotional exhaustion that may dampen diurnal cortisol levels.

  16. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  17. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  18. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time.

  19. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk. PMID:27023344

  20. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  1. Association of yoga practice and serum cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients with stress-related anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu; Kurapati, Sruthi; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Dhulipalla, Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Reducing the psychosocial stress by various methods can improve overall health, and yoga is now considered as an easily available alternative method. The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted mainly to find the association of yoga practice with periodontal disease by measuring serum cortisol levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with age range of 35–60 years suffering with chronic periodontitis were divided into group I (with stress), group II (without stress), and group III (practicing yoga). Psychological evaluation was carried out using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were recorded. Blood samples were collected and serum cortisol levels were measured. Results: Mean age, plaque scores, and number of teeth with PPD and CAL at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were similar in all the groups, except between group I and group III where a multiple comparison with Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in plaque index (P < 0.038) and the number of teeth with CAL 5–8 mm (P < 0.016). Serum cortisol levels and HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores showed highly significant value (P < 0.001) in group I subjects when compared with group II and group III subjects. Conclusion: Cross-sectional observation done among three groups showed that individuals practicing yoga regularly had low serum cortisol levels, HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores, and better periodontal health. PMID:27011926

  2. Impact of zoo visitors on the fecal cortisol levels and behavior of an endangered species: Indian blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra L.).

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Archunan, Govindaraju; Sekar, Mahadevan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density). This study also elucidated whether zoo visitor density could disturb nonhuman animal welfare. This study analyzed fecal cortisol from the samples of blackbuck by radioimmunoassay and found significant differences (p < .05) for time the animals devoted to moving, resting, aggressive, reproductive, and social behavior on days with high and extremely high levels of zoo visitors. The ANOVA with Duncan's Multiple Range Test test showed that the fecal cortisol concentration was higher (p < .05) during the extremely high (137.30 ± 5.88 ng/g dry feces) and high (113.51 ± 3.70 ng/g dry feces) levels of zoo visitor density. The results of the study suggest that zoo visitor density affected behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Indian Blackbuck, and this may indicate an animal welfare problem.

  3. Leukocyte subsets and cortisol serum levels in patients with migraine without aura and chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Leone, M; Biffi, M; Leoni, F; Bussone, G

    1994-04-01

    Leukocyte subsets, serum cortisol and immunoglobulin production were investigated in a group of 12 migraine without aura patients, 12 chronic tension-type headache patients and compared with findings in 12 healthy controls. Chronic tension-type headache patients had statistically significant increased levels of B-lymphocytes (CD19+ cells) (p < 0.05), while migraine sufferers had a similarly significant decrease in CD8+ T-lymphocytes (p < 0.05). Migraine patients also had an increased percentage of B-lymphocytes although this failed to reach statistical significance. Immunoglobulin production and cortisol serum levels did not differ in the two headache groups. We conclude that the observed abnormalities in tension-type headache and migraine are unlikely to be a consequence of pain or of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction.

  4. The association of post-stroke anhedonia with salivary cortisol levels and stroke lesion in hippocampal/parahippocampal region

    PubMed Central

    Terroni, Luisa; Amaro, Edson; Iosifescu, Dan V; Mattos, Patricia; Yamamoto, Fabio I; Tinone, Gisela; Conforto, Adriana B; Sobreiro, Matildes FM; Guajardo, Valeri D; De Lucia, Mara Cristina S; Moreira, Ayrton C; Scaff, Milberto; Leite, Claudia C; Fraguas, Renerio

    2015-01-01

    Background Anhedonia constitutes a coherent construct, with neural correlates and negative clinical impact, independent of depression. However, little is known about the neural correlates of anhedonia in stroke patients. In this study, we investigated the association of post-stroke anhedonia with salivary cortisol levels and stroke location and volume. Patients and methods A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition to identify anhedonia in 36 inpatients, without previous depression, consecutively admitted in a neurology clinic in the first month after a first-ever ischemic stroke. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed in the morning, evening, and after a dexamethasone suppression test. We used magnetic resonance imaging and a semi-automated brain morphometry method to assess stroke location, and the MRIcro program according to the Brodmann Map to calculate the lesion volume. Results Patients with anhedonia had significantly larger diurnal variation (P-value =0.017) and higher morning levels of salivary cortisol (1,671.9±604.0 ng/dL versus 1,103.9±821.9 ng/dL; P-value =0.022), and greater stroke lesions in the parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36) compared to those without anhedonia (10.14 voxels; standard deviation ±17.72 versus 0.86 voxels; standard deviation ±4.64; P-value =0.027). The volume of lesion in the parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36) was associated with diurnal variation of salivary cortisol levels (rho=0.845; P-value =0.034) only in anhedonic patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that anhedonia in stroke patients is associated with the volume of stroke lesion in the parahippocampal gyrus and with dysfunction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:25678790

  5. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  6. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is produced and secreted by the adrenal glands . Production of the hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus ... help determine its cause: Testing for Excess Cortisol Production If a person has a high blood cortisol ...

  7. High levels of plasma cortisol and impaired hypoosmoregulation in a mutant medaka deficient in P450c17I.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideya; Sato, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Saito, Kazuhiro; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Sakamoto, Tatsuya

    2016-07-15

    scl is a spontaneous medaka mutant deficient in P450c17I, which is required for production of sex steroids, but not of cortisol, the major role of which is osmoregulation in teleost fish. The scl mutant provides a new model to study the functions of these hormones. We first found that fish homozygous for this mutation have plasma cortisol constitutively at a high physiological level (1000 nM). Since we previously showed that this level reversed the seawater-type differentiation of the medaka gastrointestinal tract, hypoosmoregulation of the scl mutant was analyzed. Muscle water contents in freshwater were normal in scl homozygotes, but the contents were lower than those of the wild type (WT) after seawater transfer. There were no differences in gill mRNA levels of corticosteroid receptors or ion transporters between scl homozygotes and WT. In the intestine, expression of glucocorticoid receptors and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter were induced in WT during seawater acclimation, but not in scl homozygotes. The high plasma cortisol may prevent hypoosmoregulation by inhibition of increased intestinal water absorption, essentially by the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, in seawater. PMID:27107936

  8. Effects of LI-4 and SP-6 Acupuncture on Labor Pain, Cortisol Level and Duration of Labor.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Nasrin; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Khalili, Azadeh; Darabi, Yalda; Davoodi, Sarah; Raeisi Shahraki, Hadi; Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Jokar, Azam; Vafaei, Homeira; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, and childbirth is a condition requiring appropriate pain management interventions. The efficacy of acupuncture in the management of labor pain has recently been studied, but the results are not satisfactory and conflicts exist. In this study, we investigated the effects of acupuncture on labor pain, serum cortisol level, and duration of labor. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial that included 63 nulliparous women: 32 in the study group and 31 in the control group. Acupuncture was performed at the SP-6 and the LI-4 points in the study group, and sham acupuncture was performed at the same points in the control group. Pain scores and serum cortisol levels were measured before and after the intervention. Changes in these measures and in the duration of labor were compared between the groups. No significant variations in pain scores or serum cortisol levels were observed between the two control groups. However, the duration of labor was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the group receiving real acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture is significantly associated with a decreased duration of labor, even though it was no better than a placebo for the treatment of labor pain.

  9. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  10. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM.

  11. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM. PMID:27210845

  12. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

  13. Afternoon College: A Self-Contained Afternoon Scheduling Approach at San Jose City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, William; And Others

    In fall 1992, San Jose City College (SJCC) in California developed Afternoon College to determine if afternoon hours could be scheduled effectively by offering a coherent block of transfer courses. Afternoon College was designed to offer the college's entire 39 units of general education in a 1- or 2-year rotation. Project goals included the more…

  14. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  15. Effectiveness of Exercise- and Cognitive-Based Treatments on Salivary Cortisol Levels and Sundowning Syndrome Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Sollima, Alessio; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Bisconti, Angela V; Brasioli, Anna; Muti, Ettore; Esposito, Fabio

    2016-07-14

    Sundowning syndrome (SDS) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the intensification of behavioral disorders at sunset. Despite SDS etiology being unclear, a strong relationship between high cortisol levels and SDS has been reported. Aerobic exercise (AE) and cognitive training (CT) can reduce cortisol levels. However, whether SDS would benefit from AE and CT is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether AE and CT treatments are effective in reducing SDS via downregulation of cortisol levels. The possible additive effects of combined AE+CT were also assessed. Eighty AD patients were randomly assigned to AE (n = 20), CT (n = 20), AE+CT (n = 20), and standard therapy (no treatment, NT; n = 20). Treatments were administered for 3 months, 5 days/week, 1 hour before sunset. Before and after treatments, salivary cortisol levels were sampled at 7, 11, 15, at sunset, and 20 (time of day). Blind assessment of behavioral disorders (neuropsychiatric inventory, NPI) and agitation (agitated behavior scale, ABS) were also performed. After interventions, cortisol levels were reduced in AE and AE+CT by ∼26%. In the same groups, NPI and ABS decreased by ∼50%. By contrast, cortisol and behavioral disorders were similar to baseline in CT and NT. Changes in NPI and ABS were significantly correlated with the reduction in cortisol levels. AE or AE+CT effects on SDS and cortisol levels and the lack of effect of CT alone indicate the effectiveness of an exercise-based treatment on SDS, suggesting a possible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation underpinning SDS. PMID:27540967

  16. Cord Blood Levels of Insulin, Cortisol and HOMA2-IR in Very Preterm, Late Preterm and Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Afzal; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Manjrekar, Poornima Ajay; Hegde, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alteration in the glucose homeostasis is still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborns. Intrauterine undernutrition plays an important role in causing adult insulin resistance and diabetes but the exact cause is still unknown. Aim To estimate the plasma glucose, serum insulin and cortisol levels at birth in newborns at different gestational age. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study conducted from December 2014 to June 2015 included 58 newborns enrolled as per the inclusion criteria and further categorized into Group I (very preterm; n=19; gestational age < 32 weeks), Group II (late preterm; n=20; gestational age between 32-37 weeks) and Group III (full term; n=19; gestational age >37 weeks) newborns. Venous Cord Blood (VCB) was collected and plasma glucose was analysed by GOD-POD (Glucose Oxidase-Peroxidase) method in auto analyser whereas serum insulin and cortisol were analysed by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). HOMA2-IR (Homeostatic Model Assessment) calculator was used to assess insulin resistance. All parametric data was expressed as mean±SD and analysed using ANOVA with Tukey’s as the Post-Hoc test. Correlation analysis was done using Pearson’s correlation co-efficient with scatter plot as the graphical representation. Results Significantly increased insulin and HOMA2-IR levels were found in group I (13.7±4.7μIU/mL and 1.6±0.58 respectively) when compared to group II (8.3±2.9μIU/mL and 0.93±0.2 respectively) and group III (8.3±2.1μIU/mL and 1.03±0.26 respectively). A positive correlation between cortisol levels and gestational age (r = 0.6, n = 58, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between insulin and gestational age (r = -0.654, n = 58, p < 0.001) was observed in the study population. Conclusion Increased levels of insulin and HOMA2-IR as seen in the very preterm newborns signify the predisposition of these newborns to development of diabetes in later stages of life. The inverse

  17. Social correlates of the dominance rank and long-term cortisol levels in adolescent and adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Wu, Xujun; Morrill, Ryan J.; Li, Zhifei; Li, Chunlu; Yang, Shangchuan; Li, Zhaoxia; Cui, Ding; Lv, Longbao; Hu, Zhengfei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Yong; Guo, Liyun; Qin, Dongdong; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in dominance hierarchies is that some ranks result in higher levels of psychosocial stress than others. Such stress can lead to negative health outcomes, possibly through altered levels of stress hormones. The dominance rank-stress physiology relationship is known to vary between species; sometimes dominants show higher levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones, whereas in other cases subordinates show higher levels. It is less clear how this relationship varies between groups of different ages or cultures. In this study, we used long-term cortisol measurement methods to compare the effect of rank on cortisol levels in adult and adolescent male rhesus macaques. In the adult groups, subordinates had significantly higher cortisol levels. In the adolescents, no significant correlation between cortisol and status was found. Further analysis demonstrated that the adult hierarchy was stricter than that of the adolescents. Adult subordinates received extreme aggression more frequently than dominants, and this class of behavior was positively correlated with cortisol; by contrast, adolescents showed neither trend. Together, these findings provide evidence for a cortisol-rank relationship determined by social factors, namely, despotism of the group, and highlight the importance of group-specific social analysis when comparing or combining results obtained from different groups of animals. PMID:27145729

  18. Social correlates of the dominance rank and long-term cortisol levels in adolescent and adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoli; Wu, Xujun; Morrill, Ryan J; Li, Zhifei; Li, Chunlu; Yang, Shangchuan; Li, Zhaoxia; Cui, Ding; Lv, Longbao; Hu, Zhengfei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Yong; Guo, Liyun; Qin, Dongdong; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in dominance hierarchies is that some ranks result in higher levels of psychosocial stress than others. Such stress can lead to negative health outcomes, possibly through altered levels of stress hormones. The dominance rank-stress physiology relationship is known to vary between species; sometimes dominants show higher levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones, whereas in other cases subordinates show higher levels. It is less clear how this relationship varies between groups of different ages or cultures. In this study, we used long-term cortisol measurement methods to compare the effect of rank on cortisol levels in adult and adolescent male rhesus macaques. In the adult groups, subordinates had significantly higher cortisol levels. In the adolescents, no significant correlation between cortisol and status was found. Further analysis demonstrated that the adult hierarchy was stricter than that of the adolescents. Adult subordinates received extreme aggression more frequently than dominants, and this class of behavior was positively correlated with cortisol; by contrast, adolescents showed neither trend. Together, these findings provide evidence for a cortisol-rank relationship determined by social factors, namely, despotism of the group, and highlight the importance of group-specific social analysis when comparing or combining results obtained from different groups of animals. PMID:27145729

  19. Resting salivary levels of IgA and cortisol are significantly affected during intensive resistance training periods in elite male weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Lung; Li, Tzai-Li; Chou, Li-Wei; Chang, Chen-Kang; Huang, Shu-Yi; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative effects of intensive resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol responses in elite male weightlifters. Eleven elite male Taiwanese weightlifters were trained through 3 training stages before a national weightlifting competition, and this was followed by a 2-week recovery stage. Resting saliva samples were collected once in each of the 4 stages. Salivary concentrations of total protein (TP), SIgA, lactoferrin, and cortisol were measured. The results showed that (a) salivary TP concentrations were not significantly affected; (b) resting levels of SIgA, the ratio of SIgA to TP (SIgA/TP), cortisol, and the ratio of cortisol to TP (cortisol/TP) were significantly higher in the training stages than in the recovery stage; (c) a positive correlation was revealed between the ratios of SIgA/TP and cortisol/TP; and (d) the resting salivary lactoferrin concentrations and the ratio of lactoferrin to TP (lactoferrin/TP) were significantly lower in stage 1 than in the recovery stage. The findings in this study suggest that prolonged, intensive resistance training exerts cumulative effects on SIgA and cortisol responses in elite weightlifters.

  20. The onset of cortisol synthesis and the stress response is independent of changes in CYP11B or CYP21 mRNA levels in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Scott L; Wilson, C Alexander; Holt, G Joan; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-01-15

    Although cortisol plays an important role in teleost development, the onset of cortisol production and the cortisol stress response in teleosts remain poorly understood. Here we have reported basal cortisol levels and the development of the cortisol stress response in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). We isolated partial nucleic acid sequences encoding two key corticosteroidogenic enzymes, CYP11B and CYP21 and assessed ontogenetic patterns of their mRNA levels relative to basal and stress-induced cortisol production. Basal cortisol was first detected 3 days post-hatch (DPH) and reached a maximum at 9 DPH. Cortisol did not increase in response to an acute stressor prior to 6 DPH. From 6 DPH forward, stress caused significant increases in larval cortisol content. Stress-induced cortisol levels in 6-9 DPH larvae were highest 1h post-stress. In larvae 11 DPH and older, the highest cortisol measurements occurred 0.5h post-stress. Elevated cortisol was still evident after 3h in 6 DPH larvae. From 11 DPH onward, basal cortisol levels were reestablished in larvae by 1h post-stress. CYP11B and CYP21 transcripts were detected in red drum 12h prior to hatching and in all post-hatch larvae examined. Changes in CYP11B and CYP21 mRNA levels did not occur in association with the ontogenetic appearance of cortisol, or the onset of the stress response. As larvae developed, the dynamics of the cortisol stress response matured from a low magnitude, slow recovery response, to a response similar to that observed in juvenile and adult fish. PMID:19595692

  1. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. PMID:26603557

  2. The Effects of Outgroup Threat and Opportunity to Derogate on Salivary Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sampasivam, Sinthujaa; Collins, Katherine Anne; Bielajew, Catherine; Clément, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of intergroup threat have been related to both experiences of physiological stress responses and derogation of the outgroup. In this study, a neuroscience perspective was used to investigate the relationship between stress and opportunity to derogate the outgroup, in a threatening intergroup context. Research from a social identity perspective suggests that engaging in outgroup derogation alleviates stress when perceiving an intergroup threat. However, in line with the model of intergroup anxiety, opportunity to derogate could exacerbate the negative connotations of a threatening situation, resulting in more stress. Canadian participants (N = 110) were exposed to text describing either discriminatory or favorable comments expressed by Chinese individuals towards Canadians. Half of the participants were given the opportunity to derogate via a bias task. Salivary cortisol was used as a measure of stress and was collected at baseline, post-threat, and post-derogation. As expected, threatening identity led to more stress as evidenced by increased cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, threatened participants who had an opportunity to derogate showed greater cortisol concentrations than those who did not. These results demonstrate a link between stress and the opportunity to derogate, and highlights the value of using biological markers within the intergroup context. Rewrite abstract to remove all the references (they are meaningless because the abstracting services will use the abstract as is but will not provide the references so their presence is useless. PMID:27338433

  3. Influence of pregnancy on diurnal and seasonal changes in cortisol, T3 and T4 levels in the mare blood serum.

    PubMed

    Flisińska-Bojanowska, A; Komosa, M; Gill, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The diurnal changes in the level of total protein, cortisol, T3 and T4 were studied in four barren and four pregnant standard-bred mares, kept and examined under the same conditions. 2. Blood samples were taken every 4 hr. for one day each month, throughout one year. 3. In barren mares, a diurnal rhythm in cortisol level (acrophase at 0530 hr in summer and at 0830 hr in winter) and in T3 level (acrophase at 1330 hr in summer and at 1800 hr in winter) was found. 4. In pregnant mares, a diurnal rhythm in cortisol level only till 5th month of pregnancy was observed. 5. A diurnal rhythm in T3 level was found throughout the pregnancy, with acrophase always at 1400 hr. 6. No diurnal rhythm in the total protein content and in the T4 level was observed. 7. In both groups of mares the seasonal cyclicity in T3 and T4 levels were found. A seasonal cyclicity in cortisol level was found only in pregnant mares. 8. Pregnancy abolished seasonal cyclicity in total protein and showed it in cortisol level. 9. Pregnancy in mares modifies diurnal rhythms as well as seasonal cycles in secretion and metabolism of the hormones studied.

  4. The DeStress for Success Program: effects of a stress education program on cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Ouellet-Morin, I; Trépanier, L; Juster, R P; Marin, M F; Francois, N; Sindi, S; Wan, N; Findlay, H; Durand, N; Cooper, L; Schramek, T; Andrews, J; Corbo, V; Dedovic, K; Lai, B; Plusquellec, P

    2013-09-26

    Various studies have shown that increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can predict the onset of adolescent depressive symptomatology. We have previously shown that adolescents making the transition to high school present a significant increase in cortisol levels, the main product of HPA axis activation. In the present study, we evaluated whether a school-based education program developed according to the current state of knowledge on stress in psychoneuroendocrinology decreases cortisol levels and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents making the transition to high school. Participants were 504 Year 7 high school students from two private schools in the Montreal area. Adolescents of one school were exposed to the DeStress for Success Program while adolescents from the other school served as controls. Salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology were measured before, immediately after as well as 3 months after exposure to the program. Measures of negative mood were obtained at baseline in order to determine whether adolescents starting high school with specific negative moods were differentially responsive to the program. The results show that only adolescents starting high school with high levels of anger responded to the intervention with a significant decrease in cortisol levels. Moreover, we found that adolescents who took part in the intervention and showed decreasing cortisol levels following the intervention (responders) were 2.45 times less at risk to suffer from clinical and subclinical depressive states three months post-intervention in comparison to adolescents who showed increasing cortisol levels following the intervention (nonresponders). This study provides the first evidence that a school-based program on stress is effective at decreasing cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school and it helps explain which adolescents are sensitive to the program and what

  5. Cross Calibration of the Afternoon Constellation's

    NASA Video Gallery

    The name "A-Train" comes from the formation of international, Earth-observing satellites known as the Afternoon Constellation, which operate in a Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The...

  6. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    scientific sense) to his then-new theory of general relativity. Instead, he applied his theory for the first time to the orbit of Mercury and demonstrated that it explains existing facts. In the same way, we may add or remove credence from the multiverse theory even without newly collected measurements on directly testable predictions.Plenary Session APOGEE: The New View of the Milky Way (by Nathan Sanders)Jo Bovy (Toronto) spoke about a bevy of recent discoveries by the APOGEE team, which has collected half a million spectra of red giant stars throughout the Milky Way disk. Bovy emphasized APOGEEs unprecedented scope, covering close to half of the Milky Way disk and ranging ~10 kpc in radius, rather than the tiny neighborhood around the sun that most historical stellar surveys have probed. Overcoming the challenges of galactic extinction, the APOGEE team has made the most precise measurement of the circular rotation velocity of the MIlky Way disk, v_c = 218 +- 6 km/s, and produced remarkable results on the chemical evolution history of the Galaxy. In particular, they have shown that the star formation and chemical evolution history of the Galaxy seems to be remarkably constant throughout the disk.However, the radial migration of stars, which follows a non-circular orbit across the Milky Ways spiral structure, causes mixing that makes the distribution of stellar parameters look uneven. Bovy also emphasized the importance of open science, sharing data and code related to their work. Like all SDSS data, the APOGEE spectra have been released publicly, and all their software pipelines and stellar models have also been made public. Coming next is an APOGEE-2 survey of the Southern sky, a copy of the instrument to be installed at the DuPont telescope in Chile.Afternoon Press Conference Dark Skies, Aliens, and the Multiverse (by Chris Faesi)Tuesday afternoon brought another press conference to the AAS 228th meeting, this one taking us beyond the benign realms of planets, stars, and

  7. Women's intercollegiate volleyball and tennis: effects of warm-up, competition, and practice on saliva levels of cortisol and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Kurlander, Lauren S

    2010-09-01

    In virtually all sports, participants "warm-up" prior to formal competition. Women athletes from a highly ranked varsity college volleyball team and, in a second study, a highly ranked varsity college tennis team gave saliva samples before warm-up, at mid-warm-up (volleyball) or after warm-up (tennis), and immediately after intercollegiate competition. For volleyball and tennis, warm-up was associated with a substantial elevation in saliva levels of testosterone which was carried over through the period of actual competition. Cortisol levels were relatively unchanged during warm-up, but typically rose during competition. Thus, as women prepare for athletic competition by warming up, testosterone levels rise in apparent anticipation of the coming contest and then remain high through the period of play. In volleyball and tennis, after-practice testosterone level was significantly higher than before-practice level, and practice session increases in testosterone (but not cortisol) were positively correlated with increases in testosterone during intercollegiate competition. When practice and competitive play share as yet undetermined key elements, individual differences in this endocrine response to "competition" appear stable across practice and intercollegiate competition.

  8. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity.

  9. Effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life: an ambulatory assessment study in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Zamoscik, Vera; Reinhard, Iris; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2013-10-01

    The influence of naturally occurring emotional and cognitive experiences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity is still underinvestigated, particularly in clinical populations. The present study examined effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life in remitted depressed patients with recurrent episodes or a chronic precourse (n=31) and healthy controls (n=32). Ambulatory assessment of subjective variables (valence, calmness, energetic-arousal, ruminative self-focus), daily stressors, and saliva cortisol samples was performed five times a day on two consecutive workdays, whereby cortisol was collected 20min after the subjective assessments. In addition, depressive symptoms and trait rumination (brooding, reflection) were measured retrospectively. Multilevel models revealed that remitted depressed patients showed lower cortisol activity compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms and trait rumination did not predict HPAA activity, whereas, by controlling for daily stressors, higher daily means of ruminative self-focus and lower daily means of valence, energetic arousal and calmness were associated with higher daily cortisol levels. Separate analyses per group revealed that mean daily ruminative self-focus predicted higher cortisol in both samples. In contrast, lower daily means of calmness, but also of valence and energetic arousal, were significantly linked to higher cortisol output only in healthy controls, but not in the patient sample. These findings indicate that naturally occurring rumination and low mood are associated with increased activation of the HPAA in daily life. Moreover, our data revealed a potentially reduced mood-cortisol coupling in remitted recurrent depression, possibly indicating that during the course of recurrent depression HPAA activation might become less responsive toward subtle emotional experiences in natural contexts.

  10. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformity all the way to redshift z=1, an effect that makes galaxies more likely to be found around neighbors that are very similar (in terms of color or shape) than different kinds. Georgiana Ogrean closed the session by showing a merger between two galaxies that is not producing a strong shock front. 112: Astronomy Education for All: The 2017 Eclipse, Accessibility and NASA (by Meredith Rawls)This afternoon session kicked off with an advertisement for US-based astronomers favorite upcoming event: the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Jay Pasachoff reviewed plans for the August 21, 2017 event and pointed us to resources about choosing the best viewing site and what to expect on the momentous day. We also heard from Denise Smith, Jim Manning, and Daniel McIntosh about various NASA-funded efforts for education and outreach in the classroom and beyond. A sampling of NASA education and outreach resources compiled over several years, presented by Jim Manning #aas228 pic.twitter.com/T41gdHFoDv Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016The other two talks from this session focused on the newly-formed AAS Working Group for Accessibility and Disability and what the astronomical community can do to cultivate a more accessible culture. Speakers Jackie Monkiewicz and Lauren Gilbert described how and why inaccessibility is driving people away from the field: by requiring people with disabilities to disclose those disabilities, by maintaining inaccessible buildings and observatories, by acting inappropriately when accommodations are requested, and by not working well in advance of a course or event to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities. To learn more about what you can do to make astronomy accessible, and what efforts are already underway (including right here at AAS 228), see these resources compiled by AstroBetter.Press Conference: From Molecules to Galaxies (by Leonardo dos Santos

  11. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to monitor temporal embryo cortisol content. Cortisol treatment increased mean embryo yield, but the daily fecundity was variable among the groups. Embryo cortisol content was variable in both groups over a 10-day period. A transient elevation in cortisol levels was observed in the embryos from cortisol-fed mothers only on day 3, but not on subsequent days. We tested whether excess cortisol stimulates 11βHSD2 expression in ovarian follicles as a means to regulate embryo cortisol deposition. Cortisol treatment in vitro increased 11β HSD2 levels sevenfold, and this expression was regulated by actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggesting tight regulation of cortisol levels in the ovarian follicles. We hypothesize that cortisol-induced upregulation of 11βHSD2 activity in the ovarian follicles is a mechanism restricting excess cortisol incorporation into the eggs during maternal stress. PMID:26998341

  12. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated

  13. Linking social environment and stress physiology in feral mares (Equus caballus): group transfers elevate fecal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Cassandra M V; Adelman, James S; Smith, Jessica; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-15

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) have a complex social structure, the stability of which is important to their overall health. Behavioral and demographic research has shown that decreases in group (or band) stability reduce female fitness, but the potential effects on the physiological stress response have not been demonstrated. To fully understand how band stability affects group-member fitness, we need to understand not only behavioral and demographic, but also physiological consequences of decreases to that stability. We studied group changes in feral mares (an activity that induces instability, including both male and female aggression) on Shackleford Banks, NC. We found that mares in the midst of changing groups exhibit increased fecal cortisol levels. In addition, mares making more group transfers show higher levels of cortisol two weeks post-behavior. These results offer insights into how social instability is integrated into an animal's physiological phenotype. In addition, our results have important implications for feral horse management. On Shackleford Banks, mares contracepted with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) make approximately 10 times as many group changes as do untreated mares. Such animals may therefore be at higher risk of chronic stress. These results support the growing consensus that links between behavior and physiological stress must be taken into account when managing for healthy, functional populations. PMID:24275609

  14. Linking social environment and stress physiology in feral mares (Equus caballus): group transfers elevate fecal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Cassandra M V; Adelman, James S; Smith, Jessica; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-15

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) have a complex social structure, the stability of which is important to their overall health. Behavioral and demographic research has shown that decreases in group (or band) stability reduce female fitness, but the potential effects on the physiological stress response have not been demonstrated. To fully understand how band stability affects group-member fitness, we need to understand not only behavioral and demographic, but also physiological consequences of decreases to that stability. We studied group changes in feral mares (an activity that induces instability, including both male and female aggression) on Shackleford Banks, NC. We found that mares in the midst of changing groups exhibit increased fecal cortisol levels. In addition, mares making more group transfers show higher levels of cortisol two weeks post-behavior. These results offer insights into how social instability is integrated into an animal's physiological phenotype. In addition, our results have important implications for feral horse management. On Shackleford Banks, mares contracepted with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) make approximately 10 times as many group changes as do untreated mares. Such animals may therefore be at higher risk of chronic stress. These results support the growing consensus that links between behavior and physiological stress must be taken into account when managing for healthy, functional populations.

  15. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  16. Ambient temperature and pregnancy influence cortisol levels in female guinea pigs and entail long-term effects on the stress response of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Michel, C L; Chastel, O; Bonnet, X

    2011-05-01

    Mammals generally respond to the important metabolic requirements imposed by thermoregulation and pregnancy by increasing plasma concentrations of glucocorticoid that promote the mobilization of body reserves and enhance energy use by tissues. This study examined the impact of distinct ambient temperatures and reproductive status on cortisol plasma levels in female guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). We also examined cortisol profiles of their offspring. Forty adult females were placed in individual boxes, 20 were exposed to a neutral thermal regime (mean ambient temperature 22.1 ± 1.5 °C) and 20 were maintained under a cool thermal regime (15.1 ± 1.5 °C). Within each treatment, 12 females were pregnant and 8 were non-pregnant. Pregnancy generated a marked elevation of baseline cortisol. Ambient temperature also affected cortisol concentrations. Compared to the pregnant females from the neutral thermal regime, pregnant females maintained under cool conditions exhibited lower baseline levels of cortisol, were less active, but they displayed a greater stress response (i.e. rapid increase of plasma cortisol) following handling. Thermal treatment did not influence reproductive output, reproductive effort, or offspring characteristics. This suggests that pregnant female guinea pigs cope with cool (but not extreme) thermal conditions by reducing activity and baseline cortisol levels, possibly to save energy via an adaptive response. Interestingly, the greater amplitude of the stress response of the cool regime females was also observed in their offspring 2 months after parturition, suggesting that hormonal ambience experienced by the individuals in utero shaped their stress response long after birth.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Lotte C.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A.; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Creyghton, Menno P.; Kahn, René S.; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Boks, Marco P. M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10−6). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability. PMID:26997371

  18. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  19. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Lotte C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability. PMID:26997371

  1. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Lotte C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M

    2016-03-21

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability.

  2. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  3. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress.

  4. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress. PMID:26839713

  5. Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure.

  6. Reduced cortisol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and differential distribution of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in multiple sclerosis: implications for lesion pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, Claudia; Häusler, Sebastian F M; Buttmann, Mathias; Ossadnik, Monika; Strik, Herwig M; Keller, Andreas; Buck, Dorothea; Verbraak, Evert; van Meurs, Marjan; Krockenberger, Mathias; Mehling, Matthias; Mittelbronn, Michel; Laman, Jon D; Wiendl, Heinz; Wischhusen, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Relapses during multiple sclerosis (MS) are treated by administration of exogenous corticosteroids. However, little is known about the bioavailability of endogenous steroids in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients. We thus determined cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 34 MS patients, 28 patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND) and 16 patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). This revealed that MS patients - in sharp contrast to patients with OIND - show normal cortisol concentrations in serum and lowered cortisol levels in the CSF during acute relapses. This local cortisol deficit may relate to poor local activation of cortisone via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11bHSD1) or to inactivation via 11bHSD2. Accordingly, 11bHSD2 was found to be expressed within active plaques, whereas 11bHSD1 was predominantly detected in surrounding "foamy" macrophages. Our study thus provides new insights into the impaired endogenous CNS cortisol regulation in MS patients and its possible relation to MS lesion pathogenesis. Moreover, an observed upregulation of 11bHSD1 in myelin-loaded macrophages in vitro suggests an intriguing hypothesis for the self-limiting nature of MS lesion development. Finally, our findings provide an attractive explanation for the effectivity of high- vs. low-dose exogenous corticosteroids in the therapy of acute relapses.

  7. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue.

  8. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. PMID:25169036

  9. Cortisol - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland . Cortisol can also be measured using a blood ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is ...

  10. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  11. Quality of life in patients with adrenal insufficiency correlates stronger with hydrocortisone dosage, than with long-term systemic cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Andela, Cornelie D; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Joustra, Sjoerd D; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-10-01

    In patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) a higher hydrocortisone intake has been associated with more impairment in quality of life (QoL). Irrespective of age, sex and severity of AI the dosage of hydrocortisone is titrated around 20mg/D in all patients with AI based on physical and mental signs and symptoms. However, until now it is unknown whether these QoL impairments are related to increased systemic cortisol exposure. Measurement of hair cortisol levels (CORThair) can be used to assess chronic systemic cortisol exposure. This study aimed to explore whether QoL in patients with AI is associated with CORThair and daily hydrocortisone intake. We performed a cross-sectional study in 120 patients with AI on stable hydrocortisone replacement, in whom hair samples and QoL data were collected. CORThair were measured with ELISA, and QoL was assessed with validated questionnaires (SF-36, EQ-5D, HADS, MFI-20). Patients reported impairments in 14 of 15 QoL subscales (p<0.001). More impairments in physical aspects of QoL correlated with higher CORThair and higher daily hydrocortisone intake (p<0.05), an effect that was more pronounced in female patients. Regression analyses including both CORThair and hydrocortisone intake revealed a significant negative contribution of higher hydrocortisone intake on physical aspects of QoL (p≤0.046), whereas no significant contribution was found for CORThair. The present study showed that patients with AI report several impairments in QoL which are associated with hydrocortisone intake, and to a lesser extent reflected by chronic systemic cortisol exposure as measured by hair cortisol. This suggests that QoL impairments in patients with AI are not per se the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated systemic cortisol levels. PMID:27388687

  12. Quality of life in patients with adrenal insufficiency correlates stronger with hydrocortisone dosage, than with long-term systemic cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Andela, Cornelie D; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Joustra, Sjoerd D; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-10-01

    In patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) a higher hydrocortisone intake has been associated with more impairment in quality of life (QoL). Irrespective of age, sex and severity of AI the dosage of hydrocortisone is titrated around 20mg/D in all patients with AI based on physical and mental signs and symptoms. However, until now it is unknown whether these QoL impairments are related to increased systemic cortisol exposure. Measurement of hair cortisol levels (CORThair) can be used to assess chronic systemic cortisol exposure. This study aimed to explore whether QoL in patients with AI is associated with CORThair and daily hydrocortisone intake. We performed a cross-sectional study in 120 patients with AI on stable hydrocortisone replacement, in whom hair samples and QoL data were collected. CORThair were measured with ELISA, and QoL was assessed with validated questionnaires (SF-36, EQ-5D, HADS, MFI-20). Patients reported impairments in 14 of 15 QoL subscales (p<0.001). More impairments in physical aspects of QoL correlated with higher CORThair and higher daily hydrocortisone intake (p<0.05), an effect that was more pronounced in female patients. Regression analyses including both CORThair and hydrocortisone intake revealed a significant negative contribution of higher hydrocortisone intake on physical aspects of QoL (p≤0.046), whereas no significant contribution was found for CORThair. The present study showed that patients with AI report several impairments in QoL which are associated with hydrocortisone intake, and to a lesser extent reflected by chronic systemic cortisol exposure as measured by hair cortisol. This suggests that QoL impairments in patients with AI are not per se the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated systemic cortisol levels.

  13. Coping with Aversive Stimulation in the Neonatal Period: Quiet Sleep and Plasma Cortisol Levels during Recovery from Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnar, Megan R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Determines the time course of circulating cortisol following circumcision in 80 healthy newborns and investigates whether changes in behavioral state following circumcision in anyway paralleled the adrenocortical time course. Adrenocortical and behavioral data indicated that subjects were able to cope with circumcision trauma. Cortisol levels…

  14. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

  15. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dziurkowska, Ewelina; Wesolowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer's and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients' age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods.

  16. Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  17. Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the short-lived rodent, Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D

    2013-06-01

    The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a short-lived and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.

  18. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  19. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors.

  20. Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Viola, Antoine U; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and well-being. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive

  1. A clinical study of the efficacy of a single session of individual exercise for depressive patients, assessed by the change in saliva free cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of physical exercise as an augmentation to pharmacotherapy with antidepressants for depressive patients has been documented. However, to clarify the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression, it is necessary to distinguish the effect of the exercise itself from the effect of group dynamics. Furthermore, an objective measurement for estimation of the effect is needed. Previous reports adopted a series of group exercises as the exercise intervention and mainly psychometric instruments for the measurement of effectiveness. Therefore, this clinical study was done to examine the effectiveness of a single session of individual exercise on depressive symptoms by assessing the change in saliva free cortisol level, which reflects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function that is disturbed in depressive patients. Method Eighteen medicated patients, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, were examined for the change in saliva free cortisol levels and the change in subjective depressive symptoms before and after pedaling a bicycle ergometer for fifteen minutes. Within a month after the exercise session, participants conducted a non-exercise control session, which was sitting quietly at the same time of day as the exercise session. Results Depressed patients who participated in this study were in remission or in mild depressive state. However, they suffered chronic depression and had disturbed quality of life. The saliva free cortisol level and subjective depressive symptoms significantly decreased after the exercise session. Moreover, the changes in these variables were significantly, positively correlated. On the other hand, although the subjective depressive symptoms improved in the control session, the saliva free cortisol level did not change. Conclusion For the first time in depressive patients, we were able to show a decrease in the saliva free cortisol level due to physical exercise, accompanied by

  2. The cortisol level and its relationship with depression, stress and anxiety indices in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients and normal individuals undergoing inguinal hernia surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, Bijan; Givi, Fatemeh; Roshan, Rasool; Pirnia, Kambiz; Soleimani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stimulants addition and abuse can cause some functional and morphological changes in the normal function of glands and hormones. Methamphetamine as an addictive stimulant drug affects the Hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently makes some changes in the psychological state of the drug users. The present study aims to examine the relationship between plasma levels of cortisol with depression, stress and anxiety symptoms in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients and normal individuals who have undergone the inguinal hernia surgery. Methods: To meet the purpose of the study, 35 chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients in the active phase of drug abuse and 35 non-users (N=70) who were homogenized regarding the demographic features were purposefully selected from among the patients referred to undergo inguinal hernia surgery since March 15 to June 9, 2015. The participants were then divided into the control and experiment group. The changes in cortisol levels in plasma were measured using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) in three-time series including 0 (upon the induction of anesthesia), 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. Further, three behavioral indices of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) and then the data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson Correlation coefficient. Results: The plasma level of cortisol in the chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients (experiment group) had a significant increase in 24 hours after surgery (p<0.05). This study showed that cortisol levels in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly higher than non-dependent patients in response to alarming events such as inguinal surgery. Changes in cortisol levels were intensified due to a confrontation with the phenomenon of pain and anxiety. In addition, depression index was higher in the chronic methamphetaminedependent patients than that in the non-dependent patients. However

  3. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA α1a and α1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA α1a and α1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA α1a and α1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  4. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research.

  5. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  6. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  7. The effect of the lunar cycle on fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraging ecology of nocturnally and diurnally active spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Dayan, Tamar; Levy, Ofir; Schubert, Iris; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage.

  8. The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  9. The correlation between perceived social support, cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Doy Yung; Chang, Wei Hung; Chi, Mei Hung; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Po See

    2016-05-30

    In this study, the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in stress resilience was investigated. With a focus on healthy subjects, we explored whether plasma BDNF levels are correlated with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and subjectively perceived social support status. Moreover, we examined the possible interacting effect of DST status and perceived social support on BDNF levels. Seventy-two healthy volunteers, 44 females and 28 males, were recruited from the community and completed the perceived routine support subscale of Measurement of Support Function (PRS_MSF) questionnaire. Plasma BDNF levels and DST suppression rate with the low dose DST were measured. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF and DST suppression rate in the female subjects. This was also true for the plasma BDNF levels and PRS_MSF in the female subjects. The positive correlation between BDNF and PRS_MSF was significant only in female subjects with low DST suppression rates. Plasma BDNF levels were associated with stress resilience in a sex-specific manner. Subjects' belief in social support might buffer the biological stress reactions. Differences in social perception and the biological stress response between men and women merits further investigation. PMID:27137977

  10. Early Family and Child-Care Antecedents of Awakening Cortisol Levels in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Booth-Laforce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Belsky, Jay; Bradley, Robert H.; Houts, Renate; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early observed parenting and child-care experiences in relation to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis over the long term. Consistent with the attenuation hypothesis, individuals (n = 863) who experienced: (a) higher levels of maternal insensitivity and (b) more time in child-care centers in the first…

  11. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  12. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  13. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  14. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Bo; She, Fei; Xie, Li-Fang; Yan, Wen-Hua; Ouyang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Bao-An; Ma, Hang-Yun; Zang, Li; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients. Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, range 17–30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age. All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, ACTH, and cortisol and biochemical tests. Results: Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs. 6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs. 452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all P <0.05). IHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs. 4.4%) than the controls (all P < 0.05). Basal serum ACTH (9.91 ± 4.98 pmol/L vs. 7.60 ± 2.96 pmol/L) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2123.7 ± 925.8 μg/L vs. 1417.1 ± 498.4 μg/L) levels were significantly higher in IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P < 0.05). We also found that basal serum ACTH levels were positively correlated with NAFLD (r = 0.289, P <0.05) and triglyceride levels (r = 0.268, P < 0.05) in male IHH patients. Furthermore, NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy

  15. Diurnal cortisol variation and cortisol response to an MRI stressor in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Girshkin, Leah; O'Reilly, Nicole; Quidé, Yann; Teroganova, Nina; Rowland, Jesseca E; Schofield, Peter R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-05-01

    Markers of HPA axis function, including diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol responses to stress or pharmacological manipulation, are increasingly reported as disrupted in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been no direct comparison of cortisol responses to stress in SZ and BD in the same study, and associations between cortisol dysfunction and illness characteristics remain unclear. In this study we used spline embedded linear mixed models to examine cortisol levels of SZ and BD participants at waking, during the first 45min after waking (representing the cortisol awakening response; CAR), during the period of rapid cortisol decline post the awakening response, and in reaction to a stressor (MRI scan), relative to healthy controls (HC). Contrary to expectations, neither SZ nor BD showed differences in waking cortisol levels, CAR, or immediate post-CAR decline compared to HC; however, waking cortisol levels were greater in BD relative to SZ. In response to the MRI stressor, the SZ group showed a significant absence of the expected increase in cortisol responsivity to stress, which was seen in both the BD and HC groups. Clinical factors affecting the CAR differed between SZ and BD. In SZ, higher antipsychotic medication dosage was associated with a steeper incline of the CAR, while greater positive symptom severity was associated with a more blunted CAR, and greater levels of anxiety were associated with the blunted cortisol response to stress. In BD, longer illness duration was associated with a steeper incline in CAR and lower levels of waking cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol responses may normalize with medication (in SZ) and longer illness duration (in BD), in line with findings of aberrant cortisol levels in the early stages of psychotic disorders. PMID:26874562

  16. The Impact of Goal Disturbance after Cancer on Cortisol Levels over Time and the Moderating Role of COMT.

    PubMed

    Janse, Moniek; Faassen, Martijn van; Kema, Ido; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2015-01-01

    Due to physical hindrance and time spent in hospital, a cancer diagnosis can lead to disturbance of personally important goals. Goal disturbance in cancer patients has been related to poorer psychological well-being. However, the relation with physiological measures is yet unknown. The purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of goal disturbance on cortisol as a measure of response to stress over time, and a possibly moderating role of a DNA genotype associated with HPA-axis functioning, Catechol-O-Methyl transferase (COMT). We examined the predictive value of goal disturbance on Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) and Diurnal Cortisol Slope (DCS) over two periods: 1-7 and 7-18 months post-diagnosis, and the moderating role of COMT during these periods. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal disturbance 7 months post-diagnosis significantly predicted a steeper CAR a year later. During that period, the slow COMT variant moderated the relation, in that patients reporting high goal disturbance and had the Met/Met variant, had a more flattened CAR. No other significant effects were found. As steeper CARs have been related to adverse health outcomes, and COMT genotype may modify this risk, these results indicate that goal disturbance and genotype may be important factors to consider in maintaining better psychological and physical health in the already vulnerable population of cancer patients. PMID:26313260

  17. Bright Summer Afternoon on the Mars Utopian Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A UTOPIAN BRIGHT SUMMER AFTERNOON ON MARS--Looking south from Viking 2 on September 6, the orange-red surface of the nearly level plain upon which the spacecraft sits is seen strewn with rocks as large as three feet across. Many of these rocks are porous and sponge-like, similar to some of Earth's volcanic rocks. Other rocks are coarse-grained such as the large rock at lower left. Between the rocks, the surface is blanketed with fine-grained material that, in places, is piled into small drifts and banked against some of the larger blocks. The cylindrical mast with the orange cable is the low-gain antenna used to receive commands from Earth.

  18. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on oxidative stress indices and cortisol level in blood in water buffaloes during pregnancy and early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Umesh; Ranjan, Rakesh; Sharma, Mahesh C; Varshney, V P

    2010-03-01

    Pregnancy is a physiology state accompanied by high energy and oxygen demand that may lead to increased level of oxidative stress and development of metabolic and reproductive disorders in pregnant water buffaloes. In the present study, the alterations in serum cortisol and erythrocyte lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase activities were examined in 28 pregnant water buffaloes supplemented with antioxidant nutrients, Vitamin E and selenium. Another 14 buffaloes did not receive any treatment during pregnancy to serve as negative control. Results of the present study suggested that pregnancy is associated with oxidative stress and supplementation of vitamin E and selenium may be beneficial by alleviating oxidative stress in water buffaloes.

  19. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced alteration in blood biochemical profile, oxidant/antioxidant status, serum cortisol level and retention of arsenic and selenium in goats.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Anil Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exerts oxidative stress with depletion of body selenium in monogastric animals. But in ruminants this fact is not yet verified. Vitamin E is an effective dietary antioxidant. Thus, in this experiment, the protective effect of vitamin E against arsenic toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (60mg As/kg diet) was investigated in goat kids. For this, 21 male kids were divided into three equal groups and fed either basal diet as such (control), or supplemented with 60mg As/kg diet and 60mg As/kg diet+250IU vitamin E/kg diet for 180 days. Vitamin E supplementation alleviated the toxic effects caused by arsenic on serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and lipid peroxidation. It also prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione content and reduction in activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase in erythrocytes resulted from arsenic intoxication. The elevated levels of arsenic and reduced levels of selenium in the serum and tissues in arsenic treated animals were attenuated by vitamin E supplementation, though not completely. However, serum cortisol level was not affected by arsenic. It was concluded that arsenic exerts cortisol independent stressor mechanism and supplementation of vitamin E at a level of 250IU/kg diet was partially effective in reducing tissue accumulation of arsenic in the body and protect the kids from oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

  20. Muscle metabolic capacities and plasma cortisol levels of the male three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: are there "femme fatale" or "macho male" effects?

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether decreases in muscle metabolic capacities and increases in plasma cortisol explain the effects of neighboring conspecifics on male three-spine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, we housed mature males alone, with a mature female, or with a rival mature male. The neighbors were separated from the focal male by a partition that allowed him to smell, see, and hear his neighbor. In the first experiment, focal males were allowed to reproduce, whereas in the second experiment, no reproduction occurred. Coloration and behaviors were monitored while the males tended their nests (or for the same period in the second experiment). The presence of a neighbor markedly affected the reproductive coloration of the focal male, with solitary males being less colorful than males housed with a rival male or a female. Solitary males showed greater aggression toward a model male stickleback than did males with neighbors. The presence of neighbors affected the anatomic and metabolic characteristics of the focal males primarily during nesting, when males housed with rival males had a lower hepatosomatic index and lower activities of mitochondrial and glycolytic enzymes in the axial muscle than did solitary males or males housed with females. Cortisol levels were highly variable in nesting males and did not differ with social condition but were higher in males that had been quick to construct their nests. On the other hand, when focal males were not provided with nesting material, solitary males tended to have lower cortisol levels than did males housed with rival males. While these results do not provide a mechanism for a "femme fatale" effect, they indicate that nesting males decrease metabolic status when housed with rival "macho males." PMID:19758091

  1. The acute effects of experimental short-term evening and night shifts on human circadian rhythm: the oral temperature, heart rate, serum cortisol and urinary catecholamines levels.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Shinkai, S; Kurokawa, Y; Watanabe, T

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the temporal changes in circadian rhythm of oral temperature, heart rate, serum cortisol and urinary catecholamines levels due to experimental short-term shifts. The six subjects were assigned to consecutive day (work 0800-1600 hours; sleep 0000-0800 hours), evening (1600-2400 hours; 0400-1200 hours), and night (0000-0800 hours; 1200-2000 hours) shifts of 2 days each scheduled as hospital shiftwork by nurses, in random order, during which data were collected every 4 h throughout the experimental periods. According to acrophases of a fitted cosine curve and visual inspection on chronograms, the phases of circadian rhythms were delayed to different degrees in the evening shifts with a minimum of about 1 h for oral temperature and a maximum of about 4 h for urinary free noradrenaline. The corresponding phase delays were larger in the night shift for oral temperature (about 3 h), resting heart rate (about 5 h) and urinary free noradrenaline (about 13 h); the diurnal variations of serum cortisol and urinary free adrenaline were greatly modified, and their circadian rhythmicities disappeared, indicating that the normal circadian phase relations of these variables were disrupted more by the night shift. The comparison of chronograms and correlation analyses revealed that the 4-h mean heart rate and urinary free noradrenaline were largely affected by rest-activity level in connection with shifts, while the resting heart rate and urinary free adrenaline were less affected. On the other hand, the sleep factor (time of onset and/or period) seemed to be more potent in modifying the circadian rhythm of serum cortisol, especially with the night shifts.

  2. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Villareal, Dennis T; Das, Sai K; Smith, Steven R; Meydani, Simin N; Pittas, Anastassios G; Klein, Samuel; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Rochon, James; Ravussin, Eric; Holloszy, John O

    2016-02-01

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anticancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and cortisol in humans. To test the sustained effects of CR on these key hormonal adaptations, we performed a multicenter randomized trial of a 2-year 25% CR intervention in 218 nonobese (body mass index between 22 and 27.8 kg m(-2) ) young and middle-aged (20-50 years age range) men and women. Average CR during the first 6 months was 19.5 ± 0.8% and 9.1 ± 0.7% over the next 18 months of the study. Weight loss averaged 7.6 ± 0.3 kg over the 2-years period of which 71% was fat mass loss (P < 0.0001). Average CR during the CR caused a significant 21% increase in serum IGFBP-1 and a 42% reduction in IGF-1:IGFBP-1 ratio at 2 years (P < 0.008), but did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio levels. Serum cortisol concentrations were slightly but significantly increased by CR at 1 year only (P = 0.003). Calorie restriction had no effect on serum concentrations of PDGF-AB and TGFβ-1. We conclude, on the basis of the present and previous findings, that, in contrast to rodents, humans do not respond to CR with a decrease in serum IGF-1 concentration or with a sustained and biological relevant increase in serum cortisol. However, long-term CR in humans significantly and persistently increases serum IGFBP-1 concentration. PMID:26443692

  3. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Villareal, Dennis T; Das, Sai K; Smith, Steven R; Meydani, Simin N; Pittas, Anastassios G; Klein, Samuel; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Rochon, James; Ravussin, Eric; Holloszy, John O

    2016-02-01

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anticancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and cortisol in humans. To test the sustained effects of CR on these key hormonal adaptations, we performed a multicenter randomized trial of a 2-year 25% CR intervention in 218 nonobese (body mass index between 22 and 27.8 kg m(-2) ) young and middle-aged (20-50 years age range) men and women. Average CR during the first 6 months was 19.5 ± 0.8% and 9.1 ± 0.7% over the next 18 months of the study. Weight loss averaged 7.6 ± 0.3 kg over the 2-years period of which 71% was fat mass loss (P < 0.0001). Average CR during the CR caused a significant 21% increase in serum IGFBP-1 and a 42% reduction in IGF-1:IGFBP-1 ratio at 2 years (P < 0.008), but did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio levels. Serum cortisol concentrations were slightly but significantly increased by CR at 1 year only (P = 0.003). Calorie restriction had no effect on serum concentrations of PDGF-AB and TGFβ-1. We conclude, on the basis of the present and previous findings, that, in contrast to rodents, humans do not respond to CR with a decrease in serum IGF-1 concentration or with a sustained and biological relevant increase in serum cortisol. However, long-term CR in humans significantly and persistently increases serum IGFBP-1 concentration.

  4. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone. PMID

  5. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals’ experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone

  6. Plasma sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, and free cortisol levels in outpatients attending a lipid disorders clinic: a cross-sectional study of 1137 subjects.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Borowski, K K; Shand, B I; George, P M; Scott, R S

    2010-04-01

    We measured plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and total cortisol, and calculated free plasma cortisol in 1 137 subjects attending a hospital outpatient lipid disorders clinic to investigate whether or not these analytes correlated with the degree of insulin resistance and the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In both males and females, plasma SHBG correlated inversely with anthropometric measures and with fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and triglycerides, and positively with HDL-cholesterol. However, in males with the metabolic syndrome, unlike females, the relationship between SHBG, some anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, and HDL-cholesterol were lost, which suggests that in males SHBG may not co-cluster with other components of the metabolic syndrome. In males and males with the metabolic syndrome, total plasma cortisol and calculated plasma free cortisol correlated positively with fasting glucose. Corticosteroid-binding globulin correlated inversely with percentage body fat and positively with HDL-cholesterol in males with and without the metabolic syndrome. CBG correlated negatively with age in both sexes. Overall, the results confirm the finding that SHBG is a marker of insulin resistance in males and females and that SHBG is associated with fasting triglycerides in males with the metabolic syndrome. Importantly, SHBG could be considered a stronger component of the metabolic syndrome in females than in males. However, the aetiological role of CBG and cortisol in insulin resistance is uncertain, although in males, cortisol and CBG could be subtly related to the degree of insulin resistance.

  7. Getting better, but not well: A 1.5 year follow-up of cognitive performance and cortisol levels in clinical and non-Clinical burnout.

    PubMed

    Oosterholt, Bart G; Maes, Joseph H R; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Verbraak, Marc J P M; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose was to reexamine cognitive performance and cortisol levels of initial clinical burnout patients, non-clinical burnout individuals, and healthy controls. After 1.5-years of the initial measurement, clinical burnout patients showed a reduction of burnout symptoms and general physical and psychological complaints, but these were still elevated compared with controls. Nonetheless, they continued to report cognitive problems and still showed a minor impaired cognitive test performance. However, they no longer reported larger subjective costs associated with cognitive test performance and their cortisol awakening response (CAR) returned to a normal level. Compared with controls, non-clinical burnout individuals still reported the same, elevated, level of burnout symptoms, general physical and psychological complaints, and cognitive problems. Their cognitive test performance and associated subjective costs remained normal. However, they seemed to continue to display a lowered CAR. To conclude, after 1.5-years, clinical burnout patients got better, but not 'well', and non-clinical burnout individuals remained not 'well'.

  8. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P < 0.01), and mounting behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P < 0.01). However, there was no effect of Supplement on the incidence of each of the harmful behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours

  9. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol secretion in saliva, serum or urine. The present study set out to explore associations of work stress with long-term integrated cortisol levels in hair among 175 workers of an export oriented ready-made garment (RMG) factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Work-related demands (WD), interpersonal resources (IR) and work-related values (WV) were assessed using a psychometrically evaluated interview. WD consisted of four items on physical demands, time pressure, worries about mistakes and exposure to abusive language. IR comprised five items addressing support, recognition, adequate payment, workers' trust in the management, and the management's trust in workers, as perceived by the workers. WV captured job security, promotion prospects and job latitude by three items. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models (backward elimination of predictors) were used to estimate associations of HCC with the three work stress components. For significant work stress component(s), further multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore whether, and if so, which individual item(s) contributed most. The mean HCC equaled 3.27 (SD 2.58) pg/mg. HCC were found to be significantly associated with WV (beta=0.209, p=0.021). Additional analyses of the three WV items revealed that this association was largely driven the item on "promotion prospects" (beta=0.230, p=0.007) implying that the perception of good promotion prospects was associated with higher HCC. The finding of elevated HCC with good promotion prospects may initially seem counter-intuitive, but is supported by research documenting

  10. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target.

  11. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  12. Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Pilch, Wanda; Pokora, Ilona; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Pałka, Tomasz; Pilch, Paweł; Cisoń, Tomasz; Malik, Lesław; Wiecha, Szczepan

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.

  13. [Night workers and plasmatic cortisol].

    PubMed

    Palermo, P; Rosati, M V; Ciarrocca, M; Nicassio, P; Piccoli, F; Cerratti, D; Anzani, M F; Tomei, G; Perugi, F; Monti, C; Palitti, T; Tomao, E; Caciari, T; Tomei, F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to night work could cause alterations in the levels of plasmatic cortisol. The interest toward this argument arises form several studies in scientific literature referring the presence of an alteration in the synthesis and release of cortisol in workers exposed to night work. We studied a population of workers employed in night security service and monitoring service of alarm systems in different museums compared to a control group not performing shift-work and/or night work. The exposed and control subjects were compared by age, length of service, smoking habit (n. cigarettes per day), habitual consumption of alcoholic drinks (n. glass of wine/beer per day). We evaluated the levels of plasmatic cortisol on 50 workers exposed to night work, all males of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers and on 50 controls of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers.

  14. Spot determinations of urinary cortisol for the screening of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Hata, K; Ogata, E; Kojima, I

    1991-08-01

    The usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushing's syndrome was evaluated by measuring the cortisol concentration in randomly sampled urine in 68 normal subjects and in 9 patients with Cushing's syndrome. The urinary cortisol concentration in the morning was significantly higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome but some overlap existed between normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome. In contrast, there was a clear discrimination between two groups when urinary cortisol was measured in the late evening: urinary cortisol was lower than 75 micrograms per gram creatinine (microgram/gCr) in normal subjects but higher than 150 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. When 1 mg dexamethasone was administered at 2300 h in the evening, spot urinary cortisol the next morning was less than 80 micrograms/gCr in normal subjects while it was above 100 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Dexamethasone-induced suppression of urinary cortisol in normal subjects lasted until late in the afternoon, which allows sampling of urine at any time in the morning and possibly in the afternoon. These results suggest the usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushings' syndrome.

  15. Changes in Salivary Cortisol Concentration in Horses during Different Types of Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Lee, Wang-Shik

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the change of stress level in horses based on cortisol concentration levels in their saliva. A total of 61 horses were divided into the following three groups: i) tourist riding experience (TR, n = 23); ii) resting group (RR, n = 14); and iii) horse-riding education (ER, n = 24). The saliva samples of TR and ER groups were taken using plain cotton Salivettes four times a day: at 07:00 (basal), 11:00 (Exercise 1, after 1-hour exercise in the morning), 14:00 (Exercise 2, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon), and 16:00 (Exercise 3, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon). The saliva samples of RR were measured at the same time. The samples were analyzed using the SAS program general linear model procedure. In a percentage relative to the base value, cortisol levels in Exercise 3 were confirmed to decrease in all groups as compared to the basal value percentage in the following sequence: ER>TR>RR. The highest peak was confirmed in Exercise 2 (approximately 131%) of RR group and the lowest peak appeared in Exercise 3 (approximately 52%) of ER group. Therefore, resting without any particular exercise can also increase the stress level of horses. Thus, it is better to exercise, as exercise can reduce the stress level, even in cases when riders are clumsy or lack appropriate horse-riding experience. The results of the present study are useful to equestrian center owners and educational riding instructors in that they provide a meaningful insight into a better horse management. PMID:26954193

  16. Changes in Salivary Cortisol Concentration in Horses during Different Types of Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Lee, Wang-Shik

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the change of stress level in horses based on cortisol concentration levels in their saliva. A total of 61 horses were divided into the following three groups: i) tourist riding experience (TR, n = 23); ii) resting group (RR, n = 14); and iii) horse-riding education (ER, n = 24). The saliva samples of TR and ER groups were taken using plain cotton Salivettes four times a day: at 07:00 (basal), 11:00 (Exercise 1, after 1-hour exercise in the morning), 14:00 (Exercise 2, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon), and 16:00 (Exercise 3, after 1-hour exercise in the afternoon). The saliva samples of RR were measured at the same time. The samples were analyzed using the SAS program general linear model procedure. In a percentage relative to the base value, cortisol levels in Exercise 3 were confirmed to decrease in all groups as compared to the basal value percentage in the following sequence: ER>TR>RR. The highest peak was confirmed in Exercise 2 (approximately 131%) of RR group and the lowest peak appeared in Exercise 3 (approximately 52%) of ER group. Therefore, resting without any particular exercise can also increase the stress level of horses. Thus, it is better to exercise, as exercise can reduce the stress level, even in cases when riders are clumsy or lack appropriate horse-riding experience. The results of the present study are useful to equestrian center owners and educational riding instructors in that they provide a meaningful insight into a better horse management. PMID:26954193

  17. Influence of Selected Exercise on Serum Immunoglobulin, Testosterone and Cortisol in Semi-Endurance Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Keyvan; Hosseini, Seyyed-Reza Attarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the levels of serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), testosterone and cortisol in semi-endurance elite runners during general preparation and competition phase of training. Methods Thirteen semi-endurance elite male runners with an average age of 18.92±1.7 years volunteered to take part in this study. The runners participated in the selected training for a period of 14 weeks and 12 sessions per week (in the morning and afternoon). Blood samples were collected during the three phases of training (before-preparation phase, after-preparation phase and before-competition phase). Data were analyzed by repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test, at a significance level of P<0.05. Results The levels of serum IgM in semi-endurance elite runners after preparation phase reduced significantly (P=0.004), while these levels during the competition phase increased even though significantly. The levels of serum IgG and IgA also reduced, however not significantly, during both phases. Moreover, after preparation phase, there was no significant change in serum IgA levels; though, these levels reduced, however not significantly, before competition phase. Cortisol levels significantly decrease after preparation phase (P=0.04); although, it increased before competition phase. Testosterone/cortisol ratio increases significantly after preparation phase (P=0.04), and it decreased before competition phase. Testosterone levels intangibility increased and decreased respectively after preparation and before competition phases. Conclusions Findings indicated that long and intensive exercises weaken the immune system, while moderate and short drills strengthened this system. PMID:23012638

  18. Cortisol levels at baseline and under stress in adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with or without comorbid conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2016-08-30

    Reported findings on cortisol reactivity to stress in young people with ADHD are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by high rates of comorbidity with Conduct Disorder (CD). The present study examined cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in a large sample of adolescent males with ADHD (n=202), with or without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD). Associations between stress reactivity and callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were also assessed. The ADHD only (n=95) and ADHD+CD (n=107) groups did not differ in baseline cortisol, but the ADHD+CD group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress reactivity relative to the ADHD only group. Regression analyses indicated that ADHD symptom severity predicted reduced baseline cortisol, whereas CD symptom severity predicted increased baseline cortisol (ADHD β=-0.24, CD β=0.16, R=0.26) and reduced cortisol stress reactivity (β=-0.17, R=0.17). Callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were not significantly related to baseline or stress-induced cortisol. Impaired cortisol reactivity is hypothesised to reflect fearlessness and is associated with deficient emotion regulation and inhibition of aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Consequently, it may partly explain the greater severity of problems seen in those with comorbid ADHD and CD. PMID:27280522

  19. Acute lymphopenia, stress, and plasma cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, L H; Theunissen, P M; Went, K

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were determined in 51 children on admission to hospital for a variety of acute illnesses which were associated with a lymphopenia, and again when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. The ratio cortisol level/lymphocyte count was much higher in the acute phase of the illness than later when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. It is concluded that the lymphocyte count is a useful means of detecting an acute stress condition, and the time of return of normal plasma cortisol levels. PMID:1167069

  20. Electrochemical Sensing of Cortisol: A Recent Update

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday life style contributes to health disparities experience by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol “a steroid hormone” is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol, is indicative of conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome Addison’s disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in biofluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM), polymer composite, etc. for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans in case to case such as farmers, fire fighters, etc. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  1. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts. PMID:21282254

  2. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts.

  3. Salivary cortisol changes in humans after winning or losing a dominance contest depend on implicit power motivation.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michelle M; Welsh, Kathryn M; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2006-03-01

    In two studies, one with an all-male German sample and the other with a mixed-sex U.S. sample, subjects competed in pairs on reaction time-based cognitive tasks. Participants were not aware that contest outcome was experimentally varied. In both studies, implicit power motivation, defined as the non-conscious need to dominate or have impact on others, predicted changes in salivary cortisol from before to after the contest. Increased cortisol post-contest was associated with high levels of power motivation among losers but with low levels of power motivation among winners, suggesting that a dominance success is stressful for low-power individuals, whereas a social defeat is stressful for high-power individuals. These results emerged only in participants tested in the afternoon, possibly because of greater variability in cortisol in the morning due to the rapid decline after the morning peak. These studies add to the evidence that individual differences greatly influence whether a social stressor like losing a contest activates the HPA axis in humans.

  4. Circulating LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol levels in the fetus in late gestation and in newborn male and female lambs.

    PubMed

    Savoie, S; Bourel, B; Hamel, R; Buithieu, M; Jéquier, J C; Bertrand, J; Saez, J M; Collu, R; Ducharme, J R

    1981-01-01

    Gonadotropins, prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol (F) levels were determined from 14 days before birth to term in 3 female and 3 male ovine fetuses with a chronically implanted venous catheter, and in the same animals from birth to 72 h of age. In both sexes, plasma gonadotropins and androgens were low throughout the period of study while plasma F increased with gestational age. After birth, plasma gonadotropins and PRL tended to increase progressively with time while PRL concentrations were significantly higher in female than in male lambs. F and T concentrations decreased significantly within the first 12 and 6 h of postnatal life. Higher T values were again observed at 36 h in male lambs. These data indicate that the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is relatively quiescent in the last 14 days of gestation but is activated within the first 72 h after birth.

  5. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  6. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Seven ACC patients (47%) had hair cortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients.

  7. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

    2009-06-22

    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

  8. The impact of time of waking and concurrent subjective stress on the cortisol response to awakening.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily; Magid, Kesson; Steptoe, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    Both time of awakening and stress are thought to influence the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), but the relative importance of these factors is unclear. This study assessed these influences in a combined within- and between-subject design. Data were collected from 32 men and women working as station staff in the London underground railway system in three conditions: early-shift days, day-shift days, and control days. Saliva samples were obtained on waking, 30 and 60 min later, together with measures of concurrent subjective stress, sleep quality the night before, and accumulated stress at the end of the day. Participants woke up more than 3.5h earlier on average on early-shift than day-shift or control days, and cortisol levels on waking were lower in the early-shift condition. The CAR (assessed both with increases from waking to 30 min and with area under the curve measures) was greater on early-shift days. However, respondents were more stressed over the hour after waking and reported more sleep disturbance on early-shift days; when these factors were taken into account, the difference in CAR related to experimental condition was no longer significant. Comparisons were also made between individuals who started their day-shifts in the morning and afternoon. The morning shift group woke an average of 2h earlier than did the afternoon shift group, but did not differ on stress, sleep quality, or CAR. Stress assessed retrospectively at the end of the day was not associated with the CAR. We conclude that early waking, stress early in the day, and sleep disturbance often coincide, but need to be distinguished in order accurately to interpret differences in CAR magnitude. PMID:15471612

  9. The impact of time of waking and concurrent subjective stress on the cortisol response to awakening.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily; Magid, Kesson; Steptoe, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    Both time of awakening and stress are thought to influence the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), but the relative importance of these factors is unclear. This study assessed these influences in a combined within- and between-subject design. Data were collected from 32 men and women working as station staff in the London underground railway system in three conditions: early-shift days, day-shift days, and control days. Saliva samples were obtained on waking, 30 and 60 min later, together with measures of concurrent subjective stress, sleep quality the night before, and accumulated stress at the end of the day. Participants woke up more than 3.5h earlier on average on early-shift than day-shift or control days, and cortisol levels on waking were lower in the early-shift condition. The CAR (assessed both with increases from waking to 30 min and with area under the curve measures) was greater on early-shift days. However, respondents were more stressed over the hour after waking and reported more sleep disturbance on early-shift days; when these factors were taken into account, the difference in CAR related to experimental condition was no longer significant. Comparisons were also made between individuals who started their day-shifts in the morning and afternoon. The morning shift group woke an average of 2h earlier than did the afternoon shift group, but did not differ on stress, sleep quality, or CAR. Stress assessed retrospectively at the end of the day was not associated with the CAR. We conclude that early waking, stress early in the day, and sleep disturbance often coincide, but need to be distinguished in order accurately to interpret differences in CAR magnitude.

  10. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  11. Nocturnal cortisol release in relation to sleep structure.

    PubMed

    Follenius, M; Brandenberger, G; Bandesapt, J J; Libert, J P; Ehrhart, J

    1992-02-01

    The relationship between the temporal organization of cortisol secretion and sleep structure is controversial. To determine whether the cortisol profile is modified by 4 hours of sleep deprivation, which shifts slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes, 12 normal men were studied during a reference night, a sleep deprivation night and a recovery night. Plasma cortisol was measured in 10-minute blood samples. Analysis of the nocturnal cortisol profiles and the concomitant patterns of sleep stage distribution indicates that the cortisol profile is not influenced by sleep deprivation. Neither the starting time of the cortisol increase nor the mean number and amplitude of pulses was significantly different between the three nights. SWS episodes were significantly associated with declining plasma cortisol levels (p less than 0.01). This was especially revealed after sleep deprivation, as SWS episodes were particularly present during the second half of the night, a period of enhanced cortisol secretion. In 73% of cases, rapid eye movement sleep phases started when cortisol was reflecting diminished adrenocortical activity. Cortisol increases were not concomitant with a specific sleep stage but generally accompanied prolonged waking periods. These findings tend to imply that cortisol-releasing mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of sleep.

  12. The Association between Prenatal Exposure to Cigarettes and Cortisol Reactivity in 7-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Lopez, Francisco; Granger, Douglas A.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes and adrenocortical responses to stress in 7-month old infants. Cortisol levels were assessed twice prior to and twice following affect-eliciting procedures in 111 (59 exposed and 52 nonexposed) infants. Cortisol reactivity was defined as the difference between the peak poststressor cortical level and the pretask cortisol level. Higher values indicated higher cortisol reactivity. Exposed infants had higher peak cortisol reactivity than non exposed infants. There were no differences in pretask cortisol levels. Maternal hostility mediated the association between cigarette exposure and peak cortisol reactivity. Furthermore, infant gender moderated this association such that exposed boys had significantly higher peak cortisol reactivity than nonexposed infants or exposed girls. These findings provide additional evidence that prenatal cigarette exposure is associated with dysregulation during infancy and that early adverse, non-social experiences may have relatively long-lasting effects on cortisol reactivity in infants. PMID:18690653

  13. Effects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men.

    PubMed

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Arlt, Lea Esther; Roelofs, Karin; Kölsch, Monika; Hülsemann, Mareike Johanna; Schächinger, Hartmut; Naumann, Ewald

    2016-05-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and rapid non-genomic effects have not been studied. The present study sought to investigate the impact of acute cortisol administration as well as basal cortisol levels on cognitive flexibility, a core executive function, within the non-genomic time frame. Thirty-eight healthy male participants were randomly assigned to intravenously receive either cortisol or a placebo before performing a task switching paradigm with happy and angry faces as stimuli. Cortisol levels were measured at six points during the experiment. Additionally, before the experiment, basal cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were collected on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60min after. First and foremost, results showed a pronounced impact of acute and basal cortisol on reaction time switch costs, particularly for angry faces. In the placebo group, low basal cortisol was associated with minimal switch costs, whereas high basal cortisol was related to maximal switch costs. In contrast, after cortisol injection, basal cortisol levels showed no impact. These results show that cognitive flexibility-enhancing effects of acute cortisol administration are only seen in men with high basal cortisol levels. This result supports the context dependency of cortisol administration and shows the relevance of taking basal cortisol levels into account. PMID:26944609

  14. Cortisol elimination from plasma in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Koska, J; Kovalancik, M; Killinger, Z; Payer, J; Vigas, M; Jezova, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve premenopausal female patients with RA (39.8 (1.8) years) and nine healthy control women matched for age and body mass index (42 (3.3) years) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had previously been receiving treatment with glucocorticoids. After dexamethasone suppression (2 mg by mouth) the evening before the study, 20 mg of hydrocortisone was given. Blood and saliva samples were drawn six hours after injection of hydrocortisone. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured. Results: Dexamethasone administration suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations to an almost undetectable level in all subjects, except one with RA. In this subject, a raised concentration of plasma cortisol was verified by repeated analysis despite the fact that cortisol concentration in the saliva sample measured simultaneously was not raised. No significant difference in the disappearance curve of cortisol in plasma or in salivary cortisol levels was found between the patients with RA and the healthy controls. Conclusions: The profile of disappearance of total cortisol from plasma, and salivary cortisol levels during the elimination phase after its intravenous administration, are unchanged in premenopausal women with RA. Alterations in cortisol clearance are not likely to have a role in cortisol availability in patients with RA. PMID:12810434

  15. A Pilot Study of Psychotherapist Trainees’ Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Levels During Treatment of Recently Suicidal Clients With Borderline Traits

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Grant D.; Iverson, Katherine M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus; MacLane, Chelsea; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; Crenshaw, Katrina Y.; Erikson, Karen M.; Katrichak, Barrie M.; Oser, Megan; Pruitt, Larry D.; Watkins, Melanie M.

    2010-01-01

    Psychotherapists often experience stress while providing psychotherapy, in particular when working with difficult presentations such as suicidality. As part of a larger study on the treatment of recently suicidal college students with borderline traits, 6 therapists in training collected their own salivary samples for alpha-amylase (AA) and cortisol (C) analyses immediately before and after sessions with 2 selected clients. On average, samples were collected for the same therapist–patient dyad throughout the year-long study to ensure that data reflected therapist responses across stages of treatment. Therapists also completed a working alliance questionnaire and rated perceived session difficulty immediately after each selected session. Contrary to expectations, therapists demonstrated elevated levels of stress as measured by AA and C at presession relative to postsession levels. Greater session difficulty was related to more pronounced declines in AA, whereas a stronger working alliance was linked to more pronounced reductions in C. Results suggest that physiological stress responses while working with recently suicidal clients with borderline traits occur primarily in terms of session anticipatory anxiety, whereas AA and C changes may be affected differently by factors such as session difficulty and working alliance. This is a pilot study, limited by its sample size, but the design, findings, and inclusion of physiological measures present an initial step in an essential line of research. PMID:21709772

  16. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary

  17. Analysis For Monitoring the Earth Science Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Peter; Richon, Karen V.; Wright, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation consists of Aqua, Aura, PARASOL, CALIPSO, Cloudsat, and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO). The coordination of flight dynamics activities between these missions is critical to the safety and success of the Afternoon Constellation. This coordination is based on two main concepts, the control box and the zone-of-exclusion. This paper describes how these two concepts are implemented in the Constellation Coordination System (CCS). The CCS is a collection of tools that enables the collection and distribution of flight dynamics products among the missions, allows cross-mission analyses to be performed through a web-based interface, performs automated analyses to monitor the overall constellation, and notifies the missions of changes in the status of the other missions.

  18. Reconciling spatial and temporal soil moisture effects on afternoon rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Guillod, Benoit P.; Orlowsky, Boris; Miralles, Diego G.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture impacts on precipitation have been strongly debated. Recent observational evidence of afternoon rain falling preferentially over land parcels that are drier than the surrounding areas (negative spatial effect), contrasts with previous reports of a predominant positive temporal effect. However, whether spatial effects relating to soil moisture heterogeneity translate into similar temporal effects remains unknown. Here we show that afternoon precipitation events tend to occur during wet and heterogeneous soil moisture conditions, while being located over comparatively drier patches. Using remote-sensing data and a common analysis framework, spatial and temporal correlations with opposite signs are shown to coexist within the same region and data set. Positive temporal coupling might enhance precipitation persistence, while negative spatial coupling tends to regionally homogenize land surface conditions. Although the apparent positive temporal coupling does not necessarily imply a causal relationship, these results reconcile the notions of moisture recycling with local, spatially negative feedbacks. PMID:25740589

  19. Obesity and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P; Rosmond, R

    2000-10-01

    Cortisol in obesity is a much-studied problem. Previous information indicates that cortisol secretion is elevated but that circulatory concentrations are normal or low, suggesting that peripheral disappearance rate is elevated. These studies have usually not taken into account the difference between central and peripheral types of obesity. Recent studies using saliva cortisol have indicated that the problem is complex with both high and low secretion of cortisol, perhaps depending on the status of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis. A significant background factor seems to be environmental stress. The results also suggest that the pattern of cortisol secretion may be important. Other neuroendocrine pathways are also involved, including the central sympathetic nervous system, the gonadal and growth hormone axes, and the leptin system. In concert, these abnormalities seem to be responsible for the abnormal metabolism often seen in central obesity. Several associated polymorphisms of candidate genes may provide a genetic background. Cortisol conversion to inactive metabolites may be a factor increasing central signals to secretion and may add to the increased secretion of cortisol induced by centrally acting factors. Perinatal factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and its complications. The mechanism involved is not known, but available information suggests that programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be responsible.

  20. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of endogenous cortisol in hair using (13)C3-labeled cortisol as surrogate analyte.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Braun, Ueli; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Hair cortisol levels are increasingly applied as a measure for stress in humans and mammals. Cortisol is an endogenous compound and is always present within the hair matrix. Therefore, "cortisol-free hair matrix" is a critical point for any analytical method to accurately quantify especially low cortisol levels. The aim of this project was to modify current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine low endogenous cortisol concentrations in hair. For that purpose, (13)C3-labeled cortisol, which is not naturally present in hair (above 13C natural abundance levels), was used for calibration and comparative validation applying cortisol versus (13)C3-labeled cortisol. Cortisol was extracted from 20mg hair (standard sample amount) applying an optimized single step extraction protocol. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of cortisol using either cortisol or (13)C3-cortisol as calibrators and D7-cortisone as internal standard (IS). The two methods (cortisol/(13)C3-labeled cortisol) were validated in a concentration range up to 500pg/mg and showed good linearity for both analytes (cortisol: R(2)=0.9995; (13)C3-cortisol R(2)=0.9992). Slight differences were observed for limit of detection (LOD) (0.2pg/mg/0.1pg/mg) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (1pg/mg/0.5pg/mg). Precision was good with a maximum deviation of 8.8% and 10% for cortisol and (13)C3-cortisol respectively. Accuracy and matrix effects were good for both analytes except for the quality control (QC) low cortisol. QC low (2.5pg/mg) showed matrix effects (126.5%, RSD 35.5%) and accuracy showed a deviation of 26% when using cortisol to spike. These effects are likely to be caused by the unknown amount of endogenous cortisol in the different hair samples used to determine validation parameters like matrix effect, LOQ and accuracy. No matrix effects were observed for the high QC (400pg/mg) samples. Recovery was good with 92.7%/87.3% (RSD 9.9%/6.2%) for QC low and

  1. Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-12-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels.

  2. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  3. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  4. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  5. The use of saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and catecholamine measurements for a noninvasive assessment of stress responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Beerda, B; Schilder, M B; Janssen, N S; Mol, J A

    1996-09-01

    A problem in assessing animal welfare is that collecting data in itself may be stressful to the animals. Therefore, noninvasive methods for collecting data have to be devised and tested. A first step in investigating saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and urinary catecholamine as noninvasive indicators of canine well-being is the validation of these hormonal measures as alternatives for those in plasma. Using a model of insulin (0.2 U/kg)-induced hypoglycemia, we report on stress-induced responses in saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and urinary catacholamines relative to cortisol and catecholamine responses in plasma. Hypoglycemia in six dogs induced significant (P < 0.05) increases in plasma cortisol and adrenaline but not noradrenaline. Saliva cortisol responses expressed as net area under the response curve correlated significantly with plasma cortisol responses (r > 0.92). Saliva cortisol levels measured 7 to 12% of plasma cortisol concentrations. Cortisol/creatinine rations in urine were significantly higher when voided after insulin administeration, compared to when voided after saline treatment. Insulin-induced increments in cortisol/ creatinine ratios were nonsignificant when urine samples were assayed after dichloromethane extraction. Although urinary adrenaline/creatinine (A/C) ratios were significantly correlated with maximum plasma adrenaline values after insulin administration, A/C ratios did not differ significantly between insulin and saline treatment. The present experiment provides strong support for using saliva sampling and urine collection as noninvasive methods to establish stress-induced cortisol responses. For measuring acute plasma adrenaline responses, measuring A/C ratios may not be a valid alternative.

  6. Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24 h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor = 50.26 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude = 45.24 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71 ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13 h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

  7. Immunocompetence of breeding females is sensitive to cortisol levels but not to communal rearing in the degu (Octodon degus).

    PubMed

    Ebensperger, Luis A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Hayes, Loren D; Nova, Esteban; Salazar, Fabián; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Becker, María Inés

    2015-03-01

    One hypothesis largely examined in social insects is that cooperation in the context of breeding benefits individuals through decreasing the burden of immunocompetence and provide passive immunity through social contact. Similarly, communal rearing in social mammals may benefit adult female members of social groups by reducing the cost of immunocompetence, and through the transfer of immunological compounds during allonursing. Yet, these benefits may come at a cost to breeders in terms of a need to increase investment in individual immunocompetence. We examined how these potential immunocompetence costs and benefits relate to reproductive success and survival in a natural population of the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus. We related immunocompetence (based on ratios of white blood cell counts, total and specific immunoglobulins of G isotype titers) and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGC) levels of adults immunized with hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas to measures of sociality (group size) and communal rearing (number of breeding females). Offspring immunocompetence was quantified based on circulating levels of the same immune parameters. Neither female nor offspring immunocompetence was influenced by communal rearing or sociality. These findings did not support that communal rearing and sociality enhance the ability of females to respond to immunological challenges during lactation, or contribute to enhance offspring condition (based on immunocompetence) or early survival (i.e., to 3months of age). Instead, levels of humoral and cellular components of immunocompetence were associated with variation in glucorcorticoid levels of females. We hypothesize that this covariation is driven by physiological (life-history) adjustments needed to sustain breeding. PMID:25497887

  8. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  9. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  10. Acute Effect of Morning and Afternoon Aerobic Exercise on Appetite of Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Mostafaee, Masoumeh; Mazaheri, Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The best time of exercise along the day for weight management in overweight and obese patients is not determined. The time of exercise may influence its effect on appetite and food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different times of exercise during the day on appetite, energy intake, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on overweight women. Patients and Methods: Fifty overweight female subjects were recruited in this interventional study. Two sessions of exercise were performed in the morning and afternoon with the target heart rate corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT). The appetite was evaluated with visual analogue scale, the energy intake was measured with 24 hours food record and the RPE was determined by visual Borg scale; these variables were compared between the two sessions. Results: The behavior of appetite in relation to hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, tendency to salty, savoury, sweet and fatty foods, did not change significantly after both exercise sessions (P > 0.05). Except for the satiety, no significant difference was found among changes in the appetite scores between the two exercise sessions. The median change in the satiety score of the morning exercise was significantly higher than that of the afternoon exercise (5.5 (-8.5, 22.5) vs. -1 (-8, 4.5) respectively, P = 0.01). The median RPE value did not differ significantly between the morning and afternoon sessions (13 (12, 14) vs. 13 (12, 13) respectively, P = 0.46). There was no significant association between the time of exercise and the estimates of the carbohydrate (P = 0.41), fat (P = 0.23), protein (P = 0.13), and calorie intake (P = 0.18). Conclusions: One session of moderate intensity exercise disregarding the time of exercise did not affect appetite significantly. However, morning exercise may cause greater levels of satiety in comparison with afternoon exercise. Moderate intensity aerobic

  11. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of Same Day O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within urban air sheds specific ambient air pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the day. For example, in environments dominated by mobile sources, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with morning and afternoon rush hours , whil...

  12. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, H Marike; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2013-04-01

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms and/or treatment in the past 12 months) and asthma development (asthma at a specific survey while not having asthma at the previous survey(s)) were assessed in the TRAILS study (n=2230, mean age at survey 1 11 years, survey 2 14 years and survey 3 16 years). Logistic regression models were used to study associations between: 1) cortisol (cortisol awakening response, area under the curve (AUC) with respect to the ground (AUCg) or with respect to the increase (AUCi), and evening cortisol) and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol upon stress (AUCg or AUCi) and asthma. The meta-analyses included nine case-control articles on basal cortisol in asthma. No significant association was found between: 1) cortisol and asthma (age 11 years) or asthma development (age 14 or 16 years); 2) cortisol upon stress and asthma (age 16 years). The meta-analysis found lower morning and evening cortisol levels in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics; however, the summary estimates were not significant. We found no evidence supporting a role for cortisol in asthma and asthma development.

  13. Plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin and cortisol in overweight subjects who develop impaired fasting glucose: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Shand, B I; Frampton, C M; Elder, P A; Scott, R S

    2009-03-01

    Circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and total and calculated free cortisol were measured in 206 overweight subjects to investigate whether or not they were markers of insulin resistance. Measurements were carried out on two occasions 36 months apart and subjects were grouped according to fasting plasma glucose. Fifty-one subjects, with a normal basal fasting glucose (<5.6 mmol/l) developed impaired fasting glucose 3 years later (> or = 5.6 mmol/l). Analysis either in toto or based on gender showed a highly significant increase in fasting insulin and insulin resistance, a modest increase in body mass index (BMI), but importantly no change in plasma SHBG, CBG, or cortisol concentrations. Subjects (n=101) with a normal fasting glucose both at baseline (<5.6 mmol/l) and at 36 months showed no significant change in fasting insulin, insulin resistance, SHBG, CBG, cortisol, or BMI. Cross-sectional analysis of the study population showed that plasma SHBG correlated negatively with insulin resistance both in men and women. Overall SHBG at baseline was not predictive of changes in fasting glucose. In females, plasma CBG correlated negatively with BMI. The major finding is that overweight subjects who developed impaired fasting glucose showed no significant change in plasma SHBG, CBG or cortisol, and therefore these indices are probably not early markers of insulin resistance in overweight subjects.

  14. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  15. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  16. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Chopra, Kevin; Basile, Vincenzo Santo; Masellis, Mario; Goodwill, Alasdair; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48) and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA). The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous. PMID:26844238

  17. Acute stress, memory, attention and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Vedhara, K; Hyde, J; Gilchrist, I D; Tytherleigh, M; Plummer, S

    2000-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the relationship between acute changes in cortisol and memory and attention in the context of an acute naturalistic stressor, namely, examination stress. Sixty students (36 male, 24 female) participated in an assessment of self-reported levels of stress, salivary cortisol, short term memory, selective and divided attention and auditory verbal working memory. Assessments were conducted during a non-exam and exam period. The results revealed that the exam period was associated with an increase in perceived levels of stress, but also a significant reduction in levels of salivary cortisol, compared with the non-exam period. This reduction in cortisol was associated with enhanced short-term memory (as measured by the total number of words recalled in a free recall task), impaired attention and an impairment in the primacy effect (a hippocampal-specific index of short term memory), but no significant effects on auditory verbal working memory. It was concluded that the results support the view that cortisol can modulate cognitive processes and that the effects of corticosteroids on cognitive function are selective.

  18. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Results Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all p<.041). A one standard deviation increase in night cortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r >.36, all p<.017). Discussion Abnormal cortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. PMID:25647344

  19. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  20. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  1. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  3. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  4. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  5. Shiftwork and Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Patterns Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between shiftwork and diurnal salivary cortisol among 319 police officers (77.7% men) Methods Information on shiftwork was obtained from the City of Buffalo, NY electronic payroll records. Saliva was collected using Salivettes at seven time points and analyzed for free cortisol concentrations (nmol/L) using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mean slopes and areas under the curve were compared across shift schedule using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Officers working primarily on the night shift had a significantly shallower slope. Mean slope (nmol/L/minutes) of the cortisol curve varied significantly across shifts (day: −0.00332 ± 0.00017, afternoon: −0.00313 ± 0.00018, night: −0.00257 ± 0.0002); adjusted P = 0.023. Conclusions Our results suggest that night shiftwork is a work-place factor that may alter the response of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to the circadian cues responsible for the pattern of the diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:27129020

  6. Martian Clouds Pass By on a Winter Afternoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured a view of wispy afternoon clouds, not unlike fair weather clouds on Earth, passing overhead on the rover's 956th sol, or Martian day (Oct. 2, 2006). With Opportunity facing northeast, the clouds appear to drift gently toward the west in this movie taken with the rover's navigation camera.

    The 10 frames, taken 32 seconds apart, show the formation and evolution of what are likely mid-level, convective water clouds. Such clouds are common near Mars' equator at this time of the Martian year. They have been observed by both of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, by satellites orbiting Mars, and by the Hubble Space Telescope. In this case, the clouds appear to develop at a fixed location, in the center of the frame about 25 degrees above the horizon. This style of origin suggests that a thermal plume is rising over a surface feature. In spite of apparent winds aloft, the thermal plume appears to remain stationary for the 5-minute duration of the movie.

    Though scientists have determined from the images that the wind bearing is east-northeast, approximately 80 degrees, it is not possible on the basis of the movie to unambiguously determine the height and speed of the clouds. Scientists estimate, based on models of atmospheric wind profiles and the apparent displacement of the clouds, that all of the clouds in the movie are at about the same height somewhere between 5 kilometers and 25 kilometers (3 to 20 miles) above the surface. The clouds are estimated to be moving at 2.5 meters per second, if they are low, to 12.5 meters per second, if they are high (8 feet per second to 41 feet per second).

    Like clouds on Earth, these Martian clouds are probably composed of ice crystals and possibly supercooled water droplets. They are similar in appearance to terrestrial cirrocumulus or high altocumulus clouds. On Earth, such clouds are relatively transient and consist of small, individual cloudlets arranged in rippled

  7. Cortisol and corticosterone independence in cortisol-dominant wildlife.

    PubMed

    Koren, Lee; Whiteside, Douglas; Fahlman, Sa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Kutz, Susan; Checkley, Sylvia; Dumond, Mathieu; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine

    2012-05-15

    Species have traditionally been defined as cortisol-dominant or corticosterone-dominant, depending on the glucocorticoid that is reported. To assess the degree of covariance versus independence between cortisol and corticosterone, 245 serum samples belonging to 219 individuals from 18 cortisol-dominant, non-domesticated species (6 mammalian orders) were compared by mass spectrometry. In these samples, which were elevated above baseline, concentration ranges were overlapping for cortisol and corticosterone although cortisol was dominant in every sample except one of 17 bighorn sheep with a corticosterone-biased cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio of 0.17. As expected, cortisol and corticosterone were strongly associated among species (r(2)=0.8; species with high absolute cortisol tend to have high absolute corticosterone concentrations), with wide variation in the species-average cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio (range 7.5-49) and an even wider ratio range across individuals (0.2-341). However, only 9 out of 13 species with >7 individuals showed a positive association between cortisol and corticosterone among individuals, and repeated measures of the cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio within individuals were weakly associated (CV range 3-136%). We conclude that corticosterone, although at lower concentrations, has the potential to signal independently of cortisol, and should be included in integrated endocrine models of stress responses.

  8. Wind direction variability in Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Mahrt, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Understanding wind direction (WD) variability better is important for several reasons. Air pollution models need information about how variable wind direction is in different conditions (Davies and Thomson 1999). Accurate predictions of dispersion are important for human health and safety and allow for adaptation planning (Nagle et al. 2011). Other applications include horizontal diffusion, efficiency and fatigue of wind machines and air-sea interaction (Mahrt 2011). Most studies of wind direction variability have focused on nocturnal conditions because of greater variability in light winds. Modelling WD variability in transition periods when both mean wind speed and variance of the wind components are in a state of change can, however, also be very challenging and has not been the focus of earlier studies. The evening transitioning to the nocturnal boundary layer can play an important role in the diffusion process of pollutants and scalars emitted at surface and transported within the atmosphere. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign that took place in southern France in June and July 2011 focused on the decaying turbulence of the late afternoon boundary layer and related issues (Lothon et al. 2012). We analyse field measurements from BLLAST to investigate WD variability in the evening transition period. Standard deviations of horizontal wind direction fluctuations in the lowest 60 m of the boundary layer have been examined for dependence on mean wind speed, higher order moments and averaging time. Measurement results are interpreted using measured and idealized probability density functions of horizontal wind vectors. These are also used to develop analytical functions describing how WD variability depends on wind speed, variance and other controlling factors in the atmospheric boundary layer. References: Davies B.M., Thomson D.J., 1999. Comparison of some parameterizations of wind direction variability with observations

  9. Cerebrovascular responses during rowing: Do circadian rhythms explain morning and afternoon performance differences?

    PubMed

    Faull, O K; Cotter, J D; Lucas, S J E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebrovascular responses to rowing exercise, investigating whether their diurnal variation might explain performance differences across a day. Twelve male rowers completed incremental rowing exercise and a 2000-m ergometer time trial at 07:00 h and 16:00 h, 1 week apart, while middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebral (prefrontal), and muscular (vastus lateralis) tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin volume (via near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate, and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2) were recorded. MCAv was 20-25% above resting levels (68 ± 12 cm/s) during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities, despite PET CO2 being reduced during maximal efforts (down ∼ 0.5-0.8 kPa); thus revealing a different perfusion profile to the inverted-U observed in other exercise modes. The afternoon time trial was 3.4 s faster (95% confidence interval 0.9-5.8 s) and mean power output 3.2% higher (337 vs 347 W; P = 0.04), in conjunction with similar exercise-induced elevations in MCAv (P = 0.60) and reductions in cerebral oxygenation (TOI) (P = 0.12). At the muscle, afternoon trials involved similar oxygen extraction (HHb volume and TOI) albeit from a relatively lower total Hb volume (P < 0.01). In conclusion, rowing performance was better in the afternoon, but not in conjunction with differences in MCAv or exercise-induced differences in cerebral oxygenation. PMID:24942089

  10. Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Manser, Marta B

    2014-11-01

    Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered exogenous cortisol. We found a positive association between mean fGC concentrations and vigilance behavior, but no relationship with the intensity of behavioral responses to alarm calls. However, in response to alarm call playbacks, individuals administered cortisol took slightly longer to resume foraging than control individuals treated with saline solution. Vigilance behavior, which occurs in the presence and absence of dangerous stimuli, serves to detect and avoid potential dangers, whereas responses to alarm calls serve to avoid immediate predation. Our data show that mean fGC excretion in meerkats was associated with vigilance, as a re-occurring anti-predator behavior over long time periods, and experimentally induced elevations of plasma cortisol affected the response to immediate threats. Together, our results indicate an association between the two types of anti-predator behavior and glucocorticoids, but that the underlying mechanisms may differ. Our study emphasizes the need to consider appropriate measures of adrenal activity specific to different contexts when assessing links between stress physiology and different anti-predator behaviors.

  11. Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Manser, Marta B

    2014-11-01

    Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered exogenous cortisol. We found a positive association between mean fGC concentrations and vigilance behavior, but no relationship with the intensity of behavioral responses to alarm calls. However, in response to alarm call playbacks, individuals administered cortisol took slightly longer to resume foraging than control individuals treated with saline solution. Vigilance behavior, which occurs in the presence and absence of dangerous stimuli, serves to detect and avoid potential dangers, whereas responses to alarm calls serve to avoid immediate predation. Our data show that mean fGC excretion in meerkats was associated with vigilance, as a re-occurring anti-predator behavior over long time periods, and experimentally induced elevations of plasma cortisol affected the response to immediate threats. Together, our results indicate an association between the two types of anti-predator behavior and glucocorticoids, but that the underlying mechanisms may differ. Our study emphasizes the need to consider appropriate measures of adrenal activity specific to different contexts when assessing links between stress physiology and different anti-predator behaviors. PMID:25218254

  12. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p<0.05, 0.005, and 0.01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p<0.1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated corticotropin (ACTH) was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p<0.05). The cortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p<0.1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  13. The Impact of Maneuver Failures on the EOS Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The first four satellites, Aqua, CloudSat, Calipso, and Parasol, in NASA's EOS Afternoon constellation will fly in similar orbits within 4 minutes of each other. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of one or more missions failing to perform a scheduled orbit maintenance maneuver. Tools were developed to rapidly calculate the initial orbital elements for the satellites that established the formation. Baseline maneuver strategies were implemented to maintain the desired spacing of the satellites. Maneuver failures were examined and close approach opportunities were identified. It was found that close-approaches between CloudSat and Calipso could occur in less than one day after a missed maneuver if close coordination between the missions is not achieved.

  14. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress.

  15. Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as manifest in salivary cortisol measures. About 23% of the 360 children (ages 6–10 years, primarily 7–8) showed at least 1 expression of CI anger in situations designed to elicit positive affect. Expression of anger across 2 positive assessments was less common (around 4%). CI anger predicted the hypothesized lower levels of cortisol beyond that attributed to context appropriate anger. Boys' CI anger predicted lower morning cortisol and flatter slopes. Results suggest that this novel approach to studying children's emotion across varying contexts can provide insight into affective style. PMID:19702392

  16. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  17. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  18. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  19. Relationship between changes in mRNAs of the genes encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage in head kidney and plasma levels of cortisol in response to different kinds of acute stress in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Geslin, Malika; Auperin, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the expression of several genes involved in cortisol synthesis in head kidneys, the site of cortisol production, and in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was examined in response to two different acute stressors and an acute ACTH treatment. mRNAs levels of the "steroidogenic acute regulatory" (StAR) sterol transport protein, which transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane as well as cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450(SCC)) were determined in head kidney (containing the interrenal tissue). In one experiment, we also quantified 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3B-HSD) and cytochrome P450(11beta) (11B-H) mRNAs. The presence of these four transcripts in the head kidney was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. For each stress condition, mRNA levels were quantified by quantitative or real-time RT-PCR. The results of these two methods were highly correlated. An acute stress induced by capture, short confinement (2min), and anesthesia (3min) resulted in significant elevation of plasma cortisol (30-fold higher than controls) and an increase in levels of StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs 3h post-stress. When fish were submitted to an acute stress caused by 5min of chase with a net in a tank, plasma cortisol reached a peak within 1h, but after 3h, levels were only 5-fold higher in stressed trout than in controls and no variations in the expression of StAR, P450(SCC), 3B-HSD, and 11B-H were observed whatever the time post-stress. One hour after acute ACTH stimulation (5IU/kg), plasma cortisol level was 4-fold higher than in control trout and no changes in StAR and P450(SCC) mRNAs levels were detected. The data suggest that the high levels of cortisol after stress need an activation of genes involved in cortisol synthesis, but lower levels do not. Futhermore, under these three test conditions, we always found a strong positive correlation between mRNA levels of StAR and P450(SCC), in contrast to what has been described in

  20. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  1. Effect of different head and neck positions on behaviour, heart rate variability and cortisol levels in lunged Royal Dutch Sport horses.

    PubMed

    Smiet, E; Van Dierendonck, M C; Sleutjens, J; Menheere, P P C A; van Breda, E; de Boer, D; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D; van der Kolk, J H

    2014-10-01

    Different head-and-neck positions (HNPs) are discussed in relation to potential welfare issues. To evaluate the effect on welfare, seven Royal Dutch Sport horses were studied in five predetermined HNPs: (1) unrestrained (HNP1); (2) neck raised, bridge of nose around the vertical (HNP2); (3) neck lowered and considerably flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the chest (HNP4); (4) neck raised and extended, bridge of nose in front of the vertical (HNP5), and (5) neck lowered and flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the carpus (HNP7). A standardised exercise test (SET) of 34 min consisted of trot, canter and walk. Behaviour was recorded with a pre-defined ethogram and R-R intervals measured using telemetry. Cortisol concentrations were taken at the start, 5 and 30 min after the SET. Behaviour around the SET was scored separately. Conflict behaviours increased significantly during HNP2 when compared with HNP1, HNP4 and HNP7 during the SET, and there was significant negative anticipation before HNP2 and HNP7. The heart rate variability (HRV) frequency domain for HNP2 showed a significantly increased low frequency peak (LFpeak) compared with other HNPs, and there was a decrease in very low frequency (VLF%) compared with HNP1. HNP4 showed a significant increase in LF% and decrease in VLF% compared with HNP1. Saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in HNP2 at 5 and 30 min after exercise. Increased conflict behaviour was mostly observed in HNP2, but there was a raised HRV suggesting a sympathetic shift in HNP2 and HNP4, and increased cortisol concentrations during HNP2 indicated a stress response.

  2. The Differential Impacts of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse and Internalizing Problems on Daytime Cortisol Rhythm in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of early physical and sexual abuse (EPA/SA) occurring in the first 5 years of life was investigated in relation to depressive and internalizing symptomatology and diurnal cortisol regulation. In a summer camp context, school-aged maltreated (n = 265) and nonmaltreated (n = 288) children provided morning and late afternoon saliva samples…

  3. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  4. SCN controlled circadian arousal and the afternoon "nap zone".

    PubMed

    Broughton, R J

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual model for the regulation of the circasemidian sleep propensity process with emphasis on a possible mechanism of the afternoon "nap zone". It is proposed that the afternoon nap zone is due to increasing sleep propensity after morning wakening (Borb ly's Process-S) being overwhelmed by a light-sensitive SCN-dependent circadian arousal process of the type discovered by Edgar et al., (1993) and currently being identified in its pathways and neurochemistry by Jouvet and colleagues. It is maintained that this arousal process is reflected in the circadian core body temperature pattern, and that under normal entrained conditions the latter does not resemble a sine-wave or skewed sine-wave. Rather it is very asymmetrical in time and somewhat asymmetrical in amplitude. Cosinor type analyses which enforce symmetry in time and amplitude are therefore ill suited to adequately curve-fit the empirical data. The shape of the circadian arousal system was clarified by meta-analyses of data from three laboratories for three conditions: the normal entrained state, the constant routine, and temporal isolation. Under normal entrained conditions for about one-third of the circadian day core body temperature, and therefore the assumed intensity of the circadian arousal system, is below the mesor with the nadir being at about 0500h; and for about two-thirds of the circadian day it is above the mesor with the acrophase on average being at about 2100h. For modeling purposes, the homeostatic process (Process-S) employed the actual data of the Zurich laboratories for night sleep, but altered the equation for the daytime period to ensure an exponential increase after wake-up. Combining these modified processes indicated that the nap zone could be explained, as predicted, by an increasing homeostatic pressure for sleep across the daytime being reversed by the circadian arousal process. This 2-process combination predicted quite well the shape of the entire

  5. Corticosteroid-binding globulin: modulating mechanisms of bioavailability of cortisol and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yoon Ju; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2015-10-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the principal transport protein of glucocorticoids. Approximately 80-90% of serum cortisol binds to CBG with high affinity and only about 5% of cortisol remain unbound and is considered biologically active. CBG seems to modulate and influence the bioavailability of cortisol to local tissues. In this review, we will discuss physicochemical properties of CBG and structure of CBG in the mechanisms of binding and release of cortisol. This review describes several factors affecting CBG functions, such as genetic factors or temperature. Furthermore, clinical implications of CBG abnormalities and the measurement of CBG and its use for assessment of free cortisol levels are described in this review.

  6. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.

  7. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients. PMID:27506086

  8. Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14 years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the week following the laboratory assessment. Overall, cortisol levels were low. Analyses controlling for age, gender, negative affect, and major life events revealed that peer victimization was associated with lower basal cortisol values obtained from home assessments. Witnessed violence predicted a cortisol awakening response (CAR) but only in girls; girls with a typical CAR had lower levels of witnessing violence than girls with an atypical pattern. Witnessed violence also was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels measured in the laboratory and with increases in cortisol from baseline to posttask for boys but not girls. Peer victimization was associated with increases in cortisol from pretask to posttask for both genders. I discuss implications for research and prevention. PMID:16712428

  9. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients.

  10. Night eating status and influence on body weight, body image, hunger, and cortisol pre- and post- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J; Gluck, M; Lorence, M; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2008-12-01

    Night Eating Syndrome is a common disorder in severely obese individuals and may be associated with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. This study compared night eaters (NE) and comparably obese controls (C) pre- and post-Roux-en- Y Gastric Bypass surgery at 2 and 5 months, following an overnight fast on hormonal measures associated with HPA axis and related appetite and psychological measures. There were 24 (10 NE, 14 C) clinically severely obese participants (body mass index =47.0+/-8.4 SD). At pre-surgery baseline, afternoon fasting hunger ratings differed significantly and were lower for NE than for C (p=0.01). Eight of the participants (4 NE, 4C) returned for all 3 study visits. At 5 months post-surgery, NE and C did not differ in weight loss, reductions in waist circumference, insulin levels, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). However, NE as compared to C, did not improve in self ratings of body image (p<0.05), and had significant increases in fasting afternoon cortisol levels 5 months after surgery (p=0.01).

  11. The Association between Noise, Cortisol and Heart Rate in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community-A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Allyson; Jones, Andrew D; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-08-01

    We performed a cross-sectional pilot study on salivary cortisol, heart rate, and personal noise exposures in a small-scale gold mining village in northeastern Ghana in 2013. Cortisol level changes between morning and evening among participants showed a relatively low decline in cortisol through the day (-1.44 ± 4.27 nmol/L, n = 18), a pattern consistent with chronic stress. A multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and time between samples indicated a significant increase of 0.25 nmol/L cortisol from afternoon to evening per 1 dBA increase in equivalent continuous noise exposure (Leq) over that period (95% CI: 0.08-0.42, Adj R(2) = 0.502, n = 17). A mixed effect linear regression model adjusting for age and sex indicated a significant increase of 0.29 heart beats per minute (BPM) for every 1 dB increase in Leq. Using standard deviations (SDs) as measures of variation, and adjusting for age and sex over the sampling period, we found that a 1 dBA increase in noise variation over time (Leq SD) was associated with a 0.5 BPM increase in heart rate SD (95% CI: 0.04--0.9, Adj. R(2) = 0.229, n = 16). Noise levels were consistently high, with 24-hour average Leq exposures ranging from 56.9 to 92.0 dBA, with a mean daily Leq of 82.2 ± 7.3 dBA (mean monitoring duration 22.1 ± 1.9 hours, n = 22). Ninety-five percent of participants had 24-hour average Leq noise levels over the 70 dBA World health Organization (WHO) guideline level for prevention of hearing loss. These findings suggest that small-scale mining communities may face multiple, potentially additive health risks that are not yet well documented, including hearing loss and cardiovascular effects of stress and noise.

  12. Depression history as a moderator of relations between cortisol and shame responses to social-evaluative threat in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Natalie; Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cortisol and shame are commonly elicited by psychosocial stressors involving social-evaluative threat. According to social self preservation theory, this coordinated psychobiological response is adaptive. Individuals with a history of depression, however, may exhibit diminished cortisol reactivity to acute stressors, which could interfere with coordinated cortisol and shame responses. The present study examined temporal relations between cortisol and shame responses to a psychosocial stress task in young adults who varied in their history of depression (56 remitted-depressed, 46 never-depressed). Lagged effects multilevel models revealed that depression history moderated relations between cortisol levels and shame ratings 25 to 55 minutes later. The pattern of these interactions was similar: whereas higher cortisol levels predicted increases in shame in never-depressed individuals, cortisol levels were unrelated to shame responses in remitted-depressed individuals. Findings suggest a dissociation between cortisol and shame responses to stress in individuals with a history of depression. PMID:26048679

  13. Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Benedetto, C; Fabris, C; Giraudi, G F; Testori, O; Bertino, E; Marozio, L; Varvello, G; Arisio, R; Ariano, M; Emanuel, A

    1996-01-01

    Aim of the work was to measure the cortisol level in human tissues at different stages of life, by means of radioimmunoassay and by chromatography. Viable samples of 13 different tissues were obtained during surgical intervention from 30 to 70 years old patients of either sex. Mean tissue cortisol concentration was 78 +/- 35 ng/g, ranging from 20 +/- 10 ng/g in the thyroid to 124 +/- 76 ng/g in the kidney. Similar values were measured in the corresponding tissues from not decayed corpses, so that paired values could be mediated. However the pancreas, and corrupted autopsy tissues, gave nil or exceedingly high cortisol concentration values; in some cases, opposite extreme values were measured in different organs of the same body. Cortisol concentration was also measured in 11 sound different tissues of spontaneously aborted or stillbirth fetuses, between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation. Mean value was 63 +/- 27 ng/g, ranging from 30 +/- 25 ng/g in the liver to 104 +/- 52 ng/g in the lungs. Also in fetuses nil or exceedingly high cortisol values occurred in altered tissues. One hundred and fourteen samples of limbs and carcasses of 7 to 12 gestational weeks embryos, obtained from voluntary abortions, were also examined: 20% gave nil result, in the remaining mean cortisol concentration was 32 ng/g. In 33 samples of embryos' mixed viscera, RIA and chromatography gave unreliable exceedingly high values. The nil and the exceedingly high values measured in the altered autoptic tissue specimens were inconsistent with the cortisol blood level measured in the patients, as were those measured in embryonic tissues with the acknowledged blood and adrenals cortisol levels at that stage of life. Thus cortisol may be measured by RIA and by chromatography in sound tissues, while the values obtained in the pancreas, in corrupted tissues, and in embryonal viscera do not represent the hormonal milieu, but are likely artifacts due to impeachment of the diagnostic system. PMID:8884541

  14. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  15. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  16. Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion.

  17. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, p<0.001); the values correlated with serum cortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency.

  18. A 15-minute light pulse during darkness prevents the antigonadotrophic action of afternoon melatonin injections in male hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, R. J.; Hurlbut, E. C.; King, T. S.; Richardson, B. A.; Vaughan, M. K.; Kosub, K. Y.

    1982-12-01

    When adult male Syrian hamsters were maintained under 14 h light and 10 h darkness daily (lights on from 0600-2000 h), peak pineal melatonin levels (705 pg/gland) were attained at 0500 h. When the dark phase of the light:dark cycle was interrupted with a 15 min pulse of light from 2300 2315 h (3 h after lights out), the highest melatonin levels achieved was roughly 400 pg/gland. Finally, if the 15 min pulse of light was given at 0200 0215 h (6 h after lights out) the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin was completely abolished. Having made these observations, a second experiment was designed to determine the ability of afternoon melatonin injections to inhibit reproduction in hamsters kept under an uninterrupted 14∶10 cycle or under the same lighting regimen where the dark phase was interrupted with a 15 min pulse of light (0200 0215 h). In the uninterrupted light:dark schedule the daily afternoon injection of 25 μg melatonin caused the testes and the accessory sex organs to atrophy within 11 weeks. Conversely, if the dark phase was interrupted with light between 0200 0215 h, afternoon melatonin injections were incapable of inhibiting the growth of the reproductive organs. The findings suggest that exogenously administered melatonin normally synergizes with endogenously produced melatonin to cause gonadal involution in hamsters.

  19. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  20. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  1. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  2. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  3. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  4. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  5. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  6. Horizontal Divergence and Vertical Velocity Adjacent to the Pyrenees Measured During the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon & Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faloona, I. C.; Lothon, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the dominant influence of surface solar heating on atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows, the character and even underlying theories of turbulence vary diurnally over the continents. While great strides have been made in our understanding of the stable boundary layers that prevail overnight, the period of transition from a convective daytime to a stable nighttime ABL remains a very challenging problem in no small part because of its inherently non-stationary nature and because both of the main forcings, wind stress and surface heat flux, tend to flag at this time of day. These underexplored topics motivated the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field experiment held in the summer of 2011 at the CNRS Laboratorie d'Aerologie in Campistrous, France. On three of the twelve intensive observational days of the experiment, three rawinsondes were launched simultaneously approximately 3 km apart throughout the afternoon transition in order to directly measure mesoscale horizontal divergence in the ABL and lower free troposphere. Using the assumption of incompressibility, the observed divergence is integrated and a vertical profile of mean vertical wind is derived for the lower troposphere. Although the magnitude of the inferred vertical winds are much larger than expected (of order 0.1 ms-1), the measurements do indicate a clear trend in afternoon subsidence giving way to evening uplift at the site, which is within ~10 km of the Pyrenees' foothills. The observed transition from low-level divergence to convergence was accompanied by a deep surface pressure minimum that fluctuated by nearly 300 Pa diurnally, and we propose that it is likely related to the reversal of the plain-mountain circulation across the region. The impact of such behavior on boundary layer growth and entrainment during the afternoon hours are discussed along with evidence of similar behavior observed elsewhere in mountainous terrain.

  7. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  8. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people.

  9. Father contributions to cortisol responses in infancy and toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J

    2011-03-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months of child age were collected. Analyses were based on a subsample of children from the Family Life Project who lived with both their biological mothers and fathers and for whom there was at least partial cortisol data (7 months: n = 717; 24 months: n = 579). At the challenge conducted at 7 months of child age, 49.0% of the sample were girls; racial composition of the sample was 25.8% African American and 74.2% European American. At the challenge conducted at 24 months of child age 49.9% of the sample were girls; racial composition was 24.7% African American and 75.3% European American. We conducted analyses across assessment points simultaneously using mixed linear modeling for repeated measures data to test for differential effects of fathering across infancy and toddlerhood. Concurrent measures of father negativity were positively associated with greater increases in child cortisol levels in response to emotion challenge at 7 months (p = .01) and with higher overall levels of cortisol at 24 months (p < .001). However, there was no evidence that father caregiving during infancy independently predicted later cortisol activity during toddlerhood. PMID:21142362

  10. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  11. Paradoxical diurnal cortisol changes in neonates suggesting preservation of foetal adrenal rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Iwata, Sachiko; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Urata, Chihoko; Araki, Yuko; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2–3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30–40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables. Cortisol levels were lower during periods 15–28 days and >28 days than ≤5 days of life. Lower cortisol was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational age <28 weeks, and mechanical ventilation after birth. Higher cortisol was associated with vaginal delivery and non-invasive ventilation support at saliva collection. PIH and non-invasive mechanical ventilation at saliva collection were associated with cortisol levels even after adjustment for postnatal age. Cortisol levels were higher in the evening than in the morning, which was unassociated with gestational and postnatal age. Higher cortisol levels in the evening suggest the preservation of a foetal-type diurnal rhythm. Cortisol levels are associated with intrinsic and extrinsic variables, such as PIH, delivery mode, gestational age, and respiratory conditions. PMID:27752095

  12. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  13. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  14. Salivary cortisol determination in patients from the Basque Country with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Conde-Llamosas, Rafael; López-Vicente, José; Uribarri-Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre-Urizar, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stress and anxiety are controversial factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS). The determination of salivary cortisol is a useful, simple and safe test to detect states of high stress or anxiety. The aim of this study is to check for changes in salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS during periods of active disease. Study design: A measurement of cortisol employing Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was carried out in samples of unstimulated saliva from 20 patients with active lesions of RAS and 10 healthy individuals used as controls. Results: Increased levels of salivary cortisol were detected in 3 cases, all of them within the group of patients with RAS. In none of the control group patients the level of salivary cortisol was increased. The mean level of salivary cortisol was 0.64 mg / dl (range 0.2 to 1.62) for patients with RAS and 0.57 mg / dl (range 0.25 to 1.09) for controls. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol levels are not statistically higher in patients with active lesions of RAS. Key words:Recurrent aphthous stomatitis, cortisol, oral ulcers, canker sores, salivary cortisol. PMID:23385495

  15. Interactions between spontaneous and provoked cortisol secretory episodes in man.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Follénius, M; Muzet, A

    1984-09-01

    This study describes the interactions between cortisol peaks due to spontaneous episodic release and peaks provoked by external stimuli. Successive and equidistant transitory rises of similar amplitude and duration were produced either by muscular exercise (30 min, 75% VO2max) or by injecting ACTH1-24 (Synacthen: 250 ng) before and after the midday meal-related peak. ACTH1-24 was also injected during sleep before the nocturnal sequence of the major secretory episodes. In all instances, cortisol levels had reverted to basal levels when the second stimulus was applied. ACTH-induced cortisol peaks depressed the subsequent meal-related peaks, the exercise-induced peaks, and the spontaneous secretory episodes at the end of the night, and thus had a strong depressor capacity. When exercise was the prior stimulus, the subsequent meal-related peaks were depressed, but the response to later exercise was not affected. Meal-related peaks and the spontaneous diurnal or nocturnal peaks did not depress the subsequent secretory episodes. These quantitatively comparable cortisol episodes were preceded by ACTH rises whose amplitude and duration were not identical: spontaneous and meal-related ACTH peaks were smaller than the provoked one; exercise-induced ACTH peaks were of longer duration than those after ACTH1-24 injection. The different depressor capacities of similar sized cortisol episodes and the lack of proportionality between spontaneous and provoked ACTH and cortisol peaks suggest that there are separate adrenocortical activation channels, which depend on the origin of the stimulation.

  16. Modeling the Salivary Cortisol Profile in Population Research

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, it has been hypothesized that stress and its biologic consequences may contribute to disparities in rates of cardiovascular disease. However, understanding of the most appropriate statistical methods to analyze biologic markers of stress, such as salivary cortisol, remains limited. The authors explore the utility of various statistical methods in modeling daily cortisol profiles in population-based studies. They demonstrate that the proposed methods allow additional insight into the cortisol profile compared with commonly used summaries of the profiles based on raw data. For instance, one can gain insights regarding the shape of the population average curve, characterize the types of individual-level departures from the average curve, and better understand the relation between covariates and attained cortisol levels or slopes at various points of the day, in addition to drawing inferences regarding common features of the cortisol profile, such as the cortisol awakening response and the area under the curve. The authors compare the inference and interpretations drawn from these methods and use data collected as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to illustrate them. PMID:23100245

  17. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Jutta; Junghanns, Klaus; Hohagen, Fritz

    2004-10-01

    Morning and evening salivary cortisol levels were correlated with sleep parameters in 14 patients with primary insomnia and 15 healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was sampled immediately after awakening (T1), 15 min later (T2), and immediately before going to bed (T3) for 1 week at home. In parallel with this, subjects estimated parameters of sleep in a daily sleep log. Patients and controls were all non-smokers who did not differ regarding morning awakening time or bedtime. Cortisol after awakening was significantly decreased in primary insomnia. Salivary cortisol at the time of awakening correlated negatively with the subjective estimation of sleep quality, i.e. a low salivary cortisol level directly after awakening correlated with a higher frequency of nightly awakenings (r = -0.50), a diminished sleep quality (r = -0.34) and a decreased feeling of recovery after awakening (r = -0.35; all p < 0.05). Furthermore, awakening cortisol was negatively correlated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.43) and with a questionnaire on sleep-related cognitions with the subscales rumination in bed (r = -0.56 ) and focusing on sleep-related thoughts (r = -0.46; all p < 0.05).

  18. Exposure of ova to cortisol pre-fertilisation affects subsequent behaviour and physiology of brown trout.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Even before fertilisation, exposure of ova to high levels of stress corticosteroids can have significant effects on offspring in a variety of animals. In fish, high levels of cortisol in ovarian fluid can elicit morphological changes and reduce offspring survival. Whether there are other more subtle effects, including behavioural effects, of exposure to cortisol pre-fertilisation in fish is unclear. Here I demonstrate that a brief (3h) exposure of brown trout eggs to a physiologically relevant ( approximately 500 microg l(-)(1)) concentration of cortisol pre-fertilisation resulted in changes to developing offspring. Embryos exposed to cortisol pre-fertilisation displayed elevated oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates during development. After hatch, in contrast to the effects of cortisol exposure in juvenile fish, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs were more aggressive than control individuals and responded differently within a maze system. Thus, a transient exposure to corticosteroids in unfertilised eggs results in both physiological and behavioural alterations in fish.

  19. Cortisol influences the antipredator behavior induced by chemical alarm cues in the Frillfin goby.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barbosa-Júnior, Augusto; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Hoffmann, Anette

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of increased plasma cortisol levels on fish antipredator behavior induced by conspecific chemical alarm cues. The experimental model for the study was the Frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator. We first confirmed that the alarm substance induces typical defensive antipredator responses in Frillfin gobies and described their alarm substance cells (epidermal 'club' cells). Second, we confirmed that intraperitoneal cortisol implants increase plasma cortisol levels in this species. We then demonstrated that exogenous cortisol administration and subsequent exposure to an alarm substance decreased swimming activity to a greater extent than the activity prompted by either stimulus alone. In addition, cortisol did not abolish the sheltering response to the alarm chemical cue even though it decreased activity. As predators use prey movements to guide their first contact with the prey, a factor that decreases swimming activity clearly increases the probability of survival. Consequently, this observation indicates that cortisol helps improve the antipredator response in fish.

  20. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Spijker, Anne T; Elzinga, Bernet M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2013-08-01

    The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term systematic levels of cortisol retrospectively. This review makes a first attempt to systematically synthesize the body of published research on hair cortisol, chronic stress, and mental health. The results of hair cortisol studies are contrasted and integrated with literature on acutely circulating cortisol as measured in bodily fluids, thereby combining cortisol baseline concentration and cortisol reactivity in an attempt to understand the cortisol dynamics in the development and/or maintenance of mental illnesses. The studies on hair cortisol and chronic stress show increased hair cortisol levels in a wide range of contexts/situations (e.g. endurance athletes, shift work, unemployment, chronic pain, stress in neonates, major life events). With respect to mental illnesses, the results differed between diagnoses. In major depression, the hair cortisol concentrations appear to be increased, whereas for bipolar disorder, cortisol concentrations were only increased in patients with a late age-of-onset. In patients with anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder), hair cortisol levels were reported to be decreased. The same holds true for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, in whom - after an initial increase in cortisol release - the cortisol output decreases below baseline. The effect sizes are calculated when descriptive statistics are provided, to enable preliminary comparisons across the different laboratories. For exposure to chronic stressors, the effect sizes on hair cortisol levels were medium to large, whereas for psychopathology, the effect sizes were small to medium. This is a first implication that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic

  1. Within-Person Coupling of Changes in Cortisol, Testosterone, and DHEA Across the Day in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11–16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development. PMID:24166536

  2. Within-person coupling of changes in cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA across the day in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2015-09-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11-16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development.

  3. Validation and use of hair cortisol as a measure of chronic stress in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Gunn, Kelsey; McCurdy-Adams, H.; Edwards, D. B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2014-01-01

    Stress levels of individuals are documented using glucocorticoid concentrations (including cortisol) in blood, saliva, urine or faeces, which provide information about stress hormones during a short period of time (minutes to days). In mammals, use of hair cortisol analysis allows for the assessment of prolonged stress over weeks and months and provides information on chronic stress levels without bias associated with handling. Here, we validate hair cortisol analysis in wild rodents using exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH challenge) and apply the technique to evaluate stress in eastern chipmunks inhabiting logged and natural sites. Chipmunks were subjected to a mark–recapture study and injected weekly with ACTH (Synacthen Depot) or saline, with hair being collected at the conclusion of the challenge. Subsequently, faecal and hair samples were collected from chipmunks occupying logged and natural sites to assess the utility of hair cortisol in comparison with faecal cortisol metabolites. Following extraction, cortisol concentrations were quantified in hair and faecal extracts by enzyme immunoassay. Hair cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated in samples from ACTH-injected chipmunks compared with saline-injected control animals (five times higher). Chipmunks inhabiting logged sites had increased faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations compared with those in natural sites, but no differences were observed in hair cortisol concentrations. Faecal cortisol metabolite levels were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels in chipmunks. Hair cortisol levels reflect changes in circulating cortisol levels and can be used to evaluate the adrenal stress response, and thus stress, in natural populations. Nonetheless, because of the differences in the temporal scale of stress that hair and faeces represent, we caution the use of hair cortisol for detecting differences in physiological stress when comparing individuals within populations and

  4. Correlation between maternal and infant cortisol varies by breastfeeding status

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Stroo, Marissa; Mayhew, Meghan; Maselko, Joanna; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine associations of mother and infant salivary cortisol, measured three times over the course of a day, and assess whether these varied by breastfeeding status. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 mothers and their infants aged 4–11 months. Mothers collected their own saliva and that of their infants upon awakening, 30 min after waking and at bedtime. Breastfeeding status was reported by mothers and cortisol level was measured in saliva in μg/dl using standard techniques. We used generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between maternal and infant cortisol levels, and assessed whether the relationship differed by breastfeeding status: formula only compared to partial and full breastfeeding, adjusting for infant sex, race, age, maternal education, and family income. Results Thirty-four infants received formula only and 20 were either partially or fully breastfed. Breastfeeding was associated with higher household income, higher maternal education, and white race. Cortisol levels were higher among breastfed infants at all three time points. After adjustment, maternal cortisol levels were related with infant cortisol at bedtime only (regression estimate 0.06; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.1; p = 0.02). The adjusted association between bedtime maternal and infant cortisol was stronger among breastfeeding dyads than among formula-feeding dyads (regression estimate 1.0; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.0; p = 0.04 vs. 0.6; CI: −0.1,1.3; p = 0.10). In addition, we assessed the influence of maternal education and household income in our adjusted model; income strengthened the observed association, whereas maternal education did not change the estimate. Conclusions Breastfeeding mothers and infants had significant correlations for cortisol at bedtime, while formula-feeding dyads did not. These data suggest that several factors may contribute to cortisol synchrony observed in mother/infant dyads, including the transfer of

  5. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence.

  6. Are Breastfed Infants more Resilient?-Feeding Method and Cortisol in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Rao, Sanmati D.; Phillips, Terry M.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Archer, Janet I.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding method on stress hormone levels in infants is unknown. We studied infants from birth to one year, and found salivary cortisol 40% higher in breastfed infants compared with formula-fed infants. The higher cortisol levels among breastfed children may be involved in the analgesic effect of breastfeeding. PMID:19874763

  7. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cortisol Regulation Across Days and Contexts in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is an indicator of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responsivity to stress, but few twin studies have examined the heritability of cortisol concentrations in adults across the diurnal cycle and in different contexts. Saliva samples were provided by 783 middle-aged male twins on one laboratory and two home days as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Significant cortisol heritability estimates were found for laboratory measures only: awakening (.56); 30 min after awakening (.48); 1000 h (.42); mean output across the day (.43); and mean cortisol awakening response (.64). Twin correlations at home were low. In the laboratory, they were unchanged for fraternal twins, but increased for identical twins. Greater measurement error at home did not appear to account for home-laboratory differences. The results suggest that genetic factors influence cortisol responses to specific environmental stressors. Thus, cortisol levels are correlated in identical twins only when they undergo similar experiences. PMID:20238238

  9. Solitude and cortisol: associations with state and trait affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Matias, Gabriela P; Nicolson, Nancy A; Freire, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The social context can impact psychological and physiological functioning. Being alone, in particular, is experienced as more negative on average than being with others, in both normative and pathological populations. This study investigates whether daily solitude is associated with changes in cortisol and, if so, whether momentary and trait affect can explain this relationship. Forty-four female college students used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current solitude, affect, and trait affectivity on cortisol were tested with multilevel regression. Cortisol levels were significantly higher when individuals were alone. Although momentary affective states changed during solitude and were also associated with cortisol, they did not fully explain the effects of solitude on cortisol. Trait affectivity moderated the association between solitude and cortisol. Findings may help clarify how daily experience may heighten risk of depression or other negative health outcomes in vulnerable individuals.

  10. Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Kalin, Ned H; Thurow, Marchell E; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol levels were no longer manipulated, inverted-U quadratic trends were found for recognition memory tasks, reflecting memory facilitation in the 20-mg group for both negative and neutral information. Results suggest that the effects of cortisol on memory do not differ substantially for emotional and neutral information. The study provides evidence of beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on explicit memory in humans.

  11. Non-response of cortisol during stressful exposure therapy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Michael; Wiedemann, Klaus; Yassouridis, Alexander; Muhtz, Christoph

    2012-09-30

    Exposure with response prevention (ERP) is an established treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and also an interesting model to characterize neuroendocrine response to psychological stress. However, so far few studies have assessed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) function during ERP and results are inconsistent. In 15 patients with OCD we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and subjective units of distress (SUD) on two consecutive afternoons. The first day served as a comparison condition; on the second day the very first session of ERP took place. While SUD were significantly increased during ERP versus the comparison day, salivary cortisol was statistically indistinguishable between ERP and comparison conditions before, during and after ERP. Thus, despite considerable psychological stress no increase of cortisol was observed. This response pattern to ERP in OCD patients needs further research.

  12. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis.

  13. Plasma concentrations of cortisol in cows with hypocalcaemia in relation to their responses to treatment with calcium.

    PubMed

    Waage, S; Sjaastad, O V; Blom, A K

    1984-03-01

    The mean plasma concentration of cortisol at the time of the first treatment for hypocalcaemia at calving was significantly higher in 17 cows which did not recover, than in 53 cows which recovered. Healthy periparturient cows had significantly lower cortisol levels than cows with hypocalcaemia. There was a negative correlation between plasma cortisol and plasma calcium at the time of the first treatment. After adjustment for differences in plasma calcium there was no significant difference between cortisol concentrations in healthy cows and paretic cows which recovered. Plasma cortisol was positively correlated with both packed cell volume (PCV) and serum creatine kinase (CK). At first treatment cows which did not recover had higher levels of PCV and serum CK than cows which recovered, and the difference between the mean plasma cortisol concentrations of these two groups was related to differences in plasma calcium, PCV and serum CK. Plasma cortisol concentrations remained high in cases of protracted paresis.

  14. Corticotropin-releasing hormone directly stimulates cortisol and the cortisol biosynthetic pathway in human fetal adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Rosa; Rehman, Khurram S; Carr, Bruce R; Parker, C Richard; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Near term the human fetal adrenals (HFAs) initiate production of cortisol, which promotes organ maturation and acts to increase placental CRH biosynthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether CRH directly stimulates both cortisol production and expression of the steroidogenic enzymes in HFA-definitive zone cells. CRH stimulated the production of cortisol in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with an effective concentration of as low as 0.01 nm. In real-time RT-PCR experiments, CRH treatment increased the mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and each of the enzymes needed to produce cortisol. CRH induced 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD3B2) by 34-fold, 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) by 55-fold, and 11beta-hydroxylase by 41-fold. Induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A), and 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17) mRNA by CRH was 6-, 4-, and 6-fold, respectively. We also demonstrated that submaximal concentrations of CRH (30 pm) and ACTH (30 pm) that are seen in fetal circulation were additive on cortisol biosynthesis and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II mRNA induction. We suggest that CRH may play an important role in the late gestational rise in cortisol secretion from the HFAs, which may serve to augment placental CRH production and therefore participate in the endocrine cascade that is involved in fetal organ maturation and potentially in the timing of human parturition.

  15. No first night shift effect observed following a nocturnal main sleep and a prophylactic 1-h afternoon nap.

    PubMed

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Neurobehavioural impairment on the first night shift is often greater than on subsequent night shifts due to extended wakefulness. The aim of the study was to determine whether a 1-h afternoon nap prior to the first night shift is sufficient to produce neurobehavioural performance at levels comparable to the second night shift. Twelve male volunteers (mean age 22.9 years) participated in a laboratory protocol that simulated two 12-h night shifts. A nap preceded the first shift and a 7-h daytime sleep was scheduled between shifts. Neurobehavioural performance and subjective sleepiness measured across each night did not significantly differ between first and second shifts. PMID:27077691

  16. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. PMID:27316822

  17. Longitudinal Patterns of Cortisol Regulation Differ in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Child maltreatment is associated with dysregulation of stress-mediating systems and an increased risk of mental and physical health problems. Specifically, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been reported in maltreated children. The current study investigates whether increased cortisol variability is responsible for inconsistent patterns in the literature. Method This study modeled cortisol activity over 20 weeks in 187 maltreated and 154 nonmaltreated children (M = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) in order to capture week-to-week cortisol patterns. Maltreatment was assessed through coding of Department of Human Services records. Children attended an after school program one day per week for 20 weeks where saliva was collected at the same time each day and subsequently assayed for cortisol. Results Multiple-group growth curves indicated that maltreated and nonmaltreated children differ in longitudinal cortisol patterns. Maltreated children showed higher variance in the initial cortisol levels and slope over time compared to nonmaltreated children, indicating greater between-person variability in the maltreated group. Maltreated children with higher cortisol at the first assessment showed cortisol suppression over time, indicating potential HPA blunting after chronic high cortisol levels. The severity, timing, and number of subtypes of maltreatment predicted individuals’ cortisol variability, and both maltreatment status and greater cortisol variability predicted more behavior problems. Conclusion Interventions for maltreated children may benefit from pre- and post-intervention HPA assessments to determine a component of treatment efficacy. As maltreatment dimensions predicted differential cortisol regulation, assessment of maltreatment experiences is necessary to understand alterations in behavior and HPA regulation post-intervention. PMID:25440310

  18. Salivary cortisol day curves in Addison's disease in patients on hydrocortisone replacement.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Walt, J S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Haarburger, D H; Pillay, T S

    2013-01-01

    Using salivary cortisol (SC) measurements, cortisol exposure in Addison's disease patients on hydrocortisone replacement was determined and compared with healthy controls. Cortisol pharmacokinetics was assessed in 31 patients with Addison's disease on replacement hydrocortisone doses (median daily dose 20 mg; range 5-50 mg) and 30 healthy control subjects. Saliva samples (n=16) were collected between 08:00 and 00:00 h in 1 day, using a passive drool technique. Cortisol exposure was evaluated by noncompartmental approach. In the patients, cortisol exposure was significantly higher than in controls: median inter-quartile range (IQR) peak cortisol (C(max)) 174.5 (59.3-837.0) vs. 6.50 (4.7-19.3) nmol/l, p=0.0001; area under the curve (AUC) 390.1 (177.1-928.9) vs. 21.4 (14.6-28.4) minutes*nmol/l, p=0.0001, trough cortisol level (C(min)) 0.49 (0.49-0.96) vs. 0.49 (0.49-0.49) nmol/l, p=0.02, occurring at 480.0 (0.1-660.0) vs. 405.0 (180.0-570.0) min, p=0.56. First peak cortisol was 174.5 (53.0-754.7) vs. 6.27 (3.90-8.47) nmol/l, p=0.0001 and second peak cortisol 18.90 (5.22-76.9) vs. 3.12 (1.76-4.79) nmol/l, p=0.0001. The time to first peak cortisol differed between the 2 groups, 30 (30-75) vs. 0.1 (0.1-30) minutes; p=0.0001. At doses studied, hydrocortisone replacement therapy results in cortisol pharmacokinetics being markedly different from endogenous cortisol profiles in healthy control subjects. Addison's disease patients had significantly higher SC levels compared to healthy control subjects.

  19. Can the neural–cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Wong, Samuel S. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural–cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural–cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal–cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal–cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study. PMID:26577539

  20. Can the neural-cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed

    Lau, Way K W; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Samuel S Y; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-18

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural-cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural-cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal-cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal-cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study.

  1. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health.

  2. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p < 0.01) but not for DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p < 0.05) and 16:00 h (p < 0.01), versus the other trials. This acute response to exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  3. Turbulence vertical structure of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbieu, C.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Couvreux, F.; Durand, P.; Pino, D.; Patton, E. G.; Nilsson, E.; Blay-Carreras, E.; Gioli, B.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the decay of planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence in the afternoon, from the time the surface buoyancy flux starts to decrease until sunset. Dense observations of mean and turbulent parameters were acquired during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field experiment by several meteorological surface stations, sounding balloons, radars, lidars and two aircraft during the afternoon transition. We analysed a case study based on some of these observations and large-eddy simulation (LES) data focusing on the turbulent vertical structure throughout the afternoon transition. The decay of turbulence is quantified through the temporal and vertical evolution of (1) the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), (2) the characteristic length scales of turbulence and (3) the shape of the turbulence spectra. A spectral analysis of LES data, airborne and surface measurements is performed in order to characterize the variation in the turbulent decay with height and study the distribution of turbulence over eddy size. This study highlights the LES ability to reproduce the turbulence evolution throughout the afternoon. LESs and observations agree that the afternoon transition can be divided in two phases: (1) a first phase during which the TKE decays at a low rate, with no significant change in turbulence characteristics, and (2) a second phase characterized by a larger TKE decay rate and a change in spectral shape, implying an evolution of eddy size distribution and energy cascade from low to high wave number. The changes observed either in TKE decay (during the first phase) or in the vertical wind spectra shape (during the second phase of the afternoon transition) occur first in the upper region of the PBL. The higher within the PBL, the stronger the spectra shape changes.

  4. Social correlates of variation in urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Surbeck, Martin; Deschner, Tobias; Weltring, Anja; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-06-01

    Cortisol excretion in males of group living species is often associated with social rank and competition for oestrous females. Rank-related patterns of cortisol levels can be used to study mechanisms of rank maintenance and costs associated with mate competition. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are interesting because males form a linear dominance hierarchy but are not dominant over females and therefore aggressive male-male competition over access to females alone is not considered to be a successful reproductive strategy. In this study on social correlates of urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos, we investigated the relationship between cortisol levels and several aspects of mate competition, including male rank, aggression rates, and association time with oestrous females. We found that cortisol levels correlated positively with dominance rank when oestrous females were present, but not when they were absent. This result is consistent with the idea that aggressive behaviour plays a minor role in maintenance of high rank. While aggression received from males and females explained within-individual variation in cortisol levels, it was the time spent in association with oestrous females that best explained between-individual variation in male cortisol levels. The observed increase in male cortisol may be associated with spatial proximity to oestrous females and could result from anticipated aggression from other group members, reduced feeding time in the males, or a combination of both.

  5. Serum cortisol concentrations in captive tamed and untamed black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and translocated dogs.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, J; Bertschinger, H J

    1982-12-01

    Serum cortisol levels were found to be higher in a group of captive untamed black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) than in a group of tame black-backed jackals. Repeated venipuncture of domestic dogs in an accustomed environment did not result in a rise in serum cortisol levels. Translocation of these dogs to a new environment resulted in a rapid but transient rise in serum cortisol levels.

  6. Cyclic changes in cortisol across the estrous cycle in parous and nulliparous Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Keeley, Tamara; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2014-01-01

    In the context of reproduction, glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally considered to have negative effects. However, in well-studied model species, GCs fluctuate predictability across the estrous cycles, and short-term increases promote healthy ovarian function. Reproductive challenges have plagued captive elephant populations, which are not currently self-sustaining. Efforts to understand reproductive dysfunction in elephants have focused on the suppressive effects of cortisol, but the potential permissive or stimulatory effects of cortisol are unknown. In this study, we provide a detailed examination of cortisol patterns across the estrous cycle in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Time series analysis was used to analyze cortisol and progesterone data for a total of 73 cycles from eight females. We also compared cortisol profiles between females that successfully conceived and females that failed to conceive despite repeated mating attempts. Our results revealed that cortisol fluctuates predictably across the estrous cycle, with a peak during the second half of the follicular phase followed by low levels throughout the luteal phase. Furthermore, this pattern was significantly altered in nulliparous females; cortisol concentrations did not decline during the luteal phase to the same extent as in parous females. This study highlights the complexity of cortisol signaling and suggests future directions for understanding the role of cortisol in reproductive dysfunction. PMID:24623735

  7. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

  8. Decrease in serum cortisol during yoga exercise is correlated with alpha wave activation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, T; Toriumi, Y; Kimura, H; Ohno, S; Kumano, H; Kimura, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined changes in brain waves and blood levels of serum cortisol during yoga exercise in 7 yoga instructors and found that alpha waves increased and serum cortisol decreased. These two measures were negatively correlated (r = -.83). Comparison with a control group of nonpractitioners is desirable.

  9. Cortisol fluctuations relate to interictal epileptiform discharges in stress sensitive epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Hompe, E Lorraine; Jansen, Floor E; Velis, Demetrios N; Otte, Willem M; van de Berg, Fia; Braun, Kees P J; Visser, Gerhard H; Sander, Josemir W; Joels, Marian; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2016-06-01

    People with epilepsy often report seizures precipitated by stress. This is believed to be due to effects of stress hormones, such as cortisol, on neuronal excitability. Cortisol, regardless of stress, is released in hourly pulses, whose effect on epileptic activity is unknown. We tested the relation between cortisol levels and the incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in the electroencephalogram of people with focal epilepsy. Morning cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples obtained every 15 min. Interictal epileptiform discharges were determined in the same time periods. We investigated the relationship between cortisol levels and the epileptiform discharges distinguishing persons with from those without stress-precipitated seizures (linear mixed model), and analysed the contribution of individual, epilepsy and recording characteristics with multivariable analysis. Twenty-nine recordings were performed in 21 individuals. Cortisol was positively related to incidence of epileptiform discharges (β = 0.26, P = 0.002) in people reporting stress-sensitive seizures, but not those who did not report stress sensitivity (β = -0.07, P = 0.64). The relationship between cortisol and epileptiform discharges was positively associated only with stress sensitivity of seizures (β = 0.31, P = 0.005). The relationship between cortisol levels and incidence of interictal epileptiform discharges in people with stress-sensitive seizures suggests that stress hormones influence disease activity in epilepsy, also under basal conditions. PMID:27036410

  10. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: (I) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, (II) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, (III) the sampling interval, and (IV) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing, and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-minute intervals over 24 hours from 10 healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 hours, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions. PMID:25935025

  11. Characteristics of the Afternoon E-region Plasma Density Irregularities in Middle Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y. S.; Yang, T. Y.; Kil, H.; Otsuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In middle latitudes, radar probing of E-region ionospheric electron density irregularities has been carried out for several decades. However, no the afternoon (i.e., from noon to pre-sunset time) E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in middle latitude have been reported yet. On the other hand, a 40.8 MHz VHF radar operated continuously since December 2009 at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea has often observed the E-region FAIs in the afternoon. In this presentation, therefore, we report firstly the afternoon observations of the mid-latitude E-region FAIs made by the Daejeon radar. We present the characteristics and statistical morphology of the mid-latitude afternoon E-region FAIs based on the continuous and long-term radar observations. And also, to investigate the afternoon E-region FAIs - Sporadic E (Es) relationship, the FAIs have been also compared with Es parameters based on observations made from an ionosonde located at Icheon (37.14°N, 127.54°E, 27.7°N dip latitude), which is 100 km north of Daejeon.

  12. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  13. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  14. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  15. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong-Dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Lü, Long-Bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys' depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  16. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dong-dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-li; Yang, Shang-chuan; Lü, Long-bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys’ depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  17. Impact of Adiposity and Fat Distribution on the Dynamics of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2014-12-01

    Obesity impacts many hormonal systems, including pituitary hormones, as well as insulin and leptin. In this review we discuss articles which investigate the influence of obesity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Different techniques have been used to assess the function of the HPA-axis in obesity, including measuring fasting and/or late evening levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and (free) cortisol in plasma and saliva, studying feedback with dexamethasone or cortisol, and evaluating responsiveness of the system to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) or ACTH 1-29. In addition, more elaborate studies investigated 24-h secretion patterns, analyzed with deconvolution techniques to quantitate pulsatile secretion rates of cortisol and less often ACTH. Other investigators used timed infusions of labeled cortisol for the estimation of the 24-h secretion rate, clearance rate and distribution volume. Many studies relied on the 24-h urinary excretion of free cortisol, but for quantitation of the 24-h secretion, measurement of all cortisol-derived metabolites is required. Several studies have applied modern liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry techniques to measure these metabolites. The picture emerging from all these studies is that, first, ACTH secretion is amplified, likely via enhanced forward drive; and, second, serum cortisol levels are normal or even low, associated with a normal 24-h cortisol secretion per liter distribution volume determined by deconvolution, but enhanced when based on the increased total distribution volume associated with obesity. Increased cortisol secretion was also established by isotope dilution studies and reports based on the measurement of all urinary cortisol metabolites. The responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH is diminished. The studies do not address quantitative aspects of cortisol-cortisone metabolism on individual organs, including liver, central and

  18. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  19. Comparison of phase and amplitude structures of Pc 5 pulsations in the morning and afternoon sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saka, O.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.

    1983-01-01

    North American IMS magnetometer network data are used in comparisons of the spatial phase and amplitude structures of the morning and afternoon Pc 5 pulsations, using cross spectral analysis of phase and amplitude readings between different stations. The spatial phase structures are found to be very similar in the morning and afternoon sectors for each of the three components. Amplitudes are larger in the magnetic north than in the magnetic east components for both sectors. Latitudinal amplitude and phase difference variations between the magnetic north and east components exhibit dissimilarities in the morning and afternoon sectors. These results suggest that compressional mode magnetic field oscillations are not observable on the ground in this time sector. The pulsations in both time sectors are instead seen as caused by transverse mode magnetospheric field oscillations.

  20. Physical activity moderates stressor-induced rumination on cortisol reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Puterman, Eli; O’Donovan, Aoife; Adler, Nancy E.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Objective Physically active individuals have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence indicates that physical activity may be particularly beneficial to those experiencing chronic stress. The tendency to ruminate increases and prolongs physiological stress responses, including hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses as indexed by cortisol reactivity to stressful experiences. We examined the association between ruminating in response to a laboratory stressor task and HPA axis reactivity and recovery, and whether a physically active lifestyle moderates the associations between rumination and cortisol output trajectories. Methods Forty-six post-menopausal women underwent the Trier Social Stress Test while salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured. Twenty-five minutes after the end of the stressor, participants reported level of rumination in response to the stress. Results Findings indicate that physical activity moderated the initial rate (B = −.10, SE = .04, p < .05) and curvature (B = −.03, SE = .01, p = .06) of the relationship between rumination and log-transformed cortisol trajectory. Among sedentary participants, those who responded to the stressor with higher levels of rumination had a more rapid initial increase in cortisol (0.26 vs 0.21, p < .001), a later peak (56 vs. 39 minutes), and a delayed recovery (curvature −0.07 vs. −0.08, p < .001) compared to those with lower levels of rumination. In active participants, cortisol trajectories were equivalent, regardless of level of rumination. Conclusions In sum, individuals who maintain a physically active lifestyle may be protected against the effects of rumination on HPA axis reactivity to and recovery from acute stress. PMID:21873586

  1. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Pulopulos, Matias M.; Puig-Perez, Sara; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93), we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase), but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people. PMID:27191847

  2. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations in the striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to intense handling stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wanshu

    1992-03-01

    The plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in mature female striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to short term intense handling stress. The results indicated that plasma cortisol levels reached a peak 20 min after stress and declined gradually afterwards. The highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed 30 min after stress. The present study showed that the rise of plasma glucose was associated with the plasma cortisol levels.

  3. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults.

  4. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    PubMed Central

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many attacks might in part represent an adaptive response to pain. The nocturnal melatonin maximum was lower during cluster periods than in remission. This finding, and the dysautonomic signs during attacks, may reflect a change of the vegetative tone in a hyposympathetic direction. Images PMID:3572435

  5. There is no difference in the plasma cortisol level between women with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal 25 kg/m² and polycystic ovary syndrome and the control group without polycystic ovary syndrome and BMI 25 kg/m².

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Kiałka, Marta; Gosztyła, Katarzyna; Lurzyńska, Małgorzata; Kabzińska-Turek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    A 4-8% of women of reproductive age suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical and/ or biochemical hyperandrogenemia is found up to 75% of women with PCOS. It is unclear whether the hyperandogenemia in PCOS is caused directly by this disorder or by obesity. The recent studies have shown that the cortisol level in PCOS patients can be elevated, decreased or comparable to the control group. The aim of our study was to assess the cortisol plasma level in women with body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/ m², with and without PCOS. The study population consisted of 17 overweight women with PCOS and 44 overweight women without PCOS. There were not statistically significant differences in the body mass (group 1: 88.9 ± 17.0 kg, vs. group 2: 84.4 ± 15.2 kg; NS) nor the body mass index between both groups (group 1: 31.7 ± 5.9 kg/m², vs. group 2: 30.6 ± 5.4 kg/m²; NS). The groups did not differ in TSH, FSH, estradiol, SHBG, prolactin level at the baseline. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in the cortisol levels at 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. Our study suggests that there is no difference in the morning and 7 p.m. cortisol level between the women with and without PCOS among the population of women with body mass index greater than or equal 25 kg/m². PMID:27526420

  6. Cortisol disrupts the neural correlates of extinction recall.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Merz, Christian J; Lissek, Silke; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-06-01

    The renewal effect describes the recovery of extinguished responses that may occur after a change in context and indicates that extinction memory retrieval is sometimes prone to failure. Stress hormones have been implicated to modulate extinction processes, with mostly impairing effects on extinction retrieval. However, the neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress effects on extinction memory remain elusive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the effects of cortisol administration on the neural correlates of extinction memory retrieval in a predictive learning task. In this task, participants were required to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with stomach trouble when presented in two different contexts. A two-day renewal paradigm was applied in which an association was acquired in context A and subsequently extinguished in context B. On the following day, participants received either cortisol or placebo 40min before extinction memory retrieval was tested in both contexts. Behaviorally, cortisol impaired the retrieval of extinguished associations when presented in the extinction context. On the neural level, this effect was characterized by a reduced context differentiation for the extinguished stimulus in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but only in men. In the placebo group, ventromedial prefrontal cortex was functionally connected to the left cerebellum, the anterior cingulate and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus to express extinction memory. This functional crosstalk was reduced under cortisol. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol disrupts ventromedial prefrontal cortex functioning and its communication with other brain regions implicated in extinction memory. PMID:26973167

  7. Diurnal and annual changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Uchida, Senzo; Ueda, Keiichi; Tobayama, Teruo; Katsumata, Etsuko; Yoshioka, Motoi; Aida, Katsumi

    2003-07-01

    Until present, fundamental studies on cortisol secretory patterns have not been conducted in cetaceans. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and killer whales Orcinus orca, (2) to investigate annual cortisol changes in killer whales, and (3) to investigate the relationship between cortisol and sex steroids (testosterone and progesterone) concentrations in killer whales. Diurnal changes in serum cortisol concentrations were investigated at various intervals in the two species. In Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, serum cortisol levels exhibited the same episodic fluctuations for 24 h as did diurnal terrestrial mammals: cortisol levels were lower at 18:00 h and higher in the early morning. In killer whales, cortisol concentrations continued to decrease until 18:00 h, after which they fluctuated, and then increased in the next morning. Annual changes in cortisol levels were investigated by collecting blood samples every two weeks from two male killer whales and a pregnant female one twice per day (during 09:00-10:00 and 16:00-17:00 h) throughout a one-year period. Regarding sera collected during 09:00-10:00 h from the female, cortisol concentrations showed cyclic changes having about 4-month intervals. In males, cortisol showed higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations during the summer season. There was a negative correlation between cortisol and progesterone levels in the female and a negative correlation was also observed between cortisol and testosterone in male no. 2. In the female and male no. 1, cortisol levels during 09:00-10:00 h were significantly higher than those during 16:00-17:00 h, and their data are considered to support observations regarding diurnal changes in cortisol levels in the two cetacean species. PMID:12849966

  8. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  9. Integrating cortisol and isotopic analyses of archeological hair: reconstructing individual experiences of health and stress.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emily C; White, Christine D; Van Uum, Stan; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2015-04-01

    Archeological hair from 14 adults from the Nasca Region, Peru (c. AD1-1000) was analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and cortisol levels. We investigated the relationship between isotopic compositions, which reflect diet, and cortisol, which reflects biogenic cortisol production and chronic stress. Using a case study approach, we determined that there are consistent changes in cortisol production associated with the rapid dietary change characteristic of local mobility. Moreover, changes in nitrogen- and carbon-isotope compositions, when integrated with cortisol levels, enabled inferences to be made about nitrogen metabolism and carbon routing, and elucidated the nature of potential stressors in the months before death. The isotopic and cortisol data suggested a relatively high rate of exposure to stress that is consistent with what is known about the Nasca Region social and physical environments. Of the 14 adults included in this study, six likely suffered from illness/trauma before death, and a further three experienced stress without an observable associated change in isotopic composition. Five individuals also experienced increased stress related to local mobility, inferred from co-occurring changes in cortisol production and dietary shifting. The integration of cortisol and isotopic data revealed individual characteristics of hidden frailty and risk that would not be apparent using more traditional methods of evaluating health status. This approach will provide a powerful enhancement to the understanding of stress, morbidity, and well-being developed through skeletal analysis. PMID:25470601

  10. Cortisol administration induces sex change from ovary to testis in the protogynous Wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in triggering sex change. However, the upstream mechanism that regulates the secretion of sex steroid hormones controlling sex change is not yet known. Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in teleost fish, is known to exhibit anti-stress action and is involved in many physiological functions, including regulation of steroidogenesis. Therefore, cortisol could be one of the candidate factors involved in the onset of sex change. In this study, we investigated the role of cortisol in sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by prolonged administration of cortisol. Our results showed that gonads of all individuals treated with cortisol (1,000 µg/g diet) for 6 weeks contained spermatogenic germ cells. One of them exhibited matured testes with an ovarian cavity, indicating sex change. Additionally, the plasma estradiol-17β level in the cortisol treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group suggesting that cortisol plays a direct and/or indirect role in the regulation of estrogen production. These data imply that cortisol might be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis by causing a decrease in the estrogen level, leading to the onset of sex change.

  11. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  12. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  13. Stress and decision-making in humans: performance is related to cortisol reactivity, albeit differently in men and women.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Ruud; Harteveld, Marlies; Stoop, Hein

    2009-11-01

    Acutely elevated levels of cortisol are associated with euphoria and reward-like properties related to sensation-seeking behaviour. Thus, acute stress and elevated levels of cortisol may promote risk-taking behaviour. High cortisol responders are more sensitive to immediate rewards than low cortisol responders. In this study we therefore tested whether acute stress in male and female subjects, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), affects decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and to what extent this is related to cortisol reactivity. Control subjects did not receive the stress manipulation. We specifically predict that high responders show risk-taking behaviour in the IGT compared to low responders and controls. The data show that the more (salivary) cortisol levels are elevated after the TSST the poorer the subsequent performance in the IGT in male subjects. In female subjects an inverse relationship between cortisol levels and IGT performance is observed: slightly elevated levels of cortisol after the TSST improve IGT performance, while highly elevated levels decrease IGT performance. Thus, acute stress as induced by the TSST affects decision-making behaviour of men and women differently and cortisol reactivity is associated with decision-making performance. PMID:19497677

  14. Dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone under different physiological or stressful conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6-0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress.

  15. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  16. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lina S V; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor "playing often with the dog" (r = -0.34, P = 0.019) and "reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly" (r = -0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  17. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lina S. V.; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor “playing often with the dog” (r = −0.34, P = 0.019) and “reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly” (r = −0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  18. Physiological differences between burnout patients and healthy controls: blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol responses

    PubMed Central

    De Vente, W; Olff, M; Van Amsterdam, J G C; Kamphuis, J; Emmelkamp, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate differences between burnout patients and healthy controls regarding basal physiological values and physiological stress responses. Measures of the sympathetic-adrenergic-medullary (SAM) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were examined. Methods: SAM axis and HPA axis activity was compared between 22 burnout patients and 23 healthy controls. SAM axis activity was measured by means of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). HPA axis activity was investigated by means of salivary cortisol levels. Resting levels of HR, BP, and cortisol were determined as well as reactivity and recovery of these measures during a laboratory session involving mental arithmetic and speech tasks. In addition, morning levels of cortisol were determined. Results: Burnout patients showed higher resting HR than healthy controls. BP resting values did not differ between burnout patients and healthy controls, nor did cardiovascular reactivity and recovery measurements during the laboratory session. Basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity and recovery measures were similar for burnout patients and healthy controls. However, burnout patients showed elevated cortisol levels during the first hour after awakening in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusions: The findings provided limited proof that SAM axis and HPA axis are disturbed among burnout patients. Elevated HR and elevated early morning cortisol levels may be indicative of sustained activation. PMID:12782748

  19. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401

  20. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account.

  1. Saturday Afternoon Free. A Respite Care Program for Moderately to Severely Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    Described in this report is the Saturday Afternoon Free respite care program for moderately to severely handicapped children operated under the auspices of the Idaho State University (ISU) College of Education. In service for 4 years, it has been evaluated by parents and student participants as excellent. It was developed in response to the need…

  2. Shalom School 30 Years after: Reflections on the Jewish Afternoon School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoem, David

    2010-01-01

    David Schoem reflects on his research study from 30-plus years ago, published as "Ethnic Survival in America: An Ethnography of a Jewish Afternoon School" (1979, 1989). Schoem points to the continuing importance of giving greater focus to meaning-making, relational identity, and deep community. Schoem argues that through a renewed focus on…

  3. Afternoon Remedial and Enrichment Program, Buffalo, New York. Elementary Program in Compensatory Education, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    This afternoon remedial and enrichment program was offered to inner-city low income children (grades 3-8). About 75 percent of the children were black, 20 percent white and 5 percent Puerto Rican. Remedial instruction was offered in reading and mathematics. Average class size was six pupils; these small groups allowed for better diagnosis of needs…

  4. Afternoon Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Charlotte Mecklenburg Public Schools formed the Computer Access to Neighborhoods (CAN) Partnership, a joint public/private community venture to establish computer access centers for students and their families in 5 public library branches and 35 neighborhood sites. (PKP)

  5. Alerting effects of short-wavelength (blue) and long-wavelength (red) lights in the afternoon.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Levent; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2013-05-27

    Light has an acute effect on neuroendocrine responses, performance, and alertness. Most studies to date have linked the alerting effects of light to its ability to suppress melatonin, which is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength light. Recent studies, however, have shown alerting effects of white or narrowband short-wavelength lights during daytime, when melatonin levels are low. While the use of light at night to promote alertness is well understood, it is important to develop an understanding of how light impacts alertness during the daytime, especially during the post-lunch hours. The aim of the current study was to investigate how 48-minute exposures to short-wavelength (blue) light (40 lux, 18.9 microWatts/cm(2) λ(max) = 470 nanometers [nm]) or long-wavelength (red) light (40 lux, 18.9 microWatts/cm(2) λ(max) = 630 nm) close to the post-lunch dip hours affect electroencephalogram measures in participants with regular sleep schedules. Power in the alpha, alpha theta, and theta ranges was significantly lower (p<0.05) after participants were exposed to red light than after they remained in darkness. Exposure to blue light reduced alpha and alpha theta power compared to darkness, but these differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). The present results extend those performed during the nighttime, and demonstrate that light can be used to increase alertness in the afternoon, close to the post-lunch dip hours. These results also suggest that acute melatonin suppression is not needed to elicit an alerting effect in humans. PMID:23535242

  6. Consequences of acute stress and cortisol manipulation on the physiology, behavior, and reproductive outcome of female Pacific salmon on spawning grounds.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; Cook, Katrina V; Patterson, David A; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that stress responses should be muted to maximize reproductive fitness. Yet, the relationship between stress and reproduction for semelparous salmon is unusual because successfully spawning individuals have elevated plasma cortisol levels. To tease apart the effects of high baseline cortisol levels and stress-induced elevation of cortisol titers, we determined how varying degrees of cortisol elevation (i.e., acute and chronic) affected behavior, reproductive physiology, and reproductive success of adult female pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) relative to different states of ovulation (i.e., ripe and unripe). Exhaustive exercise and air exposure were applied as acute stressors to manipulate plasma cortisol in salmon either confined to a behavioral arena or free-swimming in a spawning channel. Cortisol (eliciting a cortisol elevation to levels similar to those in post-spawn female salmon) and metyrapone (a corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) implants were also used to chemically manipulate plasma cortisol. Cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, and impaired reproductive success; cortisol-treated fish released fewer eggs and died sooner than fish in other treatment groups. In contrast,