Science.gov

Sample records for afton public observatory

  1. Astronomical Learning Centers from the Lake Afton Public Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardel, W. S.

    1994-12-01

    The Lake Afton Public Observatory was founded 14 years ago as a joint project of the city, county, local schools, and Wichita State University to provide educational programs for the public and school children. During the 1993-1994 school year over 31,000 students were served by Observatory school and school outreach programs. The Observatory's Learning Centers are a vital part of its school outreach program. Students receive a presentation from an astronomer and make use of the materials and activities in the Learning Center. Each package is designed to lead students into discovering things for themselves. Learning centers are left with the students for up to two weeks. Four Learning Centers are currently in use, with an additional one under development. Current Learning Centers let students explore the solar system, examine meteorites, build a simple telescope, and discover the properties of light, lenses and color. In the 1993-94 nearly 3,000 students used a Learning Center from Lake Afton Public Observatory. This work is supported in part by NSF grant OSR-9255223.

  2. Educational Programs at the Lake Afton Public Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. R.; Novacek, G. R.

    1994-05-01

    The Lake Afton Public Observatory was founded 14 years ago as a joint project of the city, county, local schools, and Wichita State University to provide educational programs for the public and school children. A staff of 4 professional astronomers presents daytime and evening programs at the Observatory and makes presentations in schools to over 20,000 people per year. Programs are scheduled 6 days a week during the academic year and 3 days a week in the summer. Our public programs deviate significantly from the traditional observatory open house by following a specific theme. Selection and discussion of each object is centered on that theme. For example, a program on The Life Story of a Star would view a diffuse nebula (to discuss star formation), a young star cluster (to discuss one outcome of star formation), a double star (to discuss how the properties of stars are determined), and a planetary nebula (to discuss the death of a star). To complement the observing experiences of our visitors, we have developed a wide range of interactive exhibits to develop the concepts touched on in the viewing programs. We have also developed exhibit lending kits for extended use in school classrooms, educational games, activity manuals for teachers, and short videos to introduce single concepts in the classroom. In the past year we have begun to offer a series of workshops for in-service teachers to expand their knowledge of astronomy and to provide them with additional resources for teaching astronomy. This work is supported in part by NSF EPSCoR grant OSR-9255223.

  3. Helping the Public Touch the Stars -- Programs of the Lake Afton Public Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D. R.; Novacek, G. R.; Kardel, W. S.

    2000-12-01

    The staff of the Lake Afton Public Observatory have been providing programs for the public and school groups for nearly twenty years. While we have many types of programs and activities, our overall objective is to demonstrate to our visitors that science is fun and can be understood by everyone. Programs at the Observatory are organized around an observing theme, with time built in to explore our interactive exhibits. Observatory staff or volunteers are always available to interact with visitors, so that each person has a personalized experience at the Observatory. Because observatories, by necessity, are often located at somewhat remote sites, we should not wait for the public to come to us. As a result, we sponsor a wide range of programs and activities in schools to help children experience the excitement of science. These activities include specially designed learning centers which we introduce with a visit to a classroom. Each learning center has been designed to guide student inquiry as they explore a single topic in astronomy. After our introduction of a learning center, it is left in the classroom for two weeks for students to explore further. Information about the programs of the Observatory is available at our web site (http://www.twsu.edu/ obswww/).

  4. A Scale Model of the Solar System at the Lake Afton Public Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, John E.; Kardel, W. Scott; Novacek, Greg

    1995-05-01

    Scale models are often used to help students develop a better intuitive grasp of the solar system as a whole. Because the sizes of the planets are so tiny compared to the sizes of their orbits, one cannot really experience both at the same time. One must necessarily have two levels of experience, one for the planets themselves, the other for their orbits. The point of a good scale model of the solar system should be to connect these two levels of experiences. With many scale models currently in use, however, these two levels of experience are rather disconnected. The models which place the planets in different buildings scattered around a city, for example, are especially problematic for children, who do not necessarily have a good feel for the distances involved in driving from one part of the city to another. At the Lake Afton Public Observatory in Wichita, Kansas we have constructed a scale model in which we connect these two levels of experience by the physical actions of the student. We are able to do this because our scale model is as small as one can possibly make it and still have the planets visible, and so students are able to physically walk from one planet to another. The scale planets are mounted in transparent containers atop red poles. Obviously one needs to be standing right next to a planet see it, but the poles the planets are mounted on are all visible from the sun. Thus the student can see, off in the distance, where Pluto is, and then physically walk from the sun to Pluto in order to see it close up. Since the whole model is visible at once, one can even set up a portable telescope at "Earth" and look at "Saturn." This model has been used succesfully with groups ranging from 1st grade to college level, and with class sizes ranging from 6 to 60. In this paper we describe Lake Afton Public Observatory's scale model solar system and some of the many ways in which it has been succesfully used. We argue that this type of scale model--in which both

  5. Use of photovoltaics to supply some lighting at the Lake Afton Public Observatory. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    We have constructed a system for supplying electrical power, using photovoltaic cells, to a collection of observing stations near the observatory. The collection of nine observing stations are on a pad about 40' x 40' located about 60' from the observatory building. The observing stations hold small telescopes for students' use and require low level lighting for reading of instrumentation. It is this low level lighting that is supplied by the photovoltaic panel using battery electrical energy storage. The photovoltaic system was prepared for practical use during the first part of last June. Since then it has been used on most clear nights. The system has worked without problems.

  6. Theory and Structure of the AFTON Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    problems. The AFTON I code, which deals with linear, cylindrical, and spherical one- dimensional systems, has been expanded to include general stresses...solved by AFTON I using these coordinate systems. For spherically diverging waves in an elastic medium, the solutions obtained have been more

  7. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  8. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-03

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  9. Geomorphic and hydrologic implications of the rapid incision of Afton Canyon, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Afton Canyon is a >150-m-deep canyon that formed as a result of overflow and drainage of Lake Manix, an ˜215 km2 late Wisconsin pluvial lake in the central Mojave Desert. Because the canyon age is within the range of conventional radiocarbon dating, it is possible to provide a time-based chronology of events and resultant landscape changes due to a >120 m base-level drop. Analysis of erosion volumes upstream of Afton Canyon and a review of public and private well logs downstream of the canyon mouth indicate that late Wisconsin surfaces are deeply buried downstream of Afton Canyon. Burial depths are ˜55 m at the mouth of Afton Canyon, 27 m in the Cronese basin, and 18 m at Crucero. The well logs also indicate that Soda Lake was far more areally extensive prior to late Wisconsin time. Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence suggests that Afton Canyon was cut rapidly sometime after 14,230 ±1325 yr B.P. The rapid draining of Lake Manix and subsequent basin dissection have important implications for late Quaternary lake fluctuations in Death Valley, base-level changes and resultant alluvial-fan adjustments in the Cronese basin, the sand source for the Kelso Dunes, and the absence of old artifacts in the Cronese basin and the Mojave River wash region.

  10. A Bibliometric Analysis of Observatory Publications 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    Refereed publications are the primary output of modern observatories. I examine the productivity and impact of a significant number of observatories, as well as some other interesting aspects of observatory papers.

  11. On the Eulerian AFTON Equations for Axisymmetric Fluid Flow,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The AFTON codes are based on a method for constructing finite difference equations that describe the evolution of classical fields, and more...by the AFTON 2A code, one of whose versions has been specialized for solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow, in...Eulerian form. The version of AFTON 2A in question has now been used to compute many viscous compressible flow fields. This report discusses the

  12. Education and public engagement in observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  13. The Maryland Space Grant Observatory: Public Outreach, Collaboration With HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Teays, T.; Henry, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    The Maryland Space Grant Observatory's Morris Offit Telescope is a 20 inch Cassegrain telescope on the campus of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The Morris Offit telescopes have been used both on campus and at the Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The observatory is now open to the public for weekly open houses. It has also been used in conjunction with the Hubble Space Telescope for observations of transient objects. These observations, as well as the general capabilities of the instrument, are discussed.

  14. Mead Observatory WebCasts: Public Outreach to the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Hood, J.; Williams, R. N. M.; Cruzen, S.; Johnson, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Real-Time Interactive Solar Observatory (RISO) is a web portal that allows educational institutions from around the world to log into and control the solar telescopes and cameras at Columbus State University's Meade Observatory. RISO's technology has also allowed the observatory to stream webcasts for special astronomical events on the web allowing for a larger public audience. This poster will present the tools used for the webcasts and review some of the results from previous webcasts. We will also discuss some of the future paths of RISO and the technology associated with RISO and how this will be able to provide public outreach to a much larger audience. Support for RISO and the webcasts has been provided by NASA through the Georgia Space Science Grant Consortium.

  15. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  16. Preserving Observatory Publications: Microfilming, Scanning...What's Next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Donna J.

    Since 1996, the John G. Wolbach Library & Information Resource Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has participated in a preservation project, funded by the U. S. National Endowment for the Humanities and carried out at Harvard University's Weissman Preservation Center, to preserve the history of science. More than 2,000 volumes of Wolbach Library's 3,000 volume collection of historical observatory publications from around the world have already been preserved on microfilm. A follow-up project to convert the collection to digital format was begun in the year 2000. Meanwhile, Harvard University unveiled its Digital Repository Service (DRS) offering state-of-the-art storage and retrieval of digital collections. DRS goes further than our previous projects by offering full-text searching, page turning capability, color plates, strict metadata requirements, persistent links using universal resource names, reformatting as necessary, and perpetual storage. Harvard also offers the service and guidance of preservation experts from its state-of-the-art Imaging Service and Preservation Department. In anticipation of the LISA IV meeting in Prague, Wolbach Library issued a challenge to Harvard, ``Show us what you can do with a brittle volume from the Observatory Publication collection.'' Harvard accepted. The result is included in this paper and links are provided to allow the reader closer scrutiny of the final product.

  17. Twenty five years National Astronomical Observatory: Publications and dissertations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliev, Ilian

    The idea to estimate the merits and to measure the impact of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria by creating the list with all publications and dissertations based fully or in part on the data collected during last 25 years with its telescopes is presented. The process of compiling the list is described. Its last version contains complete bibliographical data about more than 1000 publications with total volume of about 5500 journal pages. All of them are printed out in 1980--2005. The accumulated impact-factor exceeds 1000, the number of citations is expected to be between 3000 and 5000. The number of successful dissertations is close to 40, while the bachelor and master theses are near 100.

  18. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  19. Swift Publication Statistics: A Comparison With Other Major Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaglio, S.; Grothkopf, U.

    2013-03-01

    Swift is a satellite equipped with γ-ray, X-ray, and optical-UV instruments aimed at discovering, localizing, and collecting data from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Launched at the end of 2004, this small-size mission finds about a hundred GRBs per year, totaling more than 700 events as of 2012. In addition to GRBs, Swift observes other energetic events, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs), novae, and supernovae. Here we look at its success using bibliometric tools; that is, the number of papers using Swift data and their impact (i.e., number of citations to those papers). We derived these from the publication years 2005 to 2011, and compared them with the same numbers for other major observatories. Swift provided data for 1101 papers in the interval 2005–2011, with 24 in the first year, to 287 in the last year. In 2011, Swift had more than double the number of publications as Subaru, it overcame Gemini by a large fraction, and reached Keck. It is getting closer to the ∼400 publications of the successful high-energy missions XMM-Newton and Chandra, but is still far from the most productive telescopes, VLT (over 500) and HST (almost 800). The overall average number of citations per paper, as of 2012 November, is 28.3, which is comparable to the others, but lower than Keck (41.8). The science topics covered by Swift publications have changed from the first year, when over 80% of the papers were about GRBs, falling to less than 30% in 2011.

  20. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging the Public with NASA's Next Great Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel David; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, active classroom learning via the STEM Innovation Project (SIP) and 3-D visualizations developed for modern inexpensive platforms, the production and collection of materials for speakers related to any Webb topic (engineering, science, or education), the addition of Webb materials to the Amazing Space programs and updating them for general usage, and the development of simulated Webb observations illustrating the science of the next decade.

  1. Education and public outreach of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, B.; Snow, G.

    2005-08-01

    The Auger collaboration's broad mission in education, outreach and public relations is coordinated in a separate task. Its goals are to encourage and support a wide range of outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on recent activities and future initiatives.

  2. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project in Nebraska and Public Outreach for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Gregory

    2005-04-01

    The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP) is a statewide education and research experiment involving Nebraska high school students, teachers, and college undergraduates in the study of extensive cosmic-ray air showers. A network of high school teams construct, install, and operate school-based detectors in coordination with University of Nebraska physics professors and graduate students. The detector system at each school is an array of scintillation counters recycled from the Chicago Air Shower Array in weather-proof enclosures on the school roof, with a GPS receiver providing a time stamp for cosmic-ray events. The detectors are connected to triggering electronics and a data-acquisition PC inside the building. Students share data via the Internet to search for time coincidences with other sites. CROP has enlisted 26 schools in its first 5 years of operation with the aim of expanding to the 314 high schools in the state over the next several years. The presenter also serves as the Task Leader for Education and Outreach for the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory, and selected public outreach activities related to the experiment will be described.

  3. Value of Vintage Observatories and Historic Telescopes in Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. E.

    2010-10-01

    The Antique Telescope Society convened a thematic workshop, The Vintage Observatory: Thriving in the 21st Century, on 2-4 May 2008. The workshop's purpose was to bring together those charged with the care of observatories and telescopes built before World War II, to examine common issues and share practical solutions, specifically in preparation for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. Although much of the workshop concerned issues of preservation and restoration, several sessions focused on the uses of historical artefacts as a means for public education and outreach on astronomy and the history of astronomy, including discussion of the unique opportunities vintage observatories and telescopes offer in intriguing the public about astronomy.

  4. Education and Public Outreach of the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a separate task whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of education and outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. The presentation will focus on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malarg"ue that has hosted over 60,000 visitors since 2001 and a third collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2010. The Rural Schools Program, which is run by Observatory staff and which brings cosmic-ray science and infrastructure improvements to remote schools, will be highlighted. Numerous online resources, video documentaries, and animations of extensive air showers have been created for wide public release. Increasingly, collaborators draw on these resources to develop Auger related displays and outreach events at their institutions and in public settings to disseminate the science and successes of the Observatory worldwide.

  5. Amateur Astronomy at Planetaria and Public Observatories in the United States in the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. R.

    1999-05-01

    The 1930s saw an efflorescence of planetaria and public observatories in the largest US cities. These installations were justified as a means of bringing astronomy, or more broadly science, to the public. They were valued for public education and entertainment, and possibly as an attractant for potential young new scientists. But could it also be said that scientific research was actually promoted among the large assemblages of amateur astronomers which met at, and in some cases were organized to support, these installations? An examination of the amateur societies connected with the Adler Planetarium, Buhl Planetarium, Chabot Observatory, Griffith Observatory and Hayden Planetarium and suggests that doing science was less important than talking about it at these institutions. The above cases will be compared with three organizations of amateurs that did attempt to mount sustained scientific observing programs in the same period. Located in Milwaukee, St. Louis and Fort Worth, and without access to a major planetarium or public observatory, these amateur societies conducted useful astronomical observing programs. The Milwaukee group also formed a national organization, the American Amateur Astronomical Association or AAAA, to promote scientific work by amateurs. Although some of the planetarium-based societies joined the AAAA, their participation was never substantive in a scientific sense. Unfortunately, the AAAA collapsed when its financial support was withdrawn after less than five years of effort.

  6. How to Communicate Near Earth Objects with the Public - Klet Observatory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, Jana; Tichy, Milos; Kocer, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth Object (NEO) research is counted among the most popular parts of communicating astronomy with the public. Increasing research results in the field of Near-Earth Objects as well as impact hazard investigations cause growing interest among general public and media. Furthermore NEO related issues have outstanding educational value. So thus communicating NEO detection, NEO characterization, possible impact effects, space missions to NEOs, ways of mitigation and impact warnings with the public and media belong to the most important tasks of scientists and research institutions.Our institution represents an unique liaison of the small professional research institution devoted especially to NEO studies (the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic) and the educational and public outreach branch (the Observatory and Planetarium Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic). This all has been giving us an excellent opportunity for bringing NEO information to wider audience. We have been obtaining a wide experience in communicating NEOs with the public more than twenty years.There is a wide spectrum of public outreach tools aimed to NEO research and hazard. As the most useful ones we consider two special on-line magazines (e-zins) devoted to asteroids (www.planetky.cz) and comets (www.komety.cz) in Czech language, educational multimedia presentations for schools at different levels in planetarium, summer excursions for wide public just at the Klet Observatory on the top of the Klet mountain, public lectures, meetings and exhibitions. It seems to be very contributing and favoured by public to have opportunities for more or less informal meetings just with NEO researchers from time to time. Very important part of NEO public outreach consists of continuous contact with journalists and media including press releases, interviews, news, periodical programs. An increasing role of social media is taken into account through Facebook and Twitter profiles.The essential goal of all mentioned NEO

  7. The Development of Astronomy in Odessa and its Reflection in Publications of the Astronomical Observatory, Odessa State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, Tatyana N.

    Dramatic, rich in events, the history of Odessa Astronomical Observatory during 127 years of its existence is reflected to a certain extent in the publications of the Astronomical Observatory and Odessa State University. These publications were neither regular nor numerous for different reasons, but nevertheless they do indicate landmarks of the basic directions of the development of astronomy in Odessa.

  8. Swift Publication Statistics and the Comparison with Other Major Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaglio, S.; Grothkopf, U.

    2015-04-01

    Swift is a satellite aimed at detecting gamma-ray bursts (GRB), the most energetic explosions in the universe. Launched at the end of 2004 and funded until 2016, it is equipped with γ-ray, X-ray, and optical-UV instrumentation and discovers, localizes, and collects data for more than a hundred GRBs per year. We studied the bibliometrics produced with Swift data and found that it is one of the most successful medium-size missions ever. The production in 2005 was 24 papers, and has steadily increased to 328 in the year 2013, surpassing the Keck telescope. If this trend continues, Swift may soon be approaching the publication numbers of the other two high-energy satellites XMM-Newton and Chandra. Also, the number of citations shows a great success for Swift. The Swift user community publishes mostly in ApJS (almost 50% of the papers) as well as A&A and MNRAS (approx. a quarter each). In the years 2005-2013, 47 papers (2.7%) were published in the high-impact journals Nature and Science.

  9. Databases of publications and observations as a part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyapnikov, A.; Bondar', N.; Gorbunov, M.

    We describe the main principles of formation of databases (DBs) with information about astronomical objects and their physical characteristics derived from observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and published in the ``Izvestiya of the CrAO'' and elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on the DBs missing from the most complete global library of catalogs and data tables, VizieR (supported by the Center of Astronomical Data, Strasbourg). We specially consider the problem of forming a digital archive of observational data obtained at the CrAO as an interactive DB related to database objects and publications. We present examples of all our DBs as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory. We illustrate the work with the CrAO DBs using tools of the International Virtual Observatory: Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec, in conjunction with the VizieR and Simbad DBs.

  10. The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee Brings Astronomy To The Hawaiian Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, I.; Harvey, J.; Usuda, K. S.; Fujihara, G.; Hamilton, J.

    2010-08-01

    The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee (MKOOC) combines the outreach activities of the 13 telescopes on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. For the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 we branded our annual local events, and in addition developed several unique activities and products to bring astronomy to the public during IYA. Our Journey Through The Universe classroom visit and teacher training program was augmented by several evening public events for the whole family. For AstroDay we developed a set of astronomy trading cards, such that people had to visit all the observatory booths to collect the whole set. In collaboration with the local newspapers, we produced an astronomy supplement, available both on paper and online, highlighting the work being done at our observatories. A year-long introductory astronomy class for K-12 teachers was held, emphasizing hands-on activities to teach important concepts. In collaboration with a local supermarket, we held a poster contest for students, making the connection between astronomy and Hawaiian culture. We also participated in the "100 Hours of Astronomy" webcast. In the fall, we celebrated the Galilean Nights with an all-observatories block party, with activities, music, and give-aways.

  11. The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee brings Astronomy to the Hawaiian Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Ingeborg; Harvey, J.; Usuda, K. S.; Fujihara, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee (MKOOC) combines the outreach activities of the 13 telescopes on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawai`i. For the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 we branded our annual local events, and in addition developed several unique activities and products to bring astronomy to the public during IYA. Our Journey Through The Universe classroom visit and teacher training program was augmented by several evening public events for the whole family. For AstroDay we developed a set of astronomy trading cards, such that people had to visit all the observatory booths to collect the whole set. In collaboration with the local newspapers we produced an astronomy supplement, available both on paper and online, highlighting the work being done at our observatories. A year-long introductory astronomy class for K-12 teachers was held, emphasizing hands-on activities to teach important concepts. In collaboration with a local supermarket we held a poster contest for students, making the connection between astronomy and Hawaiian culture. We also participated in the "100 Hours for Astronomy" webcast. In the fall we celebrated the Galilean Nights with an all-observatories block party, with activities, music, and give-aways.

  12. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo-Morales, Julio; Loera-González, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach), mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO). We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects. PMID:25685436

  13. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo-Morales Julio; Loera-González, Pablo

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach), mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO). We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  14. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Morales, Julio; Loera-González, Pablo

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach), mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO). We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  15. The Museum of Vesuvius Observatory and its public. Years 2005 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maddalena; Ottaiano, Mena; Limoncelli, Bianca; Parlato, Luigi; Scala, Omar; Siviglia, Vittoria

    2010-05-01

    The museum of Vesuvius Observatory was created through the enlargement and updating of a permanent exhibition called "Vesuvius: 2000 years of observations", set up in 2000 with the aim of make citizens aware of volcanic phenomena, volcanic hazard and surveillance of active volcanoes in high risk areas, such as Naples and surroundings. The museum is located in the nineteenth-century historical building of the Vesuvius Observatory, the first volcanological observatory in the world, currently part of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. In the museum the dominant theme is the volcano Vesuvius: along the exhibition scientific issues are strictly interlaced with historical, archaeological and literary topics. The exhibition path begins with the presentation of eruptive phenomena, and related hazard for people and things. It traces the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius pointing out the most famous eruptions, occurred in 79 AD and 1944, and the methodologies used by volcanologists to define the eruptive history of a volcano through the study of its products. In the octagonal room the products of effusive and explosive eruptions, and minerals formed in volcanic environments, are displayed. The path, consisting of panels and video on big screen, is enriched by the exhibition of historical documents as the geological map of Somma-Vesuvius by Henry James Johnston-Lavis and of copies of Ercolano and Pompeii casts. Also historical scientific instruments once used for surveillance are on display, including the first electromagnetic seismograph, built in 1856 by Luigi Palmieri, director of the Vesuvius Observatory from 1855 to 1896. The tour ends with a practical experience of simulation of an earthquake. Communication tools used in the museum are basically video and panels. The museum admission is free; visitors enter the museum by guided tours only. Since the year 2000 checking of visiting public was carried out, either through booking requests received by the

  16. Education and Public Outreach Programs at Columbus State University's Mead Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzen, S.; Rutland, C.; Carr, D.; Seckinger, M.

    2003-12-01

    Columbus State University (CSU) has made a substantial commitment to community education in astronomy and space science. Through the programs of the Mead Observatory at CSU's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, students, staff and faculty have been providing public outreach programs in astronomy for more than seven years. Recently, a generous grant from a private foundation has facilitated an astounding growth in the observatory's astronomy outreach activities. The grant made possible the purchase of a van, a portable planetarium, and additional telescope and computer equipment. It also funded a two-year scholarship that has supported a pair of CSU's science education majors who have staffed the program and made it a success. NASA, through the Georgia Space Grant Consortium, has provided additional funding for scholarships for 2003-2004. Prior to receiving these funds, the observatory program consisted of monthly open houses, occasional public observing nights at remote locations and approximately 6 to 8 school visits per year. Annually, these programs served approximately 3500 people. Since beginning the new phase of this program in October of 2001, the number of people served has soared to more than 23,000 in only 24 months. Over 60 schools have been visited, increasing our previous annual rate by nearly five times. Additional groups served include boys and girls scouting groups, state parks and other community organizations. School presentations have been designed to assist K-12 teachers in meeting science education standards. More than 200 teachers were asked to assess the program, and their responses were quite positive. More information about the program is available at our website (http://www.ccssc.org).

  17. Impacts of Chandra X-ray Observatory Public Communications and Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, Kimberly K.; Watzke, Megan; Lestition, Kathleen; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center runs a multifaceted Public Communications & Engagement program encompassing press relations, public engagement, and education. Our goals include reaching a large and diverse audience of national and international scope, establishing direct connections and working relationships with the scientists whose research forms the basis for all products, creating peer-reviewed materials and activities that evolve from an integrated pipeline design and encourage users toward deeper engagement, and developing materials that target underserved audiences such as women, Spanish speakers, and the sight and hearing impaired. This talk will highlight some of the key features of our program, from the high quality curated digital presence to the cycle of research and evaluation that informs our practice at all points of the program creation. We will also discuss the main impacts of the program, from the tens of millions of participants reached through the establishment and sustainability of a network of science 'volunpeers.'

  18. Public Outreach at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory Cline Visitor Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Hawkins, L.; Smith, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent completion of the Cline Visitor Center we have begun a program of public nights at our Dark Sky Observatory's 32-inch telescope. Events are ticketed online using an inexpensive commercial ticketing service and are limited to two groups of 60 visitors per night that arrive for 1.5-hour sessions. We are installing two large (70-inch) flat panel displays in the Center and planning additional exhibits to entertain visitors while they await their turn at the telescope's eyepiece. The facility is fully ADA compliant, with eyepiece access via a DFM Engineering Articulated Relay Eyepiece, and a wheelchair lift if needed. We present some of our experiences in this poster and encourage readers to offer suggestions. The Visitor Center was established with the support of Mr. J. Donald Cline, for which we are very grateful. The telescope was partially funded by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Overview of the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program of the Caltech Tectonics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, L.; Jain, K.; Maloney, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Caltech Tectonics Observatory (TO) is an interdisciplinary center, focused on geological processes occurring at the boundaries of Earth's tectonic plates (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu). Over the past year, the TO has made a major effort to develop an Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program. Our goals are to (1) stimulate the interest of students and the general public in Earth Sciences, particularly in the study of tectonic processes, (2) inform and educate the general public about science in the context of TO discoveries and advancements, and (3) provide opportunities for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty to do outreach in the local K-12 schools. We have hosted local high school students and teachers to provide them with research experience (as part of Caltech’s “Summer Research Connection”); participated in teacher training workshops (organized by the local school district); hosted tours for local elementary school students; and brought hands-on activities into local elementary and middle school classrooms, science clubs, and science nights. We have also led local school students and teachers on geology field trips through nearby parks. In addition, we have developed education modules for undergraduate classes (as part of MARGINS program), and have written educational web articles on TO research (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/outreach). The presentation will give an overview of these activities and their impact on our educational program.

  20. Flood boundaries and water-surface profile for the computed 100-year flood, Swift Creek at Afton, Wyoming, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, James G.; Wallace, Joe C.

    1989-01-01

    Flood flows on Swift Creek near Afton, Wyoming, were analyzed. Peak discharge with an average recurrence interval of 100 years was computed and used to determine the flood boundaries and water surface profile in the study reach. The study was done in cooperation with Lincoln County and the Town of Afton to determine the extent of flooding in the Town of Afton from a 100-year flood on Swift Creek. The reach of Swift Creek considered in the analysis extends upstream from the culvert at Allred County Road No. 12-135 to the US Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station located in the Bridger National Forest , a distance of 3.2 miles. Boundaries of the 100-year flood are delineated on a map using the computed elevation of the flood at each cross section, survey data, and a 1983 aerial photograph. The computed water surface elevation for the 100-year flood was plotted at each cross section, then the lateral extent of the flood was transferred to the flood map. Boundaries between cross sections were sketched using information taken from the aerial photograph. Areas that are inundated, but not part of the active flow, are designated on the cross sections. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. Jointing in the Ordovician Platteville Formation on either side of the Hudson-Afton horst in Wisconsin and Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, A.K.

    1994-04-01

    Jointing is a characteristic feature of the Platteville Formation. A total of 1,577 joint orientations were measured at fourteen localities in east-central Minnesota and west-central Wisconsin. All the joints are vertical with north-south to east-west exposure orientations. Four major joint sets including a longitudinal, a crosscutting, and two diagonal sets are identifiable for over 75% of the localities. The analysis of rose diagrams superimposed on the site map help to recognize a trend in joint patterns from location to location. The localities east and south of the Hudson-Afton horst appear to have similar trend and development of joint patterns. The orientations of the major joint sets are: N10E, N60E, N40W, and N85W. The localities west of the Hudson-Afton horst differ from the east and south localities in both trend and development of joint patterns. The approximate orientations of the major joint sets are: N05W, N50E, N45W, and N80W. The joint pattern appears to be related to the structural trend of the Hudson-Afton horst. The horst, an associated feature of the Midcontinental rift, is an uplifted block of Precambrian igneous and sedimentary rocks bounded by faults. These faults are a possible cause for the jointing. The faults strike at an azimuth of approximately N22E which correlates well with the idealized azimuth for the maximum principal stress as deduced from the rose diagrams.

  2. Developing an Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program for Caltech's Tectonics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, L.; Jain, K.; Maloney, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Caltech Tectonics Observatory (TO) is an interdisciplinary center, focused on geological processes occurring at the boundaries of Earth's tectonic plates (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu). Over the past four years, the TO has made a major effort to develop an Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program. Our goals are to (1) inspire students to learn Earth Sciences, particularly tectonic processes, (2) inform and educate the general public about science in the context of TO discoveries, and (3) provide opportunities for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty to do outreach in the local K-12 schools and community colleges. Our work toward these goals includes hosting local high school teachers and students each summer for six weeks of research experience (as part of Caltech's "Summer Research Connection"); organizing and hosting an NAGT conference aimed at Geoscience teachers at community colleges; participating in teacher training workshops (organized by the local school district); hosting tours for K-12 students from local schools as well as from China; and bringing hands-on activities into local elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. We also lead local school students and teachers on geology field trips through nearby canyons; develop education modules for undergraduate classes (as part of MARGINS program); write educational web articles on TO research (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/outreach/highlights/), and regularly give presentations to the general public. This year, we started providing content expertise for the development of video games to teach Earth Science, being created by GameDesk Institute. And we have just formed a scientist/educator partnership with a 6th grade teacher, to help in the school district's pilot program to incorporate new national science standards (NSTA's Next Generation Science Standards, current draft), as well as use Project-Based Learning. This presentation gives an overview of these activities.

  3. Partial Restoration of Public Education and Outreach at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Since first light on 6 May 1918, DAO's historic 1.8-m Plaskett Telescope has been open on varying schedules to the public for interactions with astronomers and stargazing. In June 2001 the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) opened the adjacent, purpose-built, Centre of the Universe (CU) building. It was staffed by professional informal educators offering year-round outreach that helped visitors, including thousands of students annually, appreciate exciting current research, as well as Canada's high standing in contemporary astronomy, development of complex instrumentation and the associated societal benefits. On 24 August 2013 the CU-based EPO program ceased operation. Upon announcement by NRC in June 2013 of the pending closure, swift public reaction—locally, nationally and internationally—led to widespread publicity, predominantly negative, as well as two petitions signed by several thousand people. A November meeting convened by BC Legislator Lana Popham, in whose electoral district the Observatory is located, brought community leaders together with NRC senior managers to discuss ways of making available the physical assets to restore EPO activities through community organizations, rather than Federal employees, a scenario senior NRC management endorsed. Subsequently a smaller community group chaired by Don Moffatt, a DAO interpreter in the 1990s, provided a forum for discussing paths to having some outreach activities in summer 2014. The resulting two successful activities were: a) Saturday night observing sessions run by the amateur astronomers of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Victoria Centre; and b) week-long space and astronomy camps for children of grades 3-8 run by the University of Victoria's Science Venture program. As will be described, both organizations delivered well-received programs, and are in conversation with NRC about possible continuation and evolution.

  4. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  5. ``What Are Astronomers Doing?" at McDonald Observatory: An Education/Public Outreach Website and Museum Kiosk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Preston, S. L.; Johnson, R. A.; Young, C. H.; Connor, P. S.; Summers, A. C.; Tykoski, M. J.

    2004-05-01

    ``What are Astronomers Doing?" is a weekly updated web site and on-site kiosk that details current research at McDonald Observatory for the general public. At any given time, site visitors will find descriptions of all research going on that week on the Observatory's three traditionally scheduled telescopes, a description of an approved trimester project for the queue-scheduled Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and descriptions of any maintenance or special public events on the telescopes. There is also a ``NASA Astronomer of the Week" profile in which some of the featured astronomers are those who perform research that does not require McDonald telescopes. Each project write-up is accompanied by a biography of the astronomer or engineer in charge. Graduate-student, undergraduate, and K-12 teacher interns prepared material for the site. All text is edited by a professional editor and tech edited for accuracy by astronomers. Additionally, site-related classroom activities are available for grade 6-12 classrooms. The web template is available for use by other institutions. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF 0227870 ``What Are Astronomers Doing?: A Project for MPS Internships in Public Science Education" and support for the ``NASA Astronomer of the Week" profile by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under an Education and Public Outreach supplement to Grant/Contract/Agreement No. NAG5-13057 issued through the Office of Space Science.

  6. Keele Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Albinson, James; Bagnall, Alan; Bryant, Lian; Caisley, Dave; Doody, Stephen; Johnson, Ian; Klimczak, Paul; Maddison, Ron; Robinson, StJohn; Stretch, Matthew; Webb, John

    2015-08-01

    Keele Observatory was founded by Dr. Ron Maddison in 1962, on the hill-top campus of Keele University in central England, hosting the 1876 Grubb 31cm refractor from Oxford Observatory. It since acquired a 61cm research reflector, a 15cm Halpha solar telescope and a range of other telescopes. Run by a group of volunteering engineers and students under directorship of a Keele astrophysicist, it is used for public outreach as well as research. About 4,000 people visit the observatory every year, including a large number of children. We present the facility, its history - including involvement in the 1919 Eddington solar eclipse expedition which proved Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity - and its ambitions to erect a radio telescope on its site.

  7. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  8. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  9. Impacts of Chandra X-ray Observatory Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestition, K.; Arcand, K.; Watzke, M.

    2014-07-01

    The overarching goal of Chandra's multifaceted communications and public engagement (EPO) program is to open access for anyone to be a learner and explorer of the Universe. To achieve this goal, the Chandra EPO team develops products and activities that share new discoveries about the Universe with diverse audiences, engages the imaginations of students, teachers, and the general public, and increases learning opportunities. We partner with organizations such as the National Science Olympiad, the 4-H, the NASA Museum Alliance, and the American Library Association to leverage their distribution networks for national impact. We summarize the results of a sample of wide-reaching, synthesized suite of programs—ranging from press, to outreach, to informal and formal education—that communicate the compelling topics that only the high-energy Universe can reveal.

  10. Changing perceptions one classroom at a time: Evaluation results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory formal Education and Public Outreach programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawro, M.; Haden, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) education and public outreach (EPO) team has developed and implemented a number of formal education programs for K-12 students and teachers. Programs include the Day At Goddard field trip for high school students, SDO Ambassador in the Classroom outreach to elementary classrooms, and teacher support materials for solar science education. These programs have been designed to foster student interest and engagement in science especially solar science, and increase their awareness and interest in NASA and STEM careers. Magnolia Consulting, who worked closely with the SDO EPO team to both design a substantive evaluation program, as well as improve the education programs offered, has extensively evaluated these programs. Evaluation findings indicate that teachers highly value the opportunities and resources provided by SDO EPO and that student impacts include increased interest and engagement in solar science topics and awareness of STEM careers. This presentation will be a summary of the results of the evaluation of these formal education programs including lessons learned that can be of value to the STEM EPO community.

  11. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Melsheimer, T.; Rideout, C.; Vanlew, K.

    1998-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first observatory built as part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction is nearly completed and first light is planned for fall 1998. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope, and there will also be opportunities for public viewing. After midnight, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. That telescope has been in use for the past four years by up to 50 schools per month. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. We have applied for an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  12. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A.; Melsheimer, T.; Sackett, C.

    1999-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first observatory built as part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building and dome has been completed, and first light is planned for spring 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations will have prioritized access to the telescope, and there will also be opportunities for public viewing. After midnight, the telescope will be open to world-wide use by schools via the Internet following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. We have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  14. Carnegie Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Carnegie Observatories were founded in 1902 by George Ellery Hale. Their first facility was the MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY, located in the San Gabriel Mountains above Pasadena, California. Originally a solar observatory, it moved into stellar, galactic and extragalactic research with the construction of the 60 in (1.5 m), and 100 in (2.5 m) telescopes, each of which was the largest in the world...

  15. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new

  16. The Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; VanLew, K.; Melsheimer, T.; Sackett, C.

    1999-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the dome and the remote control system has been completed, and the telescope is now on-line and operational over the Internet. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Local schools and youth organizations have prioritized access to the telescope, and there are monthly opportunities for public viewing. In the future, the telescope will be open after midnight to world-wide use by schools following the model of the first TIE observatory, the 24" telescope on Mt. Wilson. Students remotely connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images on their local computers. The observatory grew out of grassroots support from the local community surrounding Berthoud, Colorado, a town of 3,500 residents. TIE has provided the observatory with a Tinsley 18" Cassegrain telescope on a 10-year loan. The facility has been built with tremendous support from volunteers and the local school district. With funding from an IDEAS grant, we have begun teacher training workshops which will allow K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the Little Thompson Observatory, including remote observing from classrooms.

  17. Observatories: History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An astronomical OBSERVATORY is a building, installation or institution dedicated to the systematic and regular observation of celestial objects for the purpose of understanding their physical nature, or for purposes of time reckoning and keeping the calendar. At a bona fide observatory such work constitutes a main activity, not just an incidental one. While the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Chi...

  18. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  19. Public outreach and communications of the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano: Chapter 27 in The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Snedigar, Seth F.; Neal, Christina A.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Power, John A.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    The AVO Web site, with its accompanying database, is the backbone of AVO's external and internal communications. This was the first Cook Inlet volcanic eruption with a public expectation of real-time access to data, updates, and hazards information over the Internet. In March 2005, AVO improved the Web site from individual static pages to a dynamic, database-driven site. This new system provided quick and straightforward access to the latest information for (1) staff within the observatory, (2) emergency managers from State and local governments and organizations, (3) the media, and (4) the public. From mid-December 2005 through April 2006, the AVO Web site served more than 45 million Web pages and about 5.5 terabytes of data.

  20. Taosi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Taosi observatory is the remains of a structure discovered at the later Neolithic Taosi site located in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, in north-central China. The structure is a walled enclosure on a raised platform. Only rammed-earth foundations of the structure remained. Archaeoastronomical studies suggest that this structure functioned as an astronomical observatory. Historical circumstantial evidence suggests that it was probably related to the legendary kingdom of Yao from the twenty-first century BC.

  1. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  2. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  3. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  4. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  5. Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dudley Observatory, in Schenectady, New York, is a private foundation supporting research and education in astronomy, astrophysics and the history of astronomy. Chartered in 1852, it is the oldest organization in the US, outside academia and government, dedicated to the support of astronomical research. For more than a century it was a world leader in astrometry, with such achievements as pub...

  6. Grand Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  7. The Education and Public Engagement (EPE) Component of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI): Enabling Near Real-Time Data Use in Undergraduate Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.; Companion, C.; Crowley, M.; deCharon, A.; Fundis, A. T.; Kilb, D. L.; Levenson, S.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; McCurdy, A.; McDonnell, J. D.; Overoye, D.; Risien, C. M.; Rude, A.; Wieclawek, J., III

    2011-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is constructing observational and computer infrastructure that will provide sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation, ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics over the next ~25-30 years. To accomplish this, the Consortium for Ocean Leadership established four Implementing Organizations: (1) Regional Scale Nodes; (2) Coastal and Global Scale Nodes; (3) Cyberinfrastructure (CI); and (4) Education and Public Engagement (EPE). The EPE, which we represent, was just recently established to provide a new layer of cyber-interactivity for educators to bring near real-time data, images and videos of our Earth's oceans into their learning environments. Our focus over the next four years is engaging educators of undergraduates and free-choice learners. Demonstration projects of the OOI capabilities will use an Integrated Education Toolkit to access OOI data through the Cyberinfrastructure's On Demand Measurement Processing capability. We will present our plans to develop six education infrastructure software modules: Education Web Services (middleware), Visualization Tools, Concept Map and Lab/Lesson Builders, Collaboration Tools, and an Education Resources Database. The software release of these tools is staggered to coincide with other major OOI releases. The first release will include stand-alone versions of the first four EPE modules (Fall 2012). Next, all six EPE modules will be integrated within the OOI cyber-framework (Fall 2013). The last release will include advanced capabilities for all six modules within a collaborative network that leverages the CI's Integrated Observatory Network (Fall 2014). We are looking for undergraduate and informal science educators to provide feedback and guidance on the project, please contact us if you are interested in partnering with us.

  8. The Public Nights Program at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory Cline Visitor Center: Our First Year’s Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Smith, A. B.; Hawkins, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    We have completed our first year of public nights at our Dark Sky Observatory’s 32-inch telescope and the adjacent Cline Visitor Center. Our monthly public nights are composed of two groups of 60 visitors each that arrive for 1.5-hour sessions. Shorter summer nights limit us to one session. We use two large (70-inch) flat panel displays in the Center for a brief pre-observing discussion and to entertain visitors while they await their turn at the telescope’s eyepiece. One of them runs a Beta version of Microsoft’s Worldwide Telescope for Kinect. While the facility is fully ADA compliant, with eyepiece access via a DFM Engineering Articulated Relay Eyepiece, and a wheelchair lift if needed, we have only had one occasion to use this capability. We present some of our experiences in this poster and encourage readers to offer suggestions. The Visitor Center was established with the support of Mr. J. Donald Cline, for which we are very grateful. The Kinect system was donated by Marley Gray, at Microsoft/Charlotte. The telescope was partially funded by the National Science Foundation.

  9. La Plata Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Juan Carlos; Cora, Sofia A.

    La Plata, the current capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, was founded on 19 November 1882 by governor Dardo Rocha, and built on an innovative design giving emphasis to the quality of the public space, official and educational buildings. The Astronomical Observatory was one of the first inhabitants of the main park of the city; its construction started in 1883 including two telescopes that ranked among the largest in the southern hemisphere at that time and also several instruments devoted to positional astronomy (e.g. a meridian circle and a zenith telescope). A dedicated effort has being invested during the last 15 years in order to recover some of the original instrumentation (kept in a small museum) as well as the distinctive architectural values. In 1905, the Observatory, the School of Agriculture and the Museum of Natural Sciences (one of the most important museums in South America) became part of the backbone of La Plata National University, an institution with a strong and distinctive profile in exact and natural sciences. The First School for Astronomy and Related Sciences had been harboured by the Observatory since 1935, and became the current Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences in 1983. This last institution carries PhD programs and also a number of teaching activities at different levels. These activities are the roots of a strong connection of the Observatory with the city.

  10. Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Vast amount of information continuously accumulated in astronomy requires finding new solutions for its efficient storage, use and dissemination, as well as accomplishing new research projects. Virtual Observatories (VOs) have been created in a number of countries to set up a new environment for these tasks. Based on them, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) was created in 2002, which unifies 19 VO projects, including Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) founded in 2005. ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects are presented, including the Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it.

  11. Changing perceptions one classroom at a time: Evaluation results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory formal Education and Public Outreach programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawro, Martha; Haden, Carol

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory’s (SDO) education and public outreach (EPO) team has developed and implemented a number of formal education programs for K-12 students and teachers. Programs include the Day At Goddard field trip for high school students, SDO Ambassador in the Classroom outreach to elementary classrooms, and teacher support materials for solar science education. These programs have been designed to foster student interest and engagement in science especially solar science, and increase their awareness and interest in NASA and STEM careers. Magnolia Consulting, who worked closely with the SDO EPO team to both design a substantive evaluation program, as well as improve the education programs offered, has extensively evaluated these programs. Evaluation findings indicate that teachers highly value the opportunities and resources provided by SDO EPO and that student impacts include increased interest and engagement in solar science topics and awareness of STEM careers. This presentation will be a summary of the results of the evaluation of these formal education programs including lessons learned that can be of value to the STEM EPO community.

  12. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  13. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. In addition to the state-of-the-art Very Large Telescope and the four Auxiliary Telescopes of 1.8-m diameter which can move to relocate in up to 30 different locations feeding the interferometer, Paranal will also be home to the 2.6-m VLT Survey telescope (VST) and the 4.2-m VISTA IR survey telescope. Both Paranal and La Silla have a proven record of their unique ability to address most current issues in observational astronomy. In 2004 alone, each observatory provided data for the publication of about 350 peer-reviewed journal articles, more than any other ground-based observatory. With the present merging of these top-ranking astronomical observatories, fostering synergies and harmonizing the many diverse activities, ESO and the entire community of European astronomers will profit even more from these highly efficient research facilities. Images of ESO's observatories and telescopes are available in the ESO gallery.

  14. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization

  15. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  16. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  17. The Boulder magnetic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.; Pedrie, Kolby L.; Blum, Cletus C.

    2015-08-14

    The Boulder magnetic observatory has, since 1963, been operated by the Geomagnetism Program of the U.S. Geological Survey in accordance with Bureau and national priorities. Data from the observatory are used for a wide variety of scientific purposes, both pure and applied. The observatory also supports developmental projects within the Geomagnetism Program and collaborative projects with allied geophysical agencies.

  18. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  19. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great observatories which also includes the recently decommissioned Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the soon to be launched Space Infra Red Telescope Facility. Chandra is a unique X-ray astronomy facility for high-resolution imaging and for high-resolution spectroscopy. Chandra's performance advantage over other X-ray observatories is analogous to that of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground-based observatories. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to proposals for its use. Data becomes public one year after the observation. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many commercial, academic, and government organizations in the United States and Europe. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; TRW Space and Electronics Group served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the observatory; the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations.

  20. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. The Instruments of Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gino, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Dudley Observatory, founded in 1852, is the nation's oldest independent organization dedicated to astronomical research and education. While Dudley no longer operates a physical observatory, it is home to a number of historically important scientific instruments and telescopes. Dudley's first operating telescope, a Clark Comet-seeker, remains in Dudley's collection today. This 4-inch refractor provided the first discovery of a comet by a Dudley astronomer in 1857 and is one of only four telescopes of this size produced by Alvan Clark. Also in Dudley's collection is the Olcott Meridian Circle which was the primary working telescope at the observatory for over 75 years. This telescope, made by Pistor & Martins and which operated both at the Dudley Observatory in Albany, NY and the San Luis Observatory in Argentina, was used to conduct all of the observations for the Preliminary General Catalog of 6788 Stars (1908) and the General Catalog of 33,343 Stars (1937). The gem of Dudley's collection is the Pruyn Equatorial Telescope, built by the Warner and Swasey Company and equipped with a 12-inch lens made by John Brashear. It was installed in 1893 to conduct both research observations and public observing sessions. After remaining in storage for many decades, this historic telescope will soon resume its role after being refurbished and installed at the Arunah Hill Natural Science Center in Cummington, MA. While Dudley retains its interest in astronomical instruments it has also moved into the areas of space studies and astronomical education. The key projects in the areas of instrumentation and astronomical outreach, which include the instruments above as well as the Rising Star Internship and Space Campership educational programs, will be detailed in the remainder of this paper.

  2. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  3. Royal Observatory, Edinburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (ROE) comprises the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (ATC) of the PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY RESEARCH COUNCIL, and the University of Edinburgh's Institute for Astronomy....

  4. Public Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    America’s first planetaria all opened in the 1930s, and each was the distinctive product of local circumstances. In Los Angeles, the populist sensibilities of Griffith J. Griffith prompted him to value the transformative power of a personal encounter with a telescope, and he quickly embraced the idea of a public observatory with free access to all. Griffith Observatory and its planetarium emerged from that intent. Authenticity, intelligibility, and theatricality were fundamental principles in Griffith’s thinking, and they were transformed into solid and enduring scientific and astronomical values by those who actually guided the Observatory’s design, construction, and programming. That said, the public profile of Griffith Observatory was most defined by its inspired hilltop location, its distinctive, commanding architecture, and its felicitous proximity to Hollywood. The Observatory is theatric in placement and in appearance, and before the Observatory even opened, it was used as a motion picture set. That continuing vocation turned Griffith Observatory into a Hollywood star. Because entertainment industry objectives and resources were part of the Los Angeles landscape, they influenced Observatory programming throughout the Observatory’s history. Public astronomy in Los Angeles has largely been framed by the Observatory’s fundamental nature. It has exhibits, but it is not a museum. It has a planetarium, but it is essentially an observatory. As a public observatory, it is filled with instruments that transform visitors into observers. This role emphasized the importance of personal experience and established the perception of Griffith Observatory as a place for public gathering and shared contact with the cosmos. The Observatory’s close and continuous link with amateur astronomers made amateurs influential partners in the public enterprise. In full accord with Griffith J. Griffith’s original intent, Griffith Observatory has all been about putting

  5. The Cincinnati Observatory as a Research Instrument for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Nicholas; Regas, Dean; Flateau, Davin C.; Larrabee, Cliff

    2016-06-01

    The Cincinnati Observatory, founded in 1842, was the first public observatory in the Western Hemisphere. The history of Cincinnati is closely intertwined with the history of the Observatory, and with the history of science in the United States. Previous directors of the Observatory helped to create the National Weather Service, the Minor Planet Center, and the first astronomical journal in the U.S. The Cincinnati Observatory was internationally known in the late 19th century, with Jules Verne mentioning the Cincinnati Observatory in two of his books, and the Observatory now stands as a National Historic Landmark.No longer a research instrument, the Observatory is now a tool for promoting astronomy education to the general public. However, with the 11" and 16" refracting telescopes, the Observatory telescopes are very capable of collecting data to fuel undergraduate research projects. In this poster, we will discuss the history of the Observatory, types of student research projects capable with the Cincinnati Observatory, future plans, and preliminary results. The overall goal of this project is to produce a steady supply of undergraduate students collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, and thereby introduce them to the techniques and methodology of an astronomer at an early stage of their academic career.

  6. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  7. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  8. INTERMAGNET and magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic observatory is a specially designed ground-based facility that supports time-series measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field. Observatory data record a superposition of time-dependent signals related to a fantastic diversity of physical processes in the Earth’s core, mantle, lithosphere, ocean, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and, even, the Sun and solar wind.

  9. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  10. Carter National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Carter National Observatory is situated in the Botanic Gardens in Wellington, New Zealand. Opened in 1941, the observatory is equipped with a 41 cm Boller and Chivens, an historic 23 cm Cooke photo-visual refractor and a 36 seat Zeiss planetarium. The staff are involved in research, school and tertiary education programs....

  11. Magdalena Ridge Observatory: the start-up of a new observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Westpfahl, David; Loos, Gary

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced in designing and building a new astronomical observatory. Which factors drive an organization (e.g. university) to invest considerable funding and human resources, and experience considerable risk to establish a new research facility? We identify four main drivers for establishing a new observatory: support for education, research, economic development, and technology development. For public observatories, research is generally the main driver. For nonpublic observatories, the situation is more complex and is for each situation different. A detailed description is presented on the drivers and opportunities that resulted in establishing the Magdalena Ridge Observatory. Three main opportunities are identified: a developed site, surplus equipment, and economic development of the Socorro area.

  12. Observatory bibliographies: a vital resource in operating an observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, Sherry; Rots, Arnold

    2016-07-01

    The Chandra Data Archive (CDA) maintains an extensive observatory bibliography. By linking the published articles with the individual datasets analyzed in the paper, we have the opportunity to join the bibliographic metadata (including keywords, subjects, objects, data references from other observatories, etc.) with the meta- data associated with the observational datasets. This rich body of information is ripe for far more sophisticated data mining than the two repositories (publications and data) would afford individually. Throughout the course of the mission the CDA has investigated numerous questions regarding the impact of specific types of Chandra programs such as the relative science impact of GTO, GO, and DDT programs or observing, archive, and theory programs. Most recently the Chandra bibliography was used to assess the impact of programs based on the size of the program to examine whether the dividing line between standard and large projects should be changed and whether another round of X-ray Visionary Programs should be offered. Traditionally we have grouped observations by proposal when assessing the impact of programs. For this investigation we aggregated observations by pointing and instrument configuration such that objects observed multiple times in the mission were considered single observing programs. This change in perspective has given us new ideas for assessing the science impact of Chandra and for presenting data to our users. In this paper we present the methodologies used in the recent study, some of its results, and most importantly some unexpected insights into assessing the science impact of an observatory.

  13. The Virtual Observatory: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

  14. Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Mata, José A.; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; Martínez-Vázquez, Luis A.; Pani-Cielo, Atanacio

    2011-06-01

    Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.

  15. Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; TAO Team

    2016-10-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Observatory (TAO) is a NASA MidEx mission concept (formerly known as Lobster) designed to provide simultaneous wide-field gamma-ray, X-ray, and near-infrared observations of the sky.

  16. Tonantzintla's Observatory Astronomy Teaching Laboratory project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Martínez, L. A.; Sánchez, L.; Hernández, H.; Langarica, R.; Iriarte, A.; Peña, J. H.; Tinoco, S.; Ángeles, F.

    2008-07-01

    In the last two years the National Observatory at Tonantzintla Puebla, México (OAN Tonantzintla), has been undergoing several facilities upgrades in order to bring to the observatory suitable conditions to operate as a modern Observational Astronomy Teaching Laboratory. In this paper, we present the management, requirement definition and project advances. We made a quantitative diagnosis about of the functionality of the Tonantzintla Observatory (mainly based in the 1m f/15 telescope) to take aim to educational objectives. Through this project we are taking the steps to correct, to actualize and to optimize the observatory astronomical instrumentation according to modern techniques of observation. We present the design and the first actions in order to get a better and efficient use of the main astronomical instrumentation, as well as, the telescope itself, for the undergraduate, postgraduate levels Observacional Astronomy students and outreach publics programs for elementary school. The project includes the development of software and hardware components based in as a common framework for the project management. The Observatory is located at 150 km away from the headquarters at the Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IAUNAM), and one of the goals is use this infrastructure for a Remote Observatory System.

  17. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  18. The New North Georgia Astronomical Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. H.; Chapman, E. K.

    1999-12-01

    The mission of NGCSU's observatory over the last 30 years has been to provide a quality environment for student and public viewing and a professional platform for student/faculty research. During the fall of 1997 a large illuminated parking lot was constructed less than 100 feet from the old observatory site. Fortunately, the administration at that time recognized the impact that the lot would have on the observatory's mission and was able to find funds to relocate the Boller & Chivens 16 inch telescope to a new observatory built on school property four miles west of the campus. The new observatory became operational at the beginning of the fall semester 1999. We report here on the outcome of the many unique design features which we tried to incorporate into the building. Features for optimizing student and public viewing such as a "downslope" roll away enclosure and a wide "no steps" observing deck entrance. An ongoing student project to measure and compare photometric calibration coefficients as well as zenith sky brightness and "seeing" parameters with previously determined parameters will evaluate the building features which were designed to enhance the performance of the telescope and its instrumentation. We would especially like to thank university president (retired) Dr. Sherman R. Day for supporting this project, not only financially, but also for supporting the legacy of astronomical education and student research at NGCSU. We also would like to thank the current president, Dr. Nathaniel Hansford, and his administration for continuing that support.

  19. NASA'S Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Why are space observatories important? The answer concerns twinkling stars in the night sky. To reach telescopes on Earth, light from distant objects has to penetrate Earth's atmosphere. Although the sky may look clear, the gases that make up our atmosphere cause problems for astronomers. These gases absorb the majority of radiation emanating from celestial bodies so that it never reaches the astronomer's telescope. Radiation that does make it to the surface is distorted by pockets of warm and cool air, causing the twinkling effect. In spite of advanced computer enhancement, the images finally seen by astronomers are incomplete. NASA, in conjunction with other countries' space agencies, commercial companies, and the international community, has built observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find the answers to numerous questions about the universe. With the capabilities the Space Shuttle provides, scientist now have the means for deploying these observatories from the Shuttle's cargo bay directly into orbit.

  20. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  1. Toward a green observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Ueli; Ramírez, Christian; Vanderheyden, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Many of the modern observatories are located at remote sites, far from larger cities and away from infrastructure like power grids, water supplies and roads. On-site power generation in island mode is often the only choice to provide electricity to an observatory. During the 2008 petrol price rally, conventional power generation has received special attention and alternatives are being studied now in many organisations to keep energy prices at bay. This paper shall outline the power generation at the ESO VLT/VLTI observatory at Paranal as it is now and a plan for a possible way out of the dependency on fossil fuels in the near future. A discussion of several alternatives including wind energy, solar energy and heat recovery from a conventional power plant shall be analysed and compared. Finally, a project is being proposed to equip the VLT/VLTI with a modern alternative energy supply, based on a novel concept: Solar cooling.

  2. Wendelstein Observatory control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, Jan M.; Gössl, Claus; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Wegner, Michael; Schlichter, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    LMU Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope2, 3 is equipped with a 0.5 x 0.5 square degree field-of-view wide field camera4 and a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5, 6. Two fiber coupled spectrographs7-9 and a wavefront sensor will be added in the near future. The observatory hosts a multitude of supporting hardware, i.e. allsky cameras, webcams, meteostation, air conditioning etc. All scientific hardware can be controlled through a single, central "Master Control Program" (MCP). At the last SPIE astronomy venue we presented the overall Wendelstein Observatory software concept10. Here we explain concept and implementation of the MCP as a multi-threaded Python daemon in the area of conflict between debuggability and Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY).

  3. Iranian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, H. G.; Danesh, A.; Molaeinezhad, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Iranian National Observatory is under construction at an altitude of 3600m at Gargash summit 300km southern Tehran. The site selection was concluded in 2007 and the site monitoring activities have begun since then, which indicates a high quality of the site with a median seeing of 0.7 arcsec through the year. One of the major observing facilities of the observatory is a 3.4m Alt-Az Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope which is currently under design. This f/11 telescope will be equipped with high resolution medium-wide field imaging cameras as well as medium and high resolution spectrographs. In this review, I will give an overview of astronomy research and education in Iran. Then I will go through the past and present activities of the Iranian National Observatory project including the site quality, telescope specifications and instrument capabilities.

  4. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  5. WFIRST Observatory Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST observatory will be a powerful and flexible wide-field near-infrared facility. The planned surveys will provide data applicable to an enormous variety of astrophysical science. This presentation will provide a description of the observatory and its performance characteristics. This will include a discussion of the point spread function, signal-to-noise budgets for representative observing scenarios and the corresponding limiting sensitivity. Emphasis will be given to providing prospective Guest Observers with information needed to begin thinking about new observing programs.

  6. Arecibo Observatory for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro, Gloria M.; Pantoja, C. A.; Bartus, P.; La Rosa, C.

    2006-12-01

    We describe new materials available at Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, some basic terms used in radio astronomy and frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. We are interested that blind visitors can participate of the excitement of the visit to the worlds largest radio telescope. We would like to thank the "Fundacion Comunitaria de Puerto Rico" for the scholarship that allowed GMI to work on this project. We would like to express our gratitude to the Arecibo Observatory/NAIC for their support.

  7. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  8. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  9. Arecibo Observatory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling…

  10. Improving Arecibo Observatory's Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rooy, Paula; Whitlow, Dana; Seymour, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Puerto-rican Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (PUPPI) is a key backend for time-domain observations at Arecibo Observatory. PUPPI enables pulsar timing used for gravitational wave studies, single pulse studies of pulsars, searches for new pulsars, and allows in depth studies of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs). Unfortunately, PUPPI is presently restricted to only certain Arecibo receivers due to its input frequency and bandwidth requirements. Here we present the design process, building, bench testing, and updates on the implementation of a one-channel breadboard of a new frequency mixer at the Arecibo Observatory. The function of the frequency mixer design is to translate a 1.1-1.9 GHz band to 0.8 - 1.6 GHz band, where PUPPI samples the data at the second Nyquist zone. When this seemingly simple device is fully implemented, it will allow for the further expansion of the abilities of PUPPI. Mainly it will expand PUPPI's frequency agility to higher frequencies from 4 to 10 GHz, by enabling it to work with many more of Arecibo's receivers. We hope this becomes particularly useful, now that a FRB has been detected at these higher frequencies. The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. The Arecibo Observatory REU is funded under grant AST-1559849 to Universidad Metropolitana

  11. Observatory of Shiraz University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bahrani, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we write about the observatory of Shiraz University, which has the largest active telescope in Iran but now, because of problems like light pollution of the nearby city and exhaustion of its largest telescope we need a plan for modernization and automatization in a new place.

  12. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  13. The IT Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kai Iok Tong; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the IT Observatory, a service of the Macau Productivity and Technology center (CPTTM) that provides information on demand using information technology. The CPTTM is a nonprofit organization funded by the Macau government and private businesses to enhance the productivity of Macau businesses by introducing new technologies and new…

  14. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  15. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hime, A.

    1996-09-01

    A report is given on the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, presently under construction in the Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury, Ontario in Canada. Focus is upon the technical factors involving a measurement of the charged-current and neutral-current interactions of solar neutrinos on deuterium.

  16. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  17. Calar Alto Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, or `Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman', is located at an altitude of 2168 m in the `Sierra de los Filabres', in southern Spain. Its construction on Calar Alto mountain began in 1973. It is operated jointly by the MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR ASTRONOMIE in Heidelberg (MPIA), Germany, and the `Comision Nacional de Astronomia'. The MPIA provides four telescopes of diameters 3....

  18. Jodrell Bank Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Jodrell Bank Observatory is part of the University of Manchester and was founded by Bernard Lovell in December 1945. Its prime instrument, the 76 m, MK1 radio-telescope, was completed in 1957. It was given a major upgrade in 1971 and is now known as the Lovell Telescope. In its early years it pioneered the technique of long baseline interferometry which led to the discovery of quasars. A majo...

  19. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  20. Arecibo Observatory for All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling blind visitors to participate in the excitement of visiting the world's largest radio telescope.

  1. Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory began operating in 1959, and joined the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL in 1970. It became part of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in 1975. The site near Penticton, BC has a 26 m radio telescope, a seven-antenna synthesis telescope on a 600 m baseline and two telescopes dedicated to monitoring the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. This part of the Institu...

  2. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Johanna

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  3. Building an Automated Observatory for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodney, Laura; Gardner, P. B.

    2012-10-01

    The Murillo Family Observatory at California State University, San Bernardino is the culmination of more than 20 years of planning and fundraising to build a privately funded state of the art facilty for undergraduate research on a public campus which serves predominately minority students. This observatory allows us to bring a hands on approach to astronomy to traditionally underrepresented and underserved groups. Our two telescopes have been equiped with CCD cameras and standard BVRI filters which will allow the students to do a wide variety of research projects from extra-solar planet transits to asteroid colors and lightcurves. Both telescopes have been designed to run both remotely and in an automated mode. This has been achieved entirely with commercially available software products. The remote and automated modes enhance not only the functionality of our facility for research but will allow us to increase the reach of our programs into the local public schools.

  4. Building an Automated Observatory for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Carol E.; Woodney, L.; Gardner, P. B.; Belicki, J.; Pate, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Murillo Family Observatory is the culmination of more than 20 years of planning and fundraising to build a privately funded state of the art facilty for undergraduate research on a public campus which serves predominately minority students. This observatory allows us to bring a hands on approach to astronomy to traditionally underrepresented and underserved groups. Both our 18" and 20" telescopes have been equiped with CCD cameras and standard BVRI filters which will allow the students to do a wide variety of research projects from extra-solar planet transits to asteroid colors and light curves to AGN monitoring. Both telescopes have been designed to run remotely and in an automated mode. This has been achieved entirely with commercially available software products. The remote and automated modes enhance not only the functionality of our facility for research but will allow us to increase the reach of our programs into the local public schools.

  5. The solar terrestrial observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    The larger system of the earth environment is controlled externally by electromagnetic and particle energy from the sun. Recent studies have shown that the sun is a variable star with changes in its radiation which produce significant effects in the earth's climate and weather. The study of the solar-terrestrial system requires simultaneous, long-duration observations of the different elements or 'links' in the solar-terrestrial chain. Many investigations must be conducted in space from a vantage point above the earth's atmosphere where all of the sun's emissions can be observed free from atmospheric distortion, where the magnetospheric particles and fields can be measured directly, and where the atmosphere can be observed on a global scale. The extension of the Shuttle on-orbit capability in connection with the development of the power module will offer an important near-term step in an evolutionary process leading toward a permanent manned Solar Terrestrial Observatory capability in low-earth orbit. Attention is given to the required solar-terrestrial measurements, the operation of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory, and an evolutionary approach to the Solar Terrestrial Observatory.

  6. Megalithic observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gj.

    2006-05-01

    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  7. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  8. Research, Education, and Outreach at the Oakley Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditteon, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology is a four-year college specializing in undergraduate engineering, science and mathematics education. Rose students have a strong interest in anything space-related. In the early days of the space age, Rose established a campus observatory to collect data on man-made satellites. In 2000, a new observatory was completed and named the Oakley Observatory. The new observatory was designed primarily for education and outreach, but we have successfully used it for minor planet astrometry, and photometry of minor planets and variable stars. Rose-Hulman students have discovered 33 main belt asteroids. Faculty, Rose students, and local high school students have worked together to publish more than 350 minor planet lightcurves. To supplement the campus observatory, The Oakley Southern Sky Observatory was completed in 2007 near Siding Spring in New South Wales, Australia. OSSO makes it possible to observe the southern sky, and it has much less cloud cover, as well as, significantly darker skies than our campus. Rose-Hulman offers an area minor in astronomy and all of the astronomy courses are available to all majors as technical electives. Classes are normally filled to capacity. Finally, we also use the campus observatory for public outreach. We host scout troops, school classes and many other types of groups who want to look through a telescope. We also hold public open houses for special astronomical events such as the transit of Venus.

  9. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  10. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  11. The HAWC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, Tyce; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a new very high energy water Cherenkov gamma ray telescope, now under construction at 4100 m altitude at Sierra Negra, Mexico. Due to its increased altitude, larger surface area and improved design, HAWC will be about 15 times more sensitive than its predecessor, Milagro. With its wide field of view and high duty factor, HAWC will be an excellent instrument for the studies of diffuse gamma ray emission, the high energy spectra of Galactic gamma ray sources, and transient emission from extragalactic objects such as GRBs and AGN, as well as surveying a large fraction of the VHE sky.

  12. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    This booklet is devoted to NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory and is aimed at people interested in astronomy and BAO, pupils and students, BAO visitors and others. The booklet is made as a visiting card and presents concise and full information about BAO. A brief history of BAO, the biography of the great scientist Viktor Ambartsumian, brief biographies of 13 other deserved scientists formerly working at BAO (B.E. Markarian, G.A. Gurzadyan, L.V. Mirzoyan, M.A. Arakelian, et al.), information on BAO telescopes (2.6m, 1m Schmidt, etc.) and other scientific instruments, scientific library and photographic plate archive, Byurakan surveys (including the famous Markarian Survey included in the UNESCO Memory of the World International Register), all scientific meetings held in Byurakan, international scientific collaboration, data on full research staff of the Observatory, as well as former BAO researchers, who have moved to foreign institutions are given in the booklet. At the end, the list of the most important books published by Armenian astronomers and about them is given.

  13. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  14. Social Media Programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance Elaine; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2015-08-01

    Observatories and other science research organizations want to share their research and activities with the public. The last several years, social media has become and increasingly important venue for communicating information about observatory activities, research and education and public outreach.The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) uses a wide variety of social media to communicate with different audiences. NOAO is active on social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and Pinterest. Our social media accounts include those for the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory and our dark skies conservation program Globe at Night.Our social media programs have a variety of audiences. NOAO uses social media to announce and promote NOAO sponsored meetings, observatory news and proposal deadlines to the professional astronomical community. Social media accounts are used to disseminate NOAO press releases, images from the observatory and other science using data from NOAO telescopes.Social media is important in our Education and Public Outreach programs (EPO). Globe at Night has very active facebook and twitter accounts encouraging people to become involved in preserving dark skies. Social media plays a role in recruiting teachers for professional development workshops such as Project Astro.NOAO produces monthly podcasts for the 365 Days of Astronomy podcast featuring interviews with NOAO astronomers. Each podcast highlights the science of an NOAO astronomer, an NOAO operated telescope or instrument, or an NOAO program. A separate series of podcasts is produced for NOAO’s Dark Skies Education programs. All the podcasts are archived at 365daysofastronomy.org.

  15. LCOGT network observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-08-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  16. DSN Transient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Monroe, R. M.; White, L. A.; Miro, C. Garcia; Levin, S. M.; Majid, W. A.; Soriano, M.

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) Transient Observatory (DTO) is a signal processing facility that can monitor up to four DSN downlink bands for astronomically interesting signals. The monitoring is done commensally with reception of deep space mission telemetry. The initial signal processing is done with two CASPERa ROACH1 boards, each handling one or two baseband signals. Each ROACH1 has a 10 GBe interface with a GPU-equipped Debian Linux workstation for additional processing. The initial science programs include monitoring Mars for electrostatic discharges, radio spectral lines, searches for fast radio bursts and pulsars and SETI. The facility will be available to the scientific community through a peer review process.

  17. Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

  18. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  19. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  20. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  1. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  2. The Transformation of Observatory Newsletters - A Gemini Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories publish newsletters to communicate the observatory’s new discoveries and activities with its user communities, funding agencies, and general public. Gemini Observatory started publishing the newsletter in March 1992. Over the years, it transformed from a no-frills black and white publication to a full-color magazine type newsletter with a special name “GeminiFocus”. Since 2012, the contents of GeminiFocus moved from print to digital with an additional print issue of the Year in Review. The newsletter transformation is in sync with the rapid development of the internet technologies. We discuss here the evolvement of Gemini newsletter and the lessons learned.

  3. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  4. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    research opportunities for Russian and American students. AVO was a three-way partnership of the federal and state geological surveys and the state university from the start. This was not a flowering of ecumenism but was rather at the insistence of the Alaska congressional delegation. Such shared enterprises are not managerially convenient, but they do bring a diversity of roles, thinking, and expertise that would not otherwise be possible. Through AVO, the USGS performs its federally mandated role in natural hazard mitigation and draws on expertise available from its network of volcano observatories. The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys performs a similar role at the state level and, in the tradition of state surveys, provides important public communications, state data base, and mapping functions. The University of Alaska Fairbanks brought seismological, remote sensing, geodetic, petrological, and physical volcanological expertise, and uniquely within US academia was able to engage students directly in volcano observatory activities. Although this "model" cannot be adopted in total elsewhere, it has served to point the USGS Volcano Hazards Program in a direction of greater openness and inclusiveness.

  5. Ten Years of the Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Magakian, T. Yu.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Erastova, L. K.; Hovhannisyan, L. R.; Sargsyan, L. A.; Sinamyan, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) was created 10 years ago, in 2005, when after the accomplishment of the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) we had enough resources to run a VO project and contribute in the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA, www.ivoa.net). ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects include Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on DFBS. Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS, www.icsu-wds.org/) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it due to DFBS and ArVO projects.

  6. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  7. Ethics in Academe--Afton Dekanal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, David H.

    1984-01-01

    A paper written by a lawyer with a distinguished career in teaching and administration is presented posthumously. It discusses conflicts arising in faculty group and individual self-governance within the law school and addresses such issues as curriculum, teaching loads, tenure, consulting, scholarship, work attitudes, and student-faculty…

  8. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first Space Weather Mission in NASA's Living With a Star Program. SDO's main goal is to understand, driving towards a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity's technological systems. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. SDO's three science investigations (HMI, AIA, and EVE) will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO will return full-disk Dopplergrams, full-disk vector magnetograms, full-disk images at nine EIUV wavelengths, and EUV spectral irradiances, all taken at a rapid cadence. This means you can 'observe the database' to study events, but we can also move forward in producing quantitative models of what the Sun is doing today. SDO is scheduled to launch in 2008 on an Atlas V rocket from the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite will fly in a 28 degree inclined geosynchronous orbit about the longitude of New Mexico, where a dedicated Ka-band ground station will receive the 150 Mbps data flow. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and its affect on Space Weather studies will be discussed.

  9. 10 meter airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    Inside an aircraft fuselage there is little room for the mass of all the instrumentation of a ground-based observatory much less a primary objective aperture at the scale of 10 meters. We have proposed a solution that uses a primary objective grating (POG) which matches the considerable length of the aircraft, approximately 10 meters, and conforms to aircraft aerodynamics. Light collected by the POG is diffracted at an angle of grazing exodus inside the aircraft where it is disambiguated by an optical train that fits within to the interior tunnel. Inside the aircraft, light is focused by a parabolic mirror onto a spectrograph slit. The design has a special benefit in that all objects in the field-of-view of the free spectral range of the POG can have their spectra taken as the aircraft changes orientation. We suggest flight planes that will improve integration times, angular resolution and spectral resolution to acquire targets of high stellar magnitudes or alternatively increase the number of sources acquired per flight at the cost of sensitivity.

  10. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Johanna; HAWC Collaboration; College of Idaho; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To increase the effective area and sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory to gamma-ray photons with energies higher than 10 TeV, we are building 350 smaller outrigger tanks around the main array of 300 existing tanks. HAWC detects cascades of charged particles (``extensive air showers'') created by TeV gamma rays hitting the atmosphere. Increasing the size of the array will improve the sensitivity of the array by a factor of 2 to 4 above 10 TeV, allowing for more accurate gamma-ray origin reconstruction and energy estimation. Building the outrigger array requires carefully calibrated equipment, including PMTs and high voltage signal cables of the correct length. Origin reconstruction relies on precise signal timing, so the signal cables' lengths were standardized so that the signal transit time varied by less than 5 ns. Energy estimation depends on accurate photon counts from each tank, so the PMTs were calibrated with a laser and filter wheels to give the PMTs a known amount of light.

  11. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  12. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  13. The International Virtual Observatory: Summary of the first decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    International Virtual Observatory is a collection of integrated astronomical data archives and software tools that utilize computer networks to create an environment in which research can be conducted. Several countries have initiated national virtual observatory programs that will combine existing databases from ground-based and space-born observatories and make them easily accessible to researchers. As a result, data from all the world's major observatories will be available to all users and to the public. This is significant not only because of the immense volume of astronomical data but also because the data on stars and galaxies have been compiled from observations in a variety of wavelengths: optical, radio, infrared, gamma ray, X-ray and more. Each wavelength can provide different information about a celestial event or object, but also requires a special expertise to interpret. In a virtual observatory environment, all of this data is integrated so that it can be synthesized and used in a given study. The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) represents 20 national and international projects working in coordination to realize the essential technologies and interoperability standards necessary to create a new research infrastructure. Russian Virtual Observatory is one of the founders and important members of the IVOA. The International Virtual Observatory project was launched about ten years ago, and its major achievements in science and technology in recent years are discussed in this paper. Standards for accessing large astronomical data sets were developed. Such data sets can accommodate the full range of wavelengths and observational techniques for all types of astronomical data: catalogues, images, spectra and time series. The described standards include standards for metadata, data formats, query language, etc. Services for the federation of massive, distributed data sets, regardless of the wavelength, resolution and type of data were

  14. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  15. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  16. The Russian Virtual Observatory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), a prestigious international project sponsored by the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). In 2001, the RAS Scientific Council on Astronomy included this project in a list of the most important international projects of the RAS. Its main goal to create and develop the RVO, intended to provide Russian astronomers with direct and effective access to worldwide astronomical data resources. The RVO is one component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO), a system in which vast astronomical archives and databases around the world, together with analysis tools and computational services, are linked together into an integrated facility. The IVO unites all important national and international projects to create virtual observatories, coordinated by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The RVO is one of the organizers and an important participant of the IVO Alliance.

  17. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  18. Status of the SOFIA Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    The SOFIA observatory has been in routine science operations since returning in January from a 6 month-long heavy maintenance period for the aircraft and the telescope assembly. These operations include a successful 6 week deployment to the Southern hemisphere. This presentation will provide an update to the current operational status of the SOFIA observatory, concentrating on the improvements and upgrades that have been implemented since the heavy maintenance period.

  19. Observatory Bibliographies: Toward Multi-usage and Better Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2015-04-01

    There are typically two areas of motivation for the establishment of observatory bibliographies. One area of motivation is to provide a management-oriented tool that facilitates the compilation of metrics that yield some measure of the performance of the observatory. The second area of motivation is to produce a research tool that allows the science community to integrate the mining of published works in their research. It is important to keep in mind that these two objectives impose different requirements on the metadata that are collected in a bibliography. We submit that there are good reasons to integrate the two objectives in the formulation of requirements and in the design of observatory bibliographies: they benefit from each other and the yield from the sum of the metadata collections is greater than the sum of their individual yields. Further integration of the bibliography with the observatory's databases offers an additional important benefit for metrics regarding the performance of the observatory. We propose a suite of metrics, enabled by the extended metadata and database linking, that provides better insight into how well the observatory functions and is being used. These include measuring the delay between observation and publication, the percentage of data that gets published, and the re-use of the data and their archival value.

  20. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  1. SOFIA observatory performance and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Marcum, Pamela M.; Miller, Walter E.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean C.; Collins, Peter L.; Horner, Scott D.; Jakob, Holger; Jensen, Stephen C.; Killebrew, Jana L.; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi I.; Meyer, Allen W.; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Rho, Jeonghee; Roellig, Thomas L.; Savage, Maureen L.; Smith, Erin C.; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument conguration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  2. A New Observatory for Eastern College: A Dream Realized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    The Eastern College Observatory began as a rooftop observing deck with one Celestron 8 telescope in 1976 as the workhorse instrument of the observational astronomy lab within the core curriculum. For 20 years the observing deck served as the crude observatory, being augmented through the years by other computerized Celestron 8's and a 17.5" diameter Dobsonian with computerized setting circles. The lab consisted primarily of visual observations and astrophotography. In 1987 plans were set into motion to raise money to build a permanent Observatory on the roof of the main classroom building. Fundraising efforts included three Jog-A-Thons (raising more than $40,000) and many donations from individuals and foundations. The fundraising was completed in 1996 and a two telescope observatory was constructed in the summer of 1996 complete with warm room, CCD cameras, computers, spectrograph, video network, and computerized single channel photometer. The telescopes are computerized 16" diameter Meade LX200 Schmidt-Cassegrains, each coupled to Gateway Pentium Pro 200 MHz computers. SBIG ST-8 CCD cameras were also secured for each telescope and an Optec SSP-7 photometer and Optomechanics Research 10C Spectrograph were also purchased. A Daystar H-alpha solar filter and Thousand Oaks visual light solar filter have expanded the Observatory's functionality to daytime observing as well. This is especially useful for the thousands of school children who frequent the Planetarium each year. The Observatory primarily serves the core astronomy lab where students must observe and photograph a prescribed number of celestial objects in a semester. Advanced students can take directed studies where they conduct photometry on eclipsing binaries or other variable stars or search for new asteroids. In addition, the Observatory and Planetarium are open to the public. Interested members of the community can reserve time on the telescopes and receive training and supervision from lab assistants

  3. Far-Infrared Astronomy with The Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger, H.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work made possible by NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The results of the work have appeared in over 80 papers. The publications fall in three main areas: instrumentation, observations, and analysis. Although there is considerable overlap between these categories it will be convenient to group them separately.

  4. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ESO's La Silla Observatory, which is celebrating its 40th anniversary, became the largest astronomical observatory of its time. It led Europe to the frontline of astronomical research, and is still one of the most scientifically productive in ground-based astronomy. ESO PR Photo 12a/09 La Silla Aerial View ESO PR Photo 12b/09 The ESO New Technology Telescope ESO PR Photo 12c/09 SEST on La Silla ESO PR Photo 12d/09 Looking for the best site ESO PR Video 12a/09 ESOcast 5 With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. It has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several "firsts". The HARPS spectrograph is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in discovering that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (ESO 21/98) and in linking gamma-ray bursts -- the most energetic explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang - with the explosions of massive stars (ESO 15/98). Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest supernova, SN 1987A (ESO 08/07). "The La Silla Observatory continues to offer the astronomical community exceptional capabilities," says ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. "It was ESO's first presence in Chile and as such, it triggered a very long and fruitful collaboration with this country and its scientific community." The La Silla Observatory is located at the edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of polluting light and, as the Paranal Observatory that houses the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest and clearest

  5. Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade from 1956 to 1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanac, M.

    2010-06-01

    Although the present monograph "Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade from 1956 to 1975" is an independent work, it is in fact a continuation of the work done by the author and published in the series of the Publications of the Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" under the title "Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade from 1945 to 1955" in the Proceedings of the conference "Development of Astronomy among Serbs III", no. 6, pp. 55-200 in 2005; that manuscript in turn is an extension of the earlier paper (written together with Luka C. Popovic) and published in the series of the Publications of Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade "Development of Astronomy among Serbs II", no. 72, pp. 133-145 in 2002. Thus the three papers constitute a detailed review of the work of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade in the period of 35 years (of the total of 122 years) of its relatively recent history, from 1940 to 1975; this review is prepared using the archive material: general type of documents, notes of various meetings, especially the meetings of the Council of the Observatory, Scientific council and work plans, reports, correspondence, etc.

  6. SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, Alfred; Mehlert, Dörte; Röser, Hans-Peter; Scorza, Cecilia

    2013-11-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project operating a 2.7 m infrared airborne telescope onboard a modified Boeing 747-SP in the stratosphere at altitudes up to 13.7 km. SOFIA covers a spectral range from 0.3 µm to 1.6 mm, with an average atmospheric transmission greater than 80%. After successfully completing its commissioning, SOFIA commenced regular astronomical observation in spring 2013, and will ramp up to more than one hundred 8 to 10 h flights per year by 2015. The observatory is expected to operate until the mid 2030s. SOFIA's initial complement of seven focal plane instruments includes broadband imagers, moderate-resolution spectrographs and high-resolution spectrometers. SOFIA also includes an elaborate program for Education and Public Outreach. We describe the SOFIA facility together with its first light instrumentation and include some of its first scientific results. In addition, the education and public outreach program is presented.

  7. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  8. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  9. Automated Sky-Compensating Photometer with a Silicon Photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, J. D.; Alexander, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    This article describes the automated, sky-compensating filter photometer, currently being built and tested for the Lake Afton Public Observatory (LAPO) at Wichita State University, for use on the 16-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope. Design emphasis is directed toward minimal user intervention due to varying user backgrounds. The instrumentation consists of a sky-compensating photometer, a Hamamatsu S1133-01 silicon photodiode detector, a programmable DC amplifier, and a computer dedicated to data collection and photometer control.

  10. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  11. Development of solar tower observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  12. Digitising the Patrimonial Collections of the Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been many emerging digital library projects, and digitising heritage collections has become a major issue for libraries. Digitisation supports the preservation of collections and facilitates accessibility to the public. Furthermore, the richness and variety of the Paris Observatory's patrimonial collections, which includes ancient books, periodicals, manuscripts, archives, and iconographic documents, makes it an invaluable source for research on the history of astronomy. This is why the Paris Observatory library has started work on a digitisation policy and has since launched several digitisation projects.

  13. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  14. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  15. Tools for Coordinated Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Fishman, Mark; Grella, Vince; Kerbel, Uri; Maks, Lori; Misra, Dharitri; Pell, Vince; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only one single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not due to scientific restrictions, but due to operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are conducted by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all the constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming, error-prone, and the outcome of the requests is not certain until the very end. To increase observatory operations efficiency, such manpower intensive processes need to undergo re-engineering. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype effort called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of the VOLT project is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the scheduling probability of all observations.

  16. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-04-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  17. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  18. Lidar Atmospheric Observatory in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulitsky, Arkady; Wang, Tin-Yu; Flood, Martin; Smith, Brent

    1992-01-01

    During the last decade there have been growing concerns about a broad variety of atmospheric properties. Among these, a depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has attracted considerable attention from the general public, politicians and scientists due to its vital impact for the entire global biosphere. One of the major warning signs was the discovery of the 'ozone hole' in the Antarctic region where the concentration of the ozone in the stratosphere was significantly reduced. At present the stratospheric ozone layer in this region is being continuously monitored by groups of scientists from around the world and numerous observations of the ozone layer on the global scale have clearly demonstrated the process of ozone depletion. Recent observations by NASA have shown significant depletion in the Arctic region. This paper provides an initial description of two lidars that are planned to be installed in a new observatory for atmospheric studies in the Canadian Arctic. This observatory is being constructed under the supervision of the Atmospheric Environment Services (AES) of Canada as a part of Green Plan - an initiative of the Federal Government of Canada. The station is located at Eureka on Ellesmere Island at a latitude of 80 degrees N and a longitude of 86 degrees W.

  19. Planetary research at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific goals include a better determination of the basic physical characteristics of cometary nuclei, a more complete understanding of the complex processes in the comae, a survey of abundances and gas/dust ratios in a large number of comets, and measurement of primordial (12)C/(13)C and (14)N/(15)N ratios. The program also includes the observation of Pluto-Charon mutual eclipses to derive dimensions. Reduction and analysis of extensive narrowband photometry of Comet Halley from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Perth Observatory, Lowell Observatory, and Mauna Kea Observatory were completed. It was shown that the 7.4-day periodicity in the activity of Comet Halley was present from late February through at least early June 1986, but there is no conclusive evidence of periodic variability in the preperihelion data. Greatly improved NH scalelengths and lifetimes were derived from the Halley data which lead to the conclusion that the abundance of NH in comets is much higher than previously believed. Simultaneous optical and thermal infrared observations were obtained of Comet P/Temple 2 using the MKO 2.2 m telescope and the NASA IRTF. Preliminary analysis of these observations shows that the comet's nucleus is highly elongated, very dark, and quite red.

  20. Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Lowell Observatory broke ground on its 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) in July 2005 and celebrated first light for the telescope in July 2012. In this overview to this special session, I will discuss the origin and development of the project, the telescope's general specifications and performance, its current operating status, and the initial instrument suite.

  1. ISS images for Observatory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  2. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  3. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  4. Michelson geostationary gravitational wave observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. J.

    Studies made during the previous year are outlined. These studies have indicated that a Michelson mm wave interferometer observatory (MGO) operating in geostationary orbit is the best configuration satisfying both current operational and design constraints. It is proposed to study the design of this space laboratory interferometer and to study the inclusion of an inertial transponder in this design.

  5. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  6. The Virtual Observatory in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberasturi, M.; Solano, E.

    2011-11-01

    EuroVO-AIDA/WP5 (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5/) is a project developed within the framework of the European Virtual Observatory (EuroVO) (http://www.euro-vo.org/pub/) with the aim of disseminating EuroVO data and software to the public, in particular students, teachers and amateur astronomers. EuroVO-AIDA/WP5 offers use cases, pedagogical units, and simplified professional software that allow users a taste of scientific research, even to those approaching Astronomy for the first time. The educational material of EuroVO-AIDA/WP5 has been designed specifically for teachers in support of an effective presentation of Astronomy in the classroom.

  7. Eudoxos Observatory: Communicating Astronomy using Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoulias, M.; Solomos, N.

    2005-12-01

    The Eudoxos Observatory is located on a mountaintop of Mount Ainos, in Kefallonia Island, Greece. The project started in 1993, with design and development of the domes, telescopes, hardware and software systems and basic curricula for school education. In 1999, first light was seen. Eudoxos is a joint project, developed through the collaboration of many institutions and independent contributors from various scientific and technological sectors. Eudoxos currently provides higher education and undergraduate students with hands on access to astronomy, astrophysics and general science using remotely submitted observation schedules. Part of the observing time is devoted to research observations by the projects science team. In the light of new developments the project enriches its curricula and upgrades scientific and support hardware, software and web access, adapting to the latest technologies and trends in the related fields. The project's future involves expanding international collaboration and contributing innovative developments in education, public outreach and research alike.

  8. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  9. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  10. Armenian virtual observatory simple image access service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazyan, A. V.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the article is to introduce the data sharing service of the Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) based on the Simple Image Access (SIA) Protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA).

  11. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  12. The MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  13. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  14. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  15. International ultraviolet explorer observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Observatory Operations contract, NAS5-28787. The report summarizes the activities of the IUE Observatory over the 13-month period from November 1985 through November 1986 and is arranged in sections according to the functions specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) of the contract. In order to preserve numerical correspondence between the technical SOW elements specified by the contract and the sections of this report, project management activities (SOW element 0.0.) are reported here in Section 7, following the reports of technical SOW elements 1.0 through 6.0. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible; statistical compilations, reports, and more lengthy supplementary material are contained in the Appendices.

  16. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  17. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  18. The TAROT observatory data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringer, M.; Boër, M.; Peignot, C.; Fontan, G.; Merce, C.

    1999-09-01

    TAROT (Tálescope a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires, Rapid Action Telescope for Transient Objects) is an autonomous ground based observatory (Calern, France) whose primary goal is the rapid detection of variable objects, peculiarly optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) sources. We present the observatory data management architecture which is composed of 3 main modules: The MAJORDOME module whose aim is to optimally schedule the observation requests sent to the telescope through socket connections, e-mail or even a web interface, The CONTROL module which monitors the hardware, and a data processing software TAITAR which detects, deblends, measures, classifies sources and detects variable objects by comparison with a catalogue. This paper will mainly focus on the MAJORDOME.

  19. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  20. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  1. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  2. Ny-Alesund Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the 20-m telescope at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), took part in 163 out of 168 scheduled sessions of the IVS program. Since spring, all data was transferred by network, and the receiver monitoring computer was replaced by a bus-coupler. In autumn, the NMA received building permission for a new observatory from the Governor of Svalbard. The bidding process and first construction work for the infrastructure will start in 2013.

  3. A Remotely Operated Observatory for Minor Planet Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditteon, Richard

    2008-05-01

    In October of 2007 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana began operating the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory (E09) located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. The observatory houses a 0.5-m, f/8.4 Ritchey-Chretien telescope mounted on a Paramount ME, German equatorial mount. Attached to the telescope is an STL-1001E CCD camera which has 1024 by 1024, 24 µm pixels, a two-stage thermoelectric cooler, and built in color filter wheel with BVRI and clear filters. Image scale is 1.2 arcseconds per pixel. A cloud sensor is used to monitor sky conditions. The observatory has a roll-off roof with limit switches to detect when the roof is fully open and fully closed. In addition, a switch has been added to the mount to detect when the telescope is parked and that it is safe to open or close the roof. All of the hardware is controlled by a custom program which reads a simple text file containing the sequence of images and targets to be collected each night. The text file is loaded onto the control computer once each day, then the software waits until sunset to determine if the sky is clear. When conditions are favorable, power is turned on, the roof opens, twilight flats, dark and bias frames are recorded, and when it is fully dark data frames are recorded. Images are transferred via the Internet back to Rose-Hulman by another program running in the background. The observatory closes itself before dawn or if it gets cloudy. Currently we are using the observatory for photometry of minor planets. Students are responsible for selecting targets, processing the returned images, determining the period and light curve of each minor planet and writing a paper for publication. Recent results will be presented.

  4. Urania in the Marketplace: Observatories as Holiday Destinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century astronomical imagery was frequently incorporated, by manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, into advertisements which appeared in popular magazines in America. The domes and telescopes of major observatories were often featured. In some cases, particularly within the Golden State of California, major astronomical facilities (notably the Lick and Mt. Wilson Observatories) were touted as tourist attractions and were publicized as such by tourist bureaus, railroads, and hotels.A particularly interesting example is provided by the Hotel Vendome in San Jose. With completion of the Lick Observatory (and the 36-inch Great Refractor) in 1887, the local business community felt that the city needed a first-class resort hotel. The architectural firm of Jacob Lenzen & Son was hired to design a grand hotel, comparable to those found in locales such as Monterey and Pasadena. The resulting four-story, 150-room structure cost 250,000, a phenomenal sum in those days. Yet, within just fourteen years, tourist demand led to the construction of a 36-room annex. Of course, a great resort hotel would not be complete without the opportunity for excursion, and the Mt. Hamilton Stage Company offered daily trips to the famous Lick Observatory.Farther south, the Mt. Wilson Observatory began construction of its own hotel in 1905.The original structure was destroyed by fire in 1913, and replaced by a second which was used by visitors until 1966.Early examples of advertisements for these observatories, recalling the heyday of astronomical tourism, are presented. A few more recent ones for Arecibo and Palomar are included for comparison.

  5. The NIRSPEC Data Reduction Pipeline for the Keck Observatory Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hien D.; Cohen, R.; Mader, J. A.; Colson, A.; Berriman, G. Bruce; Gelino, Christopher R.; KOA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), a collaboration between the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute and the W. M. Keck Observatory, serves science and calibration data for all current and retired instruments from the twin Keck Telescopes. In addition to the raw data, we publicly serve quick-look, reduced data products for four instruments (HIRES, LWS, NIRC2 and OSIRIS), so that KOA users can easily assess the quality and scientific content of the data. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the data reduction pipeline (DRP) for the NIRSPEC instrument for use with KOA. We discuss the publicly available reduction packages for NIRSPEC, the challenges encountered when designing this fully automated DRP and the algorithm used to determine wavelength calibration from sky lines. The reduced data products from the NIRSPEC DRP are expected to be available in KOA by mid-2016.

  6. Site Protection Program and Progress Report of Ali Observatory, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yunhe; Wang, Xiaohua; He, Jun; Zhou, Shu

    2015-08-01

    The Ali observatory, Tibet, is a promising new site identified through ten year site survey over west China, and it is of significance to establish rules of site protection during site development. The site protection program is described with five aspects: site monitoring, technical support, local government support, specific organization, and public education. The long-term sky brightness monitoring is ready with site testing instruments and basic for light pollution measurement; the monitoring also includes directions of main light sources, providing periodical reports and suggestions for coordinating meetings. The technical supports with institutes and manufacturers help to publish lighting standards and replace light fixtures; the research pays special attention to the blue-rich sources, which impact the important application of high altitude sites. An official leading group towards development and protection of astronomical resources has been established by Ali government; one of its tasks is to issue regulations against light pollution, including special restrictions of airport, mine, and winter heating, and to supervise lighting inspection and rectification. A site protection office under the official group and local astronomical society are organized by Ali observatory; the office can coordinate in government levels and promote related activities. A specific website operated by the protection office releases activity propaganda, evaluation results, and technical comparison with other observatories. Both the site protection office and Ali observatory take responsibility for public education, including popular science lectures, light pollution and energy conservation education. Ali Night Sky Park has been constructed and opens in 2014, and provides a popular place and observational experience. The establishment of Ali Observatory and Night Sky Park brings unexpected social influence, and the starry sky trip to Ali becomes a new format of culture

  7. The Cline Observatory at Guilford Technical Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, T.; Martin, A.; Herrick, D.; Cline, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Cline Observatory at the Jamestown, NC campus of Guilford Technical Community College (GTCC) was dedicated in 1997. It is the only such facility in the community college systems of the Carolinas. GTCC employs two astronomy faculty and offers multiple sections of introductory courses. The facility utilizes a 16-inch Meade LX-200 under a 6-meter dome, along with accessories for digital imaging and basic spectroscopic studies. An outside observing pad with permanent piers allows smaller instruments to be set up for sessions. In addition to supporting introductory and basic observational astronomy classes, the observatory provides regular outreach programs to serve a variety of constituencies. Public viewings are held once a week; school and community groups schedule visits throughout the year; special lectures bring the latest astronomical topics to the public; and annual conferences are hosted for regional amateur astronomers and for faculty/students from NC academic/research institutions. Volunteer support staff for such programs has been developed through partnership with the local astronomy club and through training via the observational astronomy course. Our courses and outreach programs have been very popular and successful, and the observatory now serves as a focal point of GTCC's public image.

  8. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    modeling and decision-support tools to predict the underlying processes or subsequently forecast the effects of different management strategies. Water is a critical driver for the functioning of all ecosystems and development of human society, and it is a key ingredient for the success of industry, agriculture and, national economy. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatories will foster cutting-edge science and engineering research that addresses major national needs (public and governmental) related to water and include, for example: (i) water resource problems, such as impaired surface waters, contaminated ground water, water availability for human use and ecosystem needs, floods and floodplain management, urban storm water, agricultural runoff, and coastal hypoxia; (ii) understanding environmental impacts on public health; (iii) achieving a balance of economic and environmental sustainability; (iv) reversing environmental degradation; and (v) protecting against chemical and biological threats. CLEANER (Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research) is an ENG initiative; the Hydrologic Observatory Network is GEO initiative through CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.). The two initiatives were merged into a joint, bi-directorate program in December 2004.

  9. Cyberinfrastructure (CI) for Interactive Ocean Observatories: LOOKING Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J.; Abbott, M.; Bellingham, J.; Chave, A.; Delaney, J.; Johnson, R.; Lazowska, E.; Moline, M.; Smarr, L.

    2004-12-01

    Investments in next-generation facilities to achieve a permanent, interactive telepresence throughout remote or hostile environments can empower a broad spectrum of autonomous sensornet facilities through the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facililties Construction Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). These systems must involve powerful suites of generic cyberinfrastructure tools designed to optimize access and benefits to a large academic and public user base. Many future research and educational efforts focused throughout the ocean basins, especially within heavily populated coastal regions, will be empowered by these new systems. Our project LOOKING (Laboratory for the Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid) is developing prototype CI for the OOI to achieve these goals. In the case of ocean observatory networks, it is essential to establish powerful network infrastructures linking the wet or subsea portion, with a host of shore station facilities. These components in turn must seamlessly communicate with an ensemble of data repositories, and relevant computer and visualization resources designed to serve a widely diverse ocean science community with real time, broadband access to all observatory system data, products, and metadata. This infrastructure must be secure, reliable, and resilient. It must meet the potentially ambitious latency, bandwidth, and performance requirements demanded by a set of evolving autonomous sensor platforms over a period of decades. This Grid environment must seamlessly interconnect all relevant national and international research and education nets accessible through high speed, next generation communication networks. The primary components of LOOKING are remote services that fulfill the CI needs of the ocean observatory community. These services arise from overarching science and education requirements: 1) Instrument Services operate at the sensor end of an ocean observatory, and are dominantly but not exclusively wet. 2

  10. The Educational Mission of the PSU/Greenbush Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, D. M.

    1996-09-01

    In a cooperative agreement between Pittsburg State University (PSU) and the Southeast Education Service Center (ESC) at Greenbush, KS, the PSU/Greenbush Astrophysical Observatory has been constructed. The main instrument is a 61 cm f/15 Cassegrainian telescope. Currently in house are a Boller and Chivens spectrograph, a custom-built spectrophotometer, and a single-channel photoelectric photometer. The spectrograph has been modified for use with a CCD detector. The observatory's construction was funded by a local telephone cooperative and thirty-four local school districts. Programs for elementary and secondary students and teachers have been initiated; some of these having been funded by the Kansas Board of Education through the Goals 2000 program. The ESC has spent the last several years interconnecting the schools it serves for interactive distant learning (IDL) capability. The observatory will be connected to this network and the telescope will have multiple live video feeds over fiber optic cable. In addition, the telescope is completely remotely controlled with either direct interaction with a computer via mouse and keyboard or through user-independent voice recognition software. Students in classrooms will be able to perform observing projects remotely over their IDL hookup, live two-way video/audio interaction with observatory personnel. Moreover, on-site use by groups of students, teachers, and members of the general public will be encouraged.

  11. Preserving the History of Wesleyan University's Van Vleck Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Erickson, Paul; Herbst, William; Redfield, Seth; Williams, Amrys

    2016-01-01

    Since its opening in 1916, the Van Vleck Observatory at Wesleyan University has been dedicated to the joint mission of astronomical education and research. In celebration of the Observatory's centennial year, we are undertaking a number of projects to preserve and chronicle its history. The centerpiece of these efforts has been the renovation of the 20-inch Alvan Clark refracting telescope. Through careful compromise of historical restoration and modernization, we have ensured the future of one of the nation's last large, long-focus refractors well into the 21st century. In addition, we are producing an historical exhibition in the Observatory and online that will open to the public in the spring of 2016. Our exhibition explores the place-based nature of astronomical research, the scientific instruments, labor, and individuals that have connected places around the world in networks of observation, and the broader history of how observational astronomy has linked local people, amateur observers, professional astronomers, and the tools and objects that have facilitated their work under Connecticut's skies over the past 100 years. We are also collecting memories from the community to enrich our exhibition. If you have a story about the Van Vleck Observatory you would like to share with our researchers, please contact one of the authors.

  12. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  13. Swift Observatory Space Simulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espiritu, Mellina; Choi, Michael K.; Scocik, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory is a Middle-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission that is a rapidly re-pointing spacecraft with immediate data distribution capability to the astronomical community. Its primary objectives are to characterize and determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and to use the collected data on GRB phenomena in order to probe the universe and gain insight into the physics of black hole formation and early universe. The main components of the spacecraft are the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Optical Bench (OB) instruments coupled with the Swift spacecraft (S/C) bus. The Swift Observatory will be tested at the Space Environment Simulation (SES) chamber at the Goddard Space Flight Center from May to June 2004 in order to characterize its thermal behavior in a vacuum environment. In order to simulate the independent thermal zones required by the BAT, XRT, UVOT, and OB instruments, the spacecraft is mounted on a chariot structure capable of maintaining adiabatic interfaces and enclosed in a modified, four section MSX fixture in order to accommodate the strategic placement of seven cryopanels (on four circuits), four heater panels, and a radiation source burst simulator mechanism. There are additionally 55 heater circuits on the spacecraft. To mitigate possible migration of silicone contaminants from BAT to the XRT and UVOT instruments, a contamination enclosure is to be fabricated around the BAT at the uppermost section of the MSX fixture. This paper discuses the test requirements and implemented thermal vacuum test configuration for the Swift Observatory.

  14. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  15. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  16. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    The joint U.S. and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP is now well into development. First science flights will begin in 2004 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics and science instrument complement are discussed. Present and future instrumentation will allow unique astrobiology experiments to be carried out. Several experiments related to organic molecules in space will be discussed.

  17. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    CO2 is the principal human generated driver of climate change. Accurate forecasting of future climate requires an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle and its interaction with the climate system. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will make global, space-based observations of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to understand sources and sinks. OCO data will provide critical information for decision makers including the scientific basis for policy formulation, guide for carbon management strategies and treaty monitoring.

  18. ``Route of astronomical observatories'' project: Classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2016-10-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. For example one can choose groups like baroque or neoclassical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments or made by famous firms. I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories, the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics. I will also discuss why the implementation of the World Heritage & Astronomy initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national tentative lists.

  19. Protection of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Carraminana, A. P.

    The Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory, with a 2m telescope, is one of only two professional observatories in Mexico. The observatory, run by the InstitutoNacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), is located in the north of Mexico, in Cananea, Sonora. Since 1995 the observatory has faced the potential threat of pollution by an open cast mine to be opened at 3kms from the observatory. In the absence of national or regional laws enforcing protection to astronomical sites in Mexico, considerable effort has been needed to guarantee the conditions of the site. We present the studies carried out to ensure the protection of the Guillermo Haro Observatory from pollution due to dust, light and vibrations.

  20. Cosmology in the Bucharest Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suran, Marian Doru

    2008-09-01

    At the Bucharest Observatory cosmology started in the early'80s as a theoretical branch directly related to the computational facilities available in our Observatory. With the help of our instruments, from a small Z8080 computer (early'80s) to a superscalar supercomputer of 44 processors (now), our cosmology team has developed models, methods and techniques related to: the investigation of 2D and 3D catalogues of galaxies, clusters and superclusters; investigation of the log tails of the 2-points correlation functions; cosmological simulations (N-body+SPH) of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe (LSS) investigation of environmental effects in clusters of galaxies; application of neural methods in cosmology. The use of such models and techniques has permitted us to study problems concerning: correlated signals in the long tail of the correlation functions for galaxies, clusters and superclusters (due to baryon oscillations) HD simulations of the LSS and of the evolution of the first and secondary Web structures; studies of the epochs of the formation of DM halos in a LCDM scenario (earlier than z 15) studies of the evolution of halos and galaxies due to the parental merging phenomena; detection of the Butcher-Oemler and Oemler-Butcher effects in far or close clusters; studies of E+A galaxies; study of the synthetic spectra of galaxies and of the chemo-spectro-photometrical evolution of galaxies (for z<30) photometric redshift determination (for z<10).

  1. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  2. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  3. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  4. Life Cycle of a Large Telescope: the David Dunlap Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    When it went into operation in 1935, the 74-inch reflector at the David Dunlap Observatory was the world's second largest and most sophisticated telescope. Designed specifically for stellar spectroscopy, almost all work performed with it until the early 1950s was limited to that specialty. Most University of Toronto staff were expected to contribute to the observatory's programme. However, as the staff expanded and newer research specialties were introduced, the telescope had to be refitted with new auxiliary equipment, or not be used at all. By the late 1960s, the observatory's night sky began to deteriorate due to light pollution from uncontrolled urban growth. While limited work could be performed into the 1990s, the telescope was no longer considered "large” far more powerful, versatile instruments at much superior sites were by then available. That Toronto astronomers had moved on can be demonstrated from their publication records. The end came in 2008 when the University of Toronto decided that the land's value could be used to support astronomical research in a broader sense. In response, the community, which had ignored the observatory for most of its history, and a few dissident astronomers, strongly defended its survival on a number of grounds. The narrative suggests a number of life-cycle stages: 1) maximum use of the instrument due to superior environmental and technical conditions, plus staff homogeneity; 2) application of new technologies to extend the instrument's capability in the face of diversifying research interests and decaying environmental factors; 3) fading value due to obsolescence and poor environmental factors; 4) death or metamorphosis (such as becoming an educational or historical institution). It appears that these phases apply to a number of historical cases. It is not clear, for the Dunlap Observatory, how the fourth phase will play out.

  5. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, is now fully operational with cameras and spectrometers in the 1 to 240 micron region. It will be one of the major observatories for the next 20 years to observe the local ISM in this spectral region. We will give a brief overview of the SOFIA observatory, telescope, instrumentation and recent science. Future observing opportunities and participation in future instrument developments, over the lifetime of the SOFIA observatory will be discussed.

  6. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  7. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  8. Lessons Learned during the Development and Operation of Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, M.; Shirasaki, Y.; Komiya, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Yasuda, N.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-12-01

    In the last a few years several Virtual Observatory (VO) projects have entered from the research and development phase to the operations phase. The VO projects include AstroGrid (UK), Virtual Astronomical Observatory (former National Virtual Observatory, USA), EURO-VO (EU), Japanese Virtual Observatory (Japan), and so on. This successful transition from the development phase to the operations phase owes primarily to the concerted action to develop standard interfaces among the VO projects in the world, that has been conducted in the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The registry interface has been one of the most important key to share among the VO projects and data centers (data providers) with the observed data and the catalog data. Data access protocols and/or language (SIAP, SSAP, ADQL) and the common data format (VOTable) are other keys. Consequently we are able to find scientific papers so far published. However, we had faced some experience during the implementation process as follows:

  9. At the initial stage of the registry implementation, some fraction of the registry meta data were not correctly set, or some meta data were missing. IVOA members found that it would be needed to have validation tools to check the compliance before making the interface public;
  10. It seemed that some data centers and/or data providers might find some difficulties to implement various standardized interfaces (protocols) in order to publish their data through the VO interfaces. If there were some kind of VO interface toolkits, it would be much easier for the data centers to implement the VO interfaces; At the current VO standardization, it has not been discussed in depth on the quality assurance on the published data, or how we could provide indexes on the data quality. Such measures would be quite helpful for the data users in order to judge the data quality. It would be needed to discuss this issue not only within IVOA but with observatories and data

  11. Three Short Videos by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessells, Stephen; Lowenstern, Jake; Venezky, Dina

    2009-01-01

    This is a collection of videos of unscripted interviews with Jake Lowenstern, who is the Scientist in Charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). YVO was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety. These video presentations give insights about many topics of interest about this area. Title: Yes! Yellowstone is a Volcano An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:00 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic features at Yellowstone: 'How do we know Yellowstone is a volcano?', 'What is a Supervolcano?', 'What is a Caldera?','Why are there geysers at Yellowstone?', and 'What are the other geologic hazards in Yellowstone?' Title: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:15 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory: 'What is YVO?', 'How do you monitor volcanic activity at Yellowstone?', 'How are satellites used to study deformation?', 'Do you monitor geysers or any other aspect of the Park?', 'Are earthquakes and ground deformation common at Yellowstone?', 'Why is YVO a relatively small group?', and 'Where can I get more information?' Title: Yellowstone Eruptions An unscripted interview, January 2009, 6.45 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic

  12. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  13. Sensor networks for cabled ocean observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; McGinnis, T.; Kirkham, H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper considers the development of a support infrastructure for subsea observatory sensors and networks. Some sensors will be self-contained individual items, others will be part of a sensor network using, for example, secondary cables and junction boxes to extend the horizontal reach 10s to 100s of km from backbone nodes, or using moorings to distribute observatory capabilities throughout the water column and (equivalently) down boreholes into the crust. Included in the support infrastructure could be acoustic navigation and communications systems, free-swimming AUVs, and bottom rovers that could carry sensors and could provide data and energy "tanker" service. Because of the likely long term observatory application of sensors, and the high cost of access, methods of self-calibration of sensors will also be useful. The sensor infrastructure would supplement the observatory infrastructure that is part of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). This Initiative plans to provide junction box nodes on the seafloor that furnish power and communications, and distribute time. There are three elements of the OOI: a regional scale cabled observatory (such as NEPTUNE) with dozens of nodes; a sparse global array of buoys with seafloor nodes; and an expanded system of coastal observatories. Each of these observatories will depend on suites of sensors from a number of investigators, and it is likely that once the observatory infrastructure itself has been installed and commissioned, most of the physical interaction with an observatory will be for installing, operating, servicing, and recovering sensors. These activities will be supported by the proposed infrastructure, enabling the full potential of the observatory to be reached.

  14. Designing Observatories for the Hydrologic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    The need for longer-term, multi-scale, coherent, and multi-disciplinary data to test hypotheses in hydrologic science has been recognized by numerous prestigious review panels over the past decade (e.g. NRC's Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science). Designing such observatories has proven to be a challenge not only on scientific, but also technological, economic and even sociologic levels. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has undertaken a "paper" prototype design of a hydrologic observatory (HO) for the Neuse River Basin, NC and plans to solicit proposals and award grants to develop implementation plans for approximately 10 basins (which may be defined by topographic or groundwater divides) during the summer of 2004. These observatories are envisioned to be community resources with data available to all scientists, with support facilities to permit their use by both local and remote investigators. This paper presents the broad design concepts which were developed from a national team of scientists for the Neuse River Basin Prototype. There are three fundamental characteristics of a watershed or river basin that are critical for answering the major scientific questions proposed by the NRC to advance hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological sciences: (1) the store and flux of water, sediment, nutrients and contaminants across interfaces at multiple scales must be identified; (2) the residence time of these constituents, and (3) their flowpaths and response spectra to forcing must be estimated. "Stores" consist of subsurface, land surface and atmospheric volumes partitioned over the watershed. The HO will require "core measurements" which will serve the communities of hydrologic science for long range research questions. The core measurements will also provide context for shorter-term or hypothesis-driven research investigations. The HO will support "mobile measurement facilities" designed to support teams

  15. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysics wave data are currently not easily searchable by computers, making identifying pertinent wave data features for analyses and cross comparisons difficult and laborious. Since wave data analysis requires specialized knowledge about waves, which spans the spectrum of microphysics to macrophysics, researchers having varied expertise cannot easily use wave data. To resolve these difficulties and to allow wave data to contribute more fully to Heliophysics research, we are developing a Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) whose goal is to enable all Heliophysics wave data to become searchable, understandable and usable by the Heliophysics community. The VWO objective is to enable search of multiple and distributed wave data (from both active and passive measurements). This presentation provides and overview of the VWO, a new VxO component within the emerging distributed Heliophysics data and model environment.

  16. HELIO: The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bocchialini, K.; Messerotti, M.; Brooke, J.; Gallagher, P.; Fox, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Roberts, D. A.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2011-01-01

    Heliophysics is a new research field that explores the Sun-Solar System Connection; it requires the joint exploitation of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. HELIO, the Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, will facilitate this study by creating an integrated e-Infrastructure that has no equivalent anywhere else. It will be a key component of a worldwide effort to integrate heliophysics data and will coordinate closely with international organizations to exploit synergies with complementary domains. HELIO was proposed under a Research Infrastructure call in the Capacities Programme of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project was selected for negotiation in January 2009; following a successful conclusion to these, the project started on 1 June 2009 and will last for 36 months.

  17. HELIO: The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bocchialini, K.; Messerotti, M.; Brooke, J.; Gallagher, P.; Fox, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Roberts, D. A.; Duarte, L. Sanchez

    2011-06-01

    Heliophysics is a new research field that explores the Sun-Solar System Connection; it requires the joint exploitation of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric observations.HELIO, the Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, will facilitate this study by creating an integrated e-Infrastructure that has no equivalent anywhere else. It will be a key component of a worldwide effort to integrate heliophysics data and will coordinate closely with international organizations to exploit synergies with complementary domains.HELIO was proposed under a Research Infrastructure call in the Capacities Programme of the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project was selected for negotiation in January 2009; following a successful conclusion to these, the project started on 1 June 2009 and will last for 36 months.

  18. Iranian National Observatory: project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Jenab, Hooshdad; Bidar, Masoud; Mohajer, Mohammad; Saeidifar, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    The Iranian National Observatory site is under construction at an altitude of 3600m at Mount Gargash in central Iran. It offers a promising site for optical and near-IR observations with a 0.7 arcsec median seeing and thus a number of observing facilities have been planned. The largest facility is a 3.4m Alt- Az reflecting Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope under development with an exit focal ratio of f/11 providing a generous 20 arcmin field of view at the main Cassegrain focus. This telescope will be equipped with high resolution medium-wide field imaging camera as well as medium and high resolution spectrographs. The telescope will benefit from an active support for the primary mirror. The primary mirror has been manufactured, polished and delivered. In this project overview, the design parameters for the 3.4m telescope and the current status of the project are presented.

  19. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  20. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  21. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  22. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  1. CSU's MWV Observatory: A Facility for Research, Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, John; Carpenter, N. D.; McCarty, C. B.; Samford, J. H.; Johnson, M.; Puckett, A. W.; Williams, R. N.; Cruzen, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Mead Westvaco Observatory (MWVO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The MWVO has recently received funding to upgrade from a 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope to a PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. This and other technological upgrades will allow this observatory to stream live webcasts for astronomical events, allowing a worldwide public audience to become a part of the growing astronomical community. This poster will explain the upgrades that are currently in progress as well as the results from the current calibrations. The goal of these upgrades is to provide facilities capable of both research-class projects and widespread use in education and public outreach. We will present our initial calibration and tests of the observatory equipment, as well as its use in webcasts of astronomical events, in solar observing through the use of specialized piggy-backed telescopes, and in research into such topics as asteroids, planetary and nebula imaging. We will describe a pilot research project on asteroid orbit refinement and light curves, to be carried out by Columbus State University students. We will also outline many of the K-12 educational and public outreach activities we have designed for these facilities. Support and funding for the acquisition and installation of the new PlaneWave CDK 24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award.

  2. HAWC observatory catches first gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frías Villegas, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    The world's largest and most modern gamma-ray observatory has carried out its first successful observations. Located inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in the Mexican state of Puebla, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is a collaboration between 26 Mexican and US institutions.

  3. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  4. Status of the Frisco Peak Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Paul; Springer, Wayne; Dawson, Kyle; Kieda, Dave; Gondolo, Paolo; Bolton, Adam

    2009-10-01

    The University of Utah has constructed an astronomical observatory located at an elevation of approximately 9600 feet of Frisco Peak west of Milford, Utah. This site was chosen after performing a survey of potential observatory sites throughout Southern Utah. At the time of writing this abstract, the dome and control buildings have been completed. Installation of a 32'' telescope manufactured by DFM Engineering is scheduled to start October 5, 2009. Commissioning of the telescope will take place this fall. A study of the photometric quality of the observatory site will be performed as well. A description of the observatory site survey and the construction and commissioning of the Frisco Peak Observatory will be presented.

  5. The Pulkovo Observatory on the Centuries' Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, Viktor K.

    The present paper deals with the development of astrophysical research at the Pulkovo Observatory (now: the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at adjacent time periods separated by the threshold between the 19th and the 20th centuries. The Pulkovo Observatory had been inaugurated in 1839. Its traditional field of research work was astrometry. The confirmation of light absorption phenomenon in interstellar space by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve marked the turn of the Observatory's research programs toward astrophysics. New tendencies in the development of contemporaneous astronomy in Russia were pointed out by Otto Struve in his paper “About the Place of Astrophysics in Astronomy” presented in 1866 to the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wide-scale astrophysical studies were performed at Pulkovo Observatory around 1900 during the directorships of Theodore Bredikhin, Oscar Backlund and Aristarchos Belopolsky.

  6. The Communication Strategy of NASA's Earth Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmon, R.; Ward, K.; Riebeek, H.; Allen, J.; Przyborski, P.; Scott, M.; Carlowicz, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is a complex, multi-disciplinary subject. Accurately conveying this complexity to general audiences, while still communicating the basic facts, is challenging. Our approach is to combine climate change information with a wide range of Earth system science topics, illustrated by satellite imagery and data visualizations. NASA's Earth Observatory web site (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) uses the broad range of NASA's remote sensing technologies, data, and research to communicate climate change science. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public" --people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and media. We cover the breadth of Earth science, with information about climate change integrated with stories about weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. Current event-driven imagery is used as a hook to draw readers. We then supply links to supplemental information, either about current research or the scientific basics. We use analogies, carefully explain jargon or acronyms, and build narratives which both attract readers and make information easier to remember. These narratives are accompanied by primers on topics like energy balance or the water cycle. Text is carefully integrated with illustrations and state-of-the-art data visualizations. Other site features include a growing list of climate questions and answers, addressing common misconceptions about global warming and climate change. Maps of global environmental parameters like temperature, rainfall, and vegetation show seasonal change and long-term trends. Blogs from researchers in the field provide a look at the day-to-day process of science. For the media, public domain imagery is supplied at full resolution and links are provided to primary sources.

  7. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  8. Graduate Astronomy Education in the Early Days of Lick Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Lick Observatory's (University of California) early graduate students and graduate program in astronomy. The history of the Lick Observatory and famous astronomy professors and astronomers associated with the Lick Observatory are also discussed. (DS)

  9. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  10. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  11. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  12. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  13. Development of the Illinois River Basin Virtual Observatory Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Zaslavsky, I.; Kumar, P.; Jennings, C.; Mehnert, E.; Thomas, D.; Holmes, R.; Maidment, D.; Piasecki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Virtual Observatories [VO's] hold the promise of providing streamlined access to disparate, heterogeneous data concerning a particular area of study, enabling researchers, educators, decision makers and the public to find and use more of the information they need. In the context of the study of a river basin, the task of building a VO requires the connection and integration of existing data from multiple scientific disciplines and multiple data providers. A prototype VO is being assembled which allows users to locate and access extensive data related to the Illinois River and the environmental issues relevant to its basin. The key steps in this project include 1) discovering and accessing the relevant datasets, 2) producing standard metadata to describe the datasets, and 3) integrating the data sources and datasets using a cyberinfrastructure that is compatible with emerging international standards for data interoperability (ISO geospatial metadata, CUAHSI HIS, GIS data formats). This prototype project tests the capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System [HIS] to provide the basic data infrastructure for a local river basin observatory and connect that infrastructure with the community at large. The Virtual Observatory applies the local knowledge necessary to build a comprehensive VO relevant to the indigenous issues of the Illinois River, while working to make this data accessible using standards for cyberinfrastructure interoperability. Lessons learned during the assembly of this VO are presented, as well as recent developments of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System.

  14. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  15. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2007-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. This past year, we have used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud three years ago. Our teacher programs have involved scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! We also held a Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO workshop, and the observatory continues to make high-school astronomy courses available to students from the surrounding school districts. Statewide, this year we helped support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone, and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the recently-retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (all with volunteer labor). During 2008 we plan to build a custom pier and refurbish the telescope.

  16. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    It is planned to operate the Pierre Auger Observatory until at least the end of 2024. An upgrade of the experiment has been proposed in order to provide additional measurements to allow one to elucidate the mass composition and the origin of the flux suppression at the highest energies, to search for a flux contribution of protons up to the highest energies and to reach a sensitivity to a contribution as small as 10% in the flux suppression region, to study extensive air showers and hadronic multi-particle production. With operation planned until 2024, event statistics will more than double compared with the existing Auger data set, with the critical added advantage that every event will now have mass information. Obtaining additional composition-sensitive information will not only help to better reconstruct the properties of the primary particles at the highest energies, but also improve the measurements in the energy range just above the ankle. Furthermore, measurements with the new detectors will help to reduce systematic uncertainties related to the modelling hadronic showers and to limitations in the reconstruction algorithms. A description of the principal proposed Auger upgrade will be presented. The Auger upgrade promises high-quality future data, and real scope for new physics.

  17. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  18. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  19. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  20. Science and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowler, Patrick; Schade, David

    The Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO) is the cornerstone of a budding international partnership that delivers high quality scientific content and capabilities to the astronomical community. We have developed a uniform astronomical data model to characterise all types of observational data across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; this model enables users to find archive data based on the content and the quality without letting the technology get in the way. We have also developed general purpose source and object catalogs to store information extracted from the data using standard techniques and algorithms. These catalogs are explorable with a variety of scientific tools from a web interface for simple tasks to a programmatic interface for sophisticated analysis involving client and server side processing. Finally all of the data processing and analysis tasks we have executed or will execute are viewable via our processing catalog; links between object and source catalogs processing catalogs and observation catalogs allow users to examine the complete pedigree of every single derived value. Thus the entire system is open to peer review which is the cornerstone of science.

  1. The Alaska Volcano Observatory - Expanded Monitoring of Volcanoes Yields Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Steven R.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent explosive eruptions at some of Alaska's 52 historically active volcanoes have significantly affected air traffic over the North Pacific, as well as Alaska's oil, power, and fishing industries and local communities. Since its founding in the late 1980s, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has installed new monitoring networks and used satellite data to track activity at Alaska's volcanoes, providing timely warnings and monitoring of frequent eruptions to the aviation industry and the general public. To minimize impacts from future eruptions, scientists at AVO continue to assess volcano hazards and to expand monitoring networks.

  2. Creating a global observatory for health R&D.

    PubMed

    Terry, Robert F; Salm, José F; Nannei, Claudia; Dye, Christopher

    2014-09-12

    A global map of health R&D activity would improve the coordination of research and help to match limited resources with public health priorities, such as combating antimicrobial resistance. The challenges of R&D mapping are large because there are few standards for research classification and governance and limited capacity to report on R&D data, especially in low-income countries. Nevertheless, based on developments in semantic classification, and with better reporting of funded research though the Internet, it is now becoming feasible to create a global observatory for health R&D.

  3. Sydney Observatory and astronomy teaching in the 90s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomb, N.

    1996-05-01

    Computers and the Internet have created a revolution in the way astronomy can be communicated to the public. At Sydney Observatory we make full use of these recent developments. In our lecture room a variety of sophisticated computer programs can show, with the help of a projection TV system, the appearance and motion of the sky at any place, date or time. The latest HST images obtained from the Internet can be shown, as can images taken through our own Meade 16 inch telescope. This recently installed computer-controlled telescope with its accurate pointing is an ideal instrument for a light-polluted site such as ours.

  4. New Observatory at the University of Tennessee at Martin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Lionel J.; Chrysler, R.; Turner, K.

    2010-01-01

    A new observatory has been completed at the University of Tennessee at Martin and is now open for student research, local teacher training, and public outreach. The telescope is a 16" Meade RCT on a Software Bisque Paramount ME mount, 10' HomeDome, and SBIG CCD camera. The project endured many delays from a necessary change in housing from roll-top roof to dome, to the shutter blowing off in a heavy windstorm. This project was funded primarily by a Tennessee Math-Science Partnership grant (PI: Dr. Michael Gibson, UT Martin) directed at secondary teacher training in sciences.

  5. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  6. World Space Observatory Ultraviolet mission: status 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 310 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. It is the solution to the problem of future access to UV spectroscopy. Dedicated to spectroscopic and imaging observations of the ultraviolet sky, the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission is a Russian-Spanish collaboration with potential Mexican minor contribution. This paper provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last SPIE meeting.

  7. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts.

  8. Unique Science Needs: CAWSES-II and Virtual Observatories (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Fox, P. A.; Avery, S. K.; Rodger, A. S.; Melkers, J. E.; Paxton, L. J.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    A focus on the interaction between Sun-Earth system elements in space research is not new. However, two recent events have pushed us within reach of a comprehensive attack on system-science frontiers. During the last solar cycle, we acquired the capability to observe simultaneously in regions from the Sun to the Earth, in the neighborhoods of other solar system planets and even at locations approaching the boundary between the heliosphere and interplanetary space. Simultaneity is critical because only under these conditions can interactions between components be observed and unraveled. Of equal importance is the implementation (still ongoing) of open data policies in the US and in other countries that has resulted in a worldwide flow of data served through the Internet directly and by Virtual Observatories. These open data sets and underlying cyber-infrastructure provide the framework around which a system science observatory can be fashioned and directed toward grand challenge investigations. This effort must be both interdisciplinary and international in scope. The development of just such a virtual environment is a major goal of the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) - II effort (covering 2009-2013) within SCOSTEP, which is a program of the International Council for Science (ICSU) representing 113 member nations and 29 international scientific unions. With the collaboration of ongoing programs in countries around the world, this virtual environment is envisioned as a means to combine worldwide capabilities inherent in virtual observatories and other types of cyber-infrastructure in ways that support and enable system science investigations, allow international and interdisciplinary communities to develop focused system-level science objectives, exchange information intuitively between discipline areas, share resources, educate students, advise policy makers, and reach out and inform a worldwide public of exciting new discoveries and their

  9. The Montsec Observatory and the Gaia science alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, J. M.; Burgaz, U.; Vilardell, F.; Jordi, C.

    2017-03-01

    The continuous and reiterative scan of the whole sky performed by Gaia ESA's mission during its (at least) 5 years of mission allows to detect transient events (e.g., supernovae, microlensing events, cataclysmic variables, etc) almost in real time among the daily millions of observations. The pipeline in charge to discover these alerts does a quick look analysis of the daily data stream, identify those sources increasing their brightness with respect to previous Gaia observations and also analyse their spectrophotometry to decide if those sources are good candidates to be published as a Gaia Photometric Science Alerts. These events are publicly announced for follow-up observations (both photometric and spectroscopic are needed). Observatories around the world confirm, classify and study them in detail. Observations are put in common and analysed together in a common interface in order to get a single analysis as detailed and precise as possible. Our team in Barcelona contributes to this Gaia science alerts follow-up programme with the 0.8 m robotic telescope Joan Oró (TJO), at the Montsec Observatory (OAdM), located at Sant Esteve de la Sarga (Lleida, Spain) performing photometric observations to derive the lightcurves of the most interesting alerts accessible from the observatory. Until now we have contributed with about 4500 images in multicolour Johnson-Cousins passbands obtained with TJO for a total of 38 Gaia science alerts, becoming the third most contributing observatory in the programme. Here we summarise the procedure to select new targets to be observed by TJO, submit follow-up observations and we explain the analysis we did for some interesting obtained lightcurves.

  10. MARS: a cabled observatory testbed in Monterey Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M.; Massion, G.; Raybould, K.; Bellingham, J.; Paull, C.

    2003-04-01

    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) will be installing a deep-sea observatory in Monterey Bay, California, that will serve as a test bed for a future regional-scale cabled observatory. Monterey Bay offers a variety of active processes for scientific inquiry, including a very productive zone of ocean upwelling, a seismically active strand of the San Andreas fault system, cold seeps, and a very dynamic submarine canyon. The MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable will extend more than 60 km offshore to an instrument node at a depth of approximately 1.2 km. Extension cords can be run by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the cable node up to several kilometers away in order to provide greater flexibility in siting instruments. The observatory will be serviced using ROVs and will serve as a test bed for developing new sensors, instruments systems, experiment protocols, and mobile platforms for which submarine cables will provide power and two-way communications. In addition to serving as a test bed for instrumentation and platforms, the MARS project will demonstrate models for how to operate, service, and manage a community facility of this sort. In cooperation with our outreach partner, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, we will be examining ways to exploit the full potential of deep-sea observatories for student education and public information. We will also be preparing a proposal to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) to provide a nearby drill hole for connecting bore-hole experiments to the MARS cable, thereby accelerating the development of new tools for probing Earth beneath the oceans.

  11. Were megalithic tombs solar observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänel, Andreas

    The orientations of the entrances of several hundred neolithic tombs in Northwest Germany, the Netherlands, Bretagne (Brittany) and the eastern Pyrenees (Roussillon and Catalunya) have been measured with a compass. Comparing these measurements with other authors, we could determine systematic errors and combine the measurements. The results are presented as polar coordinate histograms. The passage graves of Northwest Germany and the Netherlands are oriented east-west. For some of the tombs, entrances are preserved always on the southern side. We assume therefore, that all tombs had entrances on the southern side and we conclude that they are mainly oriented to the south, the direction where celestial objects, and especially the sun, reach their highest position in the sky. Similar results were found by Hamel (1985) for tombs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The tombs in Brittany show a different orientation to the southeast, the azimuth of the rising sun on winter solstice. Tombs in the eastern Pyrenees have a similar orientation, as has also been found by other authors for several regions in southern France and the Iberian peninsula (Iund 2002, Chevalier 1999, Hoskin 2002). But in the eastern Pyrenees and from there north to the Provence and on the Balearic Islands exists a group of tombs that are oriented towards the southwest, where the winter sun sets (Chevalier 1999). But most of the entrances of the tombs are oriented towards the sun. The tombs certainly were no precise astronomical observatories, but their orientations might have had a ritual reason and the course of the sun in the sky was well known at that time.

  12. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.

    2008-01-01

    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  13. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean; Thompson, B. J.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on 11 February 2010 at 15:23 UT from Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas V 401 (AV-021) launch vehicle. A series of apogee-motor firings lifted SDO from an initial geosynchronous transfer orbit into a circular geosynchronous orbit inclined by 28° about the longitude of the SDO-dedicated ground station in New Mexico. SDO began returning science data on 1 May 2010. SDO is the first space-weather mission in NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) Program. SDO’s main goal is to understand, driving toward a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity’s technological systems. The SDO science investigations will determine how the Sun’s magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. Insights gained from SDO investigations will also lead to an increased understanding of the role that solar variability plays in changes in Earth’s atmospheric chemistry and climate. The SDO mission includes three scientific investigations (the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)), a spacecraft bus, and a dedicated ground station to handle the telemetry. The Goddard Space Flight Center built and will operate the spacecraft during its planned five-year mission life; this includes: commanding the spacecraft, receiving the science data, and forwarding that data to the science teams. The science investigations teams at Stanford University, Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), and University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will process, analyze, distribute, and archive the science data. We will describe the building of SDO and the science that it will provide to NASA.

  14. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  15. The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2009-05-01

    SIM Lite is an observatory mission dedicated to precision astrometry. With a single measurement accuracy of 1 microarcsecond (µas) and a noise floor below 0.035 µas it will have the capability to do an extensive search for Earth-mass planets in the `habitable zone’ around several dozen of the nearest stars. SIM Lite maintains its wide-angle accuracy of 4 µas for all targets down to V = 19, limited only by observing time. This opens up a wide array of astrophysical problems. As a flexibly pointed instrument, it is a natural complement to sky surveys such as JMAPS and Gaia, and will tackle questions that don't require the acquisition of statistics on a large number of targets. It will provide accurate masses for the first time for a variety of exotic star types, including X-ray binaries; it will study the structure and evolution of our Galaxy through tidal streams from dwarf spheroidals and the trajectories of halo stars and galaxies. Its faint-target capability will enable the use of astrometric and photometric variability as a probe of the disk accretion and jet formation processes in blazars. SIM Lite will have an extensive GO (General Observer) program, open to all categories of astrometric science. The project successfully completed a series of technology milestones in 2005, and is currently under study by by NASA as a flight mission. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2003-01-01

    The solar magnetic field is constantly generated beneath the surface of the Sun by the solar dynamo. To balance this flux generation, there is constant dissipation of magnetic flux at and above the solar surface. The largest phenomenon associated with this dissipation is the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has provided remarkable views of the corona and CMEs, and served to highlight how these large interplanetary disturbances can have terrestrial consequences. STEREO is the next logical step to study the physics of CME origin, propagation, and terrestrial effects. Two spacecraft with identical instrument complements will be launched on a single launch vehicle in November 2007. One spacecraft will drift ahead and the second behind the Earth at a separation rate of 22 degrees per year. Observation from these two vantage points will for the first time allow the observation of the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and the coronal structures where they originate. Each STEREO spacecraft carries a complement of 10 instruments, which include (for the first time) an extensive set of both remote sensing and in-situ instruments. The remote sensing suite is capable of imaging CMEs from the solar surface out to beyond Earth's orbit (1 AU), and in-situ instruments are able to measure distribution functions for electrons, protons, and ions over a broad energy range, from the normal thermal solar wind plasma to the most energetic solar particles. It is anticipated that these studies will ultimately lead to an increased understanding of the CME process and provide unique observations of the flow of energy from the corona to the near-Earth environment. An international research program, the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) will provide a framework for interpreting STEREO data in the context of global processes in the Sun-Earth system.

  17. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  18. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  19. Virtual Observatories: Are We Virtually There Yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual observatories are tools for simplifying access to and use of astronomical data from an increasing number of data sources of rapidly growing volume. Now that a variety of virtual observatory development efforts are under way around the world, a cursory review of the efforts outside solar physics, and an only slightly more detailed consideration of those within, demonstrates a commonality of conceptual model if not of approach or application. The linkages among virtual observatories optimized for different scientific communities present an interesting challenge to the designers: should virtual observatories be designed for the most expert users? For the least? For everyone? It is too early to provide definitive answers, but examination of current efforts does offer some clues.

  20. Observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Presents an abridged version of a chapter from the author's book "In Quest of Telescopes." Includes personal experiences at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and comments on telescopes, photographs, and making observations. (SK)

  1. Astronomical research at the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  2. Series of disasters strikes Peruvian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Jim

    A midday blaze severely damaged the Geophysical Observatory at Huancayo, Peru, high in the Andes above Lima on August 28, 1996. The fire, which started accidentally, was one of a series of misfortunes suffered by the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) in recent years.The observatory, which was built in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is a 4-hour drive by bus from the Pacific coast between cosmopolitan Lima and the Amazonian lowlands. From the late 1980s until 1992, the observatory was isolated from the international community due to political developments in Peru, namely the Maoist Communist insurrection known as Sendero Luminoso. The turmoil resulted in the loss of nearly all cooperative contracts with American universities for research at Huancayo. IGP did maintain a few contracts, such as one with Cornell for the Radio Observatory at Jicamarca in the northern part of the country.

  3. HAWC: The high altitude water Cherenkov observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jordan A.

    2013-02-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is currently being deployed at 4100m above sea level on the Vulcan Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC observatory will consist of 250-300 Water Cherenkov Detectors totaling approximately 22,000 m2 of instrumented area. The water Cherenkov technique allows HAWC to have a nearly 100% duty cycle and large field of view, making the HAWC observatory an ideal instrument for the study of transient phenomena. With its large effective area, excellent angular and energy resolutions, and efficient gamma-hadron separation, HAWC will survey the TeV gamma-ray sky, measure spectra of galactic sources from 1 TeV to beyond 100 TeV, and map galactic diffuse gamma ray emission. The science goals, instrument performance and status of the HAWC observatory will be presented.

  4. SOFIA Observatory Conducts Night Checkout Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    This spectacular video captures NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy as it flew a nighttime checkout flight over northern and central California the first week of March 2013. The...

  5. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; Barthelmy, S. D.; Coutu, S.; DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. D.; Gao, Shan; Hashemi, B.; Homeier, A.; Marka, S.; Owen, B. J.; Taboada, I.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  6. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    CTIO is operated by the ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY Inc. (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation as part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories....

  7. Annals of Shanghai Observatory, Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Zhi-Fang; Wan, Ning-Shan; Wang, Lan-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Jiang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhu, Neng-Hong; Xu, Hua-Guan; Li, Zhi-Fang; Yan, Hao-Jian; Jin, Wen-Jing; Zheng, Da-Wei; Liang, Shi-Guang; Huang, Cheng; Fu, Cheng-Qi; Zhai, Zao-Cheng; Tan, De-Tong

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of scientific researches at Shanghai Observatory. Topics presented include achievements in the fields of astro-geodynamics, astrophysics, time and frequency, and development of astronomical instrumentation.

  8. Asteroid Photometry from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    Asteroid period and amplitude results obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory are presented for six asteroids observed in 2012: 271 Penthesilea, 3872 Akirafujii, 5953 Shelton, 8077 Hoyle, 8417 Lancetaylor, and (46436) 2002 LH5.

  9. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  10. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Chiro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    Asteroid period and amplitude results obtained at the Chiro Observatory in Western Australia are presented for asteroids 3885 Bogorodskij, 4554 Fanynka, 7169 Linda, 7186 Tomioka, (9928) 1981 WE9, (24391) 2000 AU178, and (43203) 2000 AV70.

  11. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  12. Astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitrii Nikolaevich

    Various types of astronomical instruments are described, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and radiation detectors. Soviet ground-based astronomical observatories are described as well as those aboard satellites and space stations.

  13. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mike D.; Thompson, Matthew A.; Hicks, L. L.; Baran, A. S.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of our project is to have an autonomous observatory to obtain long duration time-series observations of pulsating stars. Budget constraints dictate an inexpensive facility. In this paper, we discuss our solution.

  14. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Gascón, Alberto; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-23

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using a hybrid detection technique. In this contribution we present some of the most recent results of the observatory, namely the upper-end of the spectrum of cosmic rays, state-of-the-art analyses on mass composition, the measurements of the proton-air cross-section, and the number of muons at ground.

  15. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  16. Power systems for ocean regional cabled observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Junichi; Asakawa, Kenichi; Howe, Bruce M.; Kirkham, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Development of power systems is the most challenging technical issue in the design of ocean regional cabled observatories. ARENA and NEPTUNE are two ocean regional cabled observatory networks with aims that are at least broadly similar. Yet the two designs are quite different in detail. This paper outlines the both systems and explores the reasons for the divergence of design, and shows that it arose because of differences in the priority of requirements.

  17. Information Hub of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga; Kilpio, Elena; Kilpio, Alexander; Kovaleva, Dana

    The ultimate goal of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) initiative is to provide every astronomer with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. The information hub of the RVO has a main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content.

  18. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  19. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed in the Overview of Year 1988 include the following: Supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Galaxies; Ground based observations of celestial x ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; Pulsating variables; Galactic structure; Binary star phenomena; The provision of photometric standards; Nebulae and interstellar matter; Stellar astrophysics; Astrometry; Solar system studies; Visitors programs; Publications; and General matters.

  20. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  1. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  2. What's Educational about Online Telescopes? Evaluating 10 Years of MicroObservatory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Roy; Dussault, Mary; Sadler, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The MicroObservatory network of five online telescopes has been used by middle and high school students, their teachers, and the public in all 50 states to carry out a wide variety of inquiry-driven projects. From an analysis of 475 student projects and other data, we report substantial gains in students' conceptual understanding of what…

  3. The Rare Book Collection of Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory Will be on the Web: Ancient Science Available to Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, E. O.; Caprio, G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a project for the preservation, promotion, and creation of a website for the rare book collection of Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory. The project, promoted by INAF—Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, was supported by the Campania Region through European funds. The final component of the project was the publication of a bibliographical catalog, Le Cinquecentine dell'Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, which was addressed to specialized users, including historians of science and bibliophiles.

  4. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2008-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. In spring 2008, we offered a special training session to boost participation in the GLOBE at Night international observing program. During 2005-2007 we used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud four years ago. Our teacher programs are ongoing, and include scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! Statewide, we are a founding member of Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO, and the observatory offers high-school astronomy courses to students from the surrounding school districts. We continue to support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (almost all construction done with volunteer labor). During 2008 we will be building a custom pier and refurbishing the telescope.

  5. 195-year history of Mykolayiv Observatory: events and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, O. V.; Yanishevska, L. M.

    2017-02-01

    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  6. Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Tsai, C.

    2003-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the Taiwan area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the Taiwan plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western Taiwan where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the Taiwan area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the Taiwan Island. The other

  7. Maintenance management at La Silla Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Nelson

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the VLT project, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) considered the application of a competent maintenance strategy a fundamental aspect for future operations of the Paranal Observatory. For that purpose, a special maintenance philosophy was developed during the project stage and applied during the initial years of operations. The merging of the La Silla and Paranal Observatories in 2005 added a new managerial challenge to the regular operational requirements (high availability and reliability) which motivated ESO Management to develop a stronger strategy for the operations of the new merged Observatory. Part of the new strategy considered the creation of a dedicated department for the management of all maintenance activities, separating this support from the traditional scheme where the Engineering Department had the responsibility for the entire technical support to operations. In order to keep a competent level of maintenance operations for the new unified Observatory, the La Silla Paranal (LSP) Maintenance Department has been using a well known maintenance management model used in various industrial applications as a guide. Today the operations of the Maintenance Department are concentrated on developing and implementing practices regarding concepts such as Maintenance Tactics, Planning, Data Management, Performance Indicators and Material Management. In addition to that, advances related to Reliability Analysis been taken in order to reach a superior level of excellence. The results achieved by the LSP Maintenance Department are reflected in a reduced rate of functional failures, allowing uninterrupted operations of the Observation sites.

  8. The Livingston Island Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Marsal, Santiago; Blanch, Estefania; Miquel Torta, J.; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Germán Solé, J.; Cid, Òscar; José Curto, Juan; Ibáñez, Miguel; Segarra, Antoni; Lluís Pijoan, Joan; Juan, Juan Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Ebre Observatory Institute manages a geophysical observatory installed at the Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS) Juan Carlos I. It was set up in 1995 and it has been updated yearly by our team throughout several projects carried out since then. Nowadays, it hosts a magnetic station providing 1-second data of the 3 components (X, Y, Z) and the total force (F) during the entire year, and an ionospheric station providing vertical and oblique data during austral summer. This observatory has provided long data series of high scientific value from this remote region of the Earth. They have been used to improve the knowledge of the climate and weather behavior of the geomagnetic field and ionosphere in the area, and to model and expand the capacity of data transmission. This contribution aims to present a brief review of the instruments installed at SAS, the research results obtained from their data, and the developing activities under the current project. Finally, future perspectives are outlined with regard to adapting our geophysical observatory to the evolving needs of observatory practice.

  9. An international network of magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  10. Fostering Student Awareness in Observatory STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keonaonaokalauae Acohido, Alexis Ann; Michaud, Peter D.; Gemini Public Information and Outreach Staff

    2016-01-01

    It takes more than scientists to run an observatory. Like most observatories, only about 20% of Gemini Observatory's staff is PhD. Scientists, but 100% of those scientists would not be able to do their jobs without the help of engineers, administrators, and other support staff that make things run smoothly. Gemini's Career Brochure was first published in 2014 to show that there are many different career paths available (especially in local host communities) at an astronomical observatory. Along with the printed career brochure, there are supplementary videos available on Gemini's website and Youtube pages that provide a more detailed and personal glimpse into the day-in-the-life of a wide assortment of Gemini employees. A weakness in most observatory's outreach programming point to the notion that students (and teachers) feel there is a disconnect between academics and where students would like to end up in their career future. This project is one of the ways Gemini addresses these concerns. During my 6-month internship at Gemini, I have updated the Career Brochure website conducted more in-depth interviews with Gemini staff to include as inserts with the brochure, and expanded the array of featured careers. The goal of my work is to provide readers with detailed and individualized employee career paths to show; 1) that there are many ways to establish a career in the STEM fields, and 2), that the STEM fields are vastly diverse.

  11. Design of a Lunar Farside Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a mantendable lunar farside observatory and science base is presented. A farside observatory will allow high accuracy astronomical observations, as well as the opportunity to perform geological and low gravity studies on the Moon. The requirements of the observatory and its support facilities are determined, and a preliminary timeline for the project development is presented. The primary areas of investigation include observatory equipment, communications, habitation, and surface operations. Each area was investigated to determine the available options, and each option was evaluated to determine the advantages and disadvantages. The options selected for incorporation into the design of the farside base are presented. The observatory equipment deemed most suitable for placement on the lunar farside consist of large optical and radio arrays and seismic equipment. A communications system consisting of a temporary satellite about the L sub 2 libration point and followed by a satellite at the stable L sub 5 libration point was selected. A space station common module was found to be the most practical option for housing the astronauts at the base. Finally, a support system based upon robotic construction vehicles and the use of lunar materials was determined to be a necessary component of the base.

  12. The Observers Observed: Charles Dickens at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in 1850

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-12-01

    In 1850 the magazine Household Words, which Charles Dickens edited, published three articles describing the instruments and workings of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. These 'popular' articles are invaluable primary sources for the historian of astronomy. They convey some of the Victorian public's fascination with an Institution believed by some to be a lighthouse for night-time shipping on the river Thames; by others, a national repository of 'divining rods' and 'magic mirrors'. Dickens was clearly impressed by the pragmatic usefulness of the Observatory to a commercial and maritime nation, and by seemingly magical, self-acting and recording instruments whereby the wind wrote its own 'Aeolian Autobiography'.

  13. Odessa Observatory as a Cultural and Scientific Educational Center on the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikov, V. G.; Dorokhova, T. N.

    2007-10-01

    Odessa is a large port city on the Black Sea. Historically, transport, economy and business problems call forth the necessity of a major astronomical center in the city. In 2006 the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa National University celebrates its 135th Anniversary. Some interesting astronomical buildings and instruments of the 19th and 20th centuries, and the extensive scientific investigations which are reflected in numerous publications make the Observatory not only a scientific and educational establishment but also an historical and cultural center.

  14. Variable Star Research from the MUSK Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Miriam

    2004-10-01

    I plan to present on the Delta Scuti variable star IP Uma. I will present light curves of the star from May 2003, and June 2004. From these light curves, I have determined the points of maximum light which I have used to refine the period of the star. I will also talk about the quality of the telescopes that I used to take my data. The data taken in 2004 were taken with the BYU 12' telescope. The data taken in 2003 were taken at the MUSK observatory at the Mars Desert Research Station. I will go into depth about the MUSK observatory and explain why I think that the telescope at the MUSK observatory is a useful research tool.

  15. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The family of High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) instruments consisted of three unmarned scientific observatories capable of detecting the x-rays emitted by the celestial bodies with high sensitivity and high resolution. The celestial gamma-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes were also collected and studied to learn more about the mysteries of the universe. High-Energy rays cannot be studied by Earth-based observatories because of the obscuring effects of the atmosphere that prevent the rays from reaching the Earth's surface. They had been observed initially by sounding rockets and balloons, and by small satellites that do not possess the needed instrumentation capabilities required for high data resolution and sensitivity. The HEAO carried the instrumentation necessary for this capability. In this photograph, an artist's concept of three HEAO spacecraft is shown: HEAO-1, launched on August 12, 1977; HEAO-2, launched on November 13, 1978; and HEAO-3, launched on September 20. 1979.

  16. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Young, E. T.; Savage, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), project has been operating airborne astronomy flights from Palmdale, California since 2011. The observatory consists of a modified 747-SP aircraft with a 2.5-meter telescope in its aft section. SOFIA has a suite of eight science instruments spanning visible to far-infrared wavelengths. For the majority of the year SOFIA operates out of the Armstrong Flight Research Center in Palmdale, California, giving access to Northern Hemisphere targets. SOFIA's mobility also allows observations in the Southern Hemisphere (Christchurch, New Zealand), of objects such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Galactic Center, and Eta Carinae In 2016, SOFIA added polarimetry capability on SOFIA, with HAWC+ commissioning flights. Selected science results, current instrument suite status, new capabilities, and some expectations of future instrument developments over the lifetime of the observatory will be discussed.

  17. Developing an astronomical observatory in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troche-Boggino, Alexis E.

    Background: Paraguay has some heritage from the astronomy of the Guarani Indians. Buenaventura Suarez S.J. was a pioneer astronomer in the country in the XVIII century. He built various astronomical instruments and imported others from England. He observed eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and of the Sun and Moon. He published his data in a book and through letters. The Japanese O.D.A. has collaborated in obtaining equipment and advised their government to assist Paraguay in building an astronomical observatory, constructing a moving-roof observatory and training astronomers as observatory operators. Future: An astronomical center is on the horizon and some possible fields of research are being considered. Goal: To improve education at all possible levels by not only observing sky wonders, but also showing how instruments work and teaching about data and image processing, saving data and building a data base. Students must learn how a modern scientist works.

  18. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-09-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  19. OSO-7 Orbiting Solar Observatory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seventh Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7) in the continuing series designed to gather solar and celestial data that cannot be obtained from the earth's surface is described. OSO-7 was launched September 29, 1971. It has been highly successful in returning scientific data giving new and important information about solar flare development, coronal temperature variations, streamer dynamics of plasma flow, and solar nuclear processes. OSO-7 is expected to have sufficient lifetime to permit data comparisons with the Skylab A mission during 1973. The OSO-7 is a second generation observatory. It is about twice as large and heavy as its predecessors, giving it considerably greater capability for scientific measurements. This report reviews mission objectives, flight history, and scientific experiments; describes the observatory; briefly compares OSO-7 with the first six OSO's; and summarizes the performance of OSO-7.

  20. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard; Prato, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its eighth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of new instruments in 2015, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2016 are due by May 1, 2016.

  1. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  2. First Light of the Renovated Thacher Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Katie; Yin, Yao; Edwards, Nick; Swift, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The Thacher Observatory, originally a collaboration between UCLA (P.I. G. Abell), Caltech, Pomona College, and the Thacher School, was built in the early 1960s. The goal of the facility was to serve as a training ground for undergraduate and graduate students in Los Angeles area colleges and also to provide hands-on technical training and experience for Thacher students. It was the birthplace of the Summer Science Program which continues today at other campuses. The observatory has now been fully renovated and modernized with a new, 0.7m telescope and dome that can be controlled remotely and in an automated manner. Science programs involving accurate and precise photometry have been initiated, and we project that we will be presenting the first scientific results of the renovated observatory at this meeting.

  3. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This drawing is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's conception depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1 in orbit. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Research at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    Astronomical research at Appalachian State University centers around the interests of the three observational astronomers on the faculty, and primarily involves observational work at our Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). ASU is a member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina system, and is a comprehensive university with about 13,000 students. Besides the usual constraint found in such a setting (teaching loads of 9-12 hours/semester), we face the challenges of maintaining a significant observatory facility in an era of shrinking state budgets. The DSO facility is 20 miles from campus, adding additional problems. This scenario differs from those of the other panelists, who are at private institutions and/or use shared facilities. The character of students at ASU also adds constraints--many have to hold part-time jobs that limit their participation in the very research that could contribute significantly to their success. Particularly, their need to leave for the summer for gainful employment at the very time that faculty have the most time for research is a loss for all concerned. In spite of these challenges, we have a long record of maintaining research programs in eclipsing binary star photometry, stellar spectroscopy and QSO/AGN monitoring. Undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of the work, from becoming competent at solo observing to publication of the results and presentation of papers and posters at meetings. Graduate students in our Masters in Applied Physics program (emphasis on instrumentation), have constructed instruments and control systems for the observatory. Most of what we have achieved would have been impossible without the support of the National Science Foundation. We have been fortunate to acquire funds under the Division of Undergraduate Education's ILI program and the Research at Undergraduate Institutions program. Among other things, this support provided our main telescope, CCD cameras, and some student stipends.

  6. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  7. Observations Of The LCROSS Impact From The MMT Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Morag Ann; Bailey, V.; Hinz, P.; Callahan, S.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Gibson, D.; Porter, D.; Vilas, F.

    2010-01-01

    On the night of UT 9 Oct 2009, the MMT Observatory 6.5-m telescope watched with multiple ‘eyes’ as NASA crashed the two LCROSS spacecraft into the Cabeus crater near the south pole of the Moon. The primary goal of the observations was to address the LCROSS mission’s first science goal: “Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon”. Using the MMT in conjunction with CLIO, a thermal infrared camera coupled with a low-resolution prism covering a spectral range of 2.5 - 4.5 µm, we obtained spectra across Cabeus crater throughout the event. These spectra bracket 3 µm to identify the 3-µm absorption feature caused by adsorbed or interlayer water or both in minerals created by the process of aqueous alteration, which could be present in plume dust if water ice is present in the impacted crater. Additionally, we trained three optical cameras with varying FOVs at the impact area, in particular, one fast temporal camera with a 0.7-µm medium band filter with the hope to follow the growth of expected plume development with time. As an observatory we used this unique observing night to reach out to the public and give them a glimpse of the professional astronomy world. We streamed the live images coming from three of our science cameras and web cams around the observatory on the internet and got thousands of viewers from around the world. We present a snapshot of the night and initial results from our observations.

  8. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  9. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, G.

    2011-06-01

    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  10. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  11. Using Virtual Observatory Tools for Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Taylor, John D.; Panter, Benjamin; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Heavens, Alan F.; Mann, Robert G.

    2005-06-01

    Construction of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is a great concern to the astronomical community in the 21st century. We present an outline of the concept and necessity of the VO and the current status of various VO projects including the 15 national ones and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). %, and of Grid project. We summarize the possible science cases that could be solved by using the VO data/tools, real science cases which are the results of using current VO tools, and our own work of using AstroGrid, the United Kingdom national VO, for a research on star formation history of galaxies.

  12. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  13. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  14. SOFIA: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    1990-01-01

    SOFIA, an airborne observatory intended to be carried aboard a Boeing 747 high performance aircraft, is described. The observatory is predicted to provide a threefold greater aperture than that of the Kuiper telescope. The Boeing aircraft will carry the 2.5 diameter telescope and its observers to altitudes of 14,000 and above where the atmosphere is very nearly transparent at all wavelengths. Various aspects and specific missions of the SOFIA project, a cooperative venture of the U.S. and Germany, are described.

  15. The Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. A.; Robinson, E.

    1992-06-01

    The goal of the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment is to investigate the distributions, trends, and behavior of reactive photochemically related species in the remote Pacific. Concurrent measurements of selected odd nitrogen constituents, hydrocarbons, peroxides, organic acids, formaldehyde, and other species were carried out from May 1 to June 4, 1988 at the Mauna Loa Observatory. The emphasis of the experiment was on the budget and partitioning of odd species. Results provide a first glimpse of the magnitude and possible causes of the temporal variability of short-lived species at a remote maritime site.

  16. Required technologies for lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the major new observatories proposed to take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. Telescopes for the lunar surface need to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  17. The Michael Britton Observatory of Dickinson College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Morgan, W. A.; Drake, J.; Connelly, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Tome Scientific Building, built as a new home for the Physics and Astronomy, Mathematics and Computer Sciences programs of Dickinson College, includes a distinctive architectural feature known as the "conoid". A structurally separate unit, the conoid serves as the home for Dickinson's Kanev Planetarium and Britton Observatory. The 24 inch DFM Engineering telescope of the Britton Observatory has been used to support a number of student research projects as well as laboratory exercises for upper level astrophysics courses. Several typical projects will be discussed.

  18. Current Status of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Y.; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga B.; Kilpio, Elena Y.; Kilpio, Alexander A.; Kovaleva, Dana A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) has been officially recognized as one of the key projects of the Scientific Council on Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences since December 2001. The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. One of the principal goals of the project is to provide Russian researchers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. RVO architecture main tasks and roadmap are discussed in the presentation.

  19. How To Cover NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    -0031 in advance of the mission to make arrangements for special support, such as telephone service, and uplink or remote truck parking. Covering from the Kennedy Space Center The Kennedy Space Center, Fla., news center is primarily responsible for disseminating information about the Shuttle countdown and launch. However, media relations officers knowledgeable about Chandra will be present at the Kennedy news center through launch. Additionally, some members of the Chandra management and science team will be at the Kennedy Space Center and available for interviews through launch. Media interested in covering the Chandra launch from the Kennedy Space Center should contact its Public Affairs Office at (407) 867-2468. Prior accreditation is required. Covering from the Johnson Space Center The Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, news center has responsibility for disseminating information about STS-93 flight operations. Media interested in covering the mission from the Johnson Space Center should contact its Public Affairs Office at (281) 483-5111. Prior accreditation is required. Status Reports During the STS-93 Space Shuttle mission to launch Chandra, NASA will issue twice-daily status reports from the Chandra Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass. Following the Shuttle mission, through Chandra's on-orbit checkout period, reports will be issued weekly. These reports are available via the Internet at: http://chandra.msfc.nasa.gov Press Briefings During the Space Shuttle mission to launch the observatory, NASA will conduct daily press briefings on the status of the observatory. These briefings will be conducted at the Chandra Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass. Media briefings will be broadcast on NASA Television (see below). Media without access to NASA Television may monitor the briefings by calling (256) 544-5300 and asking to be connected to the NASA Television audio feed. A briefing schedule will be released before launch and updated as appropriate

  20. Mission Planning for the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry D.; Stone, Russell, L.; Evans, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The CHANDRA x-ray observatory started life as the Advanced X-ray Facility (AXAF) but was renamed Chandra in December of 1998 at the of a nationwide contest by NASA to name the new observatory. The honors the Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist S. Chandrasekar who astrophysics at the University of Chicago for more than 50 years, following graduate studies at Cambridge University in England. The observatory has been under construction for a decade under the management of the Observatory observatory, Projects office at the Marshall Space Flight Center; the same office that oversaw the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This observatory is a member of NASA's great observatory series of missions of which Hubble and Compton are members. This paper describes the mission planning that was conducted at MSFC to design the orbit and launch window that would permit the new observatory to function properly.

  1. Lockheed Solar Observatory and the Discovery of Moreton-Ramsey Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2014-06-01

    Moreton Waves are high-speed disturbances seen traveling away from large solar flares in H-alpha movies of the solar chromosphere. They were discovered by the observer Harry Ramsey in the late 1950s, and then published and publicized by the director Gail Moreton, both of the Lockheed Solar Observatory in the Hollywood Hills of Southern California. These efforts established the scientific reputation and secured continuing funding of the observatory, whose present-day successor is the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab in Palo Alto. Moreton waves are rare, and there was limited interest in them until the EIT instrument on SOHO began seeing large numbers of similar waves in the corona in the late 1990s. The exact relation between the two observations is still a research topic today. This talk will describe some of the history of the observatory and the discovery and early interpretation of the waves.

  2. The Willard L. Eccles Observatory: Commissioning and Development of Remote Operation Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, Wayne; Dawson, Kyle; Gondolo, Paolo; Ricketts, Paul; Ramsrud, Nicolas; Samarasingha, Upul

    2011-03-01

    The University of Utah completed construction of the Willard L. Eccles Observatory located on Frisco Peak near Milford, UT in October 2009. The observatory site is located on a prominent peak at an altitude of approximately 9600 feet in a region with minimal light pollution. The Frisco Peak site was chosen after careful consideration of many factors including climate, light pollution and available infrastructure. The facility houses a 32" telescope manufactured by DFM Engineering of Longmont, CO. Further development of remote operation capabilities is currently being undertaken. Monitoring of the weather and seeing conditions are being performed and confirm the excellent nature of the site for astronomical observations. The observatory facilities will be used for educational and public outreach activities as well as research projects. A description of the facility and its planned use will be provided.

  3. Commisioning and ``First-Light'' of the Willard L. Eccles Observatory at Frisco Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, Wayne; Dawson, Kyle; Ricketts, Paul; Ramsrud, Nicolas; Samarasingha, Upul

    2010-10-01

    The University of Utah completed construction of the Willard L. Eccles Observatory located on Frisco Peak near Milford, Utah in October 2009. The observatory site is located on a prominent peak at an altitude of approximately 9600 feet in a region with minimal light pollution. The Frisco Peak site was chosen after careful consideration of many factors including climate, light pollution and available infrastructure. The facility houses a 32'' Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope manufactured by DFM Engineering of Longmont, CO. Commissioning and development of remote operation capabilities is currently being undertaken. Monitoring of the weather and seeing conditions are being performed and confirm the excellent nature of the site for astronomical observations. The observatory facilities will be used for educational and public outreach activities as well as research projects. A description of the facility and its planned use will be provided. Measurements of the ``seeing'' and night sky background from images obtained with the telescope will also be presented.

  4. Variable Star Discoveries for Research Education at the Phillips Academy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odden, Caroline; Yoon, Seokjun; Zhu, Emily; Little, John; Taylor, Isabel; Kim, Ji Seok; Briggs, John W.

    2014-06-01

    The discovery and publication of unknown variable stars by high school students is a highly engaging activity in a new hands-on research course developed at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. Students use MPO Canopus software to recognize candidate variable stars in image series typically recorded for asteroid rotation studies. Follow-up observations are made using the 16-inch DFM telescopes at the Phillips Academy Observatory and at the HUT Observatory near Eagle, Colorado, as well as with a remote-access 20-inch at New Mexico Skies Observatory near Mayhill, New Mexico. The Catalina Sky Survey can provide additional photometric measurements. Confirmed variables, with light curves and periods, are submitted to the International Variable Star Index and Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. Asteroid rotation studies are published in Minor Planet Bulletin.

  5. Bringing the Virtual Astronomical Observatory to the Education Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Mattson, B. J.; Raddick, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international effort to bring a large-scale electronic integration of astronomy data, tools, and services to the global community. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is the U.S. NSF- and NASA-funded VO effort that seeks to put efficient astronomical tools in the hands of U.S. astronomers, students, educators, and public outreach leaders. These tools will make use of data collected by the multitude of ground- and space-based missions over the previous decades. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program for the VAO will be led by the Space Telescope Science Institute in collaboration with the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) EPO program and Johns Hopkins University. VAO EPO efforts seek to bring technology, real-world astronomical data, and the story of the development and infrastructure of the VAO to the general public and education community. Our EPO efforts will be structured to provide uniform access to VAO information, enabling educational and research opportunities across multiple wavelengths and time-series data sets. The VAO team recognizes that the VO has already built many tools for EPO purposes, such as Microsoft's World Wide Telescope, SDSS Sky Server, Aladin, and a multitude of citizen-science tools available from Zooniverse. However, it is not enough to simply provide tools. Tools must meet the needs of the education community and address national education standards in order to be broadly utilized. To determine which tools the VAO will incorporate into the EPO program, needs assessments will be conducted with educators across the U.S.

  6. Education and Outreach with the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, B.; Raddick, M. J.; Mattson, B. J.; Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international effort to bring a large-scale electronic integration of astronomy data, tools, and services to the global community. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is the U.S. NSF- and NASA-funded VO effort that seeks to put efficient astronomical tools in the hands of U.S. astronomers, students, educators, and public outreach leaders. These tools will make use of data collected by the multitude of ground- and space-based missions over the previous decades. Many future missions will also be incorporated into the VAO tools when they launch. The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program for the VAO is led by the Space Telescope Science Institute in collaboration with the HEASARC E/PO program and Johns Hopkins University. VAO E/PO efforts seek to bring technology, real-world astronomical data, and the story of the development and infrastructure of the VAO to the general public, formal education, and informal education communities. Our E/PO efforts will be structured to provide uniform access to VAO information, enabling educational opportunities across multiple wavelengths and time-series data sets. The VAO team recognizes that many VO programs have built powerful tools for E/PO purposes, such as Microsoft's World Wide Telescope, SDSS Sky Server, Aladin, and a multitude of citizen-science tools available from Zooniverse. We are building partnerships with Microsoft, Zooniverse, and NASA's Night Sky Network to leverage the communities and tools that already exist to meet the needs of our audiences. Our formal education program is standards-based and aims to give teachers the tools to use real astronomical data to teach the STEM subjects. To determine which tools the VAO will incorporate into the formal education program, needs assessments will be conducted with educators across the U.S.

  7. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina

    2016-01-01

    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  8. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    In recent years there has been a trend to view the Citizens' Observatory as an increasingly essential tool that provides an approach for better observing, understanding, protecting and enhancing our environment. However, there is no consensus on how to develop such a system, nor is there any agreement on what a Citizens' Observatory is and what results it could produce. The increase in the prevalence of Citizens' Observatories globally has been mirrored by an increase in the number of variables that are monitored, the number of monitoring locations and the types of participating citizens. This calls for a more integrated approach to handle the emerging complexities involved in this field, but before this can be achieved, it is essential to establish a common foundation for Citizens' Observatories and their usage. There are many aspects to a Citizens' Observatory. One view is that its essence is a process that involves environmental monitoring, information gathering, data management and analysis, assessment and reporting systems. Hence, it requires the development of novel monitoring technologies and of advanced data management strategies to capture, analyse and survey the data, thus facilitating their exploitation for policy and society. Practically, there are many challenges in implementing the Citizens' Observatory approach, such as ensuring effective citizens' participation, dealing with data privacy, accounting for ethical and security requirements, and taking into account data standards, quality and reliability. These concerns all need to be addressed in a concerted way to provide a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens' Observatory programme. On the other hand, the Citizens' Observatory approach carries the promise of increasing the public's awareness to risks in their environment, which has a corollary economic value, and enhancing data acquisition at low or no cost. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for a Citizens' Observatory

  9. Mobile applications and Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Jagade, S.

    2015-06-01

    Within a few years, smartphones and Internet tablets have become the devices to access Web or standalone applications from everywhere, with a rapid development of the bandwidth of the mobile networks (e.g. 4G). Internet tablets are used to take notes during meetings or conferences, to read scientific papers in public transportation, etc. A smartphone is for example a way to have your data in the pocket or to control, from everywhere, the progress of a heavy workflow process. These mobile devices have enough powerful hardware to run more and more complex applications for many use cases. In the field of astronomy it is possible to use these tools to access data via a simple browser, but also to develop native applications reusing libraries (written in Java for Android or Objective-C/Swift for iOS) developed for desktops/laptops. We describe the experiments conducted in this domain, at CDS and IUCAA, considering a mobile application as a native application as well as a Web application.

  10. Providing comprehensive and consistent access to astronomical observatory archive data: the NASA archive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Accomazzi, Alberto; Smale, Alan; White, Richard L.; Donaldson, Thomas; Aloisi, Alessandra; Dower, Theresa; Mazzerella, Joseph M.; Ebert, Rick; Pevunova, Olga; Imel, David; Berriman, Graham B.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Groom, Steve L.; Desai, Vandana R.; Landry, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Since the turn of the millennium a constant concern of astronomical archives have begun providing data to the public through standardized protocols unifying data from disparate physical sources and wavebands across the electromagnetic spectrum into an astronomical virtual observatory (VO). In October 2014, NASA began support for the NASA Astronomical Virtual Observatories (NAVO) program to coordinate the efforts of NASA astronomy archives in providing data to users through implementation of protocols agreed within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A major goal of the NAVO collaboration has been to step back from a piecemeal implementation of IVOA standards and define what the appropriate presence for the US and NASA astronomy archives in the VO should be. This includes evaluating what optional capabilities in the standards need to be supported, the specific versions of standards that should be used, and returning feedback to the IVOA, to support modifications as needed. We discuss a standard archive model developed by the NAVO for data archive presence in the virtual observatory built upon a consistent framework of standards defined by the IVOA. Our standard model provides for discovery of resources through the VO registries, access to observation and object data, downloads of image and spectral data and general access to archival datasets. It defines specific protocol versions, minimum capabilities, and all dependencies. The model will evolve as the capabilities of the virtual observatory and needs of the community change.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Data, January to December 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during the year. The seismic summary is offered without interpretation as a source of preliminary data. It is complete in the sense that most data for events of M>1.5 routinely gathered by the Observatory are included. The HVO summaries have been published in various forms since 1956. Summaries prior to 1974 were issued quarterly, but cost, convenience of preparation and distribution, and the large quantities of data dictated an annual publication beginning with Summary 74 for the year 1974. Summary 86 (the introduction of CUSP at HVO) includes a description of the seismic instrumentation, calibration, and processing used in recent years. Beginning with 2004, summaries are simply identified by the year, rather than Summary number. The present summary includes background information on the seismic network and processing to allow use of the data and to provide an understanding of how they were gathered. A report by Klein and Koyanagi (1980) tabulates instrumentation, calibration, and recording history of each seismic station in the network. It is designed as a reference for users of seismograms and phase data and includes and augments the information in the station table in this summary.

  12. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  13. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  14. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1992-01-01

    The features and scientific aims of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy), a planned 2.5 m telescope to be installed in an aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 ft, are discussed. A brief overview of the SOFIA program is given.

  15. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  16. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  17. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the great astronomical observatories both space and land based that are now operational. It shows the history of the development of SOFIA, from its conception in 1986 through the contract awards in 1996 and through the planned first flight in 2007. The major components of the observatory are shown and there is a comparison of the SOFIA with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is the direct predecessor to SOFIA. The development of the aft ramp of the KAO was developed as a result of the wind tunnel tests performed for SOFIA development. Further slides show the airborne observatory layout and the telescope's optical layout. Included are also vies of the 2.5 Meter effective aperture, and the major telescope's components. The presentations reviews the technical challenges encountered during the development of SOFIA. There are also slides that review the wind tunnel tests, and CFD modeling performed during the development of SOFIA. Closing views show many views of the airplane, and views of SOFIA.

  18. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a large field of view, continuously operated, TeV γ-ray experiment under construction at 4,100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. The HAWC observatory will have an order of magnitude better sensitivity, angular resolution, and background rejection than its predecessor, the Milagro experiment. The improved performance will allow us to detect both the transient and steady emissions, to study the Galactic diffuse emission at TeV energies, and to measure or constrain the TeV spectra of GeV γ-ray sources. In addition, HAWC will be the only ground-based instrument capable of detecting prompt emission from γ-ray bursts above 50 GeV. The HAWC observatory will consist of an array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), each with four photomultiplier tubes. This array is currently under construction on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano near the city of Puebla, Mexico. The first 30 WCDs (forming an array approximately the size of Milagro) were deployed in Summer 2012, and 100 WCDs will be taking data by May, 2013. We present in this paper the motivation for constructing the HAWC observatory, the status of the deployment, and the first results from the constantly growing array.

  19. The Arecibo Observatory Visitor and Educational Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, Daniel R.

    1994-12-01

    As the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico attracts thousands of visitors each year of all ages and from many countries. Pride in the Observatory has caused local Puerto Rican organizations to contribute the funds necessary for the construction of the new Arecibo Observatory Visitor and Educational Facility (AOVEF). Funds to develop the exhibits were obtained through a grant from the National Science Foundation. The Observatory is the main facility of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The AOVEF consists of approximately 9,000 square feet of building and outdoor program space. It will house about 3500 square feet of exhibits, a 100 person multi-purpose theater, a science merchandise store and appropriate meeting rooms and workspace. We expect to be able to begin construction in early 1995. Based on current experience, we anticipate that half of the expected 100,000 visitors per year will be school children brought by buses from their schools and half will be families and individuals, coming for a visit on their own. Details about our project and a discussion of the contents of the exhibitions which are being prepared will be presented.

  20. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  1. The great observatories for space astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Neal, V.

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the ancient urge to observe, measure, compute, and understand the nature of the Universe, the available advanced technology is used to place entire observatories into space for investigations across the spectrum. Stellar evolution, development and nature of the Universe, planetary exploration, technology, NASA's role, and careers in asronomy are displayed.

  2. NASA's Great Observatories Paper Model Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    The Hubble Space Telescope, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, was built to study the cosmos from low-Earth orbit for 10 to 15 years or more. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is a complex spacecraft fitted with four different gamma ray detectors, each of which concentrates on different but overlapping energy range and was…

  3. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Kilpio, E.; Kovaleva, D.

    2006-04-01

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) is a collaborative effort by Russian astronomy researches and computer scientists to develop astronomical data and tools which have proved to be very useful for the international astronomical community. The paper reviews the current status of the RVO project and planned developments.

  4. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's four Great Observatories and its flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, was launched by NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray sources were observed on August 12, 1999. The brightest of these sources named Leon X-1 in honor of Chandra's Telescope Scientist who played the leading role in establishing the key to Chandra's great advance in angular resolution. Over the past years, the Observatory's ability to provide sub-arc second X-ray images and high resolution spectra has established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes ranging over more than 10 orders of magnitude. The longevity of Chandra also provides a long observing baseline enabling temporal studies over time-scales of years. I will discuss how the Observatory works, the current operational status, and scientific highlights covering a variety of objects from stars with nearby planets that impact the stellar activity to the deepest Chandra surveys.

  5. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

    We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

  6. A home-built, fully automated observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beales, M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the design of an automated observatory making use of off-the-shelf components and software. I make no claims for originality in the design but it has been an interesting and rewarding exercise to get all the components to work together.

  7. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  8. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  9. Lessons from the MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1998-12-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. Each telescope can be pointed and focused remotely, and filters, field of view and exposure times can be changed easily. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes for access to distant night skies during local daytime. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has been available to select schools since 1995. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from any computer using Web-based software. Individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. Images are archived at the Web site, along with sample challenges and a user bulletin board, all of which encourage collaboration between schools. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://mo-www.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory/. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction by teachers, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. In this talk, we will review some of the experiences we, students and teachers have had in using the telescopes. Support for the MicroObservatory Net has been provided by the NSF, Apple Computer, Inc. and Kodak, Inc.

  10. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2009-10-01

    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  11. NASA Announces Contest to Name X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    NASA is searching for a new name for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), currently scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, from the Space Shuttle Columbia. AXAF is the third of NASA's Great Observatories, after the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Once in orbit around Earth, it will explore hot, turbulent regions in the universe where X-rays are produced. Dr. Alan Bunner, director of NASA's Structure and Evolution of the universe science program, will announce April 18 at the National Science Teacher's Association meeting in Las Vegas, NV, the start of a contest, open to people worldwide, to find a new name for the observatory. Entries should contain the name of a person (not living), place, or thing from history, mythology, or fiction. Contestants should describe in a few sentences why this choice would be a good name for AXAF. The name must not have been used before on space missions by NASA or other organizations or countries. The grand prize will be a trip to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL, to see the launch of the satellite aboard the Space Shuttle. Ten runner-up prizes will be awarded and all entrants will receive an AXAF poster. The grand prize is sponsored by TRW Inc., AXAF's prime contractor. The AXAF Science Center in Cambridge, MA, will run the contest for NASA. NASA will announce the final selection of the winning name later this year. Entries also can be mailed to: AXAF Contest, AXAF Science Center, Office of Education and Public Outreach, 60 Garden Street, MS 83, Cambridge, MA 02138. Mailed entries must be postmarked no later than June 30, 1998. All entries must state a name for the mission, along with the reason the name would make a good choice. The observatory, now in the final stages of assembly and testing at TRW's facility in Redondo Beach, CA, is more than 45 feet long and weighs 10,500 pounds. AXAF is the largest and most powerful X-ray observatory ever constructed, and its images will be

  12. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, S.

    -like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii

  13. Solar Dynamics Observatory Data Search using Metadata in the KDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, E.; Choi, S.; Baek, J.-H.; Park, J.; Lee, J.; Cho, K.

    2015-09-01

    We have constructed the Korean Data Center (KDC) for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The SDO comprises three instruments; the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). We archive AIA and HMI FITS data. The size of data is about 1 TB of a day. The goal of KDC for SDO is to provide easy and fast access service to the data for researchers in Asia. In order to improve the data search rate, we designed the system to search data without going through a process of database query. The fields of instrument, wavelength, data path, date, and time are saved as a text file. This metadata file and SDO FITS data can be simply accessed via HTTP and are open to the public. We present a process of creating metadata and a way to access SDO FITS data in detail.

  14. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  15. LORAN-C data reduction at the US Naval Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1992-01-01

    As part of its mission and in cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) monitors and reports the timing of the LORAN-C chains. The procedures for monitoring and processing the reported values have evolved with advances in monitoring equipment, computer interfaces and PCs. This paper discusses the current standardized procedures used by USNO to sort the raw data according to Group Repetition Interval (GRI) rate, to fit and smooth the data points, and, for chains remotely monitored, to tie the values to the USNO Master Clock. The results of these procedures are the LORAN time of transmission values, as references to UTC(USNO) (Universal Coordinated Time) for all LORAN chains. This information is available to users via USNO publications and the USNO Automated Data Service (ADS).

  16. AVOCADO: A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Sánchez-Janssen

    2011-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, yet their properties are still poorly understood-especially due to the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness represents. AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on their formation and evolution by constructing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of several thousand nearby dwarfs (-18 < Mi < -14). Using public data and Virtual Observatory tools, we have built GALEX+SDSS+2MASS spectral energy distributions that are fitted by a library of single stellar population models. Star formation rates, stellar masses, ages and metallicities are further complemented with structural parameters that can be used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterization of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types.

  17. DETAIL, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTH. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF PORTICO OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF VESTIBULE OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Receipt of the Observatory at the Orbital Processing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    These series of photos show the receipt of the observatory at the Orbital processing facility at VAFB. The observatory was received on April 16, 2013 and transferred to its handling fixture and the...

  3. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Danhenge Observatory Apr - Aug 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The lightcurves for three main-belt asteroids, 1413 Roucarie, 3385 Bronnina, and 39890 Bobstephens. All observations were taken from the DanHenge Observatory, one of 13 observatories at Goat Mountain Astronomical Research Station (GMARS - MPC G79).

  4. Studying the Light Pollution around Urban Observatories: Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Brendon Andrew; Johnson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light pollution plays an ever increasing role in the operations of observatories across the world. This is especially true in urban environments like Columbus, GA, where Columbus State University’s WestRock Observatory is located. Light pollution’s effects on an observatory include high background levels, which results in a lower signal to noise ratio. Overall, this will limit what the telescope can detect, and therefore limit the capabilities of the observatory as a whole.Light pollution has been mapped in Columbus before using VIIRS DNB composites. However, this approach did not provide the detailed resolution required to narrow down the problem areas around the vicinity of the observatory. The purpose of this study is to assess the current state of light pollution surrounding the WestRock observatory by measuring and mapping the brightness of the sky due to light pollution using light meters and geographic information system (GIS) software.Compared to VIIRS data this study allows for an improved spatial resolution and a direct measurement of the sky background. This assessment will enable future studies to compare their results to the baseline established here, ensuring that any changes to the way the outdoors are illuminated and their effects can be accurately measured, and counterbalanced.

  5. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  6. The Astronomical Virtual Observatory: Lessons Learned, Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.

    2012-09-01

    The astronomical Virtual Observatory (VO) aims at providing seamless access to the wealth of the discipline's on-line resources, hence at developing global interoperability between them. This is coordinated by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The paper summarizes the VO history and current evolution. During the first period of VO development, a huge amount of work has been devoted to the development of basic interoperability standards, to set up the VO framework for publication of data and for tools interoperability. This has proven to be a major asset for seamless usage of data. Now the VO is in operation, and the emphasis on supporting the take-up by astronomers and data providers, as well as on outreach, is increasing. A census of European astronomical data centres performed in 2009/2010 shows a large interest in the VO, and a wide diversity of sizes and organisations, in the data centre community. The different strands of work of an operational VO, and the challenges ahead are described, taking in particular the example of the European VO. The European implementation of the VO has been moulded by the specific organisation of European astronomy, with complementary roles of the national and European levels. Local and national projects contribute to the VO development and implementation in their domains of interest and expertise. Several projects supported by the European Commission have helped to shape Euro-VO, with a strong emphasis on coordination of national and intergovernmental agency projects, with actions towards astronomers, data centres and VO developers, including during the last period of outreach towards education and the public. The Astronet Infrastructure Roadmap for European astronomy (2009) has recognized data and the VO as one of the infrastructures of astronomy. The way forward in this context is discussed. In conclusion, the astronomical data infrastructure is put in perspective with the general trends around scientific

  7. NASA's Earth Observatory: 16 Years of Communicating with and for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Allen, J.; Voiland, A.; Przyborski, P.; Hansen, K.; Stevens, J.

    2015-12-01

    For the past 16 years NASA's Earth Observatory website has featured stories that are driven by strong visualization and in-depth reporting and storytelling. The Earth Observatory Image of the Day is published 365 days a year and is a syndication staple for major news outlets, science-related publications, blogs and social media outlets. The daily publication pace requires that we cover a wide range of topics within NASA's portfolio of Earth science research. To meet our deadlines, and to do so competently and with the authority that a NASA-branded publication warrants, we have developed relationships with scientists from throughout the agency who both provide us with ideas for stories and review our content for accuracy. This symbiotic relationship insures that the Earth Observatory has a quality product that is syndicated, repurposed and sourced throughout popular media, resulting in science content reaching the public that might not otherwise be reported. We will discuss how we have developed our relationships and processes over the years, how we work with scientists to see the potential stories in their data, and how we package and promote these stories and visualizations for maximum exposure and reuse.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities to Developing Synergies Among Diverse Environmental Observatories: FSML, NEON, and GLEON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, C. E.; Weathers, K. C.; Knoll, L. B.; Brentrup, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in sensor technology and cyberinfrastructure have enabled the development of numerous environmental observatories ranging from local networks at field stations and marine laboratories (FSML) to continental scale observatories such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to global scale observatories such as the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). While divergent goals underlie the initial development of these observatories, and they are often designed to serve different communities, many opportunities for synergies exist. In addition, the use of existing infrastructure may enhance the cost-effectiveness of building and maintaining large scale observatories. For example, FSMLs are established facilities with the staff and infrastructure to host sensor nodes of larger networks. Many field stations have existing staff and long-term databases as well as smaller sensor networks that are the product of a single or small group of investigators with a unique data management system embedded in a local or regional community. These field station based facilities and data are a potentially untapped gold mine for larger continental and global scale observatories; common ecological and environmental challenges centered on understanding the impacts of changing climate, land use, and invasive species often underlie these efforts. The purpose of this talk is to stimulate a dialog on the challenges of merging efforts across these different spatial and temporal scales, as well as addressing how to develop synergies among observatory networks with divergent roots and philosophical approaches. For example, FSMLs have existing long-term databases and facilities, while NEON has sparse past data but a well-developed template and closely coordinated team working in a coherent format across a continental scale. GLEON on the other hand is a grass-roots network of experts in science, information technology, and engineering with a common goal

  9. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  10. Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-C (OAO-C): Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Mission planning for the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-C (OAO-C) is presented. The characteristics of the observatory and its capabilities are described. The following experiments are discussed: (1) Princeton Experiment Package, (2) X-ray experiment, and (3) guest investigator program. Results of the OAO-2 observatory are presented. A tabulation of flight events is included.

  11. Surface ozone variability at Kislovodsk Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Makarov, Oleg V.; Senik, Irina A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the surface ozone observations at the Observatory 'Kislovodsk', situated in the North Caucasus at the altitude 2070 m a.s.l., are given. The observatory is in the background conditions and the variations of the surface ozone are determined by the natural dynamic and photochemical processes. The mean value of the concentration and its seasonal variations are very near to those obtained at the high-mountain stations in Alps. The daily variations have the features, which remain stable during all warm period of the year (April-October). These features, including the minimum of the surface ozone at noon, are formed by the mountain-valley circulation. The significant variations of the surface ozone are connected with the unstationary lee waves.

  12. Recent results at the Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Varela, A. M.; Fuensalida, J. J.

    2007-10-01

    During the last years a mayor effort has been carried out both, in defining key parameters to quantify the quality of a site for astronomical observations, and to design reliable techniques and tools to compare different sites. Here, we will revise some of the parameters relevant for astronomical site evaluation, and we will also brief on the instruments currently available for their measurements. The Observatories at the Canaries, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Observatorio del Teide (OT) have been used as test bench for the development of new techniques and tools for more than three decades. Results on statistical measurements and techniques, emphasizing the most recent ones in the framework of the FP6 site selection program at the Canarian Observatories are given.

  13. Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers at a workshop which consider the topic astronomical observations from a lunar base are presented. In part 1, the rationale for performing astronomy on the Moon is established and economic factors are considered. Part 2 includes concepts for individual lunar based telescopes at the shortest X-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, for high energy cosmic rays, and at optical and infrared wavelengths. Lunar radio frequency telescopes are considered in part 3, and engineering considerations for lunar base observatories are discussed in part 4. Throughout, advantages and disadvantages of lunar basing compared to terrestrial and orbital basing of observatories are weighted. The participants concluded that the Moon is very possibly the best location within the inner solar system from which to perform front-line astronomical research.

  14. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans P.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is the World's largest detector for cosmic rays at ultra-high energies. In its seven years of operation it has collected an exposure of more than 20000 km2 sr yr, larger than all previous experiments combined. Its original design, optimized for the energy range 1018 eV to 1020 eV, is currently enhanced to cover energies down to almost 1017 eV. We give an overview of the latest results with a focus on the prospect to study nuclear interactions with cosmic rays and conclude with a brief outlook on developments and extensions of the observatory. Full author list

  15. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its ninth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is now operating at full science capacity. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2017 are due by May 1, 2017; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  16. Building a Galactic Scale Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Maura

    2016-03-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars with phenomenal rotational stability that can be used as celestial clocks in a variety of fundamental physics experiences. One of these experiments involves using a pulsar timing array of precisely timed millisecond pulsars to detect perturbations due to gravitational waves. The low frequency gravitational waves detectable through pulsar timing will most likely result from an ensemble of supermassive black hole binaries. I will introduce the efforts of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), a collaboration that monitors over 50 millisecond pulsars with the Green Bank Telescope and the Arecibo Observatory, with a focus on our observation and data analysis methods. I will also describe how NANOGrav has joined international partners through the International Pulsar Timing Array to form a low-frequency gravitational wave detector of unprecedented sensitivity.

  17. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  18. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1999-05-01

    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  19. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  20. Report from the Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team

    2016-03-01

    As a response to the selection of the Gravitational Universe as the science theme for ESA's L3 mission, ESA formed the Gravitational-Wave Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise ESA on the scientific and technological approach for a gravitational wave observatory. NASA is participating with three US scientists and one NASA observer; JAXA was also invited and participates with one observer. The GOAT looked at a range of mission technologies and designs, discussed their technical readiness with respect to the ESA schedule, recommended technology development activities for selected technologies, and worked with the wider gravitational-wave community to analyze the impact on the science of the various mission designs. The final report is expected to be submitted to ESA early March and I plan to summarize its content.

  1. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  2. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  3. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Student Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its fourth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Several projects are available in collaboration with Lowell staff astronomers; we anticipate the availability of an increasing variety of projects over the next years as completion of our new 4.2 meter Discovery Channel Telescope and corresponding instrumentation progresses. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. Currently, three students are enrolled in our program; our first graduate completed the program in August, 2009. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Spring 2010 are due by December 1, 2009.

  4. First year results from the HAWC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory is an all-sky surveying instrument sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays from 100GeV to 100TeV. With its 2sr instantaneous field of view and a duty cycle of > 95%, HAWC is carrying out an unbiased survey of the Northern sky and is monitoring known flaring sources and searching for transients. HAWC operation began mid-2013 with a partially-completed detector. The array was terminated in 2015. We here summarize the status of the observatory, and highlight its first scientific results, resulting from the first year of data taking after completion of the detector. In particular, we will present the HAWC map of the sky at tens of TeV.

  5. Running a distributed virtual observatory: U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. Bruce; Thakar, Aniruddha R.

    2012-09-01

    Operation of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory shares some issues with modern physical observatories, e.g., intimidating data volumes and rapid technological change, and must also address unique concerns like the lack of direct control of the underlying and scattered data resources, and the distributed nature of the observatory itself. In this paper we discuss how the VAO has addressed these challenges to provide the astronomical community with a coherent set of science-enabling tools and services. The distributed nature of our virtual observatory-with data and personnel spanning geographic, institutional and regime boundaries-is simultaneously a major operational headache and the primary science motivation for the VAO. Most astronomy today uses data from many resources. Facilitation of matching heterogeneous datasets is a fundamental reason for the virtual observatory. Key aspects of our approach include continuous monitoring and validation of VAO and VO services and the datasets provided by the community, monitoring of user requests to optimize access, caching for large datasets, and providing distributed storage services that allow user to collect results near large data repositories. Some elements are now fully implemented, while others are planned for subsequent years. The distributed nature of the VAO requires careful attention to what can be a straightforward operation at a conventional observatory, e.g., the organization of the web site or the collection and combined analysis of logs. Many of these strategies use and extend protocols developed by the international virtual observatory community. Our long-term challenge is working with the underlying data providers to ensure high quality implementation of VO data access protocols (new and better 'telescopes'), assisting astronomical developers to build robust integrating tools (new 'instruments'), and coordinating with the research community to maximize the science enabled.

  6. The Virtual Observatory: Retrospective and Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    At the ADASS XV in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, in October 2005, I gave an overview of the accomplishments of the Virtual Observatory initiatives and discussed the imminent transition from development to operations. That transition remains on the horizon for the US Virtual Observatory, and VO projects worldwide have encountered various programmatic challenges. The successes of the Virtual Observatory are many, but thus far are primarily of a technical nature. We have developed a data discovery and data access infrastructure that has been taken up by data centers and observatories around the world. We have web-based interfaces, downloadable toolkits and applications, a security and restricted access capability, standard vocabularies, a sophisticated messaging and alert system for transient events, and the ability for applications to exchange messages and work together seamlessly. This has been accomplished through a strong collaboration between astronomers and information technology specialists. We have been less successful engaging the astronomical researcher. Relatively few papers have been published based on VO-enabled research, and many astronomers remain unfamiliar with the capabilities of the VO despite active training and tutorial programs hosted by several of the major VO projects. As we (finally!) enter the operational phase of the VO, we need to focus on areas that have contributed to the limited take-up of the VO amongst active scientists, such as ease of use, reliability, and consistency. We need to routinely test VO services for aliveness and adherence to standards, working with data providers to fix errors and otherwise removing non-compliant services from those seen by end-users. Technical developments will need to be motivated and prioritized based on scientific utility. We need to continue to embrace new technology and employ it in a context that focuses on research productivity.

  7. Scientific results obtained by the Busot observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lozano, R.; Rodes, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Bernabéu, G.; Berná, J. Á.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of three new W UMa systems by our group as a part of a photometric follow-up of variable stars carried out with the Busot observatory 36 cm robotic telescope in collaboration with the X-ray astronomy group at University of Alicante (Alicante, Spain). Specifically we show the high limiting magnitude to detect moving objects (V˜ 21 mag), and the high stability and accuracy attained in photometry which allow us to measure very shallow planet transits.

  8. 400 years astronomical observatory in Jena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    ``Nam cum aliquod observatorium mihi comparaverim, ... '': ``As I have equiped my observatory now'', Georg Limnaeus, professor of mathematics in Jena from 1588 to 1611, wrote on 24 April 1598, ``I have decided to make friends with some experts by letter; I know from your Prodromus that you are one of them''. The letter was addressed to Johannes Kepler and was related to his first work about the ``Mysterium cosmographicum''. Kepler sent some copies of his paper to Galileo Galilei, Tycho Brahe, Reimar Ursus and also to Limnaeus in Jena from the Frankfurt Book Fair in 1597. Limnaeus gave him - apart from the words expressing praise but which actually were meaningless concerning Kepler's ideas - the information about Brahe Kepler had asked for and which may have promoted his move to Prague. The above mentioned observatory is considered to be the first one in Jena. Astronomy had already been established as a subject since the establishment of the ``Hohe Schule'' in 1548 and since the foundation of the university ten years later. Nothing is known about the instruments and the location of the observatory. Limnaeus did not belong to the taxpaying house-owners of which there exists an index; he obviously rented a flat. To all appearances the correspondence announced was not continued either. For the following centuries the professors Heinrich Hoffmann, Erhard Weigel, Georg Albrecht and Georg Erhard Hamberger are named in the literature running the observatory in Jena. The ``Herzogliche Sternwarte'' fitted out under Goethe's overall supervision in 1813 eventually developed into the university institute of today.

  9. Some Applications of Microcomputers in Observatory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kephart, J. E.

    1982-06-01

    We present here some of the techniques used to automate many of the observing tasks on the 0.91-meter telescope of the Goethe Link Observatory. A description of the method used to calculate the dome position for a telescope which is mounted asymmetrically is included. We also give details of a novel autoguider. This autoguider uses a digitized television image of the star field to enable the microcomputer to generate error signals from a centroid calculation.

  10. The future of VLBI observatories in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Jordan, J. F.; Burke, B. F.; Doxsey, R.; Morgan, S. H.; Roberts, D. H.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1983-01-01

    The angular resolution of radio maps made by earth-based VLBI observations can be exceeded by placing at least one element of a VLBI array into earth orbit. A VLBI observatory in space can offer the additional advantages of increased sky coverage, higher density sampling of Fourier components, and rapid mapping of objects whose structure changes in less than a day. This paper explores the future of this technique.

  11. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  12. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  13. Solar Terrestrial Observatory Space Station Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    In response to a need to develop and document requirements of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory at an early time, a mini-workshop was organized and held on June 6, 1985. The participants at this workshop set as their goal the preliminary definition of the following areas: (1) instrument descriptions; (2) placement of instrumentation on the IOC Space Station; (3) servicing and repair assessment; and (4) operational scenarios. This report provides a synopsis of the results of that workshop.

  14. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  15. Variable Star Photometry at West Challow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the facilities and observing programme of a small personal observatory set up in the UK for CCD photometry of variable stars. Its development has been driven by the belief that committed amateurs can make a valuable scientific contribution to the study of variable stars. Observing projects carried out at WCO are described including examples of Pro-Am collaboration and contributions to the observing programmes of the BAAVSS, AAVSO and CBA.

  16. Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) HGAS Induced Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Alice; Blaurock, Carl; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mule, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive assessment of High Gain Antenna System induced jitter on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The jitter prediction is created using a coupled model of the structural dynamics, optical response, control systems, and stepper motor actuator electromechanical dynamics. The paper gives an overview of the model components, presents the verification processes used to evaluate the models, describes validation and calibration tests and model-to-measurement comparison results, and presents the jitter analysis methodology and results.

  17. Space-borne gravitational wave observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the progress toward a space-borne gravitational wave observatory and its foreseeable science potential. In particular the paper describes the status of the LISA-like mission called eLISA, the reference mission for the Gravitational Universe theme adopted by ESA for its Large mission L3, and the status of its precursor LISA Pathfinder, due to launch in 2015.

  18. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

  19. Great Observatories Present Rainbow of a Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer, Hubble and Chandra space observatories teamed up to create this multi-wavelength, false-colored view of the M82 galaxy. The lively portrait celebrates Hubble's 'sweet sixteen' birthday.

    X-ray data recorded by Chandra appears in blue; infrared light recorded by Spitzer appears in red; Hubble's observations of hydrogen emission appear in orange, and the bluest visible light appears in yellow-green.

    About the Movie M82 is shown in all its wavelength glory. Dissolving from Chandra X-ray Observatory images of three X-ray energy bands to images in three bands of the infrared spectrum taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ending with the Hubble Space Telescope's visible- and near-infrared-light image. The three observatories' images were composited to reveal the galaxy's stars, as well as gas and dust features.

    Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 4299 samples x 3490 lines.

  20. Camille Flammarion's observatory: towards a revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, P.; Pecker, J. C.; Flammarion, A.; Fuentes, P.; Stépanoff, C. A.; Sol, R.; Dufour, G.; Chaufour, R.; Goury-Laffont, J.

    2011-06-01

    Camille Flammarion's observatory, located in Juvisy-sur-Orge in the suburbs of Paris, has been idle since 1962. Property of the Société Astronomique de France (SAF), it was made available to the city of Juvisy-sur-Orge since 1971, and contains a unique collection of objects and books currently being sorted out. The observatory is being restored by the SAF, thanks to the support of the city of Juvisy-sur-Orge, the French Académie des Sciences and the ``Amis de Camille Flammarion'' association. In 2006, the Maxime Goury Laffont foundation funded the refurbishment of the 240 mm refractor and in 2007 funds were obtained to restore the dome and central building. The main aim of the project is to make this historical place a popular observatory dedicated to astronomy and the sciences which Camille Flammarion enjoyed and contributed to. It constitutes a unique example in France of synergies linking associations, municipality, regional- and national-level institutions.

  1. Demetrios Eginitis: Restorer of the Athens Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E. Th.; Manimanis, V. N.; Mantarakis, P.

    2007-07-01

    Demetrios Eginitis (1862-1934), one of the most eminent modern Greek astronomers, directed the National Observatory of Athens for 44 years (1890-1933). He was the fourth director since its founding, and was responsible for the restoration and modernization of the Observatory, which was in a state of inactivity after the death of Julius Schmidt in 1884. Eginitis ordered the purchase of modern instruments, educated the personnel, enriched the library with necessary and up-to-date books and arranged for new buildings to be built to house new telescopes and accommodate the personnel. Moreover, he divided the National Observatory of Athens into three separate Departments: the Astronomical, the Meteorological and the Geodynamic. D. Eginitis' contribution to Greek society went beyond his astronomical accomplishments. He was instrumental in the adoption of the Eastern European time zone for local time in Greece, and he succeeded in changing the official calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian. Having served twice as Minister of Education, he created many schools, founded the Academy of Athens and the Experimental School of the University of Athens. Eginitis was fluent in French, German and English, and therefore was the official representative of his country in numerous international conferences and councils.

  2. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  3. International Collaboration for the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.; Benvenuti, P.; De Young, D. S.; Hanisch, R. J.; Lawrence, A.; Linde, T.; Quinn, P. J.; Szalay, A. S.; Walton, N. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2002-05-01

    There are now three major initiatives underway related to the virtual observatory. In the United States, the NSF's Information Technology Program is funding a project led by A. Szalay and R. Williams entitled "Building the Framework for the Virtual Observatory". Europe is sponsoring two programs: the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (funded by the European Commission and led by P. Quinn) and AstroGrid (funded by the UK e-science program and led by A. Lawrence). Other national initiatives are forming in, e.g., Germany, India, Chile, Japan, and Australia. These VO projects are all strongly science driven, and aim to satisfy diverse scientific demands while accommodating possibly different priorities. Thus the VO projects will offer a wide range of functionalities. At the same time, it is clear that the underlying fabric upon which the VO's are built must have a high degree of commonality to ensure accessibility and functionality as the international VO becomes an operational reality. Thus, the major VO projects are working together to identify and agree upon these common elements that facilitate both the commonality and diversity in functionality required by the users of the international VO. Some of these common elements have to do with standards for data and interfaces. Some involve policy and yet others have to do with funding and securing international support at governmental levels. Effort is already underway in the development of metadata standards, and the joint leadership of the NVO, AVO, and AstroGrid projects is drafting an international VO roadmap.

  4. The Spanish contribution to the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, J. A.; CTA Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground- based Very High Energy gamma-ray instrument. It will serve as an open observatory to a wide astrophysics community and will provide a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. To achieve such goals, it will offer full-sky coverage (with Northern and Southern hemisphere sites), an improvement in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, an enlarged span in energy (from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV), and enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1100 members from 28 countries all over the world. The Spanish High Energy Astrophysics community is deeply committed to CTA, with more than 70 scientists and technicians from 9 research groups currently involved in building prototypes for several CTA subsystems. This participation covers a wide list of items, both hardware- and software-related. The former includes telescope-level (camera electronics and mechanics and telescope undercarriage) and observatory- level (array optical calibration and atmospheric monitoring) elements. And the latter includes the design of the data pipelines and the scheduling for observational proposals. In this report, the status of the CTA project and the contribution of the Spanish community will be presented.

  5. The Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, D.; Busch, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since 2010, the near-Earth object (NEO) segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness programme has been using a 1-m telescope on Tenerife regularly for asteroid observations. The emphasis of the observations are follow-up of objects on the NEO Confirmation Page [1] of the Minor Planet Center and of objects on the priority list of the Spaceguard Central Node [2], now hosted by ESA. Part of the time is used to demonstrate and test strategies to search for NEOs. The telescope is a 1-m Zeiss Ritchey-Cretien telescope (IAU observatory code J04), called the Optical Ground Station (OGS). It is used with a field flattener/reducer at f/4.4. With a 4k×4k CCD camera it reaches a field of view with a diagonal of about 1 degree. The search programme is called TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey). It is based on a software developed by one of us (MB) for the Starkenburg Observatory Heppenheim and later adapted to be able to control the OGS. Until March 2014, the survey has discovered more than 1500 asteroids and 5 NEOs in about 300 hours of total observing time. This paper will describe the survey strategy and the setup of the data processing pipeline used within the programme.

  6. Performance of adaptive optics at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype adaptive optics system has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for use at Lick Observatory. This system is based on an ITEX 69-actuator continuous-surface deformable mirror, a Kodak fast-framing intensified CCD camera, and a Mercury VME board containing four Intel i860 processors. The system has been tested using natural reference stars on the 40-inch Nickel telescope at Lick Observatory yielding up to a factor of 10 increase in image peak intensity and a factor of 6 reduction in image full width at half maximum (FWHM). These results are consistent with theoretical expectations. In order to improve performance, the intensified CCD camera will be replaced by a high-quantum-efficiency low-noise fast CCD camera built for LLNL by Adaptive Optics Associates using a chip developed by Lincoln Laboratory, and the 69-actuator deformable mirror will be replaced by a 127-actuator deformable mirror developed at LLNL. With these upgrades, the system should perform well in median seeing conditions on the 120-inch Shane telescope for observing wavelengths longer than {approximately}1 {mu}m and using natural reference stars brighter than m{sub R} {approximately} 10 or using the laser currently being developed at LLNL for use at Lick Observatory to generate a sodium-layer reference star.

  7. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  8. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This illustration is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 and its experiments. It shows the focal plane instruments (at the right) plus the associated electronics for operating the telescope as it transmitted its observations to the ground. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, is located near the front of the telescope. Four separate astronomical instruments are located at the focus of this telescope and they could be interchanged for different types of observations as the observatory pointed at interesting areas of the Sky. Two of these instruments produced images; a High Resolution Imaging Detector and an Imaging Proportional Counter. The other two instruments, the Solid State Spectrometer and the Crystal Spectrometer, measured the spectra of x-ray objects. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, continuously viewed space independently to study a wider band of x-ray wavelengths and to examine the rapid time variations in the sources. The HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  9. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.; Prato, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its fifth year, this program provides unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing and currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics from astronomical instrumentation to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, and stellar populations and dwarf irregular galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope is on track for first light by mid-2012, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. Currently, three students are enrolled and three have successfully completed their thesis work at Lowell and moved on to postdocs and astronomy jobs elsewhere. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2012 are due by May 1, 2012.

  10. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its seventh year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.2 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of several new instruments in 2015, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2015 are due by May 1, 2015.

  11. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its sixth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully seen first light in May, 2012, and is on track to commence science operations in 2013, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2013 are due by May 1, 2013.

  12. Open Technologies at Athabasca University's Geospace Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories feature two auroral observation sites situated in the subauroral zone of western Canada, separated by approximately 25 km. These sites are both on high-speed internet and ideal for observing phenomena detectable from this latitude, which include noctilucent clouds, meteors, and magnetic and optical aspects of the aurora. General aspects of use of Linux in observatory management are described, with emphasis on recent imaging projects involving control of high resolution digital SLR cameras at low cadence, and inexpensive white light analog video cameras at 30 Hz. Linux shell scripts are extensively used, with image capture controlled by gphoto2, the ivtv-utils package, x264 video coding library, and ffmpeg. Imagemagick allows processing of images in an automated fashion. Image archives and movies are created and can be correlated with magnetic data. Much of the magnetic data stream also uses GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) within shell scripts for display. Additionally, SPASE metadata are generated for most of the magnetic data, thus allowing users of our AUTUMN magnetic data repository to perform SPASE queries on the dataset. Visualization products from our twin observatories will be presented.

  13. Recent Progress with the JWST Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micrometers - 28 micrometers. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST is a segmented mirror telescope operating at (is) approximately 40K, a temperature achieved by passive cooling of the observatory, via a large, 5-layer membrane-based sunshield. We present an overview of the observatory systems design, the science instruments and the mission science objectives. With the completion of the Spacecraft Critical Design Review, the spacecraft has also fully transitioned to fabrication. We will discuss recent highlights associated with the Observatory, including completion and delivery of the primary mirror segments, delivery of the primary mirror backplane and its wings, and the delivery of five template membrane layers. We will also summarize the current predicted performance of the telescope, including stray light, pointing and image quality following the completion of the final design review. Finally, the current schedule through to launch will be presented with a summary of integration and test activities planned when the science payload is delivered to Northrop Grumman following cryo-optical testing at the Johns Space Flight Center.

  14. The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Rundle, J. B.; Fox, G.; Pierce, M.; McLeod, D.; Parker, J. W.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.

    2003-12-01

    Under the auspices of NASA we are developing the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO). The initial focus of the observatory is spaced-based observational data, ground-based sensor data (GPS, seismicity), simulation data, and published/historical fault measurements, coupled with earthquake fault and tectonic modeling and pattern recognition software. This observatory will enable investigators to seamlessly merge multiple data sets and models, and create new queries. In the SERVO framework, simulation data will be archived together with analysis/animation tools and the original simulation code. Observational data, which is heterogeneous and distributed in nature, will be accessible through cooperative federated databases. SERVO will include tools for visualization, datamining and pattern recognition, with data fusion into a web services (portal) based Problem Solving Environment (PSE). SERVO couples distributed data sources, applications, and hardware resources through an XML-based Web Services framework. Users access the services (and thus distributed resources) through Web browser-based Problem Solving Environment clients. The Web services approach defines standard, programming language-independent application programming interfaces, so non-browser client applications may also be built. Initial application codes in SERVO are GeoFEST, a parallel 3D finite element code, Virtual California, a boundary element code to simulate fault interactions, PARK, a boundary element code for studying unstable slip on faults, and two pattern recognizers RDAHMM, which uses a modification of Hidden Markov Models to analyze time series data, and PDPC, which looks for anomalies in seismicity data.

  15. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its fourth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, to exoplanet science, to stellar populations and dwarf irregular galaxies. First light with the observatory's new 4.2 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is expected in 2011, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. Currently, five students are enrolled in our program; our first graduate completed the program in August, 2009. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2011 are due by May 1, 2011.

  16. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lowell Observatory operates the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and owns & operates the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). This unique & necessary combination of facilities positions Lowell to develop a robust program of observing geostationary, GPS-plane, and other high-altitude (&1000mi) satellites. NPOI is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is supported by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates year-round in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and imaging technology development. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, an ongoing program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted 1.0-m apertures feeding each beam line, and new near-infrared instrumentation on the back end. The large apertures will enable `at-will' observations of objects brighter than mK = 8:3 in the near-IR, corresponding to brighter than mV = 11:3 in the visible. At its core, the system is enabled by a `wavelength-baseline bootstrapping' approach discussed herein. A complementary pilot imaging study of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m DCT, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, is also outlined.

  17. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Antony

    The Lead Proposal for this investigation originates from the University of Arizona, Steward Observatory under Principal Investigator Dr. Christopher K. Walker. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is pleased to submit this subsidiary proposal for engineering and scientific collaboration on the reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO-2). This proposal covers Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science as a result of the failure to launch due to weather in the 2015-2016 season. The Institutional Principal Investigator for the SAO effort is Antony A. Stark, and scientific Co-Investigators Gary Melnick, Volker Tolls, and Matthew Ashby. SAO will provide pre-flight engineering and flight monitoring support for the second Long Duration Flight (LDF) from McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. Subsequent to the flight, SAO Co-Is will contribute to data management and analysis, scientific interpretation, publication of results, and public distribution of data.

  18. Communicating Solar Astronomy to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Solar Observatory NAOJ, The

    2015-08-01

    The Sun is the nearest star to us, so that the public is greatly interested in the Sun itself and in solar activity. The Solar Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan is one of the solar research divisions. Various data of the Sun obtained with our instruments, systematically accumulated more than one hundred years since 1910s, are open to not only researchers but also the public as online database. So, we have many chances that the public request solar images for the education and the media. In addition, we release daily solar observation informations on the web and with social media and guide visitors to our observation facilities. It is reviewed about the public relations and outreach activities of the Solar Observatory, including recent solar observation topics.

  19. Affordable Earth Observatories for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, R. H.

    Traditionally high cost has been the principal impediment to developing nations desiring to pursue space programs. More particularly, the benefits derivable from a space system have been less than adequate to justify the investment required. Chief among the causes has been the inability of the system to produce results with sufficient direct economic value to the peoples of their countries. Over the past 15 years, however, "the Microspace Revolution" has resulted in dramatic reductions in the cost of space systems, while at the same time technology has improved to provide greater capabilities in the smallest micro- and nano-class1 satellites. Because of these advances, it behooves developing nations to reevaluate space as an option for their national development. This paper summarizes two new micro-satellite concepts - NanoObservatoryTM and MicroObservatoryTM that offer the prom- ise of a dedicated Earth remote sensing capability at costs comparable to or less than simply buying data from the best known large systems, Landsat and SPOT. Each system is defined both by its observation capabilities and technical parameters of the system's design. Moreover, the systems are characterized in terms of the other potential benefits to developing economies, i.e., education of a technical workforce or applications of Earth imagery in solving national needs. Comparisons are provided with more traditional Earth observing satellites. NanoObservatoryTM is principally intended to serve as a developmental system to build general technical expertise space technology and Earth observation. MicroObservatoryTM takes the next step by focusing on a more sophisticated optical imag- ing camera while keeping the spacecraft systems simple and affordable. For both programs, AeroAstro is working with non- profit institutions to develop a corresponding program of technical participation with the nations that elect to pursue such programs. Dependent upon current capabilities, this might include

  20. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  1. Gotha - the instruments of the observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Around 1800 the Gotha observatory was an international center of astronomy and was the most modern astronomical institute with respect to its instruments 1. Duke Ernst II of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (1745-1804) used the following instruments in his private observatory at castle Friedenstein in Gotha; it should be emphasized that all instruments were coming from London - England was the center of instrument making in the 18th century 2: A 18-inch quadrant made by Sisson, London; a small 2-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London [DM 67751]; three Hadley sextants; an achromat heliometer made by Dollond, London [DM 67750]; a 2-ft achromat refractor made by Ramsden, London [DM 67754]; a Gregory reflector made by Short, London [Gotha] and several clocks. In 1787, Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) planned a new observatory outside of Gotha on the top of hill Seeberg, financed by the Duke (building 36000 Taler, instruments 20000 Taler; for comparison: the director got several hundreds Taler/year). The focus of research was astrometry, time keeping, geodetic and meteorological observations. Most of the instruments came from the leading instrument makers of that time: A southern and a northern quadrant; a 8-ft transit instrument made by Ramsden, London, 1788 [DM 67743 a-c]; a 7-ft Herschel reflector [DM 67483]; a 2-ft vertical circle made by Cary, London, 1796; a 8-ft circle made by Ramsden, London, 1800; a 3-ft vertical circle made by Trougthon, London, 1800; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Dollond, London, 1796 [DM 67745 a, b]; a 3-ft equatorial refractor made by Schroeder, Gotha [DM 67746 a, b]; a 3-ft double refractor made by Dollond, London [DM 67747]; a 10-ft refractor mady by Dollond, London, 1796; a 2-ft comet seeker made by Baumann & Kinzelbach, Stuttgart [DM 67755]. By analyzing the instrumentation, we can see around 1800 a change in the kind of the instruments on one hand from quadrants and sextants to the vertical circle and on the other hand from the

  2. LIGO Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) is an ambitious basic physics experiment that is attempting to directly measure gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. As part of its mission, LIGO engages in a number of education and outreach projects to teachers, students, and the general public. I will discuss some of these programs, including the exhibit for the World Science Festival in New York, the Science Education Center at the LIGO Livingston Louisiana Observatory, laboratory tours at the LIGO MIT laboratory in Cambridge, and the screensaver data analysis program Einstein@Home.

  3. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  4. Lessons Learned From 104 Years of Mobile Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Clark, P. D.; Neiswender, C.; Raymond, L.; Rioux, M.; Norton, C.; Detrick, R.; Helly, J.; Sutton, D.; Weatherford, J.

    2007-12-01

    As the oceanographic community ventures into a new era of integrated observatories, it may be helpful to look back on the era of "mobile observatories" to see what Cyberinfrastructure lessons might be learned. For example, SIO has been operating research vessels for 104 years, supporting a wide range of disciplines: marine geology and geophysics, physical oceanography, geochemistry, biology, seismology, ecology, fisheries, and acoustics. In the last 6 years progress has been made with diverse data types, formats and media, resulting in a fully-searchable online SIOExplorer Digital Library of more than 800 cruises (http://SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu). Public access to SIOExplorer is considerable, with 795,351 files (206 GB) downloaded last year. During the last 3 years the efforts have been extended to WHOI, with a "Multi-Institution Testbed for Scalable Digital Archiving" funded by the Library of Congress and NSF (IIS 0455998). The project has created a prototype digital library of data from both institutions, including cruises, Alvin submersible dives, and ROVs. In the process, the team encountered technical and cultural issues that will be facing the observatory community in the near future. Technological Lessons Learned: Shipboard data from multiple institutions are extraordinarily diverse, and provide a good training ground for observatories. Data are gathered from a wide range of authorities, laboratories, servers and media, with little documentation. Conflicting versions exist, generated by alternative processes. Domain- and institution-specific issues were addressed during initial staging. Data files were categorized and metadata harvested with automated procedures. With our second-generation approach to staging, we achieve higher levels of automation with greater use of controlled vocabularies. Database and XML- based procedures deal with the diversity of raw metadata values and map them to agreed-upon standard values, in collaboration with the Marine Metadata

  5. Edward Singleton Holden (1846-1914): His career at the U. S. Naval Observatory from 1873 to 1881

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Singleton Holden (1846-1914) held many positions during his career, including: astronomer at the U. S. Naval Observatory, Director of Washburn Observatory, President of the University of California, Director of Lick Observatory, and finally, Librarian at West Point. This presentation covers his tenure at the Naval Observatory. Educated at Washington University under Chauvenet, he went on to further study at West Point, graduating 3rd in his class in 1870. He resigned his commission in the Army in 1873 to become an astronomer at the Naval Observatory. He first assisted William Harkness on the transit circle and then Simon Newcomb took an interest in him and became an early mentor. When the 26-inch Clark refractor was completed in 1873, Holden was assigned to assist Newcomb. In 1875 Asaph Hall took over the 26-inch and Holden continued in this position. One of Holden's major accomplishments at the Observatory was the publication of the Monograph of the central parts of the nebula of Orion in 1882. He meticulously gathered all images of the central part of the nebula known at that time, beginning with a drawing by Huygens in 1656. These images, which were later used in the published volume, are mounted in a manuscript book held in the Observatory Library. Holden thought the relative brightness of certain parts of the nebula changed over time and tried to verify this theory. However, in 1882, his friend Henry Draper took a photographic image of the nebula with an exposure of 137 minutes which Holden readily accepted and included in the monograph. He immediately realized that photography was the tool of the future and would give a reliable, permanent record that later did indeed prove his theory was incorrect. Holden's work in the libraries of the Naval Observatory and West Point will also be discussed.

  6. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy

  7. Publicity and public relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  8. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Sibeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  9. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and its role in hydrologic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D.; Helly, J. J.; Graham, W.; Kruger, A.; Kumar, P.; Lakshmi, V.; Lettenmaier, D.; Zheng, C.; Lall, U.; Piasecki, M.; Duffy, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Hydrologic Information System component of CUAHSI focuses on building a hydrologic information system to support the advancement of hydrologic science. This system is intended to help with rapidly acquiring diverse geospatial and temporal hydrologic datasets, integrating them into a hydrologic data model or framework describing a region, and supporting analysis, modeling and visualization of the movement of water and the transport of constituents through that region. In addition, the system will feature interfaces for advanced technologies like knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and also provide a comprehensive metadata description including a hydrologic ontology (HOW) for integration with the Semantic Web. The prototype region is the Neuse river basin in North Carolina. A "digital watershed" is to be built for this basin to help formulate and test the hydrologic data model at a range of spatial scales, from the scale of the whole basin down to the scale of individual experimental sites. This data model will be further developed and refined as additional hydrologic observatories are selected by CUAHSI. This will result in a consistent means for the characterization and comparison of processes in different geographic regions of the nation using a common data framework. The HIS will also provide a generalized digital library capability to manage collections of thematically-organized data from primary sources as well as derived analytical results in the form of data publications. The HIS will be designed from the beginning as an open federation of observatory-based collections that are interoperable with other data and digital library systems. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project involves collaboration among several CUAHSI member institutions, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center serving as the technology partner to facilitate the development of a prototype system.

  11. The Environmental Virtual Observatory: A New Vision for Catchment Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, R.; Emmett, B.; McDonald, A.; Blair, G.; Buytaert, W.; Freer, J. E.; Haygarth, P.; Rees, G.; Tetzlaff, D.; EVO Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Environmental scientists need to make predictions that are increasingly cross-disciplinary, bringing together observations and models in both physical and biological systems, and visualising the results. Observations can be from multiple platforms, and there are often many competing models that could be used. At the same time, catchment managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to ensure a wide range of ecosystem and hydrological services are delivered from increasingly constrained budgets whilst complying with a range of regulation requirements. There is also a greater requirement for transparency and access to data and making regulatory decision making processes visible to the public. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to explore new tools and approaches to support these challenges. The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: - Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of scientists and potential users including for public good applications; - Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data to give greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and to visualisation of the results; - Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. The EVO will exploit cloud computing to give a shared working space for data, models and analysis tools; in this two year pilot project we will develop five local and national exemplars to demonstrate and test the opportunities and constraints from such an approach. The question-based exemplars being developed are focused on (i) management options for flooding and diffuse pollution at local and national scales, (ii) approaches for transferring hydrological models for both flooding and drought from data rich to data poor areas and (iii) defining the uncertainty bounds of

  12. Implementing an Education and Outreach Program for the Gemini Observatory in Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    Beginning in 2001, the Gemini Observatory began the development of an innovative and aggressive education and outreach program at its Southern Hemisphere site in northern Chile. A principal focus of this effort is centered on local education and outreach to communities surrounding the observatory and its base facility in La Serena Chile. Programs are now established with local schools using two portable StarLab planetaria, an internet-based teacher exchange called StarTeachers and multiple partnerships with local educational institutions. Other elements include a CD-ROM-based virtual tour that allows students, teachers and the public to experience the observatory's sites in Chile and Hawaii. This virtual environment allows interaction using a variety of immersive scenarios such as a simulated observation using real data from Gemini. Pilot projects like "Live from Gemini" are currently being developed which use internet videoconferencing technologies to bring the observatory's facilities into classrooms at universities and remote institutions. Lessons learned from the implementation of these and other programs will be introduced and the challenges of developing educational programming in a developing country will be shared.

  13. The Virtual Space Physics Observatory: Quick Access to Data and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Carl; Roberts, D. Aaron; McGuire, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO; see http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov) has grown to provide a way to find and access about 375 data products and services from over 100 spacecraft/observatories in space and solar physics. The datasets are mainly chosen to be the most requested, and include most of the publicly available data products from operating NASA Heliophysics spacecraft as well as from solar observatories measuring across the frequency spectrum. Service links include a "quick orbits" page that uses SSCWeb Web Services to provide a rapid answer to questions such as "What spacecraft were in orbit in July 1992?" and "Where were Geotail, Cluster, and Polar on 2 June 2001?" These queries are linked back to the data search page. The VSPO interface provides many ways of looking for data based on terms used in a registry of resources using the SPASE Data Model that will be the standard for Heliophysics Virtual Observatories. VSPO itself is accessible via an API that allows other applications to use it as a Web Service; this has been implemented in one instance using the ViSBARD visualization program. The VSPO will become part of the Space Physics Data Facility, and will continue to expand its access to data. A challenge for all VOs will be to provide uniform access to data at the variable level, and we will be addressing this question in a number of ways.

  14. Digital Data Preservation and Curation: A Collaboration Among Libraries, Publishers, and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Steffen, J.; Choudhury, S.; Dilauro, T.; Szalay, A.; Vishniac, E.; Ehling, T.; Milkey, R.; Plante, R.

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers are producing and analyzing data at ever more prodigious rates. NASA's Great Observatories, ground-based national observatories, and major survey projects have archive and data distribution systems in place to manage their standard data products, and these are now interlinked through the protocols and metadata standards agreed upon in the Virtual Observatory. However, the digital data associated with peer-reviewed publications is only rarely archived. Most often, astronomers publish graphical representations of their data but not the data themselves. Other astronomers cannot readily inspect the data to either confirm the interpretation presented in a paper or extend the analysis. Highly processed data sets reside on departmental servers and the personal computers of astronomers, and may or may not be available a few years hence. We are investigating ways to preserve and curate the digital data associated with peer-reviewed journals in astronomy. The technology and standards of the VO provide one component of the necessary technology. A variety of underlying systems can be used to physically host a data repository, and indeed this repository need not be centralized. The repository, however, must be managed and data must be documented through high quality, curated metadata. Multiple access portals must be available: the original journal, the host data center, the Virtual Observatory, or any number of topically-oriented data services utilizing VO-standard access mechanisms.

  15. The Virtual Watershed Observatory: Cyberinfrastructure for Model-Data Integration and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, C.; Leonard, L. N.; Giles, L.; Bhatt, G.; Yu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Virtual Watershed Observatory (VWO) is a concept where scientists, water managers, educators and the general public can create a virtual observatory from integrated hydrologic model results, national databases and historical or real-time observations via web services. In this paper, we propose a prototype for automated and virtualized web services software using national data products for climate reanalysis, soils, geology, terrain and land cover. The VWO has the broad purpose of making accessible water resource simulations, real-time data assimilation, calibration and archival at the scale of HUC 12 watersheds (Hydrologic Unit Code) anywhere in the continental US. Our prototype for model-data integration focuses on creating tools for fast data storage from selected national databases, as well as the computational resources necessary for a dynamic, distributed watershed simulation. The paper will describe cyberinfrastructure tools and workflow that attempts to resolve the problem of model-data accessibility and scalability such that individuals, research teams, managers and educators can create a WVO in a desired context. Examples are given for the NSF-funded Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory and the European Critical Zone Observatories within the SoilTrEC project. In the future implementation of WVO services will benefit from the development of a cloud cyber infrastructure as the prototype evolves to data and model intensive computation for continental scale water resource predictions.

  16. The European Cancer Observatory: A new data resource.

    PubMed

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; O'Callaghan, Mark; Ferlay, Jacques; Masuyer, Eric; Rosso, Stefano; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie; Comber, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Population-based cancer registries provide indispensable information on cancer incidence and survival, which cannot be obtained by any other means. It is clear that complete and effective use of these data is essential for cancer control, but sharing this information in a uniform, timely and user-friendly manner has been somewhat limited up to now. The European Cancer Observatory (ECO, http://eco.iarc.fr) has been developed in the framework of the EUROCOURSE project (EUROpe against Cancer: Optimisation of Use of Registries for Scientific Excellence in Research) as a comprehensive resource combining all the information currently available in Europe on cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence. The website provides analytical and presentation tools to examine national estimates for 2012 in 40 European countries (EUCAN), data for 130 national or sub-national areas covered by cancer registries for up to 60 years, until 2011 (EUREG) and a planned mechanism for data download (European Cancer Incidence and Mortality (EUROCIM)). The generated statistics outline the considerable variability across Europe in the rates of all major cancer types and help identify key concerns that need to be addressed by public health policies e.g. the unprecedented rise of lung cancer incidence in women with its full impact expected within a decade or so. The support, maintenance and further development of the ECO website should be a high priority for European cancer policymakers, to continue providing this unique information to health professionals, researchers and the general public in Europe and beyond.

  17. Semantically-enabled Knowledge Discovery in the Deep Carbon Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a decadal effort aimed at transforming scientific and public understanding of carbon in the complex deep earth system from the perspectives of Deep Energy, Deep Life, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, and Reservoirs and Fluxes. Over the course of the decade DCO scientific activities will generate a massive volume of data across a variety of disciplines, presenting significant challenges in terms of data integration, management, analysis and visualization, and ultimately limiting the ability of scientists across disciplines to make insights and unlock new knowledge. The DCO Data Science Team (DCO-DS) is applying Semantic Web methodologies to construct a knowledge representation focused on the DCO Earth science disciplines, and use it together with other technologies (e.g. natural language processing and data mining) to create a more expressive representation of the distributed corpus of DCO artifacts including datasets, metadata, instruments, sensors, platforms, deployments, researchers, organizations, funding agencies, grants and various awards. The embodiment of this knowledge representation is the DCO Data Science Infrastructure, in which unique entities within the DCO domain and the relations between them are recognized and explicitly identified. The DCO-DS Infrastructure will serve as a platform for more efficient and reliable searching, discovery, access, and publication of information and knowledge for the DCO scientific community and beyond.

  18. IYA Outreach Plans for Appalachian State University's Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Pollock, J. T.; Saken, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Appalachian State University will provide a variety of observing opportunities for the public during the International Year of Astronomy. These will be focused at both the campus GoTo Telescope Facility used by Introductory Astronomy students and the research facilities at our Dark Sky Observatory. The campus facility is composed of a rooftop deck with a roll-off roof housing fifteen Celestron C11 telescopes. During astronomy lab class meetings these telescopes are used either in situ or remotely by computer control from the adjacent classroom. For the IYA we will host the public for regular observing sessions at these telescopes. The research facility features a 32-inch DFM Engineering telescope with its dome attached to the Cline Visitor Center. The Visitor Center is still under construction and we anticipate its completion for a spring opening during IYA. The CVC will provide areas for educational outreach displays and a view of the telescope control room. Visitors will view celestial objects directly at the eyepiece. We are grateful for the support of the National Science Foundation, through grant number DUE-0536287, which provided instrumentation for the GoTO facility, and to J. Donald Cline for support of the Visitor Center.

  19. Geochemical Arrays at Woolsey Mound Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeper, K.; Wilson, R. M.; Chanton, J.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Camilli, R.; Martens, C. S.; Pontbriand, C.

    2011-12-01

    A suite of geochemical monitoring arrays has been developed for the Woolsey Mound Seafloor Observatory in the northern Gulf of Mexico to evaluate the oceanographic and tectonic forcing factors on the formation and stability of gas hydrates. These arrays are designed to collect sustained, time-series data of chemical concentrations, gradients and fluxes from the subsurface to the seafloor and into the near bottom water column. A Pore Fluid Array provides time-series measurements of methane, sulfate and salinity in subsurface pore waters to evaluate microbial activity, hydrate formation and/or hydrate dissociation. A Chimney Sampler Array collects in situ chemical and physical readings at the benthic boundary. The array is designed around a vertical cylinder with a known volume and washout rate for measuring chemical gradients and flux at the seafloor. The Benthic Boundary Layer Array extends into the water column with a package of sensors in a node close to the seafloor and a similar node 20 m above the seafloor to evaluate upward, downward and transversely advecting fluids. The three arrays can be used in concert to evaluate a release of methane by the dissociation of gas hydrates: the Pore Fluid Array identifies the breakdown of gas hydrates in the subsurface, the Chimney Array determines the rate of flux at the seafloor and the Benthic Boundary Layer Array evaluates the fate of the release in the water column. Combining the data from the geochemical arrays with output from the geophysical arrays provides key information to evaluate the specific and relative importance of tectonic and oceanographic triggers for hydrate dissociation. New probes and deployment platforms have been developed for the installation and maintenance of the arrays and new systems are in place and under development for the recovery of the data. Generally, the complete array or its components have to be recovered to download the data. However, this summer 2011, a new optic modem system was

  20. 110th Anniversary of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Y.

    2012-09-01

    The Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory (EAO) was founded in September 21, 1901. The history of creation of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory was begun in 1897 with transfer a complimentary to the Kazan University of the unique astronomical equipment of the private observatory in Dresden by known astronomer Vasily Pavlovichem Engelgardt. Having stopped astronomical activity owing to advanced years and illnesses Engelgardt has decided to offer all tools and library of the Astronomical observatory of the Kazan University. Vasily Pavlovich has put the first condition of the donation that his tools have been established as soon as possible and on them supervision are started. In 1898 the decree of Emperor had been allocated means and the ground for construction of the Astronomical observatory is allocated. There is the main historical telescope of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory the 12-inch refractor which was constructed by English master Grubbom in 1875. The unique tool of the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is unique in the world now a working telescope heliometer. It's one of the first heliometers, left workshops Repsolda. It has been made in 1874 and established in Engelgardt observatory in 1908 in especially for him the constructed round pavilion in diameter of 3.6 m. Today the Engelhard Astronomical Observatory is the only thing scientifically - educational and cultural - the cognitive astronomical center, located on territory from Moscow up to the most east border of Russia. Currently, the observatory is preparing to enter the protected UNESCO World Heritage List.

  1. SNOWS: Sierra Nevada Observatory weather system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costillo, Luis P.; Ibáñez, J. Miguel; Aparicio, Beatriz; García, Antonio J.

    2006-06-01

    The Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN) is located at an altitude of 2800m at the Loma de Dilar in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, in the province of Granada, Spain. It is operated and maintained by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC) and contains two Nasmyth telescopes with apertures of 1.5 and 0.9m and an Altazimuth telescope with an aperture of 0.6 m. Given that the quality of the images and, indeed, the performance of the instruments are influenced by weather conditions, it would appear that the existence of a weather station capable of producing accurate descriptions is an essential component of any observatory. This is particularly true, however, in our case where, given the altitude, weather conditions at certain times of the year are especially harsh. For this reason, our observatory has required the installation of a robust weather station with easily replaceable sensors which can provide accurate and reliable measures of wind, temperature and humidity. At the same time, in order to avoid a complex topology of unmanageably long wires due to the distribution of a large number of sensors around the buildings, domes telescope mirrors and instruments, it has been necessary to implement a distributed system with several independent nodes connected to a CAN bus. This system is now in operation and running automatically at the OSN and provides all the data from sensors to the observatory control systems and to internet users. This paper gives a detailed description of the SNOWS project, including the development of the weather station, the software and hardware architecture, and the use of distributed nodes with a linear serial bus. The paper also provides some results regarding the wind, temperature and humidity sensors employed at the OSN.

  2. Solar System Object Extraction for Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. G.; Duran, F. R.

    Astronomy archives cover at different wavelengths all possible types of astronomical sources, including many dedicated and also serendipitous observations of solar system objects (SSO). It is difficult to handle SSOs in a ``typical'' archive way due to their apparent movement in the sky, ranging from a fraction of an arcsec/hour for Trans-Neptunian objects up to a few degrees for Near-Earth objects, and their enormous brightness change. To locate known SSOs in astronomical images, one needs to calculate highly accurate observatory-centric ephemeris for the image epochs. In crowed fields also rough brightness estimates are required for SSO identifications. The current data base includes, additionally to the planets and their satellites, about 200 comets and more than 100 000 asteroids. These constraints usually limit search procedures either to a small number of objects or to only a few frames. We present a possible solution to handle SSOs with known orbits in a systematic way for large numbers of sky frames. Our first attempts consisted in cross correlating about 5 Million 3'×3' sky fields, taken by the Infrared Space Observatory, against the data base of SSOs. The final source identification was based on reliable N-body ephemeris calculations and infrared brightness estimates. We aimed for the following goals: (1) ``Cleaning'' of stellar, galactic and extragalactic catalogue lists from SSOs; (2) Identifying serendipitously seen well-known SSOs for calibration purposes; (3) Extracting asteroids and comets for further scientific investigations; We believe that our experience in solving these problems might also be helpful for future developements of ``Virtual Observatories''.

  3. Formaldehyde and hydroperoxides at Mauna Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Heikes, B.G. )

    1992-11-20

    Hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and a measure of organic hydroperoxides are presented from the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). MLOPEX was conducted from May 1 to June 4, 1988, at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of Hawaii. A modified dual-enzyme serial-coil H[sub 2]O[sub 2]/ROOH method was used to quantify these species. A second enzyme method was used to measure CH[sub 2]O. The location and meteorology at the Mauna Loa Observatory site permitted 35 days of measurements to be made in free tropospheric air and in modified marine boundary layer air. Average concentrations of H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O were 1050, 140, and 100 pptv in free tropospheric, or down-slope air. In upslope air, or modified marine boundary layer air, average concentrations were 900, 150, and 190 pptv. Maximum concentrations for all three species were experienced during a two day photochemical haze episode and were 3230, 440, and 450 pptv for H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O. H[sub 2]O[sub 2] was depleted in air which had recently been processed by cloud or precipitation. The measured concentrations of these three species were comparable to prior measurements in well- aged air, but were lower than previous models have predicted. Part of this discrepancy may be due to the treatment of heterogeneous removal processes, dry and wet deposition, in these models. The measured ratio of ROOH to H[sub 2]O[sub 2] is significantly different than present theory predicts, with ROOH as measured being approximately a factor of 5 too low. 61 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The First 50 Years of Konkoly Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Lajos G.; Vargha, Magda; Zsoldos, Endre

    The second half of the 19th century experienced a revolution in astronomy. It coincided with a new start of professional astronomy in Hungary through the work of Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916) who is considered as a pioneer of current astrophysical activity in our country. He played an outstanding role in organizing scientific life and institutions, too. He started observations in his newly founded Observatory at Ógyalla in 1871. Sunspots were regularly observed in the observatory from 1872. In 1874 Konkoly began regular spectroscopic observations of comets and emphasized the importance of parallel laboratory works. An important field of Konkoly's astronomical activity was the observation of surface patterns of planets, particularly that of Jupiter and Mars. Spectroscopic observations of stars were also a significant part of the activity of Ógyalla Observatory. In the last period of the Konkoly era (starting in 1899) stellar photometry became the main field of research. At the end of WW I the institute was moved to Budapest Ógyalla and started a new life based on a completely new infrastructure: “... all era are followed by a new one, with its new tasks, in which the scope of activity changes correspondingly, in which enthusiasm is mostly manifested. It was different in the forties when our nation found itself following the word of the founder of our Academy, it was different in the fifties and sixties when we have to defend our nation against foreign aggression, and it became different since the sixties when, our existence being guarantied, we also have to make an effort, beside strengthening it, to get as distinguished a position among the civilized nations as possible.”

  5. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  6. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  7. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary of a study on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) was presented. It was concluded that the overall costs of space systems could be reduced significantly by the development of a modular shuttle compatible standard spacecraft, and the use of that spacecraft with the Shuttle Transportation System. It was also demonstrated that the development of the standard spacecraft is feasible, desirable, and cost effective if applied to a series of missions. The ability to initially retrieve, refurbish, and reuse the spacecraft and its payload, and ultimately to perform in-orbit servicing, would result in significant cost savings. A number of specific conclusions and recommendations were also suggested.

  8. US Instrument Options for the SPICA Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Carter, Ruth; Benner, Steve; Rossetti, Dino; Leete, Stephen; Townsend, Jackie; Keer, Beth; Davis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    NASA has engaged in studying options for a US contribution to the Japanese-led Space II Astrophysics (SPICA). This cryogenic 3m-class telescope builds on the scientific and technological legacies of Akari and Hershel. The primary portion of a US contribution would be a far-infrared spectrometer, but with a sensitivity several hundred times greater than Herschel, opening up this wavelength range for study of emission lines from galaxies up to the highest redshifts. We describe efforts to formulate an approach that fits within project and programmatic constraints and fulfills the scientific promise of the SPICA observatory.

  9. Conceiving and marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-08-01

    In early 1984, the astronomical community’s plans to launch a series of powerful telescopes able to study celestial sources at almost any wavelength were in trouble. The President of the United States had just declared his priority for a Space Station that was bound to be expensive, and Congress could not understand why yet another set of space observatories was needed when others were already being funded. To realize their aims, astronomers would have to advocate their needs much more effectively than in the past.

  10. Calibration of the AXAF Observatory: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; ODell, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will soon begin its exploration of the x-ray universe, providing unprecedented angular and spectral resolution. Also unprecedented is the ambitious goal of calibrating the AXAF observatory to an accuracy of a few percent. Toward this end, AXAF science and engineering teams undertook an extensive calibration program at component, subsystem, and system levels. This paper is an overview of the system-level calibration activities, conducted over the past year at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF).

  11. Photographic Leonids 1998 Observed at Modra Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Juraj; Kornoš, Leonard; Porubčan, Vladimir

    Results of photographic observations of the 1998 Leonids performed at Modra Observatory (Slovakia) are presented and discussed. During an exposure time of 7 hr 14 min on November 16/17 a total of 168 meteors were recorded. Photographic rates of bright Leonid meteors as well as their magnitude distribution are presented and compared with the results obtained by other techniques. The photographic 1998 Leonids exhibit a maximum at the solar longitude 234.52°, Equinox 2000.0 (Nov. 17, 01:40 UT).

  12. Introduction to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, M. F.; Sibille, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an astronomical satellite, which will operate at infrared wavelengths (2.5 to 200 microns) for a period of at least 18 months. Imaging, spectroscopic, photometric and polarimetric observations will be obtained by four scientific instruments in the focal plane of its 60-cm diameter, cryogenically-cooled telescope. Two-thirds of ISO's observing time will be available to the astronomical community. ISO is a fully approved and funded project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with a foreseen launch date of May 1993.

  13. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Principles and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskij, V.; Dluznevskaja, O.; Malkov, O.; Piskunov, A.

    As the basis for creation of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), we consider consolidating all the available information in observational archives, data centers, and telescopes. The process of the execution of scientific research has to be regarded as a whole, from task production, to getting necessary information, and obtaining scientific results. For realization of the project, we intend to develop the next components: the Internet portal as a main RVO access point and a management system --- the information hub of CAD INASAN, and a system for remote access to information and technical resources of telescopes.

  14. European X-ray observatory satellite (Exosat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Initially planned to be launched on the Ariane L6, the 510 kilogram European X-Ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) is to be placed into orbit from Space Launch Complex 2 West by NASA's Delta 3914 launch vehicle. Objectives of the mission are to study the precise position, structure, and temporal and spectral characteristics of known X-ray sources as well as search for new sources. The spacecraft is described as well as its payload, principal subsystems, and the stages of the Delta 3914. The flight sequence of events, land launch operations are discussed. The ESA management structure for EXOSAT, the NASA/industry team, and contractors are listed.

  15. Artist's Concept of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Artist's concept of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. The mission, scheduled to launch in early 2009, will be the first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide, the principal human-produced driver of climate change. It will provide the first global picture of the human and natural sources of carbon dioxide and the places where this important greenhouse gas is stored. Such information will improve global carbon cycle models as well as forecasts of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and of how our climate may change in the future.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  17. Flowfield simulation about the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.; Van Dalsem, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been applied to Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) configurations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two-dimensions for free shear layers and a rectangular cavity, and in three-dimensions for simplified SOFIA geometries. Dominant acoustic behaviour of the cavity flows compare well with experiment. The sensitivity of the solutions to changes in grid cell size and artificial dissipation levels are shown. Furthermore, optical path distortion due to the flow field is modelled using geometrical constructs. The results demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the present computational methods for this class unsteady applications.

  18. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  19. Ckoirama, the first Chilean--state owned observatory under desert skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, F.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Colque, J.; Fossey, S.; Rocchetto, M.

    2016-08-01

    The following work wants to introduce Ckoirama, the first public professional observatory of Chile, under the clear skies of the Atacama desert. Operated by the Unidad de Astronomia of the Universidad de Antofagasta, it was conceived to perform scientific operations, through its main 0.6 m telescope, but it will also be open for educational purposes, communicating astronomy to the public through a secondary 0.35 m telescope. Ckoirama will not only be an opportunity to make autonomous observations; this is also an important message to the astronomical community, because this is the first step toward a highlighted presence of Chile and a new commitment to invest in the astronomical research.

  20. Tracking Publications Based on Telescope Sharing Among Gemini, Subaru, and Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Tsang, E.; Kamisato, P.

    2012-08-01

    Gemini Observatory, Subaru Telescope and Keck Observatory operate five 8-10 meters telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaii and Cerro Pachon in Chile. To expand the range of backend instruments available to each observatory, the three institutions began an exchange program in 2005, whereby each observatory provides a fraction of its telescope time to users of the other two observatories in exchange for telescope time on these telescopes for its own user community. Publications resulted from such collaborations would be a good measure of the success of the program. However, identifying these publications can be a challenge as explicit acknowledgement of the exchange programs are often lacking in some publications. We discuss procedures in identifying exchange publications and also perform bibliometric analysis with the resulting publications as a way to measure the productivity and impact of the exchange programs.

  1. OAdM robotic observatory: solutions for an unattended small-class observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Francisco, X.; Isern, J.; Palau, X.; Torra, J.

    2008-07-01

    The Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is a small-class observatory working on a completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is, then, mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by the confidence reached to respond to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. There are key problems to solve when a robotic control is envisaged. Learned lessons and solutions to these issues at the OAdM are discussed here. We present a description of the general control software (SW) and several SW packages developed. The general control SW specially protects the system at the identified single points of failure and makes a distributed control of any subsystem, which are able to respond independently when an alarm is triggered on thanks to a top-down control flow. Specific SW packages developed are: an environment monitoring SW, a set of alarm routines, a pipeline for calibration and analysis of the images taken, and an observation scheduler. All together compose a SW suite designed to reach the complete robotization of an observatory.

  2. Donald Menzel: His Founding and Funding of Solar Observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    2002-12-01

    In January 1961 Donald Menzel wrote to his cousin, M. H. Bruckman, "I am proudest of the observatories that I have built in the West." The first of those facilities, a solar observatory, was founded in 1940 in Colorado and later came to be known as the High Altitude Observatory. The second one, also a solar observatory, was founded a dozen years later at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico. The third facility, however, established at Fort Davis, Texas, was the Harvard Radio Astronomy Observatory. Although Menzel was primarily a theoretical astrophysicist, renowned for his studies of the solar chromosphere, he was also an entrepreneur who had a talent for developing observatories and coping with numerous setbacks in funding and staffing. Where many others would have failed, Menzel succeeded in mentoring colleagues and finding sources of financial support. This paper will draw primarily on letters and other materials in the Harvard University Archives.

  3. Mechanical Overview of the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a new collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2020. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. It combines elements from NASA's Constellation-X program and ESA's XEUS program. The observatory will have a 20-25 meter focal length, which necessitates the use of a deployable instrument module. Currently the project is actively trading configurations and layouts of the various instruments and spacecraft components. This paper will provide a snapshot of the latest observatory configuration under consideration and summarize the observatory from the mechanical engineering perspective.

  4. Influences of German science and scientists on Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Barry A. J.

    The multidisciplinary approach of Alexander von Humboldt in scientific studies of the natural world in the first half of the nineteenth century gained early and lasting acclaim. Later, given the broad scientific interests of colonial Victoria's first Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, one could expect to find some evidence of the Humboldtian approach in the operations of Williamstown Observatory and its successor, Melbourne Observatory. On examination, and without discounting the importance of other international scientific contributions, it appears that Melbourne Observatory was indeed substantially influenced from afar by Humboldt and other German scientists, and in person by Georg Neumayer in particular. Some of the ways in which these influences acted are obvious but others are less so. Like the other Australian state observatories, in its later years Melbourne Observatory had to concentrate its diminishing resources on positional astronomy and timekeeping. Along with Sydney Observatory, it has survived almost intact to become a heritage treasure, perpetuating appreciation of its formative influences.

  5. Intermagnet and the Global Community of Magnetic Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The world-wide array of magnetic observatories produces data useful for a variety of applications, including applications related to space weather. Many of these observatories, and all of those of the US Geological Survey, are operated according to standards established by the Intermagnet consortium. Intermagnet also plays an important role in assisting with the modernization of observatories, especially those in developing countries, so that needed standards can be met and so that the scientific community can be better served. Efforts continue to improve the network: the geographic distribution of the observatories is slowing being augmented, in Russia, China, and in the Southern Hemisphere, and the temporal resolution of the observatory data is being improved, with many programs now moving toward a one-second acquisition cadence. Practical issues of observatory operation are presented, including data acquisition, transportation, management, and dissemination.

  6. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  7. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  8. AUGO II: a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    A new geophysical observatory dedicated to the study of the aurora borealis will be built 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. It is anticipated to see first light in the winter of 2010/2011 and be fully operational in the fall of 2011. Based on the highly successful Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory (AUGO), opened in 2002 at the Athabasca University campus in Athabasca, Alberta, AUGO II will have expanded observational capacity featuring up to eight climate-controlled domed optical observation suites for instrumentation, on-site accommodation for up to six researchers, and most importantly, dark skies free of light pollution from urban development. AUGO II will share the same advantages as its predecessor, one being its location in central Alberta, allowing routine study of the subauroral zone, auroral oval studies during active times, and very rarely of the polar cap. Like the original AUGO, AUGO II will be in close proximity to major highways, be connected to a high bandwidth network, and be within two hour driving distance to the city of Edmonton and its international airport. Opportunities are open for guest researchers in space physics to conduct auroral studies at this new, state-of-the-art research facility through the installation of remotely controlled instruments and/or campaigns. An innovative program of instrument development will accompany the new observatory’s enhanced infrastructure with a focus on magnetics and H-beta meridian scanning photometry.

  9. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  10. Solar Two Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümer, T.; Bhattacharya, D.; Mohideen, U.; Rieben, R.; Souchkov, V.; Tom, H.; Zweerink, J.

    1999-06-01

    The field of high energy gamma-ray astronomy grew tremendously in the last decade due to the launch of the EGRET detector on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991 and the proliferation of ground-based air Čherenkov telescopes (ACTs) such as the Whipple 10 meter reflector. Interestingly, the ground-based telescopes only see 4-5 of the over 170 objects detected by EGRET. A simple extrapolation of the EGRET objects' energy spectra up to the energies which the ACTs are sensitive suggests that many of them should have been detected. The key to resolving this lack of detections is to observe these sources in the previously unobserved 20-250 GeV energy range. The Solar Two Observatory collaboration is developing a secondary optics system on the central tower of the world's largest solar energy pilot plant, Solar Two, to observe gamma-ray sources in this energy range. The progress in building the secondary optics system to be used to image ˜64 heliostats at Solar Two located in Barstow, California, is presented. We hope to design and build this detector over the next 2 years.

  11. [The observatory of rare malignant gynecologic tumors].

    PubMed

    Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile

    2014-02-01

    The observatory of gynecological rare tumors (TMRG) has been initially created for ovarian rare neoplasms (TMRO). Because of the similarities between ovarian and other gynecological tumors, this observatory has been then extended to all gynecological rare tumors. The recognition by INCa of three national expert centers (centre Léon-Bérard, hôpitaux de Paris, institut Gustave-Roussy) in rare gynecological cancers and a network of regional expert centers in 2010, expend the experience of the website "Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire". The major goals of this gynecology rare tumors experts network, are to promote systematic second opinion for initial diagnostic by experts in gynecopathology, systematic multidisciplinary advice by surgeons and medical oncologist experts, to disseminate clinical guidelines dedicated to rare gynecological tumors, to promote specific fundamental and translational research within clinical trials dedicated to rare tumors. At the end, we would like to improve benefit in term of survival and/or fertility for all these potential young patients.

  12. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  13. Calibration of X-Ray Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; L'Dell, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate calibration of x-ray observatories has proved an elusive goal. Inaccuracies and inconsistencies amongst on-ground measurements, differences between on-ground and in-space performance, in-space performance changes, and the absence of cosmic calibration standards whose physics we truly understand have precluded absolute calibration better than several percent and relative spectral calibration better than a few percent. The philosophy "the model is the calibration" relies upon a complete high-fidelity model of performance and an accurate verification and calibration of this model. As high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy begins to play a more important role in astrophysics, additional issues in accurately calibrating at high spectral resolution become more evident. Here we review the challenges of accurately calibrating the absolute and relative response of x-ray observatories. On-ground x-ray testing by itself is unlikely to achieve a high-accuracy calibration of in-space performance, especially when the performance changes with time. Nonetheless, it remains an essential tool in verifying functionality and in characterizing and verifying the performance model. In the absence of verified cosmic calibration sources, we also discuss the notion of an artificial, in-space x-ray calibration standard. 6th

  14. High Altitude Observatory YBJ and ARGO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; ARGO Collaboration

    A 5800 m2 RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) full coverage air shower array is under construction in the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory, Tibet of China, by the ChinaItaly ARGO Collaboration. YBJ is a large flat grassland with an area 10 × 70 km2 at 4300m altitude, about 90 north west from Lhasa. Its nearby power station, asphalt road to Lhasa, passing railway (will be constructed during the coming 5 years), optical fiber link to the INTERNET, rare snow and other favourable weather conditions are well suitable for setting an Astrophysical Observatory here. The installation of a large area carpet-like detector in this peculiar site will allow one to perform an all-sky and high duty cycle study of high energy gamma rays from 100GeV to 50 TeV as well as accurate measurements on UHE cosmic rays. To insure the stable and uniform working condition of RPCs, a 104 M2 carpet hall was constructed, the RPC installation have be started in it since last November. The natural distribution and daily variation of temperature in the hall, the data concerning the performances of the installed RPCs, have been measured, the results are presented. ce

  15. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  16. Popularization of Astronomy Through Robotic Telescopes and Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, J.; Tomic, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Robotic telescopes and virtual observatories have great impact on popularization of astronomy. In this paper we will present several web services and observatories that allow remote control over their equipment, which have great contribution in astronomy promotion. In addition, the first Serbian amateur robotic observatory will be presented (Night Hawk, Bačka Palanka). Finally, an economic review of this concept is done to consider its attainability to the general audience.

  17. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories II: Red Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Bór, J.; Setvák, M.

    2016-03-01

    A rare atmospheric phenomenon, known as red sprites, was observed and captured on camera from the La Silla Observatory. This event signalled the first time that these extremely short-lived flashes of red light, originating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, were photographed from a major astronomical observatory. Further images of red sprites from the La Silla Paranal Observatory sites are presented and the nature of red sprites is discussed.

  18. The Operation and Architecture of the Keck Observatory Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Gelino, C. R.; Laity, A.; Kong, M.; Swain, M.; Holt, J.; Goodrich, R.; Mader, J.; Tran, H. D.

    2014-05-01

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) are collaborating to build an archive for the twin 10-m Keck Telescopes, located near the summit of Mauna Kea. The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) takes advantage of IPAC's long experience with managing and archiving large and complex data sets from active missions and serving them to the community; and of the Observatory's knowledge of the operation of its sophisticated instrumentation and the organization of the data products. By the end of 2013, KOA will contain data from all eight active observatory instruments, with an anticipated volume of 28 TB. The data include raw science and observations, quick look products, weather information, and, for some instruments, reduced and calibrated products. The goal of including data from all instruments is the cumulation of a rapid expansion of the archive's holdings, and already data from four new instruments have been added since October 2012. One more active instrument, the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS, is scheduled for ingestion in December 2013. After preparation for ingestion into the archive, the data are transmitted electronically from WMKO to IPAC for curation in the physical archive. This process includes validation of the science and content of the data and verification that data were not corrupted in transmission. The archived data include both newly-acquired observations and all previously acquired observations. The older data extends back to the date of instrument commissioning; for some instruments, such as HIRES, these data can extend as far back as 1994. KOA will continue to ingest all newly obtained observations, at an anticipated volume of 4 TB per year, and plans to ingest data from two decommissioned instruments. Access to these data is governed by a data use policy that guarantees Principal Investigators (PI) exclusive access to their data for at least 18 months, and allows for extensions as granted by

  19. The Cornell Astronomical Society: The Student Experience of Running an Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Michael; Blackburn, B.; Fredricks, J.; Garcia, K.; Poniatowski, A.; Schindler, K.; Wilk, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Cornell Astronomical Society is an undergraduate student-run organization that operates Cornell’s on-campus Fuertes Observatory with the help of members of the astronomy department and local amateur astronomy volunteers. While some of our members study physics or astronomy, the majority of our club members represent a diverse spectrum of majors both inside and outside of other STEM fields. Our primary activity as a club is to host weekly public stargazing nights that are attended annually by over two thousand people in a city of Ithaca that has a population of only one hundred thousand. We train our members to use a variety of telescopes and to open and close the observatory with the ultimate goal of having any one of us able to operate Fuertes individually. We also teach stargazing-related astronomy knowledge and host a weekly public lecture series, in which CAS members give talks on basic, but interesting topics in astronomy. Our club effort has made Fuertes Observatory a true part of the Cornell experience.

  20. Summary of NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil; Feinberg, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories operating in all electromagnetic bands, from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It lists capability priorities derived from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.