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Sample records for ag al au

  1. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  2. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  3. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  4. Thermodynamic properties and equations of state for Ag, Al, Au, Cu and MgO using a lattice vibrational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2012-04-01

    A prerequisite for the determination of pressure in static high pressure measurements, such as in diamond anvil cells is the availability of accurate equations of state for reference materials. These materials serve as luminescence gauges or as X-ray gauges and equations of state for these materials serve as secondary pressure scales. Recently, successful progress has been made in the development of consistency between static, dynamic shock-wave and ultrasonic measurements of equations of state (e.g. Dewaele et al. Phys. Rev. B70, 094112, 2004, Dorogokupets and Oganov, Doklady Earth Sciences, 410, 1091-1095, 2006, Holzapfel, High Pressure Research 30, 372-394, 2010) allowing testing models to arrive at consistent thermodynamic descriptions for X-ray gauges. Apart from applications of metallic elements in high-pressure work, thermodynamic properties of metallic elements are also of mandatory interest in the field of metallurgy for studying phase equilibria of alloys, kinetics of phase transformation and diffusion related problems, requiring accurate thermodynamic properties in the low pressure regime. Our aim is to develop a thermodynamic data base for metallic alloy systems containing Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pt, from which volume properties in P-T space can be predicted when it is coupled to vibrational models. This mandates the description of metallic elements as a first step aiming not only at consistency in the pressure scales for the elements, but also at accurate representations of thermodynamic properties in the low pressure regime commonly addressed in metallurgical applications. In previous works (e.g. Jacobs and de Jong, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 3630-3655, 2007, Jacobs and van den Berg, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 186, 36-48, 2011) it was demonstrated that a lattice vibrational framework based on Kieffer's model for the vibrational density of states, is suitable to construct a thermodynamic database for Earth mantle materials. Such a database aims at

  5. Enhancement in the excitonic spontaneous emission rates for Si nanocrystal multi-layers covered with thin films of Au, Ag, and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Rozenfeld, N.; Arad-Vosk, N.; Ron, A.; Sa'ar, A.

    2015-10-01

    The enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate (SER) for Ag, Au, and Al films on multilayer Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) was probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). The SiNCs were grown on Si(100) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Electron-hole pairs were generated in the metal-covered SiNCs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures that are opaque to laser or light excitation. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved CL was used to measure the excitonic lifetime of the SiNCs in metal-covered and bare regions of the same samples. The observed enhancement in the SER for the metal-covered SiNCs, relative to the SER for the bare sample, is attributed to a coupling of the SiNC excitons with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the thin metal films. A maximum SER enhancement of ˜2.0, 1.4 and 1.2 was observed for the Ag, Au, and Al films, respectively, at a temperature of 55 K. The three chosen plasmonic metals of Ag, Au, and Al facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for metal films that exhibit varying differences between the surface plasmon energy, ωsp, and the SiNC excitonic emission energy. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, Fp, was performed and included the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the metals.

  6. Microstructure of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) epitaxial thin films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Akita, Yuta; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2007-05-01

    Epitaxial thin films of Co/X (X=Cu,Ag,Au) were prepared on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 degree sign C by UHV molecular beam epitaxy. A complicated microstructure was realized for the epitaxial thin films. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction observation has shown that X atoms of the buffer layer segregated to the surface during Co layer deposition, and it yielded a unique epitaxial granular structure. The structure consists of small Co grains buried in the X buffer layer, where both the magnetic small Co grains and the nonmagnetic X layer are epitaxially grown on the single crystal substrate. The structure varied depending on the X element and the substrate temperature. The crystal structure of Co grains is influenced by the buffer layer material and determined to be hcp and fcc structures for the buffer layer materials of Au and Cu, respectively.

  7. Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Tae; Yang, Qiguang; Kim, Wan-Joong; Heo, Jinhwa; Ma, Seong-Min; Austin, Jasmine; Yun, Wan Soo; Jung, Sung Soo; Han, Sang Woo; Tabibi, Bagher; Temple, Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Au nanoparticles exhibited both negative and positive nonlinear absorptions with ground-state plasmon bleaching and free-carrier absorption that could be origins of the saturable and reverse-saturable optical properties. Au/Ag coreshells displayed only positive nonlinear absorption and reverse-saturable optical properties as a function of excitation intensity at the edge of surface-plasmon resonance, which implies no ground-state plasmon bleaching and the existence of two-photon absorption.

  8. Structural and electronic properties of AB- and AA-stacking bilayer-graphene intercalated by Li, Na, Ca, B, Al, Si, Ge, Ag, and Au atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin; Çakmak, Mehmet; Ellialtıoğlu, Şinasi

    2016-04-01

    The structural and electronic properties of X (=Li, Na, Ca, B, Al, Si, Ge, Ag, and Au)-intercalated AB- and AA-stacking bilayer-graphene have been investigated by using ab initio density functional theory. It is shown that Boron (Lithium)-intercalated system is energetically more stable than the others for the AB (AA) stacking bilayer-graphene systems. The structural parameters, electronic band structures, and orbital nature of actual interactions are studied for the relaxed stable geometries. It is seen that the higher the binding energy, the smaller is the distance between the layers, in these systems. The electronic band structures for these systems show that different intercalated atoms can change the properties of bilayer-graphene differently. For qualitative description of the electronic properties, the metallicities of the systems are also calculated and compared with each other. The Mulliken analysis and electron density maps clearly indicate that the interactions inside a single layer (intralayer interactions) are strong and highly covalent, while the interactions between the two layers (interlayer interactions) are much weaker.

  9. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  10. Temperature dependence of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling in Ag, Au, and Al films on In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN quantum wells studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2015-01-28

    The optical properties and coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in Ag, Au, and Al-coated In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) were probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence. Excitons were generated in the metal coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films. The Purcell enhancement factor (F{sub p}) was obtained by direct measurement of changes in the temperature-dependent radiative lifetime caused by the SQW exciton-SPP coupling. Three chosen plasmonic metals of Al, Ag, and Au facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for energy ranges in which the SP energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the excitonic transition energy for the InGaN/GaN QW emitter. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, F{sub p}, included the effects of ohmic losses of the metals and changes in the dielectric properties due to the temperature dependence of (i) the intraband behavior in the Drude model and (ii) the interband critical point transition energies which involve the d-bands of Au and Ag. We show that an inclusion of both intraband and interband effects is essential when calculating the ω vs k SPP dispersion relation, plasmon density of states (DOS), and the dependence of F{sub p} on frequency and temperature. Moreover, the “back bending” in the SPP dispersion relation when including ohmic losses can cause a finite DOS above ω{sub sp} and lead to a measurable F{sub p} in a limited energy range above ω{sub sp}, which can potentially be exploited in plasmonic devices utilizing Ag and Au.

  11. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  12. Isomorphism and solid solutions among Ag- and Au-selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palyanova, Galina A.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Kokh, Konstantin A.; Bakakin, Vladimir V.

    2016-09-01

    Au-Ag selenides were synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances of initial compositions Ag2-xAuxSe with a step of x=0.25 (0≤x≤2) to 1050 °C and annealing at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to study synthesized samples. Results of studies of synthesized products revealed the existence of three solid solutions with limited isomorphism Ag↔Au: naumannite Ag2Se - Ag1.94Au0.06Se, fischesserite Ag3AuSe2 - Ag3.2Au0.8Se2 and gold selenide AuSe - Au0.94Ag0.06Se. Solid solutions and AgAuSe phases were added to the phase diagram of Ag-Au-Se system. Crystal-chemical interpretation of Ag-Au isomorphism in selenides was made on the basis of structural features of fischesserite, naumannite, and AuSe.

  13. Component conversion from pure Au nanorods to multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods assisted by Pt nanoframe templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seong Kyu; Park, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications.We developed a new method for synthesizing multiblock Ag-Au-Ag nanorods using Pt nanoframes that had been deposited on the edges of Au nanorod seeds. As a function of Au etching time, the length of the Au nanorod decreased symmetrically starting from the two ends, leading to the formation of empty inner space at the ends. Subsequent reduction of Ag ions could be selectively performed in the inner space confined by Pt nanoframes and the resulting Ag-Au-Ag nanorods exhibited characteristic LSPR modes originating from each block component (in a transverse direction) and SPR coupling (in a longitudinal direction). The high quality of the resulting multiblock nanorods enabled observation of the longitudinal quadrupole mode that was induced by Ag-Au SPR coupling in a long axis. The mode exhibited high sensitivity in accordance with the change in the surrounding media, demonstrating great potential for sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03484e

  14. DFT study of Hg adsorption on M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) and PdM/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) (M = Au, Ag, Cu) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Yu, Huafeng; Geng, Lu; Liu, Jianwen; Han, Lina; Chang, Liping; Feng, Gang; Ling, Lixia

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of Hgn (n = 1-3) on the Au-, Ag-, Cu-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces as well as the PdM/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) (M = Au, Ag, Cu) surfaces has been investigated using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. It is found that M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces show as good Hg adsorption capacity as the perfect Pd(1 1 1) at low Hg coverage, while the Hg adsorption capacity is only slightly weakened at high Hg coverage. On the basis of stepwise adsorption energies analysis, it is concluded that M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces can contribute to the binding of Hg atom on the surfaces at high Hg coverage. The electronic properties of the second metal atoms are the main factor contributes to the Hg adsorption capacity. Gas phase Pd2 shows better Hg adsorption capacity than Pd2/γ-Al2O3, while PdM/γ-Al2O3 can adsorb Hg more efficiently than bare PdM clusters. It suggests that the γ-Al2O3 support can enhance the activity of PdM for Hg adsorption and reduces the activity of Pd2. It is also found that Pd is the main active composition responsible for the interaction of mercury with the surface for PdM/γ-Al2O3 sorbent. Taking Hg adsorption capacity and economic costs into account, Cu addition is a comparatively good candidate for Hg capture.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods.

    PubMed

    Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K G; Unni, C; Nissamudeen, K M

    2008-09-01

    The formation mechanism and morphology of Au-Ag bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles depend on the composition. Ag coated Au colloidal nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Ag through chemical reduction on performed Au colloid. The composition of the Au100-x-Agx particles was varied from x=0 to 50. The obtained colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Au80-Ag20 colloid consists of alloy nanorods with dimension of 25nm x 100nm. The activity of these nanorods in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was checked by using sodium salicylate as an adsorbate probe. Intense SERS bands are observed indicating its usefulness as a SERS substrate in near infrared (NIR) laser excitation.

  16. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2009-07-01

    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. There is growing need to develop environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis process that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on extracellular synthesis method for the preparation of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles in water, using the extract of Volvariella volvacea, a naturally occurring edible mushroom, as reducing and protecting agents. Gold nanoparticles of different sizes (20-150 nm) and shapes from triangular nanoprisms to nearly spherical and hexagonal are obtained by this novel method. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles are also found to depend on temperature of the extract. The silver nanoparticles are spherical with size ˜15 nm. There is increased productivity of nanoparticles as shown by sharp and intense surface plasmon resonance bands for the nanoparticles prepared using an excess of the extract. The Au-Ag nanoparticles prepared by co-reduction has only one plasmon band due to alloying of the constituents. All the synthesized nanoparticles are found to be photoluminescent and are highly crystalline as shown by SAED and XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (1 1 1) plane. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. It is found that Au nanoparticles are bound to proteins through free amino groups and silver nanoparticles through the carboxylate group of the amino acid residues. The position and intensity of the emission band is found to depend on composition of the nanoparticles indicating the possible use in therapeutic applications.

  17. Optical properties and electronic structures of d- and f-electron metals and alloys, Ag-In, Ni-Cu, AuGa sub 2 , PtGa sub 2 ,. beta. prime -NiAl,. beta. prime -CoAl, CeSn sub 3 , and LaSn sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kwang Joo.

    1990-10-17

    Optical properties and electronic structures of disordered Ag{sub 1- x}In{sub x}(x = 0.0, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12) and Ni{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4) alloys and ordered AuGa{sub 2}, PtGa{sub 2}, {beta}{prime}-NiAl, {beta}{prime}-CoAl, CeSn{sub 3}, and LaSn{sub 3} have been studied. The complex dielectric functions have been determined for Ag{sub 1-x}In{sub x}, Ni{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}, AuGa{sub 2}, and PtGa{sub 2} in the 1.2--5.5 eV region and for CeSn{sub 3} and LaSn{sub 3} in the 1.5--4.5 eV region using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Self-consistent relativistic band calculations using the linearized-augmented-plane-wave method have been performed for AuGa{sub 2}, PtGa{sub 2}, {beta}{prime}-NiAl, {beta}{prime}-CoAl, CeSn{sub 3}, and LaSn{sub 3} to interpret the experimental optical spectra.

  18. Melting curve of metals Cu, Ag and Au under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Pham Dinh; Hoc, Nguyen Quang; Tinh, Bui Duc; Tan, Pham Duy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dependence of the melting temperature of metals Cu, Ag and Au under pressure in the interval from 0 kbar to 40 kbar is studied by the statistical moment method (SMM). This dependence has the form of near linearity and the calculated slopes of melting curve are 3.9 for Cu, 5.7 for Ag and 6 for Au. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. An Au/AgBr-Ag heterostructure plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced catalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2017-01-17

    This study reports an easy synthesis protocol of a novel bimetallic silver halide (Au/AgBr-Ag) plasmonic heterostructure as a visible light induced photocatalyst. In this process, first CTAB capped Au NPs were coated with AgBr, and then Ag nanoparticles were formed on the surface of AgBr by photoreduction, while exposing to daylight at room temperature. The presence of Au and Ag improves the visible absorption ability of NPs and avoids charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr during photoexcitation, which in turn enhances 16 and 8.9 fold the photocatalytic efficiency of Rhodamine B dye degradation under visible light irradiation compared to that of pure AgBr and AgBr/Ag, respectively. The recycling tests of the photocatalyst show only ∼8.7% decrease in efficiency after the 5(th) cycle of reuse without changing the morphology. During the photocatalytic process, active superoxide radicals (O2˙(-)) play a major role, proved through scavenger trapping and photoluminescence experiments. The presence of two plasmonic metals (Au and Ag) in the heterostructure helps to improve visible light absorption as well as avoid charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr to act as a better photocatalyst. Since this heteronanostructure can be easily synthesized by a one-step method, this study could provide a new approach for the development of efficient bimetallic/semiconductor halide plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible absorption and better charge separation.

  20. Au-Ag@Au Hollow Nanostructure with Enhanced Chemical Stability and Improved Photothermal Transduction Efficiency for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongtong; Song, Jiangluqi; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Xia, Ruixiang; Zhu, Lixin; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2015-10-07

    Despite the fact that Au-Ag hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have gained much attention as ablation agents for photothermal therapy, the instability of the Ag element limits their applications. Herein, excess Au atoms were deposited on the surface of a Au-Ag HNP by improving the reduction power of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and thereby preventing the reaction between HAuCl4 and the Ag element in the Au-Ag alloy nanostructure. Significantly, the obtained Au-Ag@Au HNPs show excellent chemical stability in an oxidative environment, together with remarkable increase in extinction peak intensity and obvious narrowing in peak width. Moreover, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) was used to simulate the optical properties and electric field distribution of HNPs. The calculated results show that the proportion of absorption cross section in total extinction cross section increases with the improvement of Au content in HNP. As predicted by the theoretical calculation results, Au-Ag@Au nanocages (NCs) exhibit a photothermal transduction efficiency (η) as high as 36.5% at 808 nm, which is higher than that of Au-Ag NCs (31.2%). Irradiated by 808 nm laser at power densities of 1 W/cm(2), MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with PEGylated Au-Ag@Au NCs were seriously destroyed. Combined together, Au-Ag@Au HNPs with enhanced chemical stability and improved photothermal transduction efficiency show superior competitiveness as photothermal agents.

  1. First-principles electronic structure of the delafossites ABO 2 (A=Cu, Ag, Au; B=Al, Ga, Sc, In, Y): evolution of d 10-d 10 interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Hem Chandra; Seshadri, Ram

    2002-08-01

    While bonding between d 10 atoms and ions in molecular systems has been well studied, less attention has been paid to interactions between such seemingly closed shell species in extended inorganic solids. In this contribution, we present visualizations of the electronic structures of the delafossites ABO 2 (A = Cu, Ag, Au) with particular emphasis on the nature of d 10-d 10 interactions in the close packed plane of the coinage metal ion. We find that on going from Cu to Ag to Au, the extent of bonding between A and A increases. However, the structures (in terms of distances) of these compounds are largely determined by the strongly ionic B IIIO interaction and for the larger B ions Sc, In and Y, the A atoms are sufficiently well-separated that AA bonding is almost negligible. We also analyze some interesting differences between Ag and Au, including the larger AO covalency of the Au. The trends in electronic structure suggest that the Ag and Au compounds are not good candidate transparent conducting oxides.

  2. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomi, Pandi; Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  3. Pion Interferometry in AU+AU Collisions at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.

    1999-01-09

    Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations have been studied using the BNL-E866 Forward Spectrometer in 11.6 A {center_dot} GeV/c Au + Au collisions. The data were analyzed using three-dimensional correlation parameterizations to study transverse momentum-dependent source parameters. The freeze-out time and the duration of emission were derived from the source radii parameters.

  4. Facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires with greatly improved stability against oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miaoxin; Hood, Zachary D; Yang, Xuan; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan

    2017-02-07

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires through the conformal deposition of Au atoms onto the surface of pre-synthesized Ag nanowires. The resulting Ag@Au nanowires showed morphology and optical properties almost identical to the pristine Ag nanowires, but with greatly improved stability under different corrosive environments.

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Ag-Au-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindler, M.; Knott, S.; Mikula, A.

    2010-10-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Au-Sn alloys were studied with an electromotive force (EMF) method using the eutectic mixture of KCl/LiCl as a liquid electrolyte. Activities of Sn in the liquid alloys were measured at three cross-sections with constant molar ratios of Ag:Au = 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 with tin in the concentration range between 20 at.% and 90 at.% from the liquidus of the samples up to 1030 K. The integral Gibbs energies at 973 K and the integral enthalpies were calculated by Gibbs-Duhem integration.

  6. Dielectric function dependence on temperature for Au and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Lee, Meng-Chang; Wang, Chih-Ming

    2014-08-01

    The dielectric functions of Au and Ag are measured using a spectral ellipsometer. The temperature dependence parameters ωp, τ, and ɛ∞, in the Drude-Sommerfeld model have been studied. Furthermore, we provide an empirical function to describe the temperature dependence of the dielectric function for Au and Ag. The empirical function shows a good agreement with previous results. Through the empirical function, one can obtain the dielectric constant at arbitrary temperature and wavelength. This database is useful for the applications that use surface plasmon (SP) resonance at high temperatures, such as the plasmonic thermal emitter, SP-assisted thermal cancer treatment and so on.

  7. Restructuring hollow Au-Ag nanostructures for improved SERS activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiji, S. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2016-10-01

    Hollow Au-Ag nanostructures with improved SERS performance were prepared by using a modified galvanic replacement reaction. The plasmon characteristics of the hollow structures are found to be highly sensitive to the volume of cathode, whether or not a co-reductant was used in the synthesis. It is found that the presence of a co-reductant viz., ascorbic acid (AA) during the reaction make the hollow structures capable to maintain its physical structure even after addition of excess cathode and also it transformes sacrificial templates into highly efficient hollow Au-Ag SERS substrates. In the galvanic replacement reaction conducted in presence of AA, where on one side the removal of Ag atoms make cavities to occur and on the other side a coating on the surface with Au and Ag atoms due to co-reduction take place simultaneously. Morphological observations indicated that it is possible to control the competition between these two mechanisms and to make Au-Ag hollow structures in tune with applications by optimizing the volume of cathode or AA. The SERS activity of these substrates were tested with crystal violet molecule as probe, using two different laser lines, 514 and 784.8 nm. In this report, the enhancement observed for hollow structures fabricated under optimum conditions are in the order of 106. SERS measurements have shown that for a specific volume of cathode, substrates fabricated in presence of AA are superior to the other type and also the increase in enhancement factor is ˜10 fold.

  8. Interfacial reactions in the Sn-Ag/Au couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sinn-Wen; Yen, Yee-Wen

    2001-09-01

    Ag-Sn alloys are one of the most promising lead-free solders. Their reactions with Au substrates have been examined by using the reaction couple technique. Sn-3.5wt.%Ag/Au and Sn-25wt.%Ag/Au couples have been prepared and reacted at 120, 150, 180 and 200 C for various lengths of time. Three phases, δ-AuSn, ɛ2-AuSn2, and η-AuSn4, are found in all the couples. The thickness of the reaction layers inccreases with higher temperatures and longer reaction time, and their growth rates are described by using the parabolic law. Arrhenius equation is used to describe the temperature dependence of the growth rates. The activation energy of the growth of the intermetallic layers in both kinds of the reaction couples is similar and is determined to be 76.74 KJ/mole. Based on the reaction path knowledge and interfacial morphology, it is concluded that Sn is the fastest diffusion species in the couples.

  9. Exclusive studies of 130-270 MeV {sup 3}He- and 200-MeV proton-induced reactions on {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup 197}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, D. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Wang, G.; Hsi, W.-C.; Hudan, S.; Cornell, E.; Souza, R. T. de; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.

    2008-09-15

    Exclusive light-charged-particle and IMF spectra have been measured with the ISiS detector array for bombardments of {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Ag, and {sup 197}Au nuclei with 130-270-MeV {sup 3}He and 200-MeV protons. The results are consistent with previous interpretations based on inclusive data that describe the global yield of complex fragments in terms of a time-dependent process. The emission mechanism for energetic nonequilibrium fragments observed at forward angles with momenta up to twice the beam momentum is also investigated. This poorly understood mechanism, for which the angular distributions indicate formation on a time scale comparable to the nuclear transit time, are accompanied primarily by thermal-like emissions. The data are most consistent with a schematic picture in which nonequilibrium fragments are formed in a localized region of the target nucleus at an early stage in the energy-dissipation process, where the combined effects of high energy density and Fermi motion produce the observed suprathermal spectra.

  10. LaMgX and CeMgX (X = Ga, In, Tl, Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) with ZrNiAl type structure - A systematic view on electronic structure and chemical bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Etourneau, Jean; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    The intermetallic magnesium compounds LaMgX and CeMgX (X = Ga, In, Tl, Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) crystallize with the hexagonal ZrNiAl type structure, space group P 6 bar 2 m , with full Mg-X ordering. From density functional theory calculations carried out exemplarily on four representative compounds: LaMgX and CeMgX with X = Ga, Pd, significant differences were traced out as to the magnetism arising only for the Ce series leading to identify CeMgGa as an antiferromagnet in its ground state, in agreement with experiment. The bulk module magnitudes show the trend of harder transition metal based ternaries and the cohesive energies favor the X = Pd compounds versus X = Ga ones. Such features were clarified by examining the properties of chemical bonding which exhibit more directional bonds thanks to the Pd d states. Rationalizing the trends of charge transfers, negatively charged triel and transition element atoms are observed. The resulting chemical pictures assign these compounds as gallides and palladides.

  11. Nanoporous Au structures by dealloying Au/Ag thermal- or laser-dewetted bilayers on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grillo, R.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoporous Au attracts great technological interest and it is a promising candidate for optical and electrochemical sensors. In addition to nanoporous Au leafs and films, recently, interest was focused on nanoporous Au micro- and nano-structures on surfaces. In this work we report on the study of the characteristics of nanoporous Au structures produced on surfaces. We developed the following procedures to fabricate the nanoporous Au structures: we deposited thin Au/Ag bilayers on SiO2 or FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates with thickness xAu and xAg of the Au and Ag layers; we induced the alloying and dewetting processes of the bilayers by furnace annealing processes of the bilayers deposited on SiO2 and by laser irradiations of the bilayers deposited on FTO; the alloying and dewetting processes result in the formation of AuxAgy alloy sub-micron particles being x and y tunable by xAu and xAg. These particles are dealloyed in HNO3 solution to remove the Ag atoms. We obtain, so, nanoporous sub-micron Au particles on the substrates. Analyzing the characteristics of these particles we find that: a) the size and shape of the particles depend on the nature of the dewetting process (solid-state dewetting on SiO2, molten-state dewetting on FTO); b) the porosity fraction of the particles depends on how the alloying process is reached: about 32% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the furnace annealing at 900 °C, about 45% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the laser irradiation at 0.5 J/cm2, in both cases independently on the Ag concentration in the alloy; c) After the dealloying process the mean volume of the Au particles shrinks of about 39%; d) After an annealing at 400 °C the nanoporous Au particles reprise their initial volume while the porosity fraction is reduced. Arguments to justify these behaviors are presented.

  12. Au-Ag hollow nanostructures with tunable SERS properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiji, S. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles is done by the sequential action of galvanic replacement and Kirkendall effect. Polyol synthesized silver nanoparticles were used as templates and the size of cavities is controlled by the systematic addition of the HAuCl4. Au-Ag nanoparticles carved in different depths were tested for application as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Two medically important Raman active analytes-Nile blue chloride and Crystal violet were used in the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance analysis. A systematic study has been made on the Raman enhancement of hollow nanoparticles fabricated with different cavity dimensions and compared with that of the silver templates used. The enhancement observed for these hollow substrates with cavities is of interest since Au protected hollow nanostructures are vital and an active area of interest in drug delivery systems.

  13. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T.; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ˜410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  14. On the structure of the thiolated Au6Ag7 cluster.

    PubMed

    Tlahuice-Flores, Alfredo

    2014-09-14

    The structure of the recently synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid-protected Au6Ag7(SR)10 cluster has been elucidated by a DFT approach, following an isoelectronic substitution of seven Au atoms by Ag atoms on the [Au13(SR)10](+) cluster. After a systematic search for the lowest-energy isomers, it is demonstrated that its structure comprises one octahedral-like Ag6 core covered by two monoatomic dimer motifs and one Au2Ag1(SR)4 staple-like motif. This result confirms that Ag atoms prefer the inner (core) positions while Au atoms are located on surface staple-like motifs.

  15. Time Dependent Universal Conductance Fluctuations In AuPd, Ag, And Au Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trionfi, A.; Lee, S.; Natelson, D.

    2006-09-01

    Quantum transport phenomena allow experimental determinations of the phase coherence information in metals. We report quantitative comparisons of inferred coherence lengths from independent measurements of the weak localization magnetoresistance and time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations' magnetic field dependence. Strong agreement is observed in both quasi-2D and quasi-1D AuPd samples. However, quantitative agreement is not seen in quasi-1D Ag wires below 10 K and quasi-1D Au wires below 14 K. A possible explanation for this disagreement will be discussed. Attempts to produce changes in the coherence length in Au by annealing have also been made and results will be reported.

  16. Communication: Kinetics of chemical ordering in Ag-Au and Ag-Ni nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Fortunelli, A.; Negreiros, F.; Wales, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The energy landscape and kinetics of medium-sized Ag-Au and Ag-Ni nanoalloy particles are explored via a discrete path sampling approach, focusing on rearrangements connecting regions differing in chemical order. The highly miscible Ag27Au28 supports a large number of nearly degenerate icosahedral homotops. The transformation from reverse core-shell to core-shell involves large displacements away from the icosahedron through elementary steps corresponding to surface diffusion and vacancy formation. The immiscible Ag42Ni13 naturally forms an asymmetric core-shell structure, and about 10 eV is required to extrude the nickel core to the surface. The corresponding transformation occurs via a long and smooth sequence of surface displacements. For both systems the rearrangement kinetics exhibit Arrhenius behavior. These results are discussed in the light of experimental observations.

  17. Conversion of Ag nanowires to AgCI nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-02-11

    A two-step approach has been developed to synthesize AgCl nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles by using Ag nanowires as chemical templates. In the first step, the Ag nanowires are oxidized with FeCl{sub 3} followed by a simultaneous precipitation reaction between Ag{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions at room temperature, resulting in conversion of the Ag nanowires to AgCl nanowires as well as reduction of Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} ions. In the second step, the Fe{sup 2+} ions generated in the first step reduce Au precursors (e.g., NaAuCl{sub 4}) to deposit Au nanoparticles on the surfaces of the AgCl nanowires, resulting in the formation of AgCl:Au composite nanowires. Because of strong surface plasmon resonance and chemical inertness of Au nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AgCl:Au nanowires exhibit enhanced absorption coefficient in the visible region and enhanced chemical stability to prevent them from degradation and aggregation. These unique properties enable the AgCl:Au nanowires to be used as a class of promising plasmonic photocatalysts driven by visible light. Preliminary results demonstrate these composite nanowires can efficiently decompose organics, such as methylene blue molecules, under illumination of white light.

  18. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective.

  19. Au-Ag-Cu nano-alloys: tailoring of permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Nishijima, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Precious metal alloys enables new possibilities to tailor materials for specific optical functions. Here we present a systematic study of the effects of a nanoscale alloying on the permittivity of Au-Ag-Cu metals at 38 different atomic mixing ratios. The permittivity was measured and analyzed numerically by applying the Drude model. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the face centered cubic lattice of the alloys. Both, optical spectra and XRD results point towards an equivalent composition-dependent electron scattering behavior. Correlation between the fundamental structural parameters of alloys and the resulting optical properties is elucidated. Plasmonic properties of the Au-Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles were investigated by numerical simulations. Guidelines for designing plasmonic response of nano- structures and their patterns are presented from the material science perspective. PMID:27118459

  20. Injection and acceleration of Au31+ in the BNL AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer,W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, W.; Huang, H.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Thieberger, P.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, S.Y.; Zeno, K.; Omet, C.; Spiller, P.

    2008-06-23

    Injection and acceleration of ions in a lower charge state reduces space charge effects, and, if further elcctron stripping is needed, may allow elimination of a stripping stage and the associated beam losses. The former is of interest to the accelerators in the GSI FAIR complex, the latter for BNL RHIC collider operation at energies lower than the current injection energy. Lower charge state ions, however, have a higher likelihood of electron stripping which can lead to dynamic pressures rises and subsequent beam losses. We report on experiments in the AGS where Au{sup 31+} ions were injected and accelerated instead of the normally used Au{sup 77+} ions. Beam intensities and the average pressure in the AGS ring are recorded, and compared with calculations for dynamic pressures and beam losses. The experimental results will be used to benchmark the StrahlSim dynamic vacuum code and will be incorporated in the GSI FAIR SIS100 design.

  1. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali . E-mail: msastry@tatachemicals.com

    2007-07-03

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules.

  2. Ultranarrow AuPd and Al wires

    SciTech Connect

    Altomare, Fabio; Chang, Albert M.; Melloch, Michael R.; Hong Yuguang; Tu, Charles W.

    2005-04-25

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile template technique aimed to the fabrication of sub-10 nm wide wires. Using this technique, we have measured AuPd wires, 12 nm wide and as long as 20 {mu}m. Even materials that form a strong superficial oxide, and thus not suited to be used in combination with other techniques, can be employed. In particular, we have measured Al wires, with lateral width smaller or comparable to 10 nm, and length exceeding 10 {mu}m.

  3. A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis extract and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Godipurge, S S; Yallappa, S; Biradar, Naveen J; Biradar, J S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gajanan; Jagadish, K; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    A facile and green strategy is reported here to synthesize gold (Au), silver (Ag) and gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through bio-reduction reactions of aqueous corresponding metal precursors mediated by extracts of aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents, under microwave irradiation. UV-vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM/TEM, TGA and EDAX analysis were used to characterize the obtained NPs. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance peak observed at λmax=∼550, 450 and 500nm for Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs respectively. XRD pattern revealed that fcc structure, while FT-IR spectra signify the presence of phytochemicals adsorbed on NPs. Such a biofunctionalized NPs were characterized by their weight loss, 30% due to thermal degradation of plant phytochemicals observed in TG analysis. The spherical shape of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs (∼10-50nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images. EDAX analysis confirms the expected elemental composition. Moreover, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, though it is more pronounced for Au-Ag alloy NPs, which is due to the combining effect of phytochemicals, Au and Ag metals. Thus, the biosynthesized NPs could be applied as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications.

  4. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Dylan

    -ore hydrothermal system is overprinted by Au-Ag stage alteration consisting of proximal quartz + Fe-sericite + pyrite +/- adularia and distal illite-montmorillonite-chlorite (after biotite). The distribution of steam-heated alteration zones and vitrophyre units, along with prominent chemical and textural zonation of veins, suggest that a 400 m vertical section of the epithermal system is now exposed at surface. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of 3 adularia and 4 volcanic samples identified a rhyolite unit that slightly predates ~16.34 Ma Au-Ag mineralization and mafic magmatism. The proposed timeline for deposit formation is: 21-20 Ma, eruption of locally derived rhyolitic flows; 16.62 Ma, development of new rhyolite flow-dome complex and meteoric-dominated geothermal circulation along N-S structural fabric driven by heat from rhyolite domes; ~16.34 Ma, emplacement of NW trending basalt dikes, followed by violent hydrothermal eruptions, eruption of tuffisite breccia dikes, and Au-Ag mineralization; <16.34 Ma, post-mineral rhyolitic volcanism and normal faulting; and <16 Ma to present, continued faulting and dismemberment of the mineral system. The close spatial and temporal association of veining with coeval volcanic units suggests that Au-Ag-S traveled along similar structure and may have been supplied from the same magma chamber. Deposition of Au and Ag from HS- complexes by boiling appears to have occurred rapidly following closely spaced violent magmatic/hydrothermal eruption events. On a deposit scale, a complex interplay of depth, proximity to dikes, and structural dilatency during Au-Ag stage fluid pulses controlled localization of economic mineralization, which can be highly variable over meter-scale distances. Bruner appears to belong to a small subset of mid-Miocene epithermal deposits in Nevada with low base metal contents and low to no Se, related to calc- alkaline rhyolite flow-dome complexes. Multiple lines of evidence document decoupled sourcing of Al-Si-K-O from Au-Ag

  5. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  6. A new photothermal therapeutic agent: core-free nanostructured Au x Ag1-x dendrites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Chih-Chia; Hwu, Jih-Ru; Su, Wu-Chou; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Au(x)Ag(1-x) nanostructures with dendrite morphology and a hollow interior were synthesized by using a replacement reaction between Ag dendrites and an aqueous solution of HAuCl(4). The Ag nanostructured dendrites were generated by the reaction of AgNO(3) with ascorbic acid in a methanol/water system. The dendrites resemble a coral shape and are built up of many stems with an asymmetric arrangement. Each stem is approximately 400 nm in length and 65 nm in diameter. The bimetallic composition of Au(x)Ag(1-x) can be tuned by the addition of different amounts of HAuCl(4) to the Ag dendritic solution. The hollowing process resulted in tubular structures with a wall thickness of 10.5 nm in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites. The UV/Vis spectra indicate that the strongest NIR absorption among the resulting hollow Au(x)Ag(1-x) dendrites was in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7). The MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Ag dendrites, hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites, and Au nanorods. It was found that hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites exhibited good biocompatibility, while both Ag dendrites and Au nanorods showed dose-dependent toxicity. Because of absorption in the NIR region, hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites were used as photothermal absorbers for destroying A549 lung cancer cells. Their photothermal performance was compared to that of Au nanorod photothermal therapeutic agents. As a result, the particle concentration and laser power required for efficient cancer cell damage were significantly reduced for hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites relative to those used for Au nanorods. The hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) nanostructured dendrites show potential in photothermolysis for killing cancer cells.

  7. Theoretical study of CO oxidation on cationic, neutral, and anionic AuM dimers (M = Pd and Ag).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Lu, Rui-Feng; Kan, Er-Jun; Liu, Yu-Zhen; Xiao, Chuan-Yun; Deng, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The CO and O2 adsorption as well as CO oxidation on cationic, neutral, and anionic AuM dimers (M = Pd, Ag) are studied by density functional calculations. Our results show that CO and O2 are adsorbed more stably on AuPd dimers than on AuAg dimers with corresponding charge state. O2 is favorable to be adsorbed on Pd atom in AuPd(+), AuPd and AuPd(-) dimers. CO is adsorbed on Pd in AuPd and AuPd(-), while it is favorable to be adsorbed on Au in AuPd(+). For AuAg dimers, O2 is adsorbed on Ag in AuAg and AuAg(-), and it is adsorbed on Au in AuAg(+). CO is adsorbed on Ag in AuPd(-), while it is adsorbed on Au in AuAg and AuAg(+). The CO oxidation reaction is explored along two possible pathways: path-1 involves CO attacking the initial complexes of AuM dimers and O2, and path-2 is related to O2 interacting with the complexes of AuM dimers and CO. The charge state of AuM dimers has a substantial effect on CO oxidation. The reaction on AuPd(-) prefers path-1, and AuPd(+) mediated reaction proceeds along path-2, while CO oxidation on AuPd is difficult along both paths. For AuAg, both pathways are viable for AuAg(-) mediated reactions, while AuAg and AuAg(+) mediated reactions prefer path-2. Moreover, the energy barriers of CO oxidation on neutral AuAg is comparable with those on AuPd in all charge states while the energy barriers for AuAg(-) and AuAg(+) are considerably lower than those for all AuPd dimmers, indicating the impurity atom also plays a significant role in the catalytic activity. Furthermore, AuAg(-) is proposed to be the most active species due to the lowest barrier involved in the reaction.

  8. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-10-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys AuxCu1-x and Au0.5Ag0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au0.5Ag0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in AuxCu1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in AuxCu1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for AuxCu1-x clusters of 105 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data.

  9. Inner shell excitation of Cu, Ag and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Allan; McEachran, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The ground states of Cu, Ag and Au have the configuration nd10(n +1)s with n = 3, 4 and 5. The lowest excited manifold for Cu and Au has the configuration nd9(n +1)s2 which is well separated from the next excited manifold nd10(n +1)p. However, for Ag, the lowest 4d95s2 level with J = 5/2 lies between the two levels of the 4d105p manifold. In we compared our Relativistic Distorted Wave calculations for the excitation of the 4d105p manifold with experimental measurements which would have included a contribution from the 4d95s2 J = 5/2 level. While we do not expect the cross section for this forbidden transition to be large compared to the optical allowed transitions of the P levels, we decided to investigate excitation of these inner shell levels, in part because they are the lowest excited levels in Cu and Au, We will discuss the theoretical expressions for these excitations as well as give numerical results of our cross section calculations.

  10. Corrosion resistance evaluation of Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of nine experimental Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys in a 0.9% NaCl solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CV measurements revealed that the breakdown potential (E(bd)) and zero current potential (E(zc)) increased with increasing Au/(Au+Ag) atomic ratio. Thus, the Au/(Au+Ag) atomic ratio, but not the Cu content, influenced the corrosion resistance of Ag-Au-Pt-Cu alloys. After the forward scan of CV, both optical and scanning electron microscope images showed that in all the experimental alloys, the matrix phase was corroded but not the second phase. From corrosion resistance viewpoint, the Ag-Au-Pt-Cu alloys seemed to be suitable for clinical application.

  11. Plasmonic enhancements of photocatalytic activity of Pt/n-Si/Ag photodiodes using Au/Ag core/shell nanorods.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Cheng, Rui; Su, Qiao; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-10-26

    We report the plasmonic enhancement of the photocatalytic properties of Pt/n-Si/Ag photodiode photocatalysts using Au/Ag core/shell nanorods. We show that Au/Ag core/shell nanorods can be synthesized with tunable plasmon resonance frequencies and then conjugated onto Pt/n-Si/Ag photodiodes using well-defined chemistry. Photocatalytic studies showed that the conjugation with Au/Ag core/shell nanorods can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity by more than a factor of 3. Spectral dependence studies further revealed that the photocatalytic enhancement is strongly correlated with the plasmonic absorption spectra of the Au/Ag core/shell nanorods, unambiguously demonstrating the plasmonic enhancement effect.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Au and Ag modified Cu-Ni-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Wright, S R; Cocks, F H; Gettleman, L

    1980-04-01

    The linear electrochemical polarization method was used to provide quantitative in vitro measurements of corrosion rates as a function of exposure time for Cu-Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn-Au, Cu-Ni-Mn-Ag, and Cu-Ni-Mn-Au-Ag alloys in artificial saliva. Both Au and Ag additives to dental-cast Cu-Ni-Mn alloys lowered the corrosion rate significantly.

  13. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    PubMed

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-06

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  14. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples.

  15. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples. PMID:28134263

  16. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Fengping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.

  17. Formation of one-dimensional Ag-Au solid solution colloids with Au nanorods as seeds, their alloying mechanisms, and surface plasmon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Yiwei

    2012-12-01

    In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag33Au67 nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au nanoalloys form stable colloidal dispersions and show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks in the ensemble extinction spectra.In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag33Au67 nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au

  18. Microwave spectroscopy of AgCCH and AuCCH in the X˜1Σ+ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Toshiaki; Kubota, Hirofumi; Araki, Mitsunori; Kuze, Nobuhiko

    2013-07-01

    The rotational spectra of AgCCH and AuCCH were measured using Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) and source-modulated millimeter-wave spectrometers. For the FTMW measurements, AgCCH and AuCCH were generated in supersonic jets using the pulse-discharge reaction of laser-ablated metal atoms with HCCH diluted with Ar. For the millimeter-wave measurements, these molecules were generated in a free-space cell by sputtering of metal sheets. Rotational transitions were measured for 107AgCCH, 109AgCCH, 107AgCCD, 109AgCCD, AuCCH, and AuCCD. The r0 structures of both molecules were obtained from the rotational constants. The quadrupole parameters of the Au and D nuclei were compared with those of other metal monoacetylides.

  19. Cu-Ag sulfides as indicators of pre-porphyritic epithermal Au-Ag deposits in Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Volkov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Au-Ag mineralization of the Olcha and Teploe epithermal deposits underwent thermal metamorphism due to porphyritic intrusions. The presence of Bi-bearing galena and matildite in the ores (Teploe), Cu-Te-bearing naumannite (Olcha), the occurrence of middle- and high-temperature facies of metasomatic rocks (epidote and actinolite), and temperature formation conditions are related, firstly, to the influence of granitoids on the ore process, which supplied not only Cu and Mo, but also Bi, Te, and, secondly, to the heating of host rocks containing pre-porphyritic epithermal Au-Ag mineralization. The abundance of Cu-Ag sulfides and Cu-acanthite resulted from the enrichment of later mineral phases in Cu and Ag under the substance redistribution with the formation of Ag-acanthite ores. The data considered in the paper are of practical importance for regional forecasting of metallogenic constructions, exploration, and evaluation of the epithermal Au-Ag deposits.

  20. M atom (M = Cu, Ag and Au) interaction with Ag and Au substrates: a first-principles study using cluster and slab models.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sandeep; Majumder, Chiranjib

    2010-11-03

    Using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations we report the interaction of M atoms (M = Cu, Ag and Au) with small Ag(n), Au(n) clusters (n = 3 and 6) and periodic Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. All calculations were performed using the plane wave pseudo-potential approach under the spin polarized version of the generalized gradient approximation scheme. The result shows that the equilibrium geometry of all MAg(3) and MAu(3) clusters favor a planar rhombus structure. From the charge distribution analysis of MAg(n)/MAu(n) clusters it is found that, while Cu and Ag donates electronic charge towards the host clusters, the Au atom acts as an acceptor, thus creating charge polarization in the system. The difference in orbital decomposed charges before and after the M interaction reveals that enhanced s-d hybridization is responsible for keeping the MAu(6) cluster planar, and increased p-orbital participation induces three-dimensional configurations in MAg(6) clusters. The optimization of M atom deposition on the Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces shows that M atoms prefer to adsorb on the threefold fcc site over other well-defined sites. From the orbital decomposed charge analysis it is inferred that, although there is significant difference in the absolute magnitude of the interaction energy between M atoms and the Ag or Au substrates, the nature of chemical bonding is similar for the finite size clusters as well as in slab models.

  1. Catalysis by Nanostructures: Methane, Ethylene Oxide, and Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag, Cu or Au Nanoclusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-07

    GRANT NUMBER Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag , Cu or Au nanoclusters F49620-01-1-0459 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Horia...Nanostructures: Methane, Ethylene Oxide, and Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag , Cu or Au nanoclusters, F49620-01-1-0459 Final Performance Report (for the period 07...andthe mobility of Ag clusters and Au clusters on TiO 2(1 10) have been published " . We found that Au atoms are very mobile and form large clusters at

  2. Lithogeochemistry and fluid inclusions of an Au-Ag vein deposit in a granodiorite intrusive

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, R.; Ikramuddin, M.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-eight samples of altered and unaltered rocks and quartz veins from the Acme mine in northeast Washington, an Au-Ag vein deposit in a granodiorite intrusive, have been analyzed for SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Feo, MgO, CaO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, MnO, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, Ag, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, and Zn. A comparison of major and trace elements shows that the altered granodiorite is enriched in SiO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, Ag, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, Rb, Tl, and Zn and depleted in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, MnO, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Sr. The average contents of Au in unaltered and altered granodiorite and quartz veins are 9 ppb. 270 ppb and 1020 ppb respectively. The average Ba/Tl ratio in the altered samples decrease and average Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios increase. K, Rb, and Tl are enriched in the altered granodiorite by factors of 1.5, 1.6, and 1.4 respectively. Tl is not enriched relative to Rb and K in the altered samples due to the high temperature of the deposit. The Ba/Tl, K/Tl and K/Rb ratios do not show complete separation of altered from unaltered samples. However, the Ba/Tl and K/Tl ratios in the quartz vein are significantly lower than the unaltered and altered granodiorite. This is due to the enrichment of Tl over K and Rb in the quartz veins. The Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios are higher in the altered granodiorite and quartz veins compared to unaltered samples. The enrichment of Tl and presence of low Ba/Tl and high Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios in a granodiorite indicate that the rocks are hydrothermally altered and represent a possible Au-Ag target.

  3. Effect of Au thickness on AuAg bimetallic growth on reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhukta, Anjan; Ghosh, Arnab; Guha, Puspendu; Maiti, Paramita; Satpati, Biswarup; Satyam, Parlapalli Venkata

    2017-03-01

    Large, stable and single domain unit cell with row-like structures makes reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface an important one-dimensional growth template of nanostructures. We report on the morphological aspects of the growth of AuAg bimetallic nanostructures on a reconstructed Si(5 5 12) surface that has been deposited with a 0.5 monolayer (ML) Ag and various Au thicknesses (0.5 to 5.0 ML) to determine the optimum gold thickness for a growth of high aspect ratio of AuAg nanostructures. The mean aspect ratio of AuAg nanostructures increases up to Au thickness of 3.0 ML and for larger thickness the mean aspect ratio decreases. The prior growth of 0.5 ML Ag on reconstructed surface result in the formation of one-dimensional Ag strips which are helping for preferential nucleation sites along Si< 1bar{1}0 rangle to form AuAg bimetallic long aspect ratio structures. Followed by these early processes of growth, for Au thickness >3.0 ML, excess Au ad-atoms begin to accumulate along Si< 66bar{5} rangle and consequences reduction of mean aspect ratio of bimetallic nanostructures. Nanostructures are grown using molecular beam epitaxy method under ultra-high vacuum conditions and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to investigate the morphological variations. Determination of structural aspects and compositional analysis has been carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and high-resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy methods.

  4. Optimizing Au/Ag core-shell nanorods: purification, stability, and surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanan; Zhou, Jun; Shu, Lei; Li, Tianhua; Petti, Lucia; Mormile, Pasquale

    2014-06-01

    The purification, stability, and surface modification of Au/Ag core-shell nanorods (Au/Ag NRs) in a biological buffer solution were systematically studied for the first time. In this study, Au/Ag NRs were synthesized by chemically reducing silver on the surface of gold nanorods using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant and then purified by centrifugation washing. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectra, TEM images, Raman spectra, and the ξ-potential, it was observed that after the second washing step, the Au/Ag NRs displayed good stability and high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement. When the as-prepared Au/Ag NRs were centrifuged more than twice, a structural transition in the surfactant layer was manifested with a sudden increase in the Raman signal intensities at 760 and 1,455 cm-1. Moreover, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) was used as a Raman reporter molecule to investigate the SERS characteristics of the purified Au/Ag NRs. The Raman signal intensity was enhanced with increasing the concentration of 4MBA and reached its highest intensity at the saturation concentration of 1.0 µM 4MBA in a 5 ml solution of the purified Au/Ag NRs. To prevent significant aggregation of the 4MBA-tagged Au/Ag NRs, a poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) layer was assembled on the nanorod surfaces by electrostatic adsorption for further surface modification, which made the 4MBA-tagged Au/Ag NRs suitable for the labeled biosensing. Subsequently, the characteristics of the PSS-coated Au/Ag NRs were demonstrated for the potential applications of label-free biosensing.

  5. Polymers effects on synthesis of AuNPs, and Au/Ag nanoalloys: indirectly generated AuNPs and versatile sensing applications including anti-leukemic agent.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Shanaz; Mansoor, Farrukh; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2014-03-15

    Polymers either serve as shielding or capping agents to restrict the nanoparticle size. This study demonstrates the polymer depositions and their effects in synthesis and sharp stabilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and to develop gold/silver nanoalloys (Au/Ag nanoalloys). Effects of different polymers are tested to justify their role in synthesis and stability of phloroglucinol (PG) coated AuNPs and Au/Ag nanoalloys. Cationic and anionic i.e. [Polydiallyldimethylammonium](+) (PDDA), [Polyethyleneimine](+) (PEI), [Polystyrene sulfonate](2-) (PSS) and neutral polymer Polychlorotriflouroethylene (PCTFE) produce praiseworthy stable AuNPs and Au/Ag nanoalloy. To prove polymer effects characterization protocols including UV-vis, Fluorescence (PL), IR and AFM imaging are performed to fully investigate the mechanism and size characteristics of these nanoparticles/nanoalloys. In this study sharp size controlling/sheilding effects were observed particularly with cationic polymers simply through the favorable electrostatic interactions with the terminal ends of PG Potent/significant detection of doxorubicin (DOX, an antileukemic agent) via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between PEI shielded AuNPs (AuNPEI) and DOX was achieved upto 10 pM level, while PDDA protected AuNPs facilitated the detection of ascorbic acid based on fluorescence enhancement effects in wide range (10-200 nM) and with detection limit of 200 pM. Similarly sensing performance of PEI stabilized Au/Ag nanoalloys on addition of halides (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) is evaluated through red shifted SPR along with continuous increase in absorbance and also through AFM. Moreover the addition of halide ions also helped the regeneration of AuNPs by taking away silver from the Au/Ag nanoalloys enabling their detections upto subnanomolar levels.

  6. Formation of one-dimensional Ag-Au solid solution colloids with Au nanorods as seeds, their alloying mechanisms, and surface plasmon resonances.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Yiwei

    2013-01-21

    In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag(33)Au(67) nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au nanoalloys form stable colloidal dispersions and show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks in the ensemble extinction spectra.

  7. Label free detection of DNA on Au/ZnO/Ag hybrid structure based SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D. Bharathi

    2016-04-01

    Au/ZnO/Ag based SERS substrate was fabricated for the label free detection of DNA of Escherichia Coli bacteria. The SERS substrate was fabricated by growing ZnO nanorod arrays on thermally evaporated ultrathin Ag film of 5 nm thickness using hydrothermal process. Non-spherical like Au nanoparticles were decorated on ZnO nanorod arrays by sputtering technique with sputtering time of 45 sec. The surface of Au/ZnO/Ag was observed to be nearly superhydrophobic exhibiting the contact angle of 144 °. A low volume (5 µl) of aqueous solution of DNA of laboratory strain Escherichia Coli with very low concentration was adsorbed on fabricated SERS substrate by drop casting. The SERS detection of DNA molecules was achieved up to lower concentration of 10-8 M due to strong local electric field enhancement at the nanometer gap among Au nanoparticles and superhydrophobic nature of Au/ZnO/Ag surface.

  8. Structure and electronic behavior of 26-atom Cu-Ag and Cu-Au nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Ramírez, Gregorio; Robles, Juvencio; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-09-01

    We hereby present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the binary clusters Cu n X26- n (with X = Ag and Au). Our electronic calculations were performed with the DFT package GAUSSIAN 09, and we chose the BPW91 exchange correlation functional in combination with an effective core potential LANL2DZ basis set as our level of theory. We find that in the case of these clusters and in a completely different way - as compared to the bulk chemical order observed in both alloys CuAg (segregation) and CuAu (ordering) -, for small n both Ag and Au clusters exhibit a similar chemical order, finding the Cu atoms in the center of the cluster with the tendency to form core shell structures. On the other hand, for large n values the Ag and Au atoms tend to occupy surface positions forming separated surface islands that keep the two metal atoms separated as long as the concentration allows it. Concerning the structural properties, a clear increase in the interatomic distance of the Ag-Ag and Au-Au surface pairs is observed, particularly in the equiatomic region. In conclusion, both nanoalloys CuAg and CuAu behave quite similarly in contrast to their respective bulk cases.

  9. Fabrication of Porous Ag/TiO2/Au Coatings with Excellent Multipactor Suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duoduo; Ma, Jianzhong; Bao, Yan; Cui, Wanzhao; Hu, Tiancun; Yang, Jing; Bai, Yuanrui

    2017-03-10

    Porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings with excellent multipactor suppression were prepared by fabrication of porous Ag surface through two-step wet chemical etching, synthesis of TiO2 coatings by electroless-plating-like solution deposition and deposition of Au coatings via electroless plating. Porous structure of Ag surface, TiO2 coatings on porous Ag surface and Au coatings on porous Ag/TiO2 surface were verified by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, the composition and crystal type of TiO2 coatings was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Secondary electron yield (SEY) measurement was used to monitor the SEY coefficient of the porous Ag coatings and Ag/TiO2/Au coatings. The as-obtained porous Ag coatings were proved exhibiting low SEY below 1.2, and the process was highly reproducible. In addition, the porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings showed excellent multipactor suppression with the SEY 1.23 and good environmental stability. It is worth mentioning that the whole preparation process is simple and feasible, which would provide a promising application in RF devices.

  10. Fabrication of Porous Ag/TiO2/Au Coatings with Excellent Multipactor Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Duoduo; Ma, Jianzhong; Bao, Yan; Cui, Wanzhao; Hu, Tiancun; Yang, Jing; Bai, Yuanrui

    2017-03-01

    Porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings with excellent multipactor suppression were prepared by fabrication of porous Ag surface through two-step wet chemical etching, synthesis of TiO2 coatings by electroless-plating-like solution deposition and deposition of Au coatings via electroless plating. Porous structure of Ag surface, TiO2 coatings on porous Ag surface and Au coatings on porous Ag/TiO2 surface were verified by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, the composition and crystal type of TiO2 coatings was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Secondary electron yield (SEY) measurement was used to monitor the SEY coefficient of the porous Ag coatings and Ag/TiO2/Au coatings. The as-obtained porous Ag coatings were proved exhibiting low SEY below 1.2, and the process was highly reproducible. In addition, the porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings showed excellent multipactor suppression with the SEY 1.23 and good environmental stability. It is worth mentioning that the whole preparation process is simple and feasible, which would provide a promising application in RF devices.

  11. Fabrication of Porous Ag/TiO2/Au Coatings with Excellent Multipactor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Duoduo; Ma, Jianzhong; Bao, Yan; Cui, Wanzhao; Hu, Tiancun; Yang, Jing; Bai, Yuanrui

    2017-01-01

    Porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings with excellent multipactor suppression were prepared by fabrication of porous Ag surface through two-step wet chemical etching, synthesis of TiO2 coatings by electroless-plating-like solution deposition and deposition of Au coatings via electroless plating. Porous structure of Ag surface, TiO2 coatings on porous Ag surface and Au coatings on porous Ag/TiO2 surface were verified by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, the composition and crystal type of TiO2 coatings was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Secondary electron yield (SEY) measurement was used to monitor the SEY coefficient of the porous Ag coatings and Ag/TiO2/Au coatings. The as-obtained porous Ag coatings were proved exhibiting low SEY below 1.2, and the process was highly reproducible. In addition, the porous Ag/TiO2/Au coatings showed excellent multipactor suppression with the SEY 1.23 and good environmental stability. It is worth mentioning that the whole preparation process is simple and feasible, which would provide a promising application in RF devices. PMID:28281546

  12. Structural and dynamical properties of liquid Al-Au alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.; Kolland, G.; Kobatake, H.; Brillo, J.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate temperature- and composition-dependent structural and dynamical properties of Al-Au melts. Experiments are performed to obtain accurate density and viscosity data. The system shows a strong negative excess volume, similar to other Al-based binary alloys. We develop a molecular-dynamics (MD) model of the melt based on the embedded-atom method (EAM), gauged against the available experimental liquid-state data. A rescaling of previous EAM potentials for solid-state Au and Al improves the quantitative agreement with experimental data in the melt. In the MD simulation, the admixture of Au to Al can be interpreted as causing a local compression of the less dense Al system, driven by less soft Au-Au interactions. This local compression provides a microscopic mechanism explaining the strong negative excess volume of the melt. We further discuss the concentration dependence of self- and interdiffusion and viscosity in the MD model. Al atoms are more mobile than Au, and their increased mobility is linked to a lower viscosity of the melt.

  13. SERS activity studies of Ag/Au bimetallic films prepared by galvanic replacement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaonan; Fang, Jinghuai; Jin, Yonglong

    2012-10-01

    Ag films on Si substrates were fabricated by immersion plating, which served as sacrificial materials for preparation of Ag/Au bimetallic films by galvanic replacement method. SEM images displayed that the sacrificial Ag films presenting island morphology experienced interesting structural evolution process during galvanic replacement reaction, and nano-scaled holes were formed in the resultant bimetallic films. SERS measurements using crystal violet as an analyte showed that SERS intensities of bimetallic films were enhanced significantly compared with that of pure Ag films and related mechanisms were discussed. Immersion plating experiment carried out on Ag films on PEN substrates fabricated by photoinduced reduction method further confirmed that galvanic replacement is an easy method to fabricate Ag/Au bimetallic and a potential approach to improve the SERS performance of Ag films.

  14. Studies on plasmon characteristics and the local density of states of Au and Ag based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, M.; Biju, V.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the conductive properties and the local density of states of chemically pure Au, Ag, Ag@Au core-shell and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is technologically important. Herein, the I-V characteristics and the density of states derived from scanning tunneling microscopy measurements made under atmospheric conditions is reported. The nanoparticles in thin film form used in this study were prepared by laser ablation in water followed by drop and evaporation. The morphology of the surface of the nanostructures was observed from optimizing tunneling current in each case. The monometallic Au and Ag particles shows almost similar current characteristics as well as discrete energy states but the slope of I-V characteristics was different for bimetallic structures. An attempt has also been made to compare the current measurements done in the nanoscale with the surface plasmon characteristics.

  15. A facile strategy to synthesize bimetallic Au/Ag nanocomposite film by layer-by-layer assembly technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Yi

    2012-05-01

    A facile strategy has been developed for the preparation of bimetallic gold-silver (Au-Ag) nanocomposite films by alternating absorption of poly-(ethyleneimine)-silver ions and Au onto substrates and subsequent reduction of the silver ions. The composition, micro-structure and properties of the {PEI-Ag/Au}n nanocomposite films were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), transmisson electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The UV-vis characteristic absorbances of {PEI-Ag/Au}n nanocomposite thin film increase almost linear with the number of bilayers, which indicates a process of uniform assembling. Appearance of a double plasmon bands in the visible region and the lack of apparent core-shell structures in the TEM images confirm the formation of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles. The result of XPS also demonstrates the existence of Ag and Au nanoparticles in the nanocomposite films. TEM and FESEM images show that these Ag and Au nanoparticles in the films possess sphere structure with the size of 20-25 nm. The resulting {PEI-Ag/Au}n films inherit the properties from both the metal Ag and Au, which exhibits a unique performance in SERS and electrocatalytic activities to the oxidation of dopamine. As a result, the {PEI-Ag/Au}n films are more attractive compared to {PEI-Ag/PSS}n and {PEI/Au}n films.

  16. The unusual effect of AgNO3 on the growth of Au nanostructures and their catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingliang; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Guangju; Han, Shuhua; Wang, Wenfang; Zhang, Lijie; Chen, Wei; Zou, Chao; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-06-07

    Au nanostructures attract much attention due to their potential applications in many fields. The controlled synthesis is critical to their properties modulation and applications. AgNO3-assisted synthesis is a widely used method for controllably preparing Au nanostructures in aqueous system. Herein, the effect of AgNO3 on the growth of Au nanostructures in polyol is studied. We observe an unusual effect that AgNO3 can induce the formation of pentatwinned Au nanostructures (nanorods and decahedra) and block the growth of Au nanorods. More interestingly, this blocking effect can be tuned through controlling the amount of AgNO3. A moderate amount of AgNO3 facilitates the formation of Au nanorods. A large amount of AgNO3 completely blocks the growth of nanorods and favors the formation of high quality decahedra (decahedra can be considered as nanorods with 0 nm longitudinal length). Besides, this blocking effect also allows preparation of different high-index-faceted Au nanobipyramids. These prepared Au nanostructures further serve as starting templates to fabricate other heterostructured Au/Ag nanomaterials, such as Ag-Au-Ag segmental nanorods, Au@Ag core-shelled nanostructures. The prepared nanostructures exhibit size- and structure-dependent catalytic performance in the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by sodium borohydride.

  17. Core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction via core-shell Au@Ag/Pd constructions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created in these core-shell particles. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles from their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd parents. This strategy begins with the preparation of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles in an organic solvent. Then, the pure Ag shells are converted into the shells made of Ag/Pd alloy by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shells and Pd2+ precursors. Subsequently, the Ag component is removed from the alloy shell using saturated NaCl solution to form core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a Pd shell. In comparison with the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles upon directly depositing Pd shell on the Au seeds and commercial Pd/C catalysts, the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles via their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd templates display superior activity and durability in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction, mainly due to the larger lattice tensile effect in Pd shell induced by the Au core and Ag removal. PMID:26144550

  18. Templated Atom-Precise Galvanic Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of a [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) Nanocluster.

    PubMed

    Bootharaju, Megalamane S; Joshi, Chakra P; Parida, Manas R; Mohammed, Omar F; Bakr, Osman M

    2016-01-18

    Synthesis of atom-precise alloy nanoclusters with uniform composition is challenging when the alloying atoms are similar in size (for example, Ag and Au). A galvanic exchange strategy has been devised to produce a compositionally uniform [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) cluster (SR: thiolate) using a pure [Ag25(SR)18](-) cluster as a template. Conversely, the direct synthesis of Ag24Au cluster leads to a mixture of [Ag(25-x)Au(x)(SR)18](-), x=1-8. Mass spectrometry and crystallography of [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) reveal the presence of the Au heteroatom at the Ag25 center, forming Ag24Au. The successful exchange of the central Ag of Ag25 with Au causes perturbations in the Ag25 crystal structure, which are reflected in the absorption, luminescence, and ambient stability of the particle. These properties are compared with those of Ag25 and Ag24Pd clusters with same ligand and structural framework, providing new insights into the modulation of cluster properties with dopants at the single-atom level.

  19. Necklace-shaped Au-Ag nanoalloys: laser-assisted synthesis and nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarkhani, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Dadras, S.; Chehrghani, A.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    2011-06-01

    Here in this paper, necklace-shaped Au-Ag nanoalloys (NAs) have been synthesized by a laser-based approach. A chain of Ag nanoparticles (NPs), which were joined together with Au junctions, was formed upon copper vapor laser (CVL) irradiation of a colloidal mixture of Ag and Au NPs; while the corresponding NPs were separately provided by laser ablation of gold and silver targets in deionized water by a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Dependence of the NAs development process on the CVL irradiation time in three distinct stages of as-mixed, nucleation and complete formation has been systematically studied by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy analysis as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which was exploited to visually confirm the NAs evolution through the process. Furthermore, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was accurately employed to determine the synthesized alloy content. On the other hand, using the open-and closed-aperture Z-scan technique, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) as well as nonlinear refraction (NLR) changes in Au-Ag NAs were investigated through their formation. The deduced results from the nonlinear optical properties of the colloidal NAs in the mentioned stages were interpreted considering the spectroscopic and microscopic observations. The total change of individual Au and Ag NPs saturable absorption (SA) into the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behavior was concluded through the evolution into Au-Ag NAs.

  20. Real-time imaging and elemental mapping of AgAu nanoparticle transformations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E A; Slater, T J A; Prestat, E; Macedo, A; O'Brien, P; Camargo, P H C; Haigh, S J

    2014-11-21

    We report the controlled alloying, oxidation, and subsequent reduction of individual AgAu nanoparticles in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Through sequential application of electron beam induced oxidation and in situ heating and quenching, we demonstrate the transformation of Ag-Au core-shell nanoparticles into: AgAu alloyed, Au-Ag core-shell, hollow Au-Ag2O core-shell, and Au-Ag2O yolk-shell nanoparticles. We are able to directly image these morphological transformations in real-time at atomic resolution and perform energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging to map changing elemental distributions with sub-nanometre resolution. By combining aberration corrected STEM imaging and high efficiency EDX spectroscopy we are able to quantify not only the growth and coalescence of Kirkendall voids during oxidation but also the compositional changes occurring during this reaction. This is the first time that it has been possible to track the changing distribution of elements in an individual nanoparticle undergoing oxidation driven shell growth and hollowing.

  1. Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10−5 M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10−6 to 5×10−3 M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine. PMID:24596464

  2. Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Coros, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela Diana; Watanabe, Fumiya; Kannarpady, Ganesh K; Al Said, Said A Farha; Biris, Alexandru S; Pruneanu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr) sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au) and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular) and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current was determined to be well-defined, even at relatively low concentration (10(-5) M), for the Au/Gr-AuAg-1.5 electrode. In contrast, the signals recorded with the Au/Gr-AuAg-1 electrode were poorly defined within a 5×10(-6) to 5×10(-3) M concentration range, and many of them overlapped with the background. Such composite materials could find significant applications in nanotechnology, sensing, or nanomedicine.

  3. Global optimization of bimetallic cluster structures. I. Size-mismatched Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, and Au-Cu systems.

    PubMed

    Rapallo, Arnaldo; Rossi, Giulia; Ferrando, Riccardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Curley, Benjamin C; Lloyd, Lesley D; Tarbuck, Gary M; Johnston, Roy L

    2005-05-15

    A genetic algorithm approach is applied to the optimization of the potential energy of a wide range of binary metallic nanoclusters, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Au-Cu, Ag-Pd, Ag-Au, and Pd-Pt, modeled by a semiempirical potential. The aim of this work is to single out the driving forces that make different structural motifs the most favorable at different sizes and chemical compositions. Paper I is devoted to the analysis of size-mismatched systems, namely, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, and Au-Cu clusters. In Ag-Cu and Ag-Ni clusters, the large size mismatch and the tendency of Ag to segregate at the surface of Cu and Ni lead to the location of core-shell polyicosahedral minimum structures. Particularly stable polyicosahedral clusters are located at size N = 34 (at the composition with 27 Ag atoms) and N = 38 (at the composition with 32 and 30 Ag atoms). In Ag-Ni clusters, Ag32Ni13 is also shown to be a good energetic configuration. For Au-Cu clusters, these core-shell polyicosahedra are less common, because size mismatch is not reinforced by a strong tendency to segregation of Au at the surface of Cu, and Au atoms are not well accommodated upon the strained polyicosahedral surface.

  4. Theoretical studies of diatomic and triatomic systems containing the group IB atoms Cu, Ag, and Au

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Selected portions of the ground state potential energy surfaces of the Cu3, Ag3, AgCu2, and AuCu2 trimers are studied at the single-reference singles plus doubles configuration interaction and couple pair functional levels correlating 33 electrons. The calculations use the effective core potentials of Hay and Wadt (1985) to replace the deep core levels. The Cu3 and Ag3 molecules are found to have 2B2 obtuse-angled ground states, with low-lying 2A1 acute-angled excited states. The AgCu2 and AuCu2 molecules have 2A1 acute-angled ground states. The Cu3 molecule has a smaller 3d population than Ag3, and Cu3 has a smaller s electron density in the open-shell orbital than does Ag3, in agreement with recent ESR experiments.

  5. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Dhananjaya, B. L.

    2015-02-01

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  6. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Yallappa, S; Manjanna, J; Dhananjaya, B L

    2015-02-25

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  7. Egg White Templated Synthesis of Ag and Au@Ag Alloy Microspheres for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiansong; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the green synthesis of Ag and Au@Ag microspheres by using the aqueous extracts of the egg white as well as their application as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection. Both microspheres are prepared via the green synthesis method (room temperature, in aqueous solution and a benign reducer). The as-prepared urchin-like Ag microspheres have an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 10-40 nm. Meanwhile, the Au@Ag architectures prepared by galvanic replacement keep nearly similar size, which is also composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 10-40 nm. These products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The study on SERS activities is also carried out for both microspheres. It is found that Au@Ag microspheres possess much higher SERS activity than Ag microspheres. Our work may shed light on the design and synthesis of self-assembled 3D micro/nano-architectures for the use of SERS, catalysis, biosensors, nanomedicine, etc.

  8. Intriguing centrality dependence of the Au-Au source size at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.; The E802 Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    One of the main goals of high energy heavy ion physics is to establish the existence of a deconfined phase of nuclear matter--the quark-gluon plasma--at high temperatures or densities. One possible signature of such a phase transition, especially if it were first order, would be a larger source size or lifetime than a similar hadronic system. At current AGS energies, we attempt to form a quark- gluon plasma by achieving a high baryon density for a period of time in the center of the collision region. For a given density threshold, the size of this high density region should be a strong function of the impact parameter: the more central the event, the larger the high density region. Therefore, one possible signature of a quark-gluon plasma would be a sudden change in system lifetime or size as a function of the centrality of the collision. In this talk we present an intriguing effect which was not predicted for simple hadronic systems: a rapid increase of the HBT-measured source radius parameter for pion pairs with increasing centrality for Au-Au collisions at a beam momentum of 11.45 A GeV/c on a fixed target. Experience has shown, however, that we must be cautious in our interpretation. A complete understanding of the collision dynamics at a given energy must be built up from several measurements and new, but conventional, hadronic explanations must be considered for such unexpected effects. More study is needed, therefore, before any strong conclusions can be reached.

  9. TiO2 coated Au/Ag nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Na; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Gao, Nengyue; Pan, Yanlin; Yuan, Peiyan; Wang, Qing; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2013-05-01

    A facile method was used to prepare uniform Au NR/TiO2 and Au/Ag NR/TiO2 core-shell composite nanoparticles. Au/Ag NR/TiO2 nanoparticles were found to display significantly enhanced visible light photo-catalytic activity compared to Au NR/TiO2 and the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles. The enhancement mechanism was ascribed to injection of hot electrons of photo-excited Au/Ag NRs to TiO2, which was confirmed by 633 nm laser induced reduction of silver ions on the surface of Au/Ag NR/TiO2 composite nanoparticles.A facile method was used to prepare uniform Au NR/TiO2 and Au/Ag NR/TiO2 core-shell composite nanoparticles. Au/Ag NR/TiO2 nanoparticles were found to display significantly enhanced visible light photo-catalytic activity compared to Au NR/TiO2 and the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles. The enhancement mechanism was ascribed to injection of hot electrons of photo-excited Au/Ag NRs to TiO2, which was confirmed by 633 nm laser induced reduction of silver ions on the surface of Au/Ag NR/TiO2 composite nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The details of experimental procedures, SEM and TEM images of various nanoparticles prepared, photographs of the samples, control experiments, reusability test, wavelength dependent photocatalytic activities of Au/Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles, and UV-Vis spectra of a Ag nanoparticle formed on the surface of Au/Ag/TiO2 under visible light irradiation. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00517h

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles from unmodified apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Cook, R. E.; Miller, J. T.; Suthiwangcharoen, N.; Lee, S.; Winans, R. E.; Lee, B.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow-size distributed, water-soluble Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles with a size range from 1 to 5 nm are synthesized using unmodified apoferritin as a template. Fast protein liquid chromatography reveals that the nanoparticles are formed inside the apoferritin cavity and are stable in aqueous solution. Electron microscopy shows that the particles are uniform in size and composed of both Au and Ag. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure confirms that the particles have a core-shell structure with a Au core covered with a Ag shell. By varying the loading amounts of the silver precursor, the Ag shell thickness is controlled from one layer to several layers.

  11. Tuning the SERS Response with Ag-Au Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Thin Film Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Kesava; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-17

    Development of facile routes to the fabrication of thin film substrates with tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency and identification of the optimal conditions for maximizing the enhancement factor (EF) are significant in terms of both fundamental and application aspects of SERS. In the present work, polymer thin films with embedded bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag-Au are fabricated by a simple two-stage protocol. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the first stage, by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate by the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film through mild thermal annealing, without any additional reducing agent. In the second stage, aqueous solutions of chloroauric acid spread on the Ag-PVA thin film under ambient conditions, lead to the galvanic displacement of Ag by Au in situ inside the film, and the formation of Ag-Au particles. Evolution of the morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles into hollow cage structures and the distribution of Au on the nanoparticles are revealed through electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction of the nanocomposite thin film evolves with the Ag-Au composition; theoretical simulation of the extinction spectra provides insight into the observed trends. The Ag-Au-PVA thin films are found to be efficient substrates for SERS. The EF follows the variation of the LSPR extinction vis-à-vis the excitation laser wavelength, but with an offset, and the maximum SERS effect is obtained at very low Au content; experiments with Rhodamine 6G showed EFs on the order of 10(8) and a limit of detection of 0.6 pmol. The present study describes a facile and simple fabrication of a nanocomposite thin film that can be conveniently deployed in SERS investigations, and the utility of the bimetallic system to tune and maximize the EF.

  12. Kinetics-controlled growth of bimetallic RhAg on Au nanorods and their catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Guo, Xia; Xie, Fang; Zhu, Rui; Zhao, Qing; Yang, Jian

    2014-04-21

    Controlled growth of hybrid metallic nanocomposites for a desirable structure in a combination of selected components is highly important for their applications. Herein, the controllable growth of RhAg on the gold nanorods is achieved from the dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods to the brushy RhAg-coated nanorods, or the rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These different growth modes of RhAg on the gold nanorods are correlated with the reducing kinetics of RhCl₃ and AgNO₃. In view of the promising catalytic properties of Rh, the gold nanorods modified by RhAg in different structures are examined as catalysts for the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine. It is found that brushy RhAg-coated nanorods present a higher catalytic efficiency than dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods and rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These results would benefit the overgrowth control on the one-dimensional metallic nanorods and the rational design of new generation heterogeneous catalysts and optical devices.

  13. Centrality and collision system dependence of antiproton production from p+A to Au+Au collisions at AGS energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sako, H.; Ahle, L.; Akiba, Y.; Ashktorab, K.; Baker, M. D.; Beavis, D.; Britt, H. C.; Chang, J.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y. Y.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B. A.; Crawford, H. J.; Cumming, J. B.; Debbe, R.; Dunlop, J. C.; Eldredge, W.; Engelage, J.; Fung, S.-Y.

    1997-01-01

    Antiproton production in heavy ion collisions reflects subtle interplay between initial production and absorption by nucleons. Because the AGS energies (10--20 A(center-dot)GeV/c) are close to the antiproton production threshold, antiproton may be sensitive to cooperative processes such as QGP and hadronic multi-step processes. On the other hand, antiproton has been proposed as a probe of baryon density due to large N(anti N) annihilation cross sections. Cascade models predict the maximum baryon density reaches about 10 times the normal nucleus density in central Au+Au collisions, where the strong antiproton absorption is expected. In this paper, the authors show systematic studies of antiproton production from p+A to Au+Au collisions.

  14. Centrality definition using mid-rapidity E T distributions from p+Be to Au+Au at AGS energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.; E802 Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    Measurements by the E802 Collaboration of the A-dependence and pseudorapidity interval (δη) dependence of mid-rapidity E T distributions in a half-azimuth electromagnetic calorimeter are presented for p+Be, p+Au, O+Cu, Si+Au and Au+Au collisions at the BNL-AGS. The issues addressed are 1) whether the shapes of the upper edges of the E T distributions vary with δη similarly to the variation in shapes of mid-rapidity charged particle distributions and 2) how small a δη interval would still give a meaningful characterization of the 'nuclear geometry' of a reaction. A new way of plotting E T distributions was found from which the reaction dynamics could be read directly.

  15. Photochemically controlled electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Ag0 nanoclusters on au electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Michael; Katz, Eugenii; Gutkin, Vitaly; Willner, Itamar

    2006-12-05

    A photoisomerizable thiolated nitrospiropyran SP, (1a), monolayer is assembled on a Au electrode by the primary deposition of thiolated nitromerocyanine isomer 1b as a monolayer on the electrode, followed by the irradiation of the surface with visible light, lambda > 475 nm. The surface coverage of nitrospiropyran units (1a) on the electrode is 2 x 10-10 mole cm-2. Irradiation of the electrode with UV light, 320 nm < lambda < 360 nm, results in the nitromerocyanine, MR, monolayer on the electrode that binds Ag+ ions to the phenolate units. The Ag+ ions associated with the MR monolayer undergo cyclic reduction to surface-confined Ag0 nanoclusters, and reoxidation and dissolution of the Ag0 nanoclusters to Ag+ ions associated with the monolayer are demonstrated. The electron-transfer rate constants for the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 and for the dissolution of Ag0 were determined by chronoamperometry and correspond to ketred = 12.7 s-1 and ketox = 10.5 s-1, respectively. The nanoclustering rate was characterized by surface plasmon resonance measurements, and it proceeds on a time scale of 10 min. The size of the Ag0 nanoclusters is in the range of 2 to 20 nm. The electrochemically induced reduction of the MR-Ag+ monolayer to the MR-Ag0 surface and the reoxidation of the MR-Ag0 surface control the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the surface. The advancing contact angle of the MR-Ag0-functionalized surface is 59 degrees , and the contact angle of the MR-Ag+-monolayer-functionalized surface is 74 degrees . Photoisomerization of the Ag0-MR surface to the Ag0-SP state, followed by the oxidation of the Ag0 nanoclusters, results in the dissolution of the Ag+ ions into the electrolyte solution.

  16. An electrochemical and multispectroscopic study of corrosion of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Niemi, L; Minni, E; Ivaska, A

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion of a multi-phase Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-based commercial dental casting alloy and a Cu-Pd-rich and Ag-rich single-phase alloy was studied by open-circuit potential measurements, atomic absorption spectrometry, and electron spectroscopy. The alloys were immersed in an artificial saliva solution for 24 hr while the open-circuit potentials of the alloys were measured. The potentials were found to stabilize at certain levels after a steep rise during the first hours of the experiment. Cu was found to dissolve considerably from the Cu-Pd-rich alloy, with simultaneous enrichment of Pd in the surface layer of the alloy. Ag dissolved slightly from the Ag-rich alloy, but both Cu and Ag were found to dissolve from the multi-phase alloy. Neither Pd nor Au dissolved from any of the alloys studied.

  17. Luminescent, bimetallic AuAg alloy quantum clusters in protein templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Jyoti Sarita; Xavier, P. Lourdu; Chaudhari, Kamalesh; Bootharaju, M. S.; Goswami, N.; Pal, S. K.; Pradeep, T.

    2012-06-01

    We report the synthesis of luminescent AuAg alloy quantum clusters (QCs) in bovine serum albumin (BSA), for the first time, with experimentally determined atomic composition. Mixing of the as-synthesized protein-protected Au and Ag clusters resulted in the formation of alloy AuAg clusters within the BSA. Mass spectrometric analysis of the product of a 1 : 1 molar ratio reaction mixture of AuQC@BSA and AgQC@BSA suggested that the alloy clusters could be Au38-xAgx@BSA. Further analyses by standard techniques revealed that the alloy cluster core of ~1.2 nm diameter is composed of nearly zero valent Au and Ag atoms that exhibit distinctly different steady state and time resolved excited state luminescence profiles compared to the parent clusters. Tuning of the alloy composition was achieved by varying the molar ratio of the parent species in the reaction mixture and compositional changes were observed by mass spectrometry. In another approach, mixing of Au3+ ions with the as-synthesized AgQC@BSA also resulted in the formation of alloy clusters through galvanic exchange reactions. We believe that alloy clusters with the combined properties of the constituents in versatile protein templates would have potential applications in the future. The work presents interesting aspects of the reactivity of the protein-protected clusters.We report the synthesis of luminescent AuAg alloy quantum clusters (QCs) in bovine serum albumin (BSA), for the first time, with experimentally determined atomic composition. Mixing of the as-synthesized protein-protected Au and Ag clusters resulted in the formation of alloy AuAg clusters within the BSA. Mass spectrometric analysis of the product of a 1 : 1 molar ratio reaction mixture of AuQC@BSA and AgQC@BSA suggested that the alloy clusters could be Au38-xAgx@BSA. Further analyses by standard techniques revealed that the alloy cluster core of ~1.2 nm diameter is composed of nearly zero valent Au and Ag atoms that exhibit distinctly different

  18. Near infrared Ag/Au alloy nanoclusters: tunable photoluminescence and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanxi; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Hongchen; Lin, Quan; Zhang, Chi

    2014-02-15

    The fluorescent nanomaterials play an important role in cellular imaging. Although the synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoclusters (NCs) have been developing rapidly, there are many technical issues in preparing metal alloy NCs. Herein, we used a facile galvanic replacement reaction to prepare Ag/Au alloy NCs. The characterizations of UV, PL, HRTEM, EDX and XPS confirm one fact the Ag/Au alloy NCs are carried out. As-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs display near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence centered at 716 nm and show tunable luminescence from visible red (614 nm) to NIR (716 nm) by controlling the experimental Ag/Au ratios. Moreover, as-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs are protected by glutathione (GSH) whose some functional groups including thiol, carboxyl and amino groups make the as-prepared alloy NCs exhibit good dispersion in aqueous solution, high physiological stability and favorable biocompatibility. Together with NIR fluorescence, these advantages make alloy NCs be promising candidate in biological labeling.

  19. Third-order optical nonlinearity studies of bilayer Au/Ag metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezher, M. H.; Chong, W. Y.; Zakaria, R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents nonlinear optical studies of bilayer metallic films of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) on glass substrate prepared using electron beam evaporation. The preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the substrate involved the use of electron beam deposition, then thermal annealing at 600 °C and 270 °C, respectively, to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au and a layer of Ag NPs. Observation of field-effect scanning electron microscope images indicated the size of the NPs. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the fabricated NP layers. The third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients for Au and Ag are (-9.34 and  -1.61)  ×  10-11 cm2 W-1 given lower n 2, in comparison with bilayer (Au and Ag) NPs at  -1.24  ×  10-10 cm2 W-1. The results show bilayer NPs have higher refractive index coefficients thus enhance the nonlinearity effects.

  20. Study on surface-enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of Ag core-Au shell bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the relationship between the states of Ag core-Au shell (core-shell) nanoparticles (NP) and the intensity of Raman scattering of analytes dissolved in the water and adsorbed on the NP was studied. The core-shell NP were synthesised by coating Au layers over Ag seeds by the method of "seed-growth". To highlight the advantage of the core-shell NP, Ag colloid and Au colloid were chosen for contrasting. The analyte that were chosen for this testing were methylene blue (MB) for the reason that MB has very strong signal in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The SERS activity of optimalizing states of Ag and Au colloids were compared with that of core-shell NP when MB was used as analyte. In this study, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as aggregating agents for Ag, Au colloids and core-shell NP, because anions have a strong influence on the SERS efficiency and the stability of colloids. The results indicate that core-shell NP can obviously enhance the SERS of MB. The aim of this study is to prove that compared with the metal colloid, the core-shell NP is a high efficiency SERS active substrate.

  1. Tarnish resistance evaluation of experimental Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Yasuko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Fujita, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the tarnish resistance of eight experimental Pd-free Ag-Au-Pt-Cu dental alloys in a 0.1% Na(2)S aqueous solution at 37 degrees C. Color measurements of the plate samples were made using a computerized spectrophotometer before and after immersion in the test solution for up to 72 hours. Tarnish discoloration was evaluated using the color difference vector, DeltaE*, in the CIELAB color space. Microstructural observation of each sample through an optical microscope revealed the matrix phase as the major constituent and second-phase small grains in the matrix phase. Selective tarnish discoloration occurred in the matrix, and fractional area of the matrix to the whole surface area was influenced by the sum of Au and Ag concentrations. The DeltaE* value significantly decreased with increasing Au/(Au+Ag) atomic ratio. In conclusion, the Au/(Au+Ag) ratio in an alloy and the fractional area of the matrix were found to be primary and auxiliary factors affecting the tarnish resistance of the experimental alloys.

  2. Electrical transport properties of Co-based skutterudites filled with Ag and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Maria; Lo, Cynthia S.

    2012-09-01

    This work presents theoretical calculations of the electrical transport properties of the Ag, Au, and La fractionally filled bulk skutterudites: CoSb3, CoAs3, and CoP3. Density functional theory, along with projector augmented wave potentials, was used to calculate bulk band structures and partial density of states. The Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical conductivity (σ), and power factor (S2σ) were calculated as a function of temperature and filling fraction using the momentum matrix method along the entire first Brillouin zone. Calculated trends in the electrical transport properties agree with previously published experimental measurements for p-type unfilled and La-filled CoSb3. The calculated S and σ values for the Ag- and Au-filled compounds indicate that the most promising electronic properties are exhibited by p-type Au0.125(CoSb3)4, Au0.25(CoSb3)4, and Au(CoSb3)4. Au is therefore recommended as a promising filler for improved thermoelectric properties in cobalt antimonides. Ag is also a good filler for cobalt phosphides; the creation of a negative indirect band gap is observed in Ag(CoP3)4, which indicates semimetallic behavior, so this compound may possibly exhibit lower thermal conductivity than metallic CoP3. Finally, we recommend future directions for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit of these materials.

  3. A dealloying process of core-shell Au@AuAg nanorods for porous nanorods with enhanced catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xia; Ye, Wei; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Jian

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional porous metallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention due to their unique shape and hollow structure. Herein, the gold nanorods in a porous shell of an AuAg alloy are synthesized via a dealloying process of the core-shell Au@AuAg nanorods at room temperature. The formation of tiny pores in the shell results in the huge red-shift, sharp decrease and drastic broadening of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance absorption. The continuous removal of silver from the porous nanorods leads to the breakage of tiny pores and leaves a rough surface on the nanorods behind. The rough surface gradually becomes smooth in the subsequent dealloying process. The surface structures of these intermediates are correlated with their absorption spectra and catalytic activities for the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol. The porous nanorods show a higher catalytic efficiency than the gold nanorods, the core-shell nanorods and the rough nanorods. The results indicate that the dealloying of anisotropic bimetal nanomaterials not only provides an effective pathway to carve the structures on the nanoscale but also offers numerous opportunities to observe novel optical properties and enhanced catalysis performances.One-dimensional porous metallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention due to their unique shape and hollow structure. Herein, the gold nanorods in a porous shell of an AuAg alloy are synthesized via a dealloying process of the core-shell Au@AuAg nanorods at room temperature. The formation of tiny pores in the shell results in the huge red-shift, sharp decrease and drastic broadening of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance absorption. The continuous removal of silver from the porous nanorods leads to the breakage of tiny pores and leaves a rough surface on the nanorods behind. The rough surface gradually becomes smooth in the subsequent dealloying process. The surface structures of these intermediates are correlated with their absorption spectra and

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering responses of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with different thickness of Ag shell.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanan; Zhou, Jun; Zou, Weibo; Jia, Zhenhong; Petti, Lucia; Mormile, Pasquale

    2014-06-01

    The properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of the core-shell bimetallic nanostructures, that is the monodisperse Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with different thickness of Ag shell, are theoretically and experimental researched. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of the Au@Ag core-shell nanorods are measured and displayed their blue-shifts of the longitudinal plasmon resonance peaks with increasing of Ag concentrations in the colloidal solution. And the absorption spectra of the Au@Ag core-shell nanorods are simulated by the Finite Element Method (FEM), which are in agreement with the experimental measurements and reveal their LSPR mechanism as the varying structures. In addition, Rhodamine 6G, as a Raman reporter molecule, is used to investigate SERS of gold nanorods and Au@Ag core-shell nanorods. It is found that Au@Ag core-shell nanorods have better SERS responses, comparing with those of Au nanorods, and their SERS intensities are increased with the increases of the Ag shell thickness, which demonstrate that the chemisorptive bond effect and the morphology of the nanoparticle play key roles to the SERS signals. It is significant to design the biosensor based on the properties of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods.

  5. Antibacterial activity of microstructured Ag/Au sacrificial anode thin films.

    PubMed

    Köller, Manfred; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio J S; Geukes, Jonathan; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Ludwig, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Ten different Ag dot arrays (16 to 625 microstructured dots per square mm) were fabricated on a continuous Au thin film and for comparison also on Ti film by sputter deposition and photolithographic patterning. To analyze the antibacterial activity of these microstructured films Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were placed onto the array surfaces and cultivated overnight. To analyze the viability of planktonic as well as surface adherent bacteria, the applied bacterial fluid was subsequently aspirated, plated on blood agar plates and adherent bacteria were detected by fluorescence microscopy. A particular antibacterial effect towards both bacterial strains was induced by Ag dot arrays on fabricated Au thin film (sacrificial anode system for Ag), due to the release of Ag ions from dissolution of Ag dots in contrast to Ag dot arrays fabricated on the Ti thin films (non-sacrificial anode system for Ag) which remained intact to the original dot shape. The required number of Ag dots on gold film to achieve complete bactericidal effects for both bacterial strains was seven times lower than that observed with Ag dot arrays on Ti film.

  6. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    PubMed Central

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br– and I–), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10−8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface. PMID:26412773

  7. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  8. Energetic, electronic, and thermal effects on structural properties of Ag-Au nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuyi; Johnston, Roy L

    2008-01-01

    Using a genetic algorithm global optimization approach combined with density functional theory calculations, a search has been made for the lowest energies of (AgAu)(m) nanoalloys with 20-150 atoms (diameters of 1.0-2.0 nm). A total of 31 decahedra, 35 icosahedra, and 2 close-packed motifs are identified in two icosahedral windows and one Marks-decahedral window. These structural motifs have twinned, capped, defective, and distorted atomic packing compared to classical clusters, such as the icosahedron. The magic numbers, atomic ordering, electronic structure, and melting behavior are further studied, and a new poly-nanocrystalline decahedral motif, Ag(44)Au(44), is found to have high structural, electronic, and thermal stability. Our results show that alloying can lead to a remarkable stabilization of local order and provide a comprehensive model for the structures and properties of Ag-Au nanoalloys.

  9. Development of Au-Ag nanowire mesh fabrication by UV-induced approach

    SciTech Connect

    Saggar, Siddhartha; Predeep, Padmanabhan

    2014-10-15

    In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the presently prevailing transparent conducting electrode (TCE) - indium tin oxide (ITO) - many materials have been considered for replacing ITO. Recently, a novel method has been reported for the synthesis of Au-Ag nanowire (NW) mesh, and tested successfully for organic-light-emitting-diodes (OLEDs). It employs UV-induced reduction of gold- and silver- precursors to form Au-Ag NW mesh. In this report, Au-Ag NW mesh thin films are synthesized on glass substrates with an objective for use as facing-electrode for Organic Photovoltaics. Various issues and factors affecting the fabrication-process have been improved, and are also discussed here. The electrode showed good transmitivity, of around 95% (excluding that of glass substrate). The advantage of the technique is its simple processing method and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Effect of Au Content on Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Au-Cu-Ag-Si Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zhang, W.; Chen, M. W.; Saotome, Y.; Fukuhara, M.; Inoue, A.

    2011-06-01

    The thermal stability, glass-forming ability (GFA), and mechanical and electrical properties of Au-based Au x Si17Cu75.5- x Ag7.5 ( x = 40 to 75.5 at. pct) metallic glasses were investigated. The glass transition temperature ( T g ) and crystallization temperature ( T x ) decreased with increasing Au content. The ultralow T g values below 373 K (100 °C) were obtained for alloys with x = 55 to 75.5. The alloys with x = 45 to 70 exhibited a high stabilization of supercooled liquid and a high GFA, and the supercooled liquid region and critical sample diameter for glass formation were in the range of 31 K to 50 K and 2 to 5 mm, respectively. The compressive fracture strength ( σ c,f ), Young's modulus ( E), and Vicker's hardness ( H v ) of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) decreased with increasing Au content. A linear correlation between Au concentration and the characteristic temperature, i.e., T g and T x , and mechanical properties, i.e., σ c,f , E, and H v , as well as electrical resistivity can be found in the BMGs, which will be helpful for the composition design of the desirable Au-based BMGs with tunable physical properties.

  11. The unusual effect of AgNO3 on the growth of Au nanostructures and their catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingliang; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Guangju; Han, Shuhua; Wang, Wenfang; Zhang, Lijie; Chen, Wei; Zou, Chao; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-05-01

    Au nanostructures attract much attention due to their potential applications in many fields. The controlled synthesis is critical to their properties modulation and applications. AgNO3-assisted synthesis is a widely used method for controllably preparing Au nanostructures in aqueous system. Herein, the effect of AgNO3 on the growth of Au nanostructures in polyol is studied. We observe an unusual effect that AgNO3 can induce the formation of pentatwinned Au nanostructures (nanorods and decahedra) and block the growth of Au nanorods. More interestingly, this blocking effect can be tuned through controlling the amount of AgNO3. A moderate amount of AgNO3 facilitates the formation of Au nanorods. A large amount of AgNO3 completely blocks the growth of nanorods and favors the formation of high quality decahedra (decahedra can be considered as nanorods with 0 nm longitudinal length). Besides, this blocking effect also allows preparation of different high-index-faceted Au nanobipyramids. These prepared Au nanostructures further serve as starting templates to fabricate other heterostructured Au/Ag nanomaterials, such as Ag-Au-Ag segmental nanorods, Au@Ag core-shelled nanostructures. The prepared nanostructures exhibit size- and structure-dependent catalytic performance in the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by sodium borohydride.Au nanostructures attract much attention due to their potential applications in many fields. The controlled synthesis is critical to their properties modulation and applications. AgNO3-assisted synthesis is a widely used method for controllably preparing Au nanostructures in aqueous system. Herein, the effect of AgNO3 on the growth of Au nanostructures in polyol is studied. We observe an unusual effect that AgNO3 can induce the formation of pentatwinned Au nanostructures (nanorods and decahedra) and block the growth of Au nanorods. More interestingly, this blocking effect can be tuned through controlling the amount of AgNO3. A moderate

  12. Ru-Ag and Ru-Au dicarbene complexes from an abnormal carbene ruthenium system.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Mario J; Pöthig, Alexander; Jandl, Christian; Kühn, Fritz E; Baratta, Walter

    2015-07-14

    Reaction of [Ru(OAc)2(PPh3)2] with a P-functionalized imidazolium bromide easily affords a cationic abnormal carbene Ru system. Metalation with Ag2O yields a Ru-Ag complex containing an anionic dicarbene ligand, while subsequent transmetalation with Au(tht)Cl leads to the corresponding Ru-Au system. The bimetallic complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and are the first examples of complexes bearing anionic dicarbene ligands connecting two different d-block elements.

  13. Effect of Annealing Twins on Electromigration in Ag-8Au-3Pd Bonding Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tung-Han; Wang, Hsi-Ching; Chuang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Jun-Der; Tsai, Hsing-Hua

    2013-03-01

    An innovative Ag-8Au-3Pd bonding wire with a high twin density has been produced. The grain size of this annealing-twinned wire changes moderately during electrical stressing, unlike that of the conventional grained wire, which increases drastically and even leads to a bamboo structure. In addition, the durability against electromigration of the annealing-twinned Ag-8Au-3Pd alloy wire is higher than that of the conventional grained wire. This higher durability can be ascribed to the surface reconstruction of a stepwise morphology and slow grain growth resulting from the abundance of annealing twins in this wire.

  14. Ternary Solid Phase Equilibria in the Systems (Ag,In,Au)-(Cd,He)-Te

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-22

    thermochemnical data. In closed thermodynamic systems Ag,In, and Au were shown to be stable with respect to stoichiometric CdTe and Ag, In reactive towards...compositions within Codes Avail and/or 2lit Specilal the six ternary systems. Thermodynamic calculations were performed using the data collected in... Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements, (Amer.Chem.Soc., Washington, D.C., 1956) 11) John H. Pugh, Masters Thesis, UCLA, 1986-unpublished. 12) W.G

  15. Assemblies of silicate sol-gel matrix encapsulated core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles: interparticles surface plasmon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2012-06-01

    Cluster-like assemblies of bimetal core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles were prepared. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles using two different types of preformed Au nanoparticles in the presence of EDAS silane monomer, one stabilized by citrate and other by β-cyclodextrin. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles by the reduction of Ag+ ions by β-cyclodextrin and EDAS silane composite. Interestingly, productive Ag shell deposition occurred only on the β-cyclodextrin-stabilized Au nanoparticles and led to the assembly formation, whereas aggregation occurred with the citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles. The average particle size of the core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles was found to be 6.5 nm. Spectral features of this assembly of core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles resembled the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance behavior of Au nanorod-like structures arising from the interparticles surface plasmon coupling. The assemblies so prepared were characterized by uv-vis absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril'sk sulfide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, E. M.; Kulagov, E. A.; Serova, A. A.; Kulikova, I. M.; Korotaeva, N. N.; Sereda, E. V.; Tushentsova, I. N.; Belyakov, S. N.; Zhukov, N. N.

    2015-09-01

    The undeformed ore-bearing intrusions of the Noril'sk ore field (NOF) cut through volcanic rocks of the Late Permian-Early Triassic trap association folded in brachysynclines. Due to the nonuniform load on the roof of intrusive bodies, most sulfide melts were squeezed, up to the tops of ore-bearing intrusions; readily fusible Ni-Fe-Cu sulfide melts were almost completely squeezed. In our opinion, not only one but two stages of mineralization developed at the Noril'sk deposits: (i) syntrap magmatic and (ii) epigenetic post-trap metamorphic-hydrothermal. All platinum-group minerals (PGM) and minerals of gold are metasomatic in the Noril'sk ores. They replaced sulfide solid solutions and exsolution structures. All types of PGM and Au minerals occur in the ores, varying in composition from pyrrhotite to chalcopyrite, talnakhite, mooihoekite, and rich in galena; they are localized in the inner and outer contact zones and differ only in the quantitative proportions of ore minerals. The aureoles of PGM and Au-Ag minerals are wider than the contours of sulfide bodies and coincide with halos of fluid impact on orebodies and adjacent host rocks. The pneumatolytic PGM and Au-Ag minerals are correlated in abundance with the dimensions of sulfide bodies. Their amounts are maximal in veins of late fusible ore composed of eutectic PbS ss and iss intergrowths, as well as at their contacts. The Pd and Pt contents in eutectic sulfide ores of NOF are the world's highest. In the process of noble-metal mineral formation, the fluids supply Pd, Pt, Au, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, and a part of Te, whereas Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Ag, Rh, a part of Te and Pd are leached from the replaced sulfide minerals. The pneumatolytic PGM of the early stage comprises Pd and Pt intermetallic compounds enriched in Au along with Pd-Pt-Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-Pb(As) and (Pd,Pt,Au)(Sn,Sb,Bi,Te,As) solid solutions. Pneumatolytic PGM and Au minerals of the middle stage are products of solid-phase transformation and recrystallization of

  17. Microstructural characteristics of Au/Al bonded interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li Junhui . E-mail: lijunhui@mail.csu.edu.cn; Han Lei; Duan Jian; Zhong Jue

    2007-02-15

    Fracture characteristics at the interface of ultrasonic bonds between Au and Al were characterized by SEM following pull-testing to effect separation of the bonded joints. Vertical sections at the bonding point were produced by ion-sputter thinning, and were examined by TEM. Results show that the thickness of the Au/Al atomic diffusion interface was about 500 nm due to combined effects of ultrasonic and thermal energy. Ultrasonic vibration activates dislocations in the crystalline lattice and increases atomic diffusion. The fracture morphology on the lift-off interface was dimpled rupture. Tensile fracture occurred during the pull-test not at the bonded interface but in the base material; the bond strength at the interface was enhanced by the diffusion reactions that occurred across the interface due to the combined ultrasonic and thermal energy.

  18. TiO2 coated Au/Ag nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Gao, Nengyue; Pan, Yanlin; Yuan, Peiyan; Wang, Qing; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2013-05-21

    A facile method was used to prepare uniform Au NR/TiO2 and Au/Ag NR/TiO2 core-shell composite nanoparticles. Au/Ag NR/TiO2 nanoparticles were found to display significantly enhanced visible light photo-catalytic activity compared to Au NR/TiO2 and the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles. The enhancement mechanism was ascribed to injection of hot electrons of photo-excited Au/Ag NRs to TiO2, which was confirmed by 633 nm laser induced reduction of silver ions on the surface of Au/Ag NR/TiO2 composite nanoparticles.

  19. Ag@Au concave cuboctahedra: A unique probe for monitoring Au-catalyzed reduction and oxidation reactions by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jiawei; Winget, Sarah A.; Wu, Yiren; ...

    2016-01-26

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au concave cuboctahedra by titrating aqueous HAuCl4 into a suspension of Ag cuboctahedra in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), NaOH, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) at room temperature. Initially, the Au atoms derived from the reduction of Au3+ by AA are conformally deposited on the entire surface of a Ag cuboctahedron. Upon the formation of a complete Au shell, however, the subsequently formed Au atoms are preferentially deposited onto the Au{100} facets, resulting in the formation of a Ag@Au cuboctahedron with concave structures at the sites of {111} facets. The concave cuboctahedramore » embrace excellent SERS activity that is more than 70-fold stronger than that of the original Ag cuboctahedra at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The concave cuboctahedra also exhibit remarkable stability in the presence of an oxidant such as H2O2 because of the protection by a complete Au shell. These two unique attributes enable in-situ SERS monitoring of the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) to 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) by NaBH4 through a 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (trans-DMAB) intermediate and the subsequent oxidation of 4-ATP back to trans-DMAB upon the introduction of H2O2.« less

  20. Ag@Au concave cuboctahedra: A unique probe for monitoring Au-catalyzed reduction and oxidation reactions by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiawei; Winget, Sarah A.; Wu, Yiren; Su, Dong; Sun, Xiaojun; Xie, Zhao -Xiong; Qin, Dong

    2016-01-26

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au concave cuboctahedra by titrating aqueous HAuCl4 into a suspension of Ag cuboctahedra in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), NaOH, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) at room temperature. Initially, the Au atoms derived from the reduction of Au3+ by AA are conformally deposited on the entire surface of a Ag cuboctahedron. Upon the formation of a complete Au shell, however, the subsequently formed Au atoms are preferentially deposited onto the Au{100} facets, resulting in the formation of a Ag@Au cuboctahedron with concave structures at the sites of {111} facets. The concave cuboctahedra embrace excellent SERS activity that is more than 70-fold stronger than that of the original Ag cuboctahedra at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The concave cuboctahedra also exhibit remarkable stability in the presence of an oxidant such as H2O2 because of the protection by a complete Au shell. These two unique attributes enable in-situ SERS monitoring of the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) to 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) by NaBH4 through a 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (trans-DMAB) intermediate and the subsequent oxidation of 4-ATP back to trans-DMAB upon the introduction of H2O2.

  1. Phase equilibria in the Ag-Au-In system at 500°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashkina, E. A.; Romanova, A. G.; Pavlenko, A. S.; Kabanova, E. G.; Kuznetsov, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    Phase equilibria in Ag-Au-In system at 500°C are investigated by means of electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. The part of the system's isothermal cross section with an indium content of up to 50 at % is constructed.

  2. Theoretical investigation on reactivity of Ag and Au atoms toward CS2 in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Ling; Tian, An-Min; Wong, Ning-Bew

    2008-02-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Ag and Au atoms with CS2 on both doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been investigated using UBPW91 and UCCSD(T) methods. The two studied reactions proceed via a similar insertion-elimination mechanism instead of a direct abstract mechanism. The reaction Ag + CS2 --> SAgCS is endothermic by about 21E0 kcal/mol. But another reaction Au + CS2 --> SAuCS is slightly exothermic by about 8.8 kcal/mol, which is different from the previous theoretical prediction. In the overall reactions, the rate-determining step is found to be the C-S bond cleavage step with a high-activation barrier of about 40 kcal/mol. The calculated vibration frequencies are in good agreement with the experiment values and show that the BPW91 method is very good for the calculation of small molecules containing Ag and Au. The reactivity of the two atoms toward CS2 is compared with those of the first-row transition-metal atoms. The present study provides a detailed picture of the C-S bond activation and cleavage in carbon disulfide mediated by second and the third row transition-metal atoms Ag and Au.

  3. Investigation of the ratio of proton-stopping cross sections in Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Semrad, D.; Golser, R.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the ratio of stopping cross sections may help in determining best values from measurements. The case of Ag and Au is discussed, where theoretical considerations show that this ratio always has a value smaller than 1. This is confirmed experimentally for proton energies larger than 70 keV, in contradiction to all published stopping-power tabulations.

  4. Collagen-chitosan scaffold modified with Au and Ag nanoparticles: Synthesis and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, M. S.; Kamitov, E. E.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Peters, G. S.; Naumkin, A. V.; Suzer, S.; Vasil'kov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the dermal biomimetic scaffolds are widely used in regenerative medicine. Collagen-chitosan scaffold one of these materials possesses antibacterial activity, good compatibility with living tissues and has been already used as a wound-healing material. In this article, collagen-chitosan scaffolds modified with Ag and Au nanoparticles have been synthesized using novel method - the metal-vapor synthesis. The nanocomposite materials are characterized by XPS, TEM, SEM and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques. According to XRD data, the mean size of the nanoparticles (NPs) is 10.5 nm and 20.2 nm in Au-Collagen-Chitosan (Au-CollCh) and Ag-Collagen-Chitosan (Ag-CollCh) scaffolds, respectively in fair agreement with the TEM data. SAXS analysis of the composites reveals an asymmetric size distribution peaked at 10 nm for Au-CollCh and 25 nm for Ag-CollCh indicative of particle's aggregation. According to SEM data, the metal-carrying scaffolds have layered structure and the nanoparticles are rather uniformly distributed on the surface material. XPS data indicate that the metallic nanoparticles are in their unoxidized/neutral states and dominantly stabilized within the chitosan-rich domains.

  5. Structural properties of Au and Ag nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, M. A.; Fedorov, A. V.; van Veen, A.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Hibma, T.; Zimmerman, R. L.

    2002-05-01

    Gold and silver nanoclusters embedded in MgO were created by means of ion implantation of 1.0 MeV Au or 600 keV Ag ions to a dose of 10 16 cm -2 into single crystals of MgO(1 0 0) and subsequent annealing at 1473 K for a period of 22 h. The structural properties of the nanoclusters were characterised by optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Nanocluster sizes are estimated using three different methods: using the Doyle formula for the broadening of the optical absorption peak associated with Mie plasmon resonance; using the Scherrer formula for the broadening of the Au and Ag XRD peaks, and from direct observation of TEM images. For the Au clusters, the methods are in excellent agreement with mean cluster sizes of 4-5 nm. For the Ag clusters, the optical Doyle method yields a mean nanocluster size of 5 nm while the XRD and XTEM methods yield 10-11 nm. The XRD and XTEM results reveal a cube-on-cube orientation relationship of the Au and Ag nanoclusters with respect to the MgO matrix.

  6. Valence Change Driven by Constituent Element Substitution in the Mixed-Valence Quasicrystal and Approximant Au-Al-Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukawa, Shuya; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Nakayama, Mika; Deguchi, Kazuhiko; Imura, Keiichiro; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Kashimoto, Shiro; Ishimasa, Tsutomu; Sato, Noriaki K.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum criticality has been considered to be specific to crystalline materials such as heavy fermions. Very recently, however, the Tsai-type quasicrystal Au51Al34Yb15 has been reported to show unusual quantum critical behavior. To obtain a deeper understanding of this new material, we have searched for other Tsai-type cluster materials. Here, we report that the metal alloys Au44Ga41Yb15 and Ag47Ga38Yb15 are members of the 1/1 approximant to the Tsai-type quasicrystal and that both possess no localized magnetic moment. We suggest that the Au-Al-Yb system is located near the border of the divalent and trivalent states of the Yb ion; we also discuss a possible origin of the disappearance of magnetism, associated with the valence change, by the substitution of the constituent elements.

  7. Asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructure with enhanced photothermal performance and SERS activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Zeke; Kang, Xiaolin; Guo, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Cheng, Si

    2016-01-28

    Most as-reported nanostructures through galvanic replacement reactions are still symmetric hollow structures, until now. Asymmetric structures fabricated through a galvanic replacement reaction have been rarely reported. However, asymmetric heterostructures can generally lead to new intriguing properties through asymmetric synergistic coupling. Here, we report a simple synthesis of an asymmetric one-ended AgPd bimetal on Au nanorods (AuNR) by combining a galvanic replacement reaction with an Ostwald ripening process. The morphological evolution from a nanodumbbell to a dandelion structure is thoroughly investigated. The unique asymmetric AgPd-AuNR heterostructures possess the required plasmonic performance and avoid strong damping caused by the poor plasmonic metal Pd, resulting in a superior photothermal heating performance and enhanced SERS sensitivity for in situ monitoring of a catalytic reaction compared with the symmetric counterparts.

  8. SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijuan; Li, Si; Han, Fei; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-09-15

    Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter which plays a key role in the life science. Self-assembled Au@Ag nanorod dimers based on aptamers were developed for ultrasensitive dopamine detection. The electronic field was significantly enhanced by the addition of silver shell coating on the surface of Au NR dimer. The results displayed that Au@Ag NR dimers were ideal building blocks for constructing the SERS substrates with prominent Raman enhancement effects. It was found that with using this Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-encoded this sensing system, a limit of detection of 0.006 pM and a wide linear range of 0.01-10 pM for dopamine detection were obtained. Our work open up a new avenue for the diagnosis and drug-discovery programs.

  9. Cyclic voltammetry and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Ag L3-edge on electrochemical halogenation of Ag layers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Osamu; Nakamura, Masashi

    2011-05-01

    One to three layers of Ag grown on a Au(111) electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry in chloride and bromide solutions and by ex-situ near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Ag L3-edge (Ag L3-NEXAFS). The one and two layers obtained by underpotential deposition exhibited reduced intensity at the absorption edge in the Ag L3-NEXAFS spectra, which suggests the gain of d-electrons in these layers. The cyclic voltammograms and the Ag L3-NEXAFS spectra indicate that the second and third layers of Ag halogenated at positive potentials, whereas the first layer remained in metallic form.

  10. Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles-based localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensor for sensitive detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue; Chen, Yanhua; Qin, Meihong; Chen, Yang; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Tian, Yuan

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles were prepared based on the reduction of the metal salts HAuCl4 and AgNO3 at the surface of seed particles. Due to the synergistic effect between Au and Ag, the hybrid nanoparticles are particularly stable and show excellent performances on the detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole). The binding of target molecule at the surface of Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles was demonstrated based on both localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. The LSPR intensity is directly proportional to the methimazole concentration in the range of 0.10-3.00×10(-7) mol L(-1). The SERS spectrum can be applied in identification of methimazole molecule. The LSPR coupled with SERS based on the Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles would be very attractive for the quantitative determination and qualitative analysis of the analytes in medicines.

  11. Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions at the AGS: recent results from E917.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.-C.; Back, B. B.; Betts, R. R.; Britt, H. C.; Chang, W. C.; Gillitzer, A.; Henning, W. F.; Hofman, D. J.; Holzman, B.; Nanal, V.; Wuosmaa, A. H.

    1999-03-30

    Strangeness production in Au+Au collisions has been measured via the yields of K{sup +} , K{sup {minus}} at 6, 8 AGeV and of {bar {Lambda}} at 10.8 AGeV beam kinetic energy in experiment E917. By varying the collision centrally and beam energy, a systematic search for indications of new phenomena and in-medium effects under high baryon density is undertaken.

  12. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported.

  13. Hydroquinone-assisted synthesis of branched au-ag nanoparticles with polydopamine coating as highly efficient photothermal agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhao, Liang; Rong, Li; Lan, Shijie; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2015-06-03

    Despite the success of galvanic replacement in preparing hollow nanostructures with diversified morphologies via the replacement reaction between sacrificial metal nanoparticles (NPs) seeds and less active metal ions, limited advances are made for producing branched alloy nanostructures. In this paper, we report an extended galvanic replacement for preparing branched Au-Ag NPs with Au-rich core and Ag branches using hydroquinone (HQ) as the reductant. In the presence of HQ, the preformed Ag seeds are replaceable by Au and, in turn, supply the growth of Ag branches. By altering the feed ratio of Ag seeds, HAuCl4, and HQ, the size and morphology of the NPs are tunable. Accordingly, the surface plasmon resonance absorption is tuned to near-infrared (NIR) region, making the branched NPs as potential materials in photothermal therapy. The branched NPs are further coated with polydopamine (PDA) shell via dopamine polymerization at room temperature. In comparison with bare NPs, PDA-coated branched Au-Ag (Au-Ag@PDA) NPs exhibit improved stability, biocompatibility, and photothermal performance. In vitro experiments indicate that the branched Au-Ag@PDA NPs are competitive agents for photothermal ablation of cancer cells.

  14. Chloroplasts-mediated biosynthesis of nanoscale Au-Ag alloy for 2-butanone assay based on electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Qian, Qirong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-08-01

    We reported a one-pot, environmentally friendly method for biosynthesizing nanoscale Au-Ag alloy using chloroplasts as reducers and stabilizers. The prepared nanoscale Au-Ag alloy was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was further used to identify the possible biomolecules from chloroplasts that are responsible for the formation and stabilization of Au-Ag alloy. The FTIR results showed that chloroplast proteins bound to the nanoscale Au-Ag alloy through free amino groups. The bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles have only one plasmon band, indicating the formation of an alloy structure. HR-TEM images showed that the prepared Au-Ag alloy was spherical and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. The high crystallinity of the Au-Ag alloy was confirmed by SAED and XRD patterns. The prepared Au-Ag alloy was dispersed into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to form a nanosensing film. The nanosensing film exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for 2-butanone oxidation at room temperature. The anodic peak current (Ip) has a linear relationship with the concentrations of 2-butanone over the range of 0.01% to 0.075% (v/v), when analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. The excellent electronic catalytic characteristics might be attributed to the synergistic electron transfer effects of Au-Ag alloy and MWNTs. It can reasonably be expected that this electrochemical biosensor provided a promising platform for developing a breath sensor to screen and pre-warn of early cancer, especially gastric cancer.

  15. Corrosion properties of Ag-Au-Cu-Pd system alloys containing indium.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Masayuki; Tokizaki, Teruhiko; Matsumoto, Michihiko; Oda, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the corrosion resistance of Ag-Au-Cu-Pd system alloys consisting of 5 or 10 mass% indium was evaluated. Levels of element release and tarnish were determined and electrochemical measurements performed. Results were compared with those for commercial silver-palladium-gold alloy. In terms of electrochemical behavior, the transpassive potential of these experimental alloys was 168-248mV. Experimental alloys with 25 mass% Au showed similar corrosion resistance to control gold-silver-palladium alloy. Amount of released elements was 14-130microg/cm(2) at 7 days, which is in the allowable range for dental alloys. Addition of indium to Ag-Au-Cu-10mass%Pd system alloys was effective in increasing resistance to tarnish and alloys containing 10 mass% of indium showed a minimal decrease in L(*) values after immersion. These findings indicate that 25Au-37.5Ag-15Cu-10Pd-2Zn-10In-0.5Ir alloy is applicable in dental practice.

  16. Blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Ag and Au nanoparticles for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Ge, Xiaosong; Lin, Xueliang; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the utility of blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on Au or Ag nanoparticles (NPs), respectively, for detection of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A rapid home-made Raman system was employed for SERS measurement, and high quality SERS spectra can be recorded from blood plasma samples belonging to 60 healthy volunteers and 100 NPC patients, using both metallic NPs. The spectral differences under Ag-SERS measurement between the normal and cancer groups are more significant than Au-SERS. Principal component analysis combined with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used for differentiating the two blood groups with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 95%, respectively, using Ag-SERS method, which has almost a 20% improvement in diagnostic specificity in comparison to Au-SERS. This exploratory study demonstrates that blood SERS based on Ag NPs is capable of achieving a better diagnostic performance for NPC detection, and has promising potential for improving NPC screening.

  17. Fe-Au and Fe-Ag composites as candidates for biodegradable stent materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Cheng, Jian; Bian, Dong; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Fe-Ag and Fe-Au composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy using spark plasma sintering. Their microstructures, mechanical properties, and biocorrosion behavior were investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electronic microscopy, compressive test, electrochemical measurements, and immersion tests. Microstructure characterization indicated that the as-sintered iron-based materials obtained much finer grains than that of as-cast pure iron. Phase analysis showed that the Fe-Ag composites were composed of α-Fe and pure Ag phases, and Fe-Au composites consisted of α-Fe and Au phases. Compressive test showed that the improved mechanical strengths were obtained in as-sintered iron-based materials, among which the Fe-5 wt %Ag exhibited the best mechanical properties. The electrochemical and immersion tests revealed that the addition of Ag and Au could increase the corrosion rate of the iron matrix and change the corrosion mode into more uniform one. Based on the results of cytotoxicity evaluation, it was found that all the experimental material extracts performed no significant toxicity on the L-929 cells and EA. hy-926 cells, whereas a considerable inhibition on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells was observed. The hemocompatibility tests showed that the hemolysis of all the experimental materials was within the range of 5%, which is the criteria value of biomaterials with good hemocomaptibility. The amount of platelet adhered on the surface of as-sintered iron-based materials was lower than that of as-cast pure iron, and the morphology of platelets kept smoothly spherical on the surface of all the experimental materials.

  18. Au@Ag core/shell cuboids and dumbbells: Optical properties and SERS response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Liu, Zhonghui; Ye, Jian; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have conclusively shown that the plasmonic properties of Au nanorods can be finely controlled by Ag coating. Here, we investigate the effect of asymmetric silver overgrowth of Au nanorods on their extinction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties for colloids and self-assembled monolayers. Au@Ag core/shell cuboids and dumbbells were fabricated through a seed-mediated anisotropic growth process, in which AgCl was reduced by use of Au nanorods with narrow size and shape distribution as seeds. Upon tailoring the reaction rate, monodisperse cuboids and dumbbells were synthesized and further transformed into water-soluble powders of PEGylated nanoparticles. The extinction spectra of AuNRs were in excellent agreement with T-matrix simulations based on size and shape distributions of randomly oriented particles. The multimodal plasmonic properties of the Au@Ag cuboids and dumbbells were investigated by comparing the experimental extinction spectra with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The SERS efficiencies of the Au@Ag cuboids and dumbbells were compared in two options: (1) individual SERS enhancers in colloids and (2) self-assembled monolayers formed on a silicon wafer by drop casting of nanopowder solutions mixed with a drop of Raman reporters. By using 1,4-aminothiophenol Raman reporter molecules, the analytical SERS enhancement factor (AEF) of the colloidal dumbbells was determined to be 5.1×106, which is an order of magnitude higher than the AEF=4.0×105 for the cuboids. This difference can be explained by better fitting of the dumbbell plasmon resonance to the excitation laser wavelength. In contrast to the colloidal measurements, the AEF=5×107 of self-assembled cuboid monolayers was almost twofold higher than that for dumbbell monolayers, as determined with rhodamine 6G Raman reporters. According to TEM data and electromagnetic simulations, the better SERS response of the self-assembled cuboids is due to uniform

  19. An intermetallic Au24Ag20 superatom nanocluster stabilized by labile ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Su, Haifeng; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Gell, Lars; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-04-08

    An intermetallic nanocluster containing 44 metal atoms, Au24Ag20(2-SPy)4(PhC≡C)20Cl2, was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal analysis and density funtional theory computations. The 44 metal atoms in the cluster are arranged as a concentric three-shell Au12@Ag20@Au12 Keplerate structure having a high symmetry. For the first time, the co-presence of three different types of anionic ligands (i.e., phenylalkynyl, 2-pyridylthiolate, and chloride) was revealed on the surface of metal nanoclusters. Similar to thiolates, alkynyls bind linearly to surface Au atoms using their σ-bonds, leading to the formation of two types of surface staple units (PhC≡C-Au-L, L = PhC≡C(-) or 2-pyridylthiolate) on the cluster. The co-presence of three different surface ligands allows the site-specific surface and functional modification of the cluster. The lability of PhC≡C(-) ligands on the cluster was demonstrated, making it possible to keep the metal core intact while removing partial surface capping. Moreover, it was found that ligand exchange on the cluster occurs easily to offer various derivatives with the same metal core but different surface functionality and thus different solubility.

  20. Atomic structure of water/Au, Ag, Cu and Pt atomic junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-02-08

    Much progress has been made in understanding the transport properties of atomic-scale conductors. We prepared atomic-scale metal contacts of Cu, Ag, Au and Pt using a mechanically controllable break junction method at 10 K in a cryogenic vacuum. Water molecules were exposed to the metal atomic contacts and the effect of molecular adsorption was investigated by electronic conductance measurements. Statistical analysis of the electronic conductance showed that the water molecule(s) interacted with the surface of the inert Au contact and the reactive Cu ant Pt contacts, where molecular adsorption decreased the electronic conductance. A clear conductance signature of water adsorption was not apparent at the Ag contact. Detailed analysis of the conductance behaviour during a contact-stretching process indicated that metal atomic wires were formed for the Au and Pt contacts. The formation of an Au atomic wire consisting of low coordination number atoms leads to increased reactivity of the inert Au surface towards the adsorption of water.

  1. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-05-16

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  2. Pulsed Electrodeposition of Two-Dimensional Ag Nanostructures on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissov, D.; Tsekov, R.; Freyland, W.

    2006-07-01

    One-step pulsed potential electrodeposition of Ag on Au(111) in the underpotential deposition (UPD) region has been studied in 0.5 mM Ag2SO4 + 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte at various pulse durations from 0.2 to 500 ms. Evolution of the deposited Ag nanostructures was followed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and by measurement of the respective current transients. At short pulse durations a relatively high number density (4 × 10^11 cm-2) of two-dimensional Ag clusters with a narrow size and distance distribution is observed. They exhibit a remarkably high stability characterized by a dissolution potential which lies about 200 mV more anodically than the typical potential of Ag-(1 × 1) monolayer dissolution. To elucidate the underlying nucleation and growth mechanism, two models have been considered: two-dimensional lattice incorporation and a newly developed coupled diffusion-adsorption model. The first one yields a qualitative description of the current transients, whereas the second one is in nearly quantitative agreement with the experimental data. In this model the transformation of a Ag-(3 × 3) into a Ag-(1 × 1) structure indicated in the cyclic voltammogram (peaks at 520 vs 20 mV) is taken into account.

  3. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on SERS using nano-Au immune probes and a nano-Ag immune substrate.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Xiaocong; Petti, Lucia; Chen, Jinping; Jia, Zhenhong; Mormile, Pasquale

    2014-06-01

    A super-high-sensitivity immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was implemented using the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate. Ultraviolet-visible extinction spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and SERS spectra were used to characterise the nano-Au immune probes and the nano-Ag immune substrate. The nano-Ag immune substrate was prepared by the in situ growth of Ag nanoparticles and the subsequent linkage of these nanoparticles with anti-apolipoprotein B on a silicon wafer. The nano-Ag immune substrate exhibited strong SERS activity, excellent reproducibility, and high biospecificity. The nano-Au immune probes were prepared by immobilising 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) molecules as a Raman reporter and anti-apolipoprotein B onto the surfaces of Au nanoparticles. It was found that 4MBA induced the aggregation of Au nanoparticles, resulting in the generation of vast hot spots. Moreover, the nano-Au immune probes exhibited strong SERS activity and high biospecificity. A sandwich-type immunoassay structure consisting of the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate was used to detect the concentration of apolipoprotein B, where the detection limit was as low as 2 fg/mL (3.878×10(-18) mol/L). Taken together, the experimental results indicate that the proposed immunoassay protocol has a great potential application in biological sensing and clinical diagnostics.

  4. Tuning the Luminescent Properties of a Ag/Au Tetranuclear Complex Featuring Metallophilic Interactions via Solvent-Dependent Structural Isomerization.

    PubMed

    Donamaría, Rocío; Gimeno, M Concepción; Lippolis, Vito; López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena

    2016-11-07

    In this paper the reaction products of the basic gold(I) species [Au(C6Cl5)2](-) against the acid salt Ag(OClO3) in the presence of the S-donor macrocyclic ligand 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane ([9]aneS3) are studied in different solvents. Two different isomers of stoichiometry [{Au(C6Cl5)2}Ag([9]aneS3)]2 were isolated depending on the solvent used, dichloromethane or tetrahydrofuran, which show different luminescence in the solid state. X-ray diffraction studies of these compounds reveals that both show the same heteropolynuclear Ag···Au···Au···Ag system but with different Au···Au interaction distances and different relative positions of the cationic fragment [Ag([9]aneS3)](+) in the structure with respect the bimetallic Au···Au core. This work includes a study of the optical properties of both isomers, as well as time-dependent density functional theory calculations that were performed to determine the origin of their different luminescence.

  5. Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes for efficient plasmonic light scattering effect in low bandgap organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Se-Woong; Park, Garam; Noh, Jonghyeon; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Chun-Ho; Seo, Min-Kyo; Song, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2014-04-22

    In this report, we propose a metal-metal core-shell nanocube (NC) as an advanced plasmonic material for highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs). We covered an Au core with a thin Ag shell as a scattering enhancer to build Au@Ag NCs, which showed stronger scattering efficiency than Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) throughout the visible range. Highly efficient plasmonic organic solar cells were fabricated by embedding Au@Ag NCs into an anodic buffer layer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and the power conversion efficiency was enhanced to 6.3% from 5.3% in poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) based OSCs and 9.2% from 7.9% in polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC70BM based OSCs. The Au@Ag NC plasmonic PCDTBT:PC70BM-based organic solar cells showed 2.2-fold higher external quantum efficiency enhancement compared to AuNPs devices at a wavelength of 450-700 nm due to the amplified plasmonic scattering effect. Finally, we proved the strongly enhanced plasmonic scattering efficiency of Au@Ag NCs embedded in organic solar cells via theoretical calculations and detailed optical measurements.

  6. A facile fabrication of Ag-Au-Ag nanostructures with nanogaps for intensified surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liangliang; She, Guangwei; Li, Jing; Xia, Jing; Wang, Xiaotian; Mu, Lixuan; Shi, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    Nanogap between two metallic nanostructures has been demonstrated to be able to efficiently concentrate an incident electromagnetic field into a small space. As a result, the formed strong field localization could extraordinarily enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this study, controllable plasmonic nanogaps are formed by separating two layers of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (50-100 nm) with small Au nanoparticles (2.5-6 nm). The size of the nanogaps can be readily tuned by altering the size of the Au nanoparticles. Utilizing an SERS substrate with such nanogaps, the SERS performance can be significantly improved. Such improvement could be attributed to the strongly enhanced electric field within the nanogaps, which is demonstrated by the Finite-difference time-domain simulations. The present work provides a facile strategy to rationally fabricate SERS substrates with controllable nanogaps and intensified SERS signals.

  7. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products.

  8. Polynuclear Gold [AuI]4, [AuI]8, and Bimetallic [AuI 4AgI] Complexes: C−H Functionalization of Carbonyl Compounds and Homogeneous Carbonylation of Amines

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Ekaterina S.; Muñoz Molina, José M.; Johnson, Alice; Bandeira, Nuno A. G.; Bo, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of tetranuclear gold complexes, a structurally unprecedented octanuclear complex with a planar [AuI 8] core, and pentanuclear [AuI 4MI] (M=Cu, Ag) complexes is presented. The linear [AuI 4] complex undergoes C−H functionalization of carbonyl compounds under mild reaction conditions. In addition, [AuI 4AgI] catalyzes the carbonylation of primary amines to form ureas under homogeneous conditions with efficiencies higher than those achieved by gold nanoparticles. PMID:27167611

  9. Energy loss of 107Ag, 109Ag, and 150Sm in Ni and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Roney, W. A.; Szanto, E. M.

    1980-04-01

    The stopping pow´er of 107Ag, 109Ag, and 150Sm in nickel and gold was measured as a preliminary test of a new technique for measuring energy loss based on the γ-ray Doppler shift. The analysis of the data was based on the theories of Lindhard, Scharff, and Schiott for nuclear and electronic stopping. The results are compared with the semiempirical predictions of Northcliffe and Schilling and the Lindhard-Scharff-Schiott theory.

  10. AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles on a periodically nanostructured GaAs substrate for enhancing light trapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Kyung; Tan, Chee Leong; Ju, Gun Wu; Song, Jae Hong; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2015-12-15

    We present a light trapping structure consisting of AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles (BNNPs) on cone-shaped GaAs subwavelength structures (SWSs), combining the advantages of plasmonic structures and SWSs for GaAs-based solar cell applications. To obtain efficient light trapping in solar cells, the optical properties' dependence on the size and composition of the Ag and Au metal nanoparticles was systematically investigated. Cone-shaped GaAs SWSs with AuAg BNNPs formed from an Au film of 12 nm and an Ag film of 10 nm exhibited the extremely low average reflectance (R(avg)) of 2.43% and the solar-weighted reflectance (SWR) of 2.38%, compared to that of a bare GaAs substrate (R(avg), 37.50%; SWR, 36.72%) in the wavelength range of 300 to 870 nm.

  11. Anchoring of Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide sheets for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hareesh, K.; Joshi, R. P.; D. V., Sunitha; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    One-step gamma radiation assisted method has been used for the synthesis of Silver-Gold (Ag-Au) alloy nanoparticles with simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide (GO). UV-vis spectroscopic results along with X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the decoration face centered cubic structured Ag-Au nanoparticles of size (5-19) nm on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The increase in disorder parameter in Raman spectroscopy indicates the formation of more number of small sp2 domains. The synthesized Ag-Au-rGO nanocomposite showed enhanced catalytic activity towards the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol compared to individual Ag-Au and rGO components.

  12. Plasmonic effects of au/ag bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Vinogradova, Ekaterina; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-09-10

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of plasmons, that is, free electron oscillations in conductors, to boost the performance of both organic and inorganic thin film solar cells. This has been driven by the possibility of employing thin active layers in solar cells in order to reduce materials costs, and is enabled by significant advances in fabrication technology. The ability of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures to guide and confine light in the nanometer scale has opened up new design possibilities for solar cell devices. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of highly monodisperse, reasonably stable, multipode Au/Ag bimetallic nanostructures using an inorganic additive as a ligand for photovoltaic applications. A promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been observed for the synthesized bimetallic Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles, which compare favorably well with their Au and Ag spherical nanoparticle counterparts. The synthesized plasmonic nanostructures were incorporated on the rear surface of an ultrathin planar c-silicon/organic polymer hybrid solar cell, and the overall effect on photovoltaic performance was investigated. A promising enhancement in solar cell performance parameters, including both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC), has been observed by employing the aforementioned bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of solar cell devices. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) value as high as 7.70% has been measured in a hybrid device with Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of an ultrathin, crystalline silicon (c-Si) membrane (∼ 12 μm). This value compares well to the measured PCE value of 6.72% for a similar device without nanoparticles. The experimental observations support the hope for a sizable PCE increase, due to plasmon effects, in thin-film, c-Si solar cells in the near future.

  13. Collective global dynamics in Au+Au collisions at the BNL AGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravina, L.; Csernai, L. P.; Lévai, P.; Strottman, D.

    1994-10-01

    Signatures of collective effects are studied in the quark gluon string model and in the fluid dynamical model for Au+Au collisions at 11.6A GeV/c. In the fluid dynamical model the dependence of observables on the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation in the equation of state is pointed out although the maximal total amount of pure QGP formed is only about 8 fm3 in these reactions. In contrast to the baryon rapidity distribution, the in-plane transverse flow and especially the squeeze-out effect are particularly sensitive to the EOS. In the QGSM the lifetime and extent of baryon density in strings are studied. The QGSM picture is very similar to the one obtained in the fluid dynamical model with a pure hadronic EOS.

  14. Determining the Concentration Dependent Transformations of Ag Nanoparticles in Complex Media: Using SP-ICP-MS and Au@Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Tracers.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Ruth C; Stephan, Chady; Lead, Jamie

    2017-03-01

    The fate, behavior, and impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in toxicological and environmental media are driven by complex processes which are difficult to quantify. A key limitation is the ability to perform measurements at low and environmentally relevant concentrations, since concentration may be a key factor determining fate and effects. Here, we use single particle inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (SP-ICP-MS) to measure directly NP diameter and particle number concentration of suspensions containing gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) NPs in EPA moderately hard water (MHW) and MHW containing 2.5 mg L(-1) Suwannee River fulvic acid. The Au core of the Au@Ag NPs acts as an internal standard, and aids in the analysis of the complex Ag transformations. The high sensitivity of SP-ICP-MS, along with the Au@Ag NPs, enabled us to track the NP transformations in the range 0.01 and 50 μg L(-1), without further sample preparation. On the basis of the analysis of both Au and Ag parameters (size, size distribution, and particle number), concentration was shown to be a key factor in NP behavior. At higher concentration, NPs were in an aggregation-dominated regime, while at the lower and environmentally representative concentrations, dissolution of Ag was dominant and aggregation was negligible. In addition, further formation of ionic silver as Ag NPs in the form of AgS or AgCl was shown to occur. Between 1 and 10 μg L(-1), both aggregation and dissolution were important. The results suggest that, under realistic conditions, the role of NP homoaggregation may be minimal. In addition, the complexity of exposure and dose in dose-response relationships is highlighted.

  15. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Supercapacitor by Ag-Au Core-Shell Nanowire Network with High Electrochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Jinhwan; Suh, Young Duk; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Moon, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyeonseok; Yeo, Junyeob; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2016-06-22

    Stretchable and transparent electronics have steadily attracted huge attention in wearable devices. Although Ag nanowire is the one of the most promising candidates for transparent and stretchable electronics, its electrochemical instability has forbidden its application to the development of electrochemical energy devices such as supercapacitors. Here, we introduce a highly stretchable and transparent supercapacitor based on electrochemically stable Ag-Au core-shell nanowire percolation network electrode. We developed a simple solution process to synthesize the Ag-Au core-shell nanowire with excellent electrical conductivity as well as greatly enhanced chemical and electrochemical stabilities compared to pristine Ag nanowire. The proposed core-shell nanowire-based supercapacitor still possesses fine optical transmittance and outstanding mechanical stability up to 60% strain. The Ag-Au core-shell nanowire can be a strong candidate for future wearable electrochemical energy devices.

  16. New isotopic evidence bearing on bonanza (Au-Ag) epithermal ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, James A.; Mathur, Ryan; Kamenov, George D.; Shimizu, Toru; Brueseke, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    New Cu, S, and Pb isotope data provide evidence for a magmatic source of metal(loid)s and sulfur in epithermal Au-Ag deposits even though their ore-forming solutions are composed primarily of heated meteoric (ground) waters. The apparent isotopic discrepancy between ore metals and ore-forming solutions, and even between the ore and associated gangue minerals, indicates two different sources of epithermal ore-forming constituents: (1) a shallow geothermal system that not only provides the bulk of water for the ore-forming solutions but also major chemical constituents leached from host rocks (silica, aluminum, potassium, sodium, calcium) to make gangue minerals and (2) metals and metalloids (As, Te, Sb, etc.) and sulfur (±Se) derived from deeper magma bodies. Isotopic data are consistent with either vapor-phase transport of metal(loids) and sulfur and their subsequent absorption by shallow geothermal waters or formation of metallic (Au, Ag, Cu phases) nanoparticles at depth from magmatic fluids prior to encountering the geothermal system. The latter is most consistent with ore textures that indicate physical transport and aggregation of nanoparticles were significant ore-forming processes. The recognition that epithermal Au-Ag ores form in tectonic settings that produce magmas capable of releasing metal-rich fluids necessary to form these deposits can refine exploration strategies that previously often have focused on locating fossil geothermal systems.

  17. First principles investigation of the diffusion of interstitial Cu, Ag and Au in ZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li An; Zhu, Xing Feng; Chen, Ling Fu

    2015-07-01

    The diffusion is of great significance in many applications when the impurities are employed to tune the semiconductor's electrical or optical properties. It is necessary to understand how dopant defects diffuse in semiconductors. Using first-principles calculations, we consider interstitial diffusion mechanisms and calculate the migration barrier energies of interstitial Cu, Ag and Au atoms in II-VI compounds ZnTe. We find that the relative size of dopant and bulk atoms is an important factor which affects the diffusion behavior. The high symmetry Tc site, which is tetrahedrally coordinated by four cation atoms, is the global minimum energy location for Ag and Au interstitials. The size of Cu adatom is small, so Cu is more stable when it locates at the Ta site which is tetrahedrally coordinated by four anion atoms. But the global minimum energy location for Cu interstitials is M site which is of smaller space than Ta. Cu adatoms show an asymmetric curve of energy diffusion barrier with two energetically distinct extremum in the pathway. Ag diffuses along nearly straight line paths along [111] or equivalent directions. Diffusion for Cu or Au deviates from the straight line paths along <111> avoiding high symmetric sites.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes on Au(111) and Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, Julia; Leicht, Philipp; Blumenschein, Felix; Gragnaniello, Luca; Fonin, Mikhail; Marsoner Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen; Paulus, Beate; Voloshina, Elena; Dedkov, Yuriy

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy as well as density functional theory calculations. Quasiparticle interference mapping allows for the clear distinction of substrate-derived contributions in scattering and those originating from graphene nanoflakes. Our analysis shows that the parabolic dispersion of Au(111) and Ag(111) surface states remains unchanged with the band minimum shifted to higher energies for the regions of the metal surface covered by graphene, reflecting a rather weak interaction between graphene and the metal surface. The analysis of graphene-related scattering on single nanoflakes yields a linear dispersion relation E(k), with a slight p-doping for graphene/Au(111) and a larger n-doping for graphene/Ag(111). The obtained experimental data (doping level, band dispersions around EF, and Fermi velocity) are very well reproduced within DFT-D2/D3 approaches, which provide a detailed insight into the site-specific interaction between graphene and the underlying substrate.

  19. Magnetic and electronic structure of Mn nanostructures on Ag(111) and Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardias, R.; Bezerra-Neto, M. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Bergman, A.; Szilva, A.; Eriksson, O.; Klautau, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the electronic and magnetic structure of Mn nanowires adsorbed on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. For finite Mn nanowires on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces, our ab initio results show that the large difference between the spin-orbit splitting of these two surfaces leads to completely different magnetic configurations. The magnetic ordering for Mn nanowires adsorbed on Ag(111) is governed by the strong exchange interaction between Mn adatoms. For Mn nano-chains on Au(111), the competition between Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions leads to a complex magnetic structure of the clusters considered here. Among the more conspicuous results we note a spin-spiral helical type for the nanowire with seven atoms, and a complex magnetic configuration incommensurate with the substrate lattice for a double-sized Mn wire. The effect of the structural relaxation is also investigated, showing sensitivity of the exchange interactions to the bond distance to the substrate. We also demonstrate that small changes in the band filling of these Mn chains results in drastically different changes of the interatomic exchange. Finally, we show that dispersion of the electronic energy spectrum is possible even in nanostructures with bounded spatial extension.

  20. Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luyao; Luo, Zhiqiang; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2013-01-09

    This article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. When mixed Ag and Au nanoparticles are incorporated into the anode buffer layer, dual nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with single nanoparticles, which led to the realization of a polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 8.67%, accounting for a 20% enhancement. The cooperative plasmonic effect aroused from dual resonance enhancement of two different nanoparticles. The idea was further unraveled by comparing Au nanorods with Au nanoparticles for solar cell application. Detailed studies shed light into the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside thin film devices.

  1. Synthesis of multifunctional Ag@Au@phenol formaldehyde resin particles loaded with folic acids for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Jin, Sheng-Yu; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-07-23

    Multifunctional Ag@Au@ phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR) particles loaded with folic acids (FA) have been designed for killing tumor cells through photothermy conversion under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) light. Possessing the virtue of good fluorescence, low toxicity, and good targeting, the nanocomposite consists of an Ag core, an Au layer, a PFR shell, and folic acids on the PFR shell. The Ag@PFR core-shell structure can be prepared with a simple hydrothermal method after preheating. We then filled the PFR shell with a layer of Au by heating and modified the shell with polyelectrolyte to change its surface charge state. To capture tumor cells actively, FA molecules were attached onto the surface of the Ag@Au@PFR particles in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethly aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Owing to the excellent property of Au NPs and Ag NPs as photothermal conversion agents, the Ag@Au@ PFR@FA particles can be utilized to kill tumor cells when exposed to NIR light.

  2. Redox-Robust Pentamethylferrocene Polymers and Supramolecular Polymers, and Controlled Self-Assembly of Pentamethylferricenium Polymer-Embedded Ag, AgI, and Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haibin; Ciganda, Roberto; Castel, Patricia; Vax, Amélie; Gregurec, Danijela; Irigoyen, Joseba; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ruiz, Jaime; Hernández, Ricardo; Astruc, Didier

    2015-12-07

    We report the first pentamethylferrocene (PMF) polymers and the redox chemistry of their robust polycationic pentamethylferricenium (PMFium) analogues. The PMF polymers were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PMF-containing norbornene derivative by using the third-generation Grubbs ruthenium metathesis catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry studies allowed us to determine confidently the number of monomer units in the polymers through the Bard-Anson method. Stoichiometric oxidation by using ferricenium hexafluorophosphate quantitatively and instantaneously provided fully stable (even in aerobic solutions) blue d(5) Fe(III) metallopolymers. Alternatively, oxidation of the PMF-containing polymers was conducted by reactions with Ag(I) or Au(III) , to give PMFium polymer-embedded Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs). In the presence of I2 , oxidation by using Ag(I) gave polymer-embedded Ag/AgI NPs and AgNPs at the surface of AgI NPs. Oxidation by using Au(III) also produced an Au(I) intermediate that was trapped and characterized. Engineered single-electron transfer reactions of these redox-robust nanomaterial precursors appear to be a new way to control their formation, size, and environment in a supramolecular way.

  3. Raman scattering of 4-aminobenzenethiol sandwiched between Ag nanoparticle and macroscopically smooth Au substrate: effects of size of Ag nanoparticles and the excitation wavelength.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan; Choi, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyang Bong; Shin, Kuan Soo

    2011-09-28

    A nanogap formed by a metal nanoparticle and a flat metal substrate is one kind of "hot site" for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Accordingly, although no Raman signal is observable when 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT), for instance, is self-assembled on a flat Au substrate, a distinct spectrum is obtained when Ag or Au nanoparticles are adsorbed on the pendent amine groups of 4-ABT. This is definitely due to the electromagnetic coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag or Au nanoparticle with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate, allowing an intense electric field to be induced in the gap even by visible light. To appreciate the Raman scattering enhancement and also to seek the optimal condition for SERS at the nanogap, we have thoroughly examined the size effect of Ag nanoparticles, along with the excitation wavelength dependence, by assembling 4-ABT between planar Au and a variable-size Ag nanoparticle (from 20- to 80-nm in diameter). Regarding the size dependence, a higher Raman signal was observed when larger Ag nanoparticles were attached onto 4-ABT, irrespective of the excitation wavelength. Regarding the excitation wavelength, the highest Raman signal was measured at 568 nm excitation, slightly larger than that at 632.8 nm excitation. The Raman signal measured at 514.5 and 488 nm excitation was an order of magnitude weaker than that at 568 nm excitation, in agreement with the finite-difference time domain simulation. It is noteworthy that placing an Au nanoparticle on 4-ABT, instead of an Ag nanoparticle, the enhancement at the 568 nm excitation was several tens of times weaker than that at the 632.8 nm excitation, suggesting the importance of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles for an effective coupling with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate to induce a very intense electric field at the nanogap.

  4. Microwave Spectroscopy and Structure Determination of H_2S-MI (M=Cu,Ag,Au)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medcraft, Chris; Legon, Anthony; Walker, Nick

    2016-06-01

    A series of hydrogen sulphide-metal iodide complexes (H_2S-MI, M=Cu, Ag and Au) have been measured via chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy between 7.5-18 GHz. The complexes were generated in a supersonic expansion via laser ablation of the metal and decomposition of CF_3I. Experimental structures were obtained by least squares fitting of structural parameters to the rotational constants of deuterium and metal (63Cu / 65Cu and 107Ag / 109Ag) isotopologues. Interestingly K-1=1 transitions were observed in the spectra containing D_2S, these were not observed in previous studies of similar molecules (H_2S-MCl). This allowed for the determination of an extra rotational constant and, consequently, extra structural information could be obtained. The structures are compared to high level coupled cluster theory calculations.

  5. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  6. Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mailu, Stephen N; Waryo, Tesfaye T; Ndangili, Peter M; Ngece, Fanelwa R; Baleg, Abd A; Baker, Priscilla G; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) using C(6)H(5)O(7)Na(3) as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.56 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10(-7) M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity.

  7. All-thiol-stabilized Ag44 and Au12Ag32 nanoparticles with single-crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huayan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Huaqi; Gell, Lars; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Malola, Sami; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles stabilized by organic ligands are important for applications in assembly, site-specific bioconjugate labelling and sensing, drug delivery and medical therapy, molecular recognition and molecular electronics, and catalysis. Here we report crystal structures and theoretical analysis of three Ag44(SR)30 and three Au12Ag32(SR)30 intermetallic nanoclusters stabilized with fluorinated arylthiols (SR=SPhF, SPhF2 or SPhCF3). The nanocluster forms a Keplerate solid of concentric icosahedral and dodecahedral atom shells, protected by six Ag2(SR)5 units. Positive counterions in the crystal indicate a high negative charge of 4(-) per nanoparticle, and density functional theory calculations explain the stability as an 18-electron superatom shell closure in the metal core. Highly featured optical absorption spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region are analysed using time-dependent density functional perturbation theory. This work forms a basis for further understanding, engineering and controlling of stability as well as electronic and optical properties of these novel nanomaterials.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, O.; Stoyanova, D.; Ivanova, I.; Todorova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on bacterial growth of Gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli is studied. The nanostructured thin films are deposited on glass substrates without intentional heating through r.f. magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere of Al2O3 and Ag targets or through sequential sputtering of Al2O3 and Ag targets, respectively. The individual Ag thin films (thickness 8 nm) have a weak bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli expressed as an extended adaptive phase of the bacteria up to 5 hours from the beginning of the experiment, but the final effect is only 10 times lower bacterial density than in the control. The individual Al2O3 film (20 nm) has no antibacterial effect against two strains E. coli - industrial and pathogenic. The Al2O3/Ag bilayer films (Al2O3 20 nm/Ag 8 nm) have strong bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas putida and demonstrate an effective time of disinfection for 2 hours. The individual films Al2O3 and Ag have not pronounced antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas putida. A synergistic effect of Al2O3/Ag bilayer films in formation of oxidative species on the surface in contact with the bacterial suspension could be a reason for their antimicrobial effect on E. coli and P. putida.

  9. Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers and adsorption of Au, Cu and Ag stepped (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlattar, M.; Elkoraychy, E.; Sbiaai, K.; Mazroui, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We use a combination of quenched molecular dynamics and embedded atom method to calculate the activation energy barriers for the hopping and exchange mechanisms of Au, Ag or Cu on Au(100), Ag(100) or Cu(100) stepped surfaces. Our findings show that the Ehrlich-Schwöbel (ES) barriers for an adatom to undergo jump or exchange at a step edge are found to be dependent of the nature of substrate stepped surfaces. We also find that the ES barriers for the hopping processes are too high, except for Cu/Au(100). While for exchange process the Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers are found to be very low and even negative. These ES barriers can explain the difference in the growth modes for the different systems. On the other hand, we calculated the adsorption energies at the most stable adsorption sites near step edges. In particular, we wish to clarify the relation between the adatom diffusion energy barriers and the adatom adsorption energies. These results may serve as some guiding rules for studying stepped surface morphologies, which are of importance to surface nanoengineering.

  10. Luminescent Di and Polynuclear Organometallic Gold(I)-M (Au2, {Au2Ag}n and {Au2Cu}n) Compounds Containing Bidentate Phosphanes as Active Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Frik, Malgorzata; Jiménez, Josefina; Gracia, Ismael; Falvello, Larry R.; Abi-Habib, Sarya; Suriel, Karina; Muth, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of new dinuclear gold(I) organometallic complexes containing mesityl ligands and bridging bidentate phosphanes [Au2(mes)2(μ-LL)] (LL = dppe: 1,2-Bis(di-phenylphosphano)ethane 1a, and water-soluble dppy: 1,2-Bis(di-3-pyridylphosphano)ethane 1b) with Ag+ and Cu+ lead to the formation of a family of heterometallic clusters with mesityl bridging ligands of the general formula [Au2M(μ-mes)2(μ-LL)]A (M = Ag, A = ClO4−, L-L = dppe 2a, dppy 2b; M = Ag, A = SO3CF3−, L-L = dppe 3a, dppy 3b; M = Cu, A = PF6−, L-L = dppe 4a, dppy 4b). The new compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry The crystal structures of [Au2(mes)2(μ-dppy)] 1b and [Au2Ag(μ-mes)2(μ-dppe)]SO3CF3 3a were determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. 3a in solid state is not a cyclic trinuclear Au2Ag derivative but it gives an open polymeric structure instead, with the {Au2(μ-dppe)} fragments “linked” by Ag(μ-mes)2 units. The very short distances of 2.7559(6) Å (Au-Ag) and 2.9229(8) Å (Au-Au) are indicative of gold-silver (metallophillic) and aurophilic interactions. A systematic study of their luminescence properties revealed that all compounds are brightly luminescent in solid state, at room temperature (RT) and at 77 K, or in frozen DMSO solutions with lifetimes in the microsecond range and probably due to the self-aggregation of [Au2M(μ-mes)2(μ-LL)]+ units (M= Ag or Cu; LL= dppe or dppy) into an extended chain structure, through Au-Au and/or Au-M metallophylic interactions, as that observed for 3a. In solid state the heterometallic Au2M complexes with dppe (2a–4a) show a shift of emission maxima (from ca. 430 to the range of 520–540 nm) as compared to the parent dinuclear organometallic product 1a while the complexes with dppy (2b–4b) display a more moderate shift (505 for 1b to a max of 563 nm for 4b). More importantly, compound [Au2Ag(μ-mes)2(μ-dppy)]ClO4 2b resulted luminescent in diluted DMSO solution

  11. Physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of co-sputtered Ag Au/PTFE nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporojtchenko, V.; Podschun, R.; Schürmann, U.; Kulkarni, A.; Faupel, F.

    2006-10-01

    In this work, we used co-sputtering of noble metals together with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) as a method for producing antibacterial metal/polymer nanocomposite coatings, where the precious metals are only incorporated in a thin surface layer. Moreover, they are finely dispersed as nanoparticles, thus saving additional material and providing a very large effective surface for metal ion release. Nanocomposite films with thickness between 100 and 300 nm were prepared with a wide range of metal filling between 10 and 40%. The antimicrobial effect of the nanocomposite coatings was evaluated by means of two different assays. The bactericidal activity due to silver release from the surface was determined by a modification of conventional disc diffusion methods. Inhibition of bacterial growth on the coated surface was investigated through a modified proliferation assay. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test bacteria, as these species commonly cause infections associated with medical polymer devices. The antibacterial efficiency of the coatings against different bacteria was demonstrated at extremely small noble metal consumption: Au: ~1 mg m-2 and Ag: ~0.1 g m-2. The maximum ability for having an antibacterial effect was shown by the Ag-Au/PTFE nanocomposite, followed by the Ag/PTFE nanocomposite.

  12. Cysteamine coated Ag and Au nanorods for improved surface enhanced Raman scattering from dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembocki, O. J.; Gowda, M.; Geng, S.; Prokes, S. M.; Garces, N. Y.; Cushen, J.; Caldwell, J. D.

    2010-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from trinitrotoluene and other nitro-based explosives is important for the development of a reliable detection scheme exhibiting low false-positive rates. However, the interaction of these compounds with Ag and Au causes the molecules to orient in ways such that the primary vibrations of the nitro groups, the main identifying Raman marker of these compounds, are inhibited in addition to causing a reduction in the SERS response. It has recently been shown that cysteamine, which contains amine functional end groups, will electrostatically attract the nitro groups of TNT. Therefore, as the thiol functional group of cysteamine chemically bonds this molecule to the plasmonically-active Au and Ag nanoparticles studied, SERS of TNT can be obtained following the nitro-amine functional group complex formation. It is observed that the cysteamine adsorbs in one of two configurations on the metal surface, with the trans configuration consisting of bonding at the S end of the molecule and the cysteamine is perpendicular to the metal surface, while in the Gauche configuration S bonding occurs, but the molecule bends over towards the metal film surface, approaching the parallel configuration allowing the amine groups interact with the surface. We find that the trans configuration is best for the detection of SERS from TNT. Experiments compare well with DFT calculations of the cysteamine and TNT complex and their adsorption on Ag.

  13. Thermal durability of AZO/Ag(Al)/AZO transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Yukiko; Igarashi, Kanae; Shirasaki, Shinya; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Effects of Al doping on surface morphology, sheet resistance, optical transmission spectra, and thermal durability of a thin Ag layer and AZO/Ag/AZO dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) transparent conductive films (TCFs) were investigated. The 1.7 at. % Al doping suppressed the initial island growth of a thin Ag layer and the plasmon resonant absorption dip in the optical transmission spectra. The threshold thickness of percolation conductivity was reduced from 9-10 (pure Al layer) to 5-6 nm (1.7 at. % Al-doped Ag layer). Al doping in the Ag layer improved the thermal durability of AZO/Ag/AZO-DMD TCFs. The threshold temperature for Ag void formation increased from 400 °C (DMD with pure Ag layer) to 600 °C (DMD with a 10.5 at. % Al-doped Ag layer). The optimum annealing temperature increased from 300 °C (DMD with a pure Ag layer) to 500 °C (DMD with a 10.5 at. % Al-doped Ag layer). Maximum figures of merit (FOM) were 0.5 × 10-2 and 1.1 × 10-2 Ω-1 for the DMD with a pure Ag layer and that with a 10.5 at. % Al-doped Ag layer, respectively.

  14. First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and Surface of Titania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0002 First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and...SUBTITLE First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and Surface of Titania 5a. CONTRACT...093072 Final report First principles calculations on the diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au atoms or aggregates on the bulk and surface of titania List

  15. Microstructure development in Al-Cu-Ag-Mg quaternary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Froyen, L.

    2012-01-01

    The solidification behaviour of multi-component and multi-phase systems has been largely investigated in binary and ternary alloys. In the present study, a quaternary model system is proposed based on the well known Al-Cu-Ag and Al-Cu-Mg ternary eutectic alloys. The quaternary eutectic composition and temperature were determined by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) analysis, respectively. The microstructure was then characterised by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In the DSC experiments, two types of quaternary eutectics were determined according to their phase composition. For each type of eutectic, various microstructures were observed, which result in different eutectic compositions. Only one of the determined eutectic compositions was further studied by the controlled growth technique in a vertical Bridgeman type furnace. In the initial part of the directionally solidified sample, competing growth between two-phase dendrites and three-phase eutectics was obtained, which was later transformed to competing growth between three-phase and four-phase eutectics. Moreover, silver enrichment was measured at the solidification front, which is possibly caused by Ag sedimentation due to gravity and Ag rejection from dendritic and three-phase eutectic growth, and its accumulation at the solidification front.

  16. Structural and mechanical properties of magnetron-sputtered Al-Au thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadmanjiri, Jalal; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wen, Cuie; Srivastava, Vijay K.; Kapoor, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    There is global interest in improving the mechanical properties of light metals such as aluminum (Al)-based alloys by tailoring their microstructures at the nanometer scale. On the other hand, gold (Au) has been widely applied as a wire bonding material due to its prominent ductility and conductivity. In this study, the microstructure, hardness and elastic modulus of DC magnetron-sputtered aluminum/gold (Al/Au) composite thin films of different thicknesses were investigated. It is shown that in addition to the formation of AlAu2 phase, additional Al and Au nanosegregated phases also formed. The Al/Au thin films of 600 and 800 nm thickness exhibit the maximum hardness ( 5.40 GPa) and elastic modulus ( 97.00 GPa). However, film thicknesses of 1000 and 1200 nm demonstrate a reduction in hardness and elastic modulus due to different growth mechanisms and the formation of voids that can be attributed to the Kirkendall phenomenon.

  17. The IP6 micelle-stabilized small Ag cluster for synthesizing Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles and the tunable surface plasmon resonance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Wen, Ying; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiyao; Ling, Bo; Huan, Shuangyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2012-04-01

    The stable small Ag seeds (size in diameter < 10 nm) were obtained in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphoric (IP6) micelles. Then Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized through a replacement reaction with the rapid interdiffusion process between such small Ag seeds in nanoclusters and HAuCl4. Adjusting the dosage of HAuCl4 resulted in different products, which possessed unique surface plasmon resonances (SPR). The morphologies of the as-made nanoparticles were observed using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were determined by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Among them, the Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with the cauliflower-like structure had a suitable SPR for highly sensitive Raman detection application as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with a long-term stability of six months.

  18. Chitosan stabilized Ag-Au nanoalloy for colorimetric sensing and 5-Fluorouracil delivery.

    PubMed

    E A K, Nivethaa; S, Dhanavel; Narayanan, V; A, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescent CS/Ag-Au (chitosan/silver-gold) nanocomposite containing different weight percentage of Ag and Au was synthesized using the chemical reduction method. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) encapsulated nanocomposite was also synthesized and its cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) studied. The XRD pattern of the nanocomposite shows peaks of chitosan, silver and gold. The peaks corresponding to gold and silver indicate the face centered cubic structure of silver and gold nanoparticles. The polymer matrix nanocomposite structure with chitosan as the matrix and silver-gold as the filler phase is evident from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and an increase in particle size from∼5nm to about 12nm is noticeable on encapsulation of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). The presence of fluorine in the case of 5-FU encapsulated nanocomposite and the presence of reflections corresponding to 5-FU in the SAED pattern confirms the encapsulation of 5-FU into the nanocomposite, which is also confirmed by elemental mapping. The presence of a single surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak in the case of the nanocomposite in a position in between the SPR bands of pure silver and gold nanoparticles confirms the formation of Ag-Au alloy and the elemental mapping results obtained for the nanocomposite also supports the UV-vis results. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum clearly shows an emission peak in the near infrared region (700-900nm), which makes the nanocomposite suitable for use in cellular imaging. The application of the nanocomposite as a colorimetric sensor was also studied and it was found to be useful for the specific detection of mercury (Hg) without much interference and the detection limit was found to be 5.0×10(-8)M.

  19. Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding in the MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) series

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2007-11-15

    Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding {sigma}(M) of the series of diatomics MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) are calculated and analyzed using the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method in the random phase approximation (RPA). Significant differences due to relativistic effects on the shielding constant {sigma}(M) are found in this series of atoms. The high electronegativity of the fluorine atom works in conjunction with the spin-orbit coupling to increase the calculated value for {sigma}(Au). An unusually large diamagnetic contribution to the shielding constant is observed. Nonrelativistic nuclear magnetic shielding [{sigma}{sup NR}(M)] shows very good linear correlation with the nuclear charge (Z) of the metal, while the relativistic shielding [{sigma}{sup rel}(M)] varies as Z{sup 2.26}.

  20. Preparation of Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures and their application in surface-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ye, Yanyan; Zhang, Wenhui; Ren, Zebin; Huo, Yiping; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-11-01

    An effective substrate for surface-enhanced fluorescence, which consists of cluster Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures on a copper surface, was synthesized via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction of a Ag cluster in a chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) solution at room temperature. The fabricated silver/gold bimetallic cluster were found to yield large surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) enhancement factors for rhodamine 6G probe molecules deposited on the substrate, and also the fluorescence efficiency is critically dependent on the period of nanostructure growth. With the help of proper control reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, and concentration of reaction solutions, the maximum fluorescence enhanced effect was obtained. Therefore, the bimetallic nanostructure substrate also can be adapted to studies in SEF, which will expand the application of SEF.

  1. Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, Rogier H. M.; Sprik, Rudolf; Lagendijk, Ad

    1995-05-01

    We show experimentally that the electron distribution of a laser-heated metal is a nonthermal distribution on the time scale of the electron-phonon (e-ph) energy relaxation time τE. We measured τE in 45-nm Ag and 30-nm Au thin films as a function of lattice temperature (Ti=10-300 K) and laser-energy density (Ul=0.3-1.3 J cm-3), combining femtosecond optical transient-reflection techniques with the surface-plasmon polariton resonance. The experimental effective e-ph energy relaxation time decreased from 710-530 fs and 830-530 fs for Ag and Au, respectively, when temperature is lowered from 300 to 10 K. At various temperatures we varied Ul between 0.3-1.3 J cm-3 and observed that τE is independent from Ul within the given range. The results were first compared to theoretical predictions of the two-temperature model (TTM). The TTM is the generally accepted model for e-ph energy relaxation and is based on the assumption that electrons and lattice can be described by two different time-dependent temperatures Te and Ti, implying that the two subsystems each have a thermal distribution. The TTM predicts a quasiproportional relation between τE and Ti in the perturbative regime where τE is not affected by Ul. Hence, it is shown that the measured dependencies of τE on lattice temperature and energy density are incompatible with the TTM. It is proven that the TTM assumption of a thermal electron distribution does not hold especially under our experimental conditions of low laser power and lattice temperature. The electron distribution is a nonthermal distribution on the picosecond time scale of e-ph energy relaxation. We developed a new model, the nonthermal electron model (NEM), in which we account for the (finite) electron-electron (e-e) and electron-phonon dynamics simultaneously. It is demonstrated that incomplete electron thermalization yields a slower e-ph energy relaxation in comparison to the thermalized limit. With the NEM we are able to give a consistent

  2. Heterodiffusion of Ag adatoms on imperfect Au(1 1 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El koraychy, E.; Sbiaai, K.; Mazroui, M.; Ferrando, R.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The hetero-diffusion of Ag adatoms on imperfect Au(1 1 0) surfaces is studied using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The atomic interactions are described by an Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. Static activation energies governing various diffusion processes (jumps and exchanges) are calculated by quenched MD, finding that activation energies for interlayer mobility at straight step edges are somewhat larger than those on the flat surface in the cross-channel [1 0 0]-direction, while interlayer barriers at kinks are considerably lower. Dynamic activation energies are calculated at high temperature from the Arrhenius plots of different diffusion mechanisms and compared to static barriers.

  3. Fabrication of Au@Ag core-shell NPs as enhanced CT contrast agents with broad antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Huo, Da; He, Jian; Li, Hui; Yu, Haiping; Shi, Tingting; Feng, Yahui; Zhou, Zhengyang; Hu, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) integrating both antibacterial and X-ray attenuation capabilities were facilely synthesized in aqueous solution. These NPs modified with methoxy-PEG-SH (m-PEG) on the surface rendered them favorable dispersity and stability in water, resulting in enhancement of their blood circulation time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) results confirmed the core-shell structure of m-PEG-Au@Ag NPs. The m-PEG-Au@Ag NPs showed low cytotoxicity and strong X-ray absorption potency in vitro. Further in vivo study showed that as-synthesized NPs offered a pronounced contrast and prolonged their circulation time in the blood stream with negligible toxic effect in vivo. Besides, m-PEG-Au@Ag NPs had significant bacteriostatic effect toward common bacteria like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as demonstrated by broth dilution assay. Given their low-cytotoxicity and high CT attenuation efficacy, m-PEG-Au@Ag NPs had a promising potential for use as CT enhancing and antibacterial agents.

  4. Bifunctional Ag@SiO 2 /Au Nanoparticles for Probing Sequential Catalytic Reactions by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yiren; Su, Dong; Qin, Dong

    2017-02-22

    Here, we report the synthesis of bifunctional Ag@SiO2/Au nanoparticles with an “islands in the sea” configuration by titrating HAuCl4 solution into an aqueous suspension of Ag@SiO2 core–shell nanocubes in the presence of NaOH, ascorbic acid, and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) at pH 11.9. The NaOH plays an essential role in generating small pores in the SiO2 shell in situ, followed by the epitaxial deposition of Au from the Ag surface through the pores, leading to the formation of Au islands (6–12 nm in size) immersed in a SiO2 sea. Furthermore, by controlling the amount of HAuCl4 titrated into the reaction system, themore » Au islands can be made to pass through and protrude from the SiO2 shell, embracing catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4. And while the Ag in the core provides a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity, the SiO2 sea helps maintain the Au component as compact, isolated, and stabilized islands. The Ag@SiO2/Au nanoparticles can serve as a bifunctional probe to monitor the stepwise Au-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol by NaBH4 and Ag-catalyzed oxidation of 4-aminothiophenol to trans-4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene by the O2 from air in the same reaction system.« less

  5. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled layers of lipid molecules on nanostructured Au and Ag substrates.

    PubMed

    Slekiene, Nora; Ramanauskaite, Lina; Snitka, Valentinas

    2017-03-01

    In this work surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used for the investigation of the self-assembled layers of lipid molecules (SALLMs) deposited on the nanostructured Au and Ag surfaces. The SALLMs were prepared from one part of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) and four parts of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipids. The synthesis of Au and Ag SERS substrates was based on the direct gold and silver ions reduction onto HF etched silicon wafers. Au SERS substrates were not suitable for the formation of SALLMs because of the inappropriate contact angle of surface. It was found that the formation of the SALLM does not take place on Au SERS substrate. However, it has been shown that the modification of Au SERS substrate with 1-dodecanothiol layer allows building the SALLM on its surface. In the case of Ag SERS substrate, the SALLM was deposited directly on its surface. The SERS spectra of the SALLMs were recorded in the CH stretching (2800-3000cm(-1)) and the fingerprint (<1.800cm(-1)) regions. It has been demonstrated that the SERS spectra of the SALLM recorded on Au substrate differs from that one recorded on Ag SERS substrate. These spectral differences were found to be determined by the different interaction mechanisms of the lipid molecules with nanostructured surfaces.

  6. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaoli; Du, ChunLei; Fu, Yongqi

    2009-09-01

    A triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles array was proposed for the purpose of biosensing in this paper. Constructing the hybrid nanoparticles, an Au thin film is capped on the Ag nanoparticles which are attached on glass substrate. The hybrid nanoparticles array was designed by means of finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD) algorithm-based computational numerical calculation and optimization. Sensitivity of refractive index of the hybrid nanoparticles array was obtained by the computational calculation and experimental detection. Moreover, the hybrid nanoparticles array can prevent oxidation of the pure Ag nanoparticles from atmosphere environment because the Au protective layer was deposited on top of the Ag nanoparticles so as to isolate the Ag particles from the atmosphere. We presented a novel surface covalent link method between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect-based biosensors with hybrid nanoparticles array and the detected target molecules. The generated surface plasmon wave from the array carries the biological interaction message into the corresponding spectra. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), a small protein toxin was directly detected at nanogramme per milliliter level using the triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles. Hence one more option for the SEB detection is provided by this way.

  7. Synthesis of MoS2/Graphene hybrid supported Au and Ag nanoparticles with multi-functional catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Peng, Wenchao; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-30

    The detection and removal of nitroaromatic compounds are important issues for environment protection. In this study, the hybrid of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene (GR) was first synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. Au and Ag nanoparticles were then deposited on the surface of MoS2/GR hybrid with sodium citrate as stabilizer and reductant. Compared to using pure MoS2 as the support, the obtained Au (Ag)-MoS2/GR composites showed improved activity for electrochemical detection and chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The activity enhancement should be due to the addition of GR, which could improve the conductivity as well as provide more active sites. The successful synthesis of Au (Ag)-MoS2/GR composites could provide new multi-function catalysts for environment protection.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of joining process of Ag-Au nanowires and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanojoint

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Su; Tian, Yanhong Jiang, Zhi; He, Xiaobin

    2015-05-15

    The nanojoining process of Ag-Au hybrid nanowires at 800K was comprehensively studied by virtue of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Three kinds of configurations including end-to-end, T-like and X-like were built in the simulation aiming to understand the nanojoining mechanism. The detailed dynamic evolution of atoms, crystal structure transformation and defects development during the nanojoining processes were performed. The results indicate that there are two stages in the nanojoining process of Ag-Au nanowires which are atom diffusion and new bonds formation. Temperature is a key parameter affecting both stages ascribed to the energy supply and the optimum temperature for Ag-Au nanojoint with diameter of 4.08 nm has been discussed. The mechanical properties of the nanojoint were examined with simulation of tensile test on the end-to-end joint. It was revealed that the nanojoint was strong enough to resist fracture at the joining area.

  9. Hexagonal core-shell and alloy Au/Ag nanodisks on ZnO nanorods and their optical enhancement effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junming; Lai, Boya; Chen, Zuxin; Chu, Sheng; Chu, Guang; Peng, Rufang

    2014-05-01

    Au and Ag hybrid hexagonal nanodisks were synthesized on ZnO nanorods' (0002) surface via a new two-step deposition-annealing method. The structural, compositional, as well as optical investigations were carried out systematically to find out the nanodisks' formation mechanism and optical enhancement effect. It was shown that the core-shell Au/Ag nanodisk can be formed under rapid annealing temperature of 500°C, while Au/Ag alloy nanodisks are formed if higher temperatures (>550°C) are applied. The optical effect from these nanodisks was studied through photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the carrier-plasmon coupling together and carrier transfer between metal and ZnO contribute to the emission enhancement. Furthermore, the results suggest that the composition of nanodisk on the vicinity of metal/ZnO interface plays an important role in terms of the enhancement factors.

  10. Nanowire networks and hollow nanospheres of Ag-Au bimetallic alloys at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, R Britto; Cortez-Valadez, M; Arizpe-Chávez, H; Flores-Lopez, N S; Álvarez, Ramón A B; Flores-Acosta, M

    2017-03-17

    Due to their physicochemical properties, metallic nanoalloys have potential applications in biomedicine, electrocatalysis and electrochemical sensors, among many other fields. New alternative procedures have emerged in order to reduce production costs and the use of toxic substances. In this study we present a novel low-toxicity synthesis method for the fabrication of nanowire networks (NWNs) and Ag-Au hollow nanospheres. The synthesis process is performed at room temperature without any sophisticated equipment, such as special cameras or furnaces, etc. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the NWNs contain random alloys with a diameter of between 10-13 nm. The radius for the hollow nanospheres is approximately located between 70-130 nm. The absorption bands in the UV-vis spectrum associated with the surface plasmon in Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles are highlighted at 385 nm for the NWNs and 643 nm for the hollow nanospheres. The study was performed with low-toxicity substances, such as rongalite, ascorbic acid and sucrose, and showed high efficiency for the fabrication of these types of nanostructures, as well as good stability for long periods of time.

  11. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianlong; Li, Pengwei; Sang, Shengbo; Zhang, Wendong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Dong, Hualai; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA) models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO) flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) as model molecules.

  12. Hybrid microfluidic fuel cell based on Laccase/C and AuAg/C electrodes.

    PubMed

    López-González, B; Dector, A; Cuevas-Muñiz, F M; Arjona, N; Cruz-Madrid, C; Arana-Cuenca, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arriaga, L G; Ledesma-García, J

    2014-12-15

    A hybrid glucose microfluidic fuel cell composed of an enzymatic cathode (Laccase/ABTS/C) and an inorganic anode (AuAg/C) was developed and tested. The enzymatic cathode was prepared by adsorption of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Laccase on Vulcan XC-72, which act as a redox mediator, enzymatic catalyst and support, respectively. The Laccase/ABTS/C composite was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, streaming current measurements (Zeta potential) and cyclic voltammetry. The AuAg/C anode catalyst was characterised by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid microfluidic fuel cell exhibited excellent performance with a maximum power density value (i.e., 0.45 mW cm(-2)) that is the highest reported to date. The cell also exhibited acceptable stability over the course of several days. In addition, a Mexican endemic Laccase was used as the biocathode electrode and evaluated in the hybrid microfluidic fuel cell generating 0.5 mW cm(-2) of maximum power density.

  13. A microscopic study of strongly plasmonic Au and Ag island thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavaskar, Prathamesh; Hsu, I.-Kai; Theiss, Jesse; Hsuan Hung, Wei; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Au and Ag evaporated films (˜5 nm) are known to form island-like growth, which exhibit a strong plasmonic response under visible illumination. In this work, evaporated thin films are imaged with high resolution transmission electron microscopy, to reveal the structure of the semicontinuous metal island film with sub-nm resolution. The electric field distributions and the absorption spectra of these semicontinuous island film geometries are then simulated numerically using the finite difference time domain method and compared with the experimentally measured absorption spectra. We find surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors as high as 108 in the regions of small gaps (≤2 nm), which dominate the electromagnetic response of these films. The small gap enhancement is further substantiated by a statistical analysis of the electric field intensity as a function of the nanogap size. Areal SERS enhancement factors of 4.2 × 104 are obtained for these films. These plasmonic films can also enhance the performance of photocatalytic and photovoltaic phenomena, through near-field coupling. For TiO2 photocatalysis, we calculate enhancement factors of 16 and 19 for Au and Ag, respectively. We study the effect of annealing on these films, which results in a large reduction in electric field strength due to increased nanoparticle spacing.

  14. Synthesis, fractionation, and optical characterization of Au-Ag composite nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, Anna V.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Trachuk, Lyubov A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2005-06-01

    We report on a synthesis procedure and optical properties of composite Au-Ag spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The synthesis protocol is based on a seed-mediated growth in the presence of soft templates in micellar aqueous solution of ionic surfactant (CTAB). Variation of Au/Ag molar ratio allows one to produce nanorods (NRs) with different aspect ratio. The disadvantage of the method is formation of appreciable amount of spherical nanoparticles. To separate rod-like particles from spheres and surfactant, we used a fractionation procedure that involves centrifugatiori of samples in the density gradient of glycerol. The separated NRs were suspended in water or 25% glycerol solutions and their extinction and differential light scattering (at 900) spectra were recorded for 450-850 ni-n wavelengths. Theoretical spectra were calculated by T-matrix method as applied to randomly oriented gold cylinders with semispherical ends. The simulated spectra for water and glycerol suspensions can be brought in close agreement with experimental observations if the aspect ratio is used as a fitting parameter. We discuss also the absorption and light scattering contribution to the total extinction spectra and deviation of the exact solution from the classical electrostatic approximation by Gans.

  15. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jianlong; Li, Pengwei; Sang, Shengbo Zhang, Wendong Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Zhaoying Yang, Xing; Dong, Hualai

    2014-03-15

    Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA) models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO) flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) as model molecules.

  16. A grazing incidence surface X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) study of alkanethiols adsorbed on Au, Ag, and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriano, Pierre N.; Schlieben, Olaf; Doomes, Edward E.; Klein, Ingo; Janssen, J.; Hormes, Josef; Poliakoff, E. D.; McCarley, Robin L.

    2000-04-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols, CH 3-(CH 2) x-SH, on Au, Ag, and Cu have been studied with GIXAFS at the sulfur K-edge. For both pentanethiol and decanethiol monolayers on Ag and Cu, the three-fold hollow site is found to be the most probable sulfur binding site. However, observations for octadecanethiol indicate that the three-fold hollow site is not the exclusive binding site. In addition, the possible existence of disulfide bonds on the metal surface (adsorbed dialkyldisulfides) is not supported by the data. Preliminary results from monolayers on Au are also reported.

  17. Au@Ag nanorods based electrochemical immunoassay for immunoglobulin G with signal enhancement using carbon nanofibers-polyamidoamine dendrimer nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Ning, Danlei; Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-06-15

    Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) was utilized to construct a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The sensor was prepared by immoblizing capture antibodies on the amine-terminated nanocomposite of carbon nanofibers-polyamidoamine dendrimer (CNFs-PAMAM), whilst the trace tag was prepared by loading anti-human IgG on Au@AgNRs. The "built-in" Ag layer on Au nanorods was characterized by UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of cyclic voltammetry indicated that modifying CNFs-PAMAM nanocomposite on glassy carbon electrode enabled 177 times of peak current increase of Ag in the bimetallic nanorods. The peak current was quantitatively related with the concentration of the target protein IgG via the formation of immunocomplex. After the parameter optimization, the oxidative peak current of silver was proportional to the concentration of IgG in a wide linear range of six orders of magnitude with a low detection limit of 0.5 fg mL(-1). Besides, this sensor showed acceptable reproducibility and stability, and thus the strategy reported here has great promise for extension to the other disease biomarkers.

  18. Thermal Expansion Behavior of M(I)[AuX2(CN)2]-Based Coordination Polymers (M = Ag, Cu; X = CN, Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Ovens, Jeffrey S; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2017-04-04

    Two sets of trans-[AuX2(CN)2](-)-based coordination polymer materials-M[AuX2(CN)2] (M = Ag; X = Cl, Br or M = Cu; X = Br) and M[Au(CN)4] (M = Ag, Cu)-were synthesized and structurally characterized and their dielectric constants and thermal expansion behavior explored. The M[AuX2(CN)2] series crystallized in a tightly packed, mineral-like structure featuring 1-D trans-[AuX2(CN)2](-)-bridged chains interconnected via a series of intermolecular Au···X and M···X (M = Ag, Cu) interactions. The M[Au(CN)4] series adopted a 2-fold interpenetrated 3-D cyano-bound framework lacking any weak intermolecular interactions. Despite the tight packing and the presence of intermolecular interactions, these materials exhibited decreased thermal stability over unbound trans-[AuX2(CN)2](-) in [(n)Bu4N][AuX2(CN)2]. A significant dielectric constant of up to εr = 36 for Ag[AuCl2(CN)2] (1 kHz) and a lower εr = 9.6 (1 kHz) for Ag[Au(CN)4] were measured and interpreted in terms of their structures and composition. A systematic analysis of the thermal expansion properties of the M[AuX2(CN)2] series revealed a negative thermal expansion (NTE) component along the cyano-bridged chains with a thermal expansion coefficient (αCN) of -13.7(11), -14.3(5), and -11.36(18) ppm·K(-1) for Ag[AuCl2(CN)2], Ag[AuBr2(CN)2], and Cu[AuBr2(CN)2], respectively. The Au···X and Ag···X interactions affect the thermal expansion similarly to metallophilic Au···Au interactions in M[Au(CN)2] and AuCN; replacing X = Cl with the larger Br atoms has a less significant effect. A similar analysis for the M[Au(CN)4] series (where the volume thermal expansion coefficient, αV, is 41(3) and 68.7(19) ppm·K(-1) for M = Ag, Cu, respectively) underscored the significance of the effect of the atomic radius on the flexibility of the framework and, thus, the thermal expansion properties.

  19. A nanocomposite of Au-AgI core/shell dimer as a dual-modality contrast agent for x-ray computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Orza, Anamaria; Yang, Yi; Feng, Ting; Wang, Xueding; Wu, Hui; Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Lily; Tang, Xiangyang; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a core/shell nanodimer of gold (core) and silver iodine (shell) as a dual-modal contrast-enhancing agent for biomarker targeted x-ray computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) applications. Methods: The gold and silver iodine core/shell nanodimer (Au/AgICSD) was prepared by fusing together components of gold, silver, and iodine. The physicochemical properties of Au/AgICSD were then characterized using different optical and imaging techniques (e.g., HR- transmission electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Z-potential, and UV-vis). The CT and PAI contrast-enhancing effects were tested and then compared with a clinically used CT contrast agent and Au nanoparticles. To confer biocompatibility and the capability for efficient biomarker targeting, the surface of the Au/AgICSD nanodimer was modified with the amphiphilic diblock polymer and then functionalized with transferrin for targeting transferrin receptor that is overexpressed in various cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of the prepared Au/AgICSD nanodimer was also tested with both normal and cancer cell lines. Results: The characterizations of prepared Au/AgI core/shell nanostructure confirmed the formation of Au/AgICSD nanodimers. Au/AgICSD nanodimer is stable in physiological conditions for in vivo applications. Au/AgICSD nanodimer exhibited higher contrast enhancement in both CT and PAI for dual-modality imaging. Moreover, transferrin functionalized Au/AgICSD nanodimer showed specific binding to the tumor cells that have a high level of expression of the transferrin receptor. Conclusions: The developed Au/AgICSD nanodimer can be used as a potential biomarker targeted dual-modal contrast agent for both or combined CT and PAI molecular imaging. PMID:26745951

  20. A nanocomposite of Au-AgI core/shell dimer as a dual-modality contrast agent for x-ray computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orza, Anamaria; Wu, Hui; Li, Yuancheng; Mao, Hui E-mail: Xiangyang.Tang@emory.edu; Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang E-mail: Xiangyang.Tang@emory.edu; Feng, Ting; Wang, Xueding; Yang, Lily

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a core/shell nanodimer of gold (core) and silver iodine (shell) as a dual-modal contrast-enhancing agent for biomarker targeted x-ray computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) applications. Methods: The gold and silver iodine core/shell nanodimer (Au/AgICSD) was prepared by fusing together components of gold, silver, and iodine. The physicochemical properties of Au/AgICSD were then characterized using different optical and imaging techniques (e.g., HR- transmission electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Z-potential, and UV-vis). The CT and PAI contrast-enhancing effects were tested and then compared with a clinically used CT contrast agent and Au nanoparticles. To confer biocompatibility and the capability for efficient biomarker targeting, the surface of the Au/AgICSD nanodimer was modified with the amphiphilic diblock polymer and then functionalized with transferrin for targeting transferrin receptor that is overexpressed in various cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of the prepared Au/AgICSD nanodimer was also tested with both normal and cancer cell lines. Results: The characterizations of prepared Au/AgI core/shell nanostructure confirmed the formation of Au/AgICSD nanodimers. Au/AgICSD nanodimer is stable in physiological conditions for in vivo applications. Au/AgICSD nanodimer exhibited higher contrast enhancement in both CT and PAI for dual-modality imaging. Moreover, transferrin functionalized Au/AgICSD nanodimer showed specific binding to the tumor cells that have a high level of expression of the transferrin receptor. Conclusions: The developed Au/AgICSD nanodimer can be used as a potential biomarker targeted dual-modal contrast agent for both or combined CT and PAI molecular imaging.

  1. An ultrasensitive, uniform and large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate based on Ag or Ag/Au nanoparticles decorated Si nanocone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. P.; Gao, J.; Sun, X. H.

    2015-01-01

    Large-area and highly ordered Si nanocone arrays decorated with Ag or Au/Ag nanoparticles have been fabricated via a mask-free lithography with reaction ion etching, followed by metal deposition process. Ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering signals with an enhancement factor of 1012 were achieved even at the concentration of the Rhodamine 6G as low as 10-15 M. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate was also applied on the detection of Sudan I dye and the Raman signals were substantially enhanced as well. The stability of the SERS substrate can be significantly improved by covering Ag nanoparticles with Au thin layer, which maintain a high SERS performance even after one month storage. This nanofabrication process appears to be a feasible approach to prepare uniform and reproducible SERS-active substrates with high sensitivity and stability for practical SERS applications.

  2. Fabrication of Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow structure for efficient light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juyoung; Hwang, Sun Hye; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-28

    Improving the light-harvesting properties of photoanodes is promising way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We synthesized Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs) via sol-gel reaction and chemical deposition. The Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs exhibited multifunctions from Au@Ag core/shell NPs (Au@Ag CSNPs) and TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (TiO2 HNPs). These Au@Ag CSNPs exhibited strong and broadened localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), together with a large specific surface area of 129 m(2) g(-1), light scattering effect, and facile oxidation-reduction reaction of electrolyte from TiO2 HNPs, which resulted in enhancement of the light harvesting. The optimum PCE of η = 9.7% was achieved for the DSSCs using photoanode materials based on TiO2 HNPs containing Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs (0.2 wt % Au@Ag CSNPs with respect to TiO2 HNPs), which outperformed by 24% enhancement that of conventional photoanodes formed using P25 (η = 7.8%).

  3. Wetting reaction of Sn-Ag based solder systems on Cu substrates plated with Au and/or Pd layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. Y.; Li, Jian; Vandentop, G. J.; Choi, W. J.; Tu, K. N.

    2001-05-01

    The wetting behavior of SnAg based Pb-free solders on Cu and Cu substrates plated with Au, Pd, and Au/Pd thin films have been studied. The wetting angle and kinetics of interfacial reaction were measured. The Au-plated substrates exhibit better wetting than the Pd-plated substrates. In the case of SnAg on Pd-plated Cu, SEM observation revealed that the solder cap was surrounded by an innerring of Cu-Sn compound and an outer ring of Pd-Sn compound. This implies that the molten SnAg solder had removed the Pd and wetted the Cu directly in the equilibrium state. The effects of pre-doping Cu in the SnAg solder on wetting behavior were also investigated. We found that wettability decreases with increasing Cu content in the solder. We also observed that the SnAgCu solders have a lower Cu consumption rate than the SnAg solder.

  4. Reflow soldering and isothermal solid-state aging of Sn-Ag eutectic solder on Au/Ni surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. M.; Ho, C. E.; Chen, W. T.; Kao, C. R.

    2001-09-01

    The reaction between the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder and the Au/Ni surface finish during reflow as well as during isothermal aging was studied. The Au layer was electroplated and had a thickness of the one μm. The peak reflow temperature was fixed at 250 C while the reflow time was varied between 10 sec and one h. Samples that went through 90 sec reflow time were then subjected to 160 C isothermal aging for up to 875 h. It was found that during reflow the Au layer reacted very quickly with the solder to form AuSn4. One μm of Au layer was consumed in less than 10 sec. As the aging time increased, AuSn4 grains began to separate themselves from the Ni layer at the roots of the grains and started to fall into the solder. When, the reflow time reached 30 sec, all the Au intermetallic head left the interface, and Ni3Sn4 started, to form at the interface. The Ni3Sn4 growth rate followed linear kinetics initially (<240 sec), but the growth rate slowed down afterward. During the isothermal aging, only a small amount of (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 resettled back to the interface, and a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer did not form at the interface, unlike the case for the Sn-37Pb solder. This is an important advantage for Sn-3.5 Ag over Sn-37Pb because a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer inevitably will weaken a solder joint. Our observation indicated that many (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 particles were trapped by the Ag3Sn particles, and were hindered from resettling back to the interface.

  5. Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles assembled with activatable aptamer probes as smart "nano-doctors" for image-guided cancer thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Ye, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Cui, Wensi; He, Dinggeng; Li, Duo; Jia, Xuekun

    2014-08-07

    Although nanomaterial-based theranostics have increased positive expectations from cancer treatment, it remains challenging to develop in vivo "nano-doctors" that provide high-contrast image-guided site-specific therapy. Here we designed an activatable theranostic nanoprobe (ATNP) via self-assembly of activatable aptamer probes (AAPs) on Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles (NPs). As both quenchers and heaters, novel Au@Ag/Au NPs were prepared, showing excellent fluorescence quenching and more effective near-infrared photothermal therapy than Au nanorods. The AAP comprised a thiolated aptamer and a fluorophore-labeled complementary DNA; thus, the ATNP with quenched fluorescence in the free state could realize signal activation through target binding-induced conformational change of the AAP, and then achieve on-demand treatment under image-guided irradiation. By using S6 aptamer as the model, in vitro and in vivo studies of A549 lung cancer verified that the ATNP greatly improved imaging contrast and specific destruction, suggesting a robust and versatile theranostic strategy for personalized medicine in future.

  6. PdAgAu alloy with high resistance to corrosion by H2S

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Fernando; Miller, James B.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Tarditi, Ana M.; Fleutot, Benoit; Kondratyuk, Petro; Cornaglia, Laura M.

    2012-12-01

    PdAgAu alloy films were prepared on porous stainless steel supports by sequential electroless deposition. Two specific compositions, Pd83Ag2Au15 and Pd74Ag14Au12, were studied for their sulfur tolerance. The alloys and a reference Pd foil were exposed to 1000 H2S /H2 at 623 K for periods of 3 and 30 hours. The microstructure, morphology and bulk composition of both nonexposed and H2S-exposed samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and SEM analysis revealed time-dependent growth of a bulk Pd{sub 4}S phase on the Pd foil during H2S exposure. In contrast, the PdAgAu ternary alloys displayed the same FCC structure before and after H2S exposure. In agreement with the XRD and SEM results, sulfur was not detected in the bulk of either ternary alloy samples by EDS, even after 30 hours of H2S exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles were acquired for both PdAgAu alloys after 3 and 30 hours of exposure to characterize sulfur contamination near their surfaces. Very low S 2p and S 2s XPS signals were observed at the top-surfaces of the PdAgAu alloys, and those signals disappeared before the etch depth reached ~ 10 nm, even for samples exposed to H2S for 30 hours. The depth profile analyses also revealed silver and gold segregation to the surface of the alloys; preferential location of Au on the alloys surface may be related to their resistance to bulk sulfide formation. In preliminary tests, a PdAgAu alloy membrane displayed higher initial H{sub 2} permeability than a similarly prepared pure Pd sample and, consistent with resistance to bulk sulfide formation, lower permeability loss in H2S than pure Pd.

  7. Development of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys for multiple dental applications. Part 2. Mechanical properties of experimental Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys containing Sn or Ga for ceramic-metal restorations.

    PubMed

    Goto, S; Nakai, A; Miyagawa, Y; Ogura, H

    2001-06-01

    Eighteen Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys, consisting of nine Ag-Pd-Au-Cu mother compositions (Pd: 20, 30 or 40%, Au: 20%, Cu: 10, 15 or 20%, Ag: balance) containing either 5% Sn or 5% Ga as an additive metal, were experimentally prepared. Tensile strength, proof stress, elongation, elastic modulus, and Vickers hardness of these alloys were evaluated to clarify the potential of these alloys for use as ceramic-metal restorations as well as the effects of the Pd and Cu contents on their mechanical properties. The tensile strength, proof stress, elongation, elastic modulus and Vickers hardness of the 18 experimental alloys were in the range of 410.0-984.0 MPa, 289.7-774.3 MPa, 2.2-23.7%, 81.3-123.0 GPa and 135.7-332.3 HV1, respectively. Ten of the 18 experimental alloys can be used for ultra-low fusing ceramics based on their proof stress, elastic modulus, elongation and hardness. Between the Ga- and Sn-added alloys, differences in tensile strength, proof stress, elongation and hardness were found at several Ag-Pd-Au-Cu compositions.

  8. Controlled preparation of Au/Ag/SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles using a photochemical method and applications in LSPR based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Na; Ye, Chen; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-05-01

    A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ~442 nm RIU-1. The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ~7.5 × 10-7 M. This photochemical method allows the controlled preparation of various Au/Ag/SnO2 nanoparticles to adjust their LSPR to suit various applications.A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ~442 nm RIU-1. The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ~7.5 × 10-7 M. This photochemical method allows

  9. Electronic properties and bonding characteristics of AlN:Ag thin film nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lekka, Ch. E.; Patsalas, P.; Komninou, Ph.; Evangelakis, G. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results on the bonding and structural characteristics of AlN:Ag thin film nanocomposites obtained by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. From the theoretical calculations it was determined that the presence of the Ag substitutional of N or Al atoms affects the electronic density of states (EDOS) of the resulting systems. In particular, occupied energy states are introduced (between others) that lie within the energy gap of the AlN matrix due to Ag-d, Al-p (accompanied with a charge transfer from Al to Ag), Ag-p, and N-p hybridizations, respectively. The effect is predicted to be even more pronounced in the case of Ag nanoparticle inclusions affecting the EDOS of the composite system. These predictions were verified by the HRTEM images that gave unequivocal evidence for the presence and stability of Ag nanoparticles in the AlN matrix. In addition, the AES data suggested a metal-metal (Ag-Al) bonding preference, while the XRD patterns revealed that the atomic Ag dispersions in the AlN thin films results in a small elongation of the Wurtzite lattice, which is in agreement with the DFT predictions. These results may useful in tailoring the electronic response of AlN-based systems and the design of devices for various opto-electronic applications.

  10. Growth of periodic nano-layers of nano-crystals of Au, Ag, Cu by ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Cydale C.; Zheng, B.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Ila, D.

    2005-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/, were grown by deposition. We have previously shown that MeV ion Bombardment of multi-nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/ produces Au nanocrystals in the AU+ SiO2 layers. An increased number of nano-layers followed by MeV ion bombardment produces a wide optical absorption band, of which its FWHM depends on the number of nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/. We have successfully repeated this process for nano-layers of SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/. In this work we used 5 MeV Si as the post deposition bombardment ion and monitored the location as well as the optical absorption's FWHM for each layered structure using Optical Absorption Photospectrometry. The concentration and location of the metal nano-crystals were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. We will report on the results obtained for nano-layered structures produced by post deposition bombardment of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/ layered systems as well as the results obtained from a system containing a periodic combination of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/.

  11. DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles assembled on silicon slides as a reliable SERS substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Sha; Lin, Mengshi

    2014-05-07

    This study aimed at developing a sensitive and reliable SERS substrate by assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon slides. First, a monolayer of well separated DNA-functionalized Au NPs (40 nm) was decorated on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified silicon slides. The DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs were assembled on the 40 nm Au-DNA NPs to form a core-satellite structure through DNA hybridization. Using 4-MBA as a Raman dye, the SERS performance of the substrates was evaluated after being cleaned by low oxygen and argon plasma. The Raman intensity of the assembly using DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs was 8-10 times higher than the intensity of the assembly using Au NPs as satellites. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the assembly was 2.6 times higher than that of a commercial substrate (Klarite™) when a 785 nm laser was used. The SERS enhancements of the assembled substrates were 2.2 to 2.8 times higher than the Klarite when an acquisition time of 5 s was used at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm. The assembled substrates also show a good spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate reproducibility at the excitation wavelengths of 633 and 785 nm. These results demonstrate that the fabrication process is simple and cost-effective for assembling DNA-embedded Au-Ag core-shell NPs on silicon slides that can be used as a reliable SERS substrate.

  12. Evolution of local atomic structure during solidification of Al2Au liquid: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, L H; Lou, H B; Wang, X D; Debela, T T; Cao, Q P; Zhang, D X; Wang, S Y; Wang, C Z; Jiang, J Z

    2014-04-01

    The local atomic structure evolution in Al2Au alloy during solidification from 2000 K to 400 K was studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed using the structure factor, pair correlation functions, bond angle distributions, the Honeycutt-Anderson (HA) index and Voronoi tessellation methods. It was found that the icosahedral-like clusters are negligible in the Al2Au stable liquid and supercooled liquid states, and the most abundant clusters are those having HA indices of 131 and 120 or Voronoi indices of < 0,4,4,0 >, < 0,3, 6,0 > and < 0,4,4,2 > with coordination numbers of 8, 9 and 10, respectively. These clusters are similar to the local atomic structures in the CaF2-type Al2Au crystal, revealing the existence of structure heredity between liquid and crystalline phase in Al2Au alloy. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Internal photoemission in Ag-Al2O3-Al junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-Al2O3-Al metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et al., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et al., 1971; Ehnrereich et al., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and Al as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.

  14. Simulation of 6 to 3 to 1 merge and squeeze of Au77+ bunches in AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2016-05-09

    In order to increase the intensity per Au77+ bunch at AGS extraction, a 6 to 3 to 1 merge scheme was developed and implemented by K. Zeno during the 2016 RHIC run [1]. For this scheme, 12 Booster loads, each consisting of a single bunch, are delivered to AGS per AGS magnetic cycle. The bunch from Booster is itself the result of a 4 to 2 to 1 merge which is carried out on a at porch during the Booster magnetic cycle [2]. Each Booster bunch is injected into a harmonic 24 bucket on the AGS injection porch. In order to t into the buckets and allow for the AGS injection kicker rise time, the bunch width must be reduced by exciting quadrupole oscillations just before extraction from Booster [1]. The bunches are injected into two groups of six adjacent harmonic 24 buckets. In each group the 6 bunches are merged into 3 by bringing on RF harmonic 12 while reducing harmonic 24. This is a straightforward 2 to 1 merge (in which two adjacent bunches are merged into one). One ends up with two groups of three adjacent bunches sitting in harmonic 12 buckets. These bunches are accelerated to an intermediate porch for further merging. Doing the merge on a porch that sits above injection energy helps reduce losses that are believed to be due to the space-charge force acting on the bunched particles [3]. (The 6 to 3 merge is done on the injection porch because the harmonic 24 frequency on the intermediate porch would be too high for the AGS RF cavities.) On the intermediate porch each group of 3 bunches is merged into one by bringing on RF harmonics 8 and 4 and then reducing harmonics 12 and 8. One ends up with 2 bunches, each the result of a 6 to 3 to 1 merge and each sitting in a harmonic 4 bucket. This puts 6 Booster loads into each bunch. Each merged bunch needs to be squeezed into a harmonic 12 bucket for subsequent acceleration. This is done by again bringing on harmonic 8 and then harmonic 12.

  15. Prediction of AU, AL, and AE indices using solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Li, X.; Temerin, M. A.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    An empirical model that predicts the AU index, a measure of the Earth's east electrojet, derived from magnetometers in the Northern hemisphere, is introduced. In addition, we have improved the previous AL model (Li et al., 2007) and have combined it with the AU model to produce an AE model. All models are based on upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters that have been propagated to the magnetopause by a simple ballistic propagation scheme for the years 1995 to 2001. The AU model predicts the 10-min averaged AU index for the seven years 1995-2001 with a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.716, a linear correlation coefficient (LC) between the AU index and the model of 0.846, and a root mean square (RMS) error of 39.3 nT. We have updated the AL model introduced in Li et al. [2007] using the same prediction functions used to predict AU but with different parameters. The new AL model predicts the seven year AL index with a PE of 0.715, an LC of 0.846, and an RMS error of 81.6 nT. Using AE = AU-AL, the AE index is predicted with a PE of 0.788, an LC of 0.888, and an RMS error of 95.7 nT. The better PE and LC of the AE model over AU and AL models is because AU and AL are better correlated then their prediction errors. It is also found that: (1) The F10.7 index modulates the growth of auroral electrojet indices; (2) AU and AL behave differently during geomagnetic storm main phases. AU can drop to a low level while the magnitude of AL does not drop as much; (3) the longer-averaged auroral electrojets indices can be predicted very well but shorter timescale variations are much less predictable; (4) auroral electrojet activity is strongly dependent on the upstream solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field but is only weakly dependent on the solar wind density.

  16. Laser irradiation of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al multilayers for electrical isolation in thin film photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Laser irradiation of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent contacts is investigated for segmentation purposes. The quality of the irradiated areas has been experimentally evaluated by separation resistance measurements, and the results are complemented with a thermal model used for numerical simulations of the laser process. The presence of the Ag interlayer plays two key effects on the laser scribing process by increasing the maximum temperature reached in the structure and accelerating the cool down process. These evidences can promote the use of ultra-thin ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al electrode in large-area products, such as for solar modules. PMID:24053228

  17. Synthesis of highly fluorescent metal (Ag, Au, Pt, and Cu) nanoclusters by electrostatically induced reversible phase transfer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xun; Luo, Zhentao; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xinhai; Zheng, Yuangang; Lee, Jim Yang; Xie, Jianping

    2011-11-22

    This paper reports a simple and scalable method for the synthesis of highly fluorescent Ag, Au, Pt, and Cu nanoclusters (NCs) based on a mild etching environment made possible by phase transfer via electrostatic interactions. Using Ag as a model metal, a simple and fast (total synthesis time < 3 h) phase transfer cycle (aqueous → organic (2 h incubation) → aqueous) has been developed to process originally polydisperse, nonfluorescent, and unstable Ag NCs into monodisperse, highly fluorescent, and extremely stable Ag NCs in the same phase (aqueous) and protected by the same thiol ligand. The synthetic protocol was successfully extended to fabricate highly fluorescent Ag NCs protected by custom-designed peptides with desired functionalities (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amine). The facile synthetic method developed in this study should largely contribute to the practical applications of this new class of fluorescence probes.

  18. Catalytic sterilization of Escherichia coli K 12 on Ag/Al2O3 surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixue; Yan, Lizhu; He, Hong; Chang, Qingyun; Yu, Yunbo; Qu, Jiuhui

    2007-05-01

    Bactericidal action of Al(2)O(3), Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) on pure culture of Escherichia coli K 12 was studied. Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) demonstrated a stronger bactericidal activity than Al(2)O(3). The colony-forming ability of E. coli was completely lost in 0.5 min on both of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) at room temperature in air. The configuration of the bacteria on the catalyst surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the expression of the bactericidal activity on the surface of catalysts by assay with O(2)/N(2) bubbling and scavenger for ROS. Furthermore, the formation of CO(2) as an oxidation product could be detected by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and be deduced by total carbon analysis. These results strongly support that the bactericidal process on the surface of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) was caused by the catalytic oxidation.

  19. Chitosan nanocomposite films based on Ag-NP and Au-NP biosynthesis by Bacillus Subtilis as packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; El-Sayed, Samah M

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) and Chitosan-gold (CS-Au) nanocomposites films were synthesized by a simple chemical method. A local bacterial isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ss subtilis was found to be capable to synthesize both silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) and gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) from silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (AuCl(4-)) solutions, respectively. The biosynthesis of both Ag-NP and Au-NP characterize using UV/vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and then added to chitosan by different ratios (0.5, 1 and 2%). The prepared chitosan nanocomposites films were characterize using UV, XRD, SEM and TEM. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the prepared films was evaluated against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aerugenosa), fungi (Aspergillus niger) and yeast (Candida albicans). Therefore, these materials can be potential used as antimicrobial agents in packaging applications.

  20. Enhanced Raman and luminescence spectra from co-encapsulated silicon quantum dots and Au-Ag nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Aniza; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Fulton, David A

    2014-10-21

    We report an approach to enhance simultaneously luminescence and SERS signals with a single excitation wavelength by co-encapsulating silicon quantum dots and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles encoded with Raman reporter molecules inside polymeric nanoparticles. The SERS-luminescence enhancement exploits the large Stokes shift of silicon quantum dots, which allows 'room' for the display of a Raman spectrum.

  1. Interfacial assembly of mussel-inspired au@ag@ polydopamine core-shell nanoparticles for recyclable nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiajing; Duan, Bo; Fang, Zheng; Song, Jibin; Wang, Chenxu; Messersmith, Phillip B; Duan, Hongwei

    2014-02-01

    Recyclable nanocatalysts of core-shell bimetallic nanocrystals are developed through polydopamine coating-directed one-step seeded growth, interfacial assembly, and substrate-immobilization of Au@Ag core-shell nanocrystals. This strategy provides new opportunities to design and optimize heterogeneous nanocatalysts with tailored size, morphology, chemical configuration, and supporting substrates for metal-catalyzed reactions.

  2. Novel Au-Ag hybrid device for electrochemical SE(R)R spectroscopy in a wide potential and spectral range.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiu-Ju; Gernert, Ulrich; Sezer, Murat; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Murgida, Daniel H; David, Christin; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Peter; Weidinger, Inez M

    2009-01-01

    A nanostructured gold-silver-hybrid electrode for SER spectroelectrochemistry was developed which advantageously combines the electrochemical properties and chemical stability of Au and the strong surface enhancement of (resonance) Raman scattering by Ag. The layered device consists of a massive nanoscopically rough Ag electrode, a thin (2 nm) organic layer, and a ca. 20 nm thick Au film that may be coated by self-assembled monolayers for protein adsorption. The SERR-spectroscopic and electrochemical performance of this device is demonstrated using the heme protein cytochrome c as a benchmark model system, thereby extending, for the first time, SE(R)R studies of molecules on Au surfaces to excitation in the violet spectral range. The enhancement factor is only slightly lower than for Ag electrodes which can be rationalized in terms of an efficient transfer of plasmon resonance excitation from the Ag to the Au coating. This mechanism, which requires a thin dielectric layer between the two metals, is supported by theoretical calculations.

  3. Tailor-made Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticle 2D arrays on protein-coated graphene oxide with assembly enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqiao; Liu, Jinbin; Wu, Xuan; Tong, Zhonghua; Deng, Zhaoxiang

    2013-05-01

    Water-dispersible two-dimensional (2D) assemblies of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles are obtained through a highly selective electroless silver deposition on pre-assembled gold nanoparticles on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated graphene oxide (BSA-GO). While neither BSA-GO nor AuNP-decorated BSA-GO shows any antibacterial ability, the silver-coated GO@Au nanosheets (namely GO@Au@Ag) exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, superior to unassembled Au@Ag nanoparticles and even ionic Ag. Such an improvement may be attributed to the increased local concentration of silver nanoparticles around a bacterium and a polyvalent interaction with the bacterial surface. In addition, the colloidal stability of this novel nano-antimicrobial against the formation of random nanoparticle aggregates guarantees a minimized activity loss of the Au@Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial efficacy of GO@Au@Ag is less sensitive to the existence of Cl-, in comparison with silver ions, providing another advantage for wound dressing applications. Our research unambiguously reveals a strong and very specific interaction between the GO@Au@Ag nanoassembly and E. coli, which could be an important clue toward a rational design, synthesis and assembly of innovative and highly active antibacterial nanomaterials.

  4. Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to

  5. Global optimization of bimetallic cluster structures. II. Size-matched Ag-Pd, Ag-Au, and Pd-Pt systems.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulia; Ferrando, Riccardo; Rapallo, Arnaldo; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Curley, Benjamin C; Lloyd, Lesley D; Johnston, Roy L

    2005-05-15

    Genetic algorithm global optimization of Ag-Pd, Ag-Au, and Pd-Pt clusters is performed. The 34- and 38-atom clusters are optimized for all compositions. The atom-atom interactions are modeled by a semiempirical potential. All three systems are characterized by a small size mismatch and a weak tendency of the larger atoms to segregate at the surface of the smaller ones. As a result, the global minimum structures exhibit a larger mixing than in Ag-Cu and Ag-Ni clusters. Polyicosahedral structures present generally favorable energetic configurations, even though they are less favorable than in the case of the size-mismatched systems. A comparison between all the systems studied here and in the previous paper (on size-mismatched systems) is presented.

  6. [Au]/[Ag]-catalysed expedient synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan motif of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Thadke, Shivaji A.; Mishra, Bijoyananda; Islam, Maidul; Pasari, Sandip; Manmode, Sujit; Rao, Boddu Venkateswara; Neralkar, Mahesh; Shinde, Ganesh P.; Walke, Gulab; Hotha, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant and extreme-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) can cause serious socioeconomic burdens. Arabinogalactan present on the cellular envelope of MTb is unique and is required for its survival; access to arabinogalactan is essential for understanding the biosynthetic machinery that assembles it. Isolation from Nature is a herculean task and, as a result, chemical synthesis is the most sought after technique. Here we report a convergent synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan (HAG) of MTb. Key furanosylations are performed using [Au]/[Ag] catalysts. The synthesis of HAG is achieved by the repetitive use of three reactions namely 1,2-trans furanoside synthesis by propargyl 1,2-orthoester donors, unmasking of silyl ether, and conversion of n-pentenyl furanosides into 1,2-orthoesters. Synthesis of HAG is achieved in 47 steps (with an overall yield of 0.09%) of which 21 are installation of furanosidic linkages in a stereoselective manner. PMID:28120821

  7. [Au]/[Ag]-catalysed expedient synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan motif of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall.

    PubMed

    Thadke, Shivaji A; Mishra, Bijoyananda; Islam, Maidul; Pasari, Sandip; Manmode, Sujit; Rao, Boddu Venkateswara; Neralkar, Mahesh; Shinde, Ganesh P; Walke, Gulab; Hotha, Srinivas

    2017-01-25

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant and extreme-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) can cause serious socioeconomic burdens. Arabinogalactan present on the cellular envelope of MTb is unique and is required for its survival; access to arabinogalactan is essential for understanding the biosynthetic machinery that assembles it. Isolation from Nature is a herculean task and, as a result, chemical synthesis is the most sought after technique. Here we report a convergent synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan (HAG) of MTb. Key furanosylations are performed using [Au]/[Ag] catalysts. The synthesis of HAG is achieved by the repetitive use of three reactions namely 1,2-trans furanoside synthesis by propargyl 1,2-orthoester donors, unmasking of silyl ether, and conversion of n-pentenyl furanosides into 1,2-orthoesters. Synthesis of HAG is achieved in 47 steps (with an overall yield of 0.09%) of which 21 are installation of furanosidic linkages in a stereoselective manner.

  8. Intracellular and in Vivo Cyanide Mapping via Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy of Single Au-Ag Nanoboxes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiyuan; Bai, Yujie; Yao, Chi; Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Wenxing; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Zi, Jian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Fan

    2017-02-21

    Cyanide is extremely toxic to organisms but difficult to detect in living biological specimens. Here, we report a new CN(-) sensing platform based on unmodified Au-Ag alloy nanoboxes that etch in the presence of this analyte, yielding a shift in plasmon frequency that correlates with the analyte concentration. Significantly, when combined with dark field microscopy, these particle probes can be used to measure CN(-) concentrations in HeLa cells and in vivo in Zebra fish embryos. The limit of detection (LOD) of the novel method is 1 nM (below the acceptable limit defined by the World Health Organization), and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations are used to understand the CN(-) induced spectral shifts.

  9. [Au]/[Ag]-catalysed expedient synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan motif of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadke, Shivaji A.; Mishra, Bijoyananda; Islam, Maidul; Pasari, Sandip; Manmode, Sujit; Rao, Boddu Venkateswara; Neralkar, Mahesh; Shinde, Ganesh P.; Walke, Gulab; Hotha, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant and extreme-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) can cause serious socioeconomic burdens. Arabinogalactan present on the cellular envelope of MTb is unique and is required for its survival; access to arabinogalactan is essential for understanding the biosynthetic machinery that assembles it. Isolation from Nature is a herculean task and, as a result, chemical synthesis is the most sought after technique. Here we report a convergent synthesis of branched heneicosafuranosyl arabinogalactan (HAG) of MTb. Key furanosylations are performed using [Au]/[Ag] catalysts. The synthesis of HAG is achieved by the repetitive use of three reactions namely 1,2-trans furanoside synthesis by propargyl 1,2-orthoester donors, unmasking of silyl ether, and conversion of n-pentenyl furanosides into 1,2-orthoesters. Synthesis of HAG is achieved in 47 steps (with an overall yield of 0.09%) of which 21 are installation of furanosidic linkages in a stereoselective manner.

  10. High thermally stable Ni /Ag(Al) alloy contacts on p-GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. H.; Lin, C. L.; Chuang, Y. C.; Bor, H. Y.; Liu, C. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Ag agglomeration was found to occur at Ni /Ag to p-GaN contacts after annealing at 500°C. This Ag agglomeration led to the poor thermal stability showed by the Ni /Ag contacts in relation to the reflectivity and electrical properties. However, after alloying with 10at.% Al by e-gun deposition, the Ni /Ag(Al) p-GaN contacts were found to effectively retard Ag agglomeration thereby greatly enhancing the thermal stability. Based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the authors believe that the key for the retardation of Ag agglomeration was the formation of ternary Al-Ni-O layer at p-GaN interface.

  11. Chemical stability at noble metal M/YBa 2Cu 3O 6.8 interfaces (M = Pt, Ag, Au)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenkamp-Weiss, Ruth; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    1994-02-01

    The chemical compatibility between YBa 2Cu 3O 6.8 (Y123) and Pt, Ag or Au was studied using quasi-infinite diffusion couples which were encapsulated and annealed at 650 to 800°C for 5 to 80 h. The phase formation at the interface was analyzed in cross sections of these couples using optical and scanning electron microscopy together with energy- and wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In addition, bulk powder mixtures of Y123 with Pt, Ag or Au were annealed at 800°C for 100 h and phase analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction. At the Pt/Y123 interface a reaction zone grows slowly but decisively at 800°C. Its microstructure is multiphase with YCu-oxides and a fine-grained dispersion of Y 2BaCuO 5 (Y211) with BaCu-oxides. Additional BaPt oxides and other phases are seen in powder mixtures annealed for longer times. Barium is suspected to diffuse out from the superconductor along grain boundaries from as deep as 1 mm, causing the decomposition of Y123 into YCu-oxides in the depleted regions. Ag and Au form a stable contact at the interface to Y123 with no reaction zone or new phases. Interdiffusion at the Ag/Y123 interface at 800°C was too low to be clearly detected. In contrast, Au diffuses very fast into Y123 and at 800°C the solubility is 4.2 mass% Au. Yttrium and barium diffuse much slower into the (Au) phase, Cu diffusion was not detected. Weak traces of decomposition products, mostly Y211 and BaCu-oxides, were observed in bulk powder mixtures of Y123 with Ag or Au annealed at 800°C for 100 h in closed capsules. These decomposition products are considered to be due to the high oxygen pressure in the closed capsule, exceeding the stability limit of Y123, and not due to the reduction of Y123. Both Ag and Au are virtually non-reactive with Y123.

  12. Ultrafine Au and Ag Nanoparticles Synthesized from Self-Assembled Peptide Fibers and Their Excellent Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenlong; Hong, Yue; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hao, Jingcheng; Song, Aixin

    2016-07-18

    The self-assembly of an amphiphilic peptide molecule to form nanofibers facilitated by Ag(+) ions was investigated. Ultrafine AgNPs (NPs=nanoparticles) with an average size of 1.67 nm were synthesized in situ along the fibers due to the weak reducibility of the -SH group on the peptide molecule. By adding NaBH4 to the peptide solution, ultrafine AgNPs and AuNPs were synthesized with an average size of 1.35 and 1.18 nm, respectively. The AuNPs, AgNPs, and AgNPs/nanofibers all exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, with turnover frequency (TOF) values of 720, 188, and 96 h(-1) , respectively. Three dyes were selected for catalytic degradation by the prepared nanoparticles and the nanoparticles showed selective catalysis activity toward the different dyes. It was a surprising discovery that the ultrafine AuNPs in this work had an extremely high catalytic activity toward methylene blue, with a reaction rate constant of 0.21 s(-1) and a TOF value of 1899 h(-1) .

  13. Au-Ag template stripped pattern for scanning probe investigations of DNA arrays produced by dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Baserga, Andrea; Viganò, Marco; Casari, Carlo S; Turri, Stefano; Li Bassi, Andrea; Levi, Marinella; Bottani, Carlo E

    2008-11-18

    We report on DNA arrays produced by dip pen nanolithography (DPN) on a novel Au-Ag micropatterned template stripped surface. DNA arrays have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) showing that the patterned template stripped substrate enables easy retrieval of the DPN-functionalized zone with a standard optical microscope permitting multi-instrument and multitechnique local detection and analysis. Moreover the smooth surface of the Au squares ( approximately 5-10 A roughness) allows AFM/STM to be sensitive to the hybridization of the oligonucleotide array with label-free target DNA. Our Au-Ag substrates, combining the retrieving capabilities of the patterned surface with the smoothness of the template stripped technique, are candidates for the investigation of DPN nanostructures and for the development of label-free detection methods for DNA nanoarrays based on the use of scanning probes.

  14. Chemical noise produced by equilibrium adsorption/desorption of surface pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions studied by fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tai-Wei; Branagan, Sean P; Bohn, Paul W

    2013-03-20

    The chemical noise contained in conductance fluctuations resulting from adsorption and desorption of pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions (ASJs) exhibiting ballistic electron transport is studied using fluctuation spectroscopy. ASJs are fabricated by electrochemical Ag deposition in a Au nanogap to produce a high-conductance Ag quantum wire, followed by electromigration-induced thinning in pyridine solution to create stable ASJs. The conductance behavior of the resulting ASJs is analyzed by sequential autocorrelation and Fourier transform of the current-time data to yield the power spectral density (PSD). In these experiments the PSDs from Ag ASJs in pyridine exhibit two main frequency regions: 1/f noise originating from resistance fluctuations of the junction itself at low frequencies, and a Lorentzian noise component arising from molecular adsorption/desorption fluctuations at higher frequencies. The characteristic cutoff frequency of the Lorentzian noise component determines the relaxation time of molecular fluctuations, which, in turn, is sensitive to the kinetics of the adsorption/desorption process. The kinetics are found to depend on concentration and on the adsorption binding energy. The junction size (<5G0), on the other hand, does not affect the kinetics, as the cutoff frequency remains unchanged. Concentration-dependent adsorption free energies are interpreted as arising from a distribution of binding energies, N(E(b)), on the Ag ASJ. Other observations, such as long lifetime ASJs and two-level fluctuations in conductance, provide additional evidence for the integral role of the adsorbate in determining ASJ reorganization dynamics.

  15. Nano features of Al/Au ultrasonic bond interface observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Hongjun; Li Mingyu Kim, Jong-Myung; Kim, Dae-Won; Wang Chunqing

    2008-10-15

    Nano-scale interfacial details of ultrasonic AlSi1 wire wedge bonding to a Au/Ni/Cu pad were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The intermetallic phase Au{sub 8}Al{sub 3} formed locally due to diffusion and reaction activated by ultrasound at the Al/Au bond interface. Multilayer sub-interfaces roughly parallel to the wire/pad interface were observed among this phase, and interdiffusional features near the Au pad resembled interference patterns, alternately dark and bright bars. Solid-state diffusion theory cannot be used to explain why such a thick compound formed within milliseconds at room temperature. The major formation of metallurgical bonds was attributed to ultrasonic cyclic vibration.

  16. Dual-frequency plasmon lasing modes in active three-layered bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, DaJian; Wu, XueWei; Cheng, Ying; Jin, BiaoBing; Liu, XiaoJun

    2015-11-01

    The optical properties of three-layered silver-gold-silica (SGS) nanoshells with gain have been investigated theoretically by using Mie theory. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser) phenomena can be observed at two plasmon modes of the active SGS nanoshell in the visible region. It is found with the decrease in the radius of the inner Ag core that the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) for the super-resonance of the low-energy mode increases first and then decreases while that for the high-energy mode decreases. An interesting overlap between the two curves for the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) can be found at a special core radius. At this point, two super-resonances can be achieved concurrently at the low- and high-energy modes of the active SGS nanoshell with the same gain coefficient. This dual-frequency spaser based on the bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshell may be an efficient candidate for designing the nanolaser.

  17. Preparation, characterization and dye adsorption of Au nanoparticles/ZnAl layered double oxides nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu Xin; Hao, Xiao Dong; Kuang, Min; Zhao, Han; Wen, Zhong Quan

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Au/ZnAl-layer double oxides (LDO) nanocomposties were prepared through a facile calcination process of AuCl4- intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocomposites. The morphology and crystal structure of these nanocomposites were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N2 sorption analysis. By tailoring the process parameter, such as calcination temperature, heating time and the component composition, the adsorption properties of methyl orange (MO) on the Au/ZnAl-LDO nanocomposites were investigated in this work. In a typical adsorption process, it was found that 0.985 mg of MO (0.01 g L-1, 100 mL, 1 mg of MO in total) can be removed in 60 min by utilizing only 2.5 mg of Au/ZnAl-LDO (Au content, 1%) as adsorbents. Our adsorption data obtained from the Langmuir model also gave good values of the determination coefficient, and the saturated adsorption capacity of Au/ZnAl-LDO nanocomposites for MO was found to be 627.51 mg/g under ambient condition (e.g., room temperature, 1 atm). In principle, these hybrid nanostructures with higher adsorption abilities could be very promising adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  18. Real-Time Ab Initio KMC Simulation of the Self-Assembly and Sintering of Bimetallic Epitaxial Nanoclusters: Au + Ag on Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W

    2014-08-13

    Far-from-equilibrium shape and structure evolution during formation and post-assembly sintering of bimetallic nanoclusters is extremely sensitive to the periphery diffusion and intermixing kinetics. Precise characterization of the many distinct local-environment-dependent diffusion barriers is achieved for epitaxial nanoclusters using density functional theory to assess interaction energies both with atoms at adsorption sites and at transition states. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation incorporating these barriers then captures structure evolution on the appropriate time scale for two-dimensional core-ring and intermixed Au-Ag nanoclusters on Ag(100).

  19. Resonance scattering spectral detection of catalase activity using Au@Ag nanoparticle as probe and coupling catalase catalytic reaction with Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Aihui; Liang, Yueyuan; Jiang, Zhiliang; Jiang, Hesheng

    2009-11-01

    The Au(core)Ag(shell) (Au@Ag) nanoparticles in size of 30 nm were prepared using 10 nm gold nanoparticles as seeds at 90 degrees C, and were purified by high-speed centrifugation to remove the excess trisodium citrate to obtain Au@Ag nanoprobe. In the medium of pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution--7.2 micromol/L H2O2--67 micromol/L Fe(II), Au@Ag nanoparticles exhibited a resonance scattering (RS) peak at 538 nm. Upon addition of Catalase (Ct), the system produced hydroxyl radical that oxidized the Au@Ag nanoprobe to form the AuAg nanoparticles with partly bare nanogold. Those AuAg nanoparticles aggregated to large nanoclusters that led to the RS peak wavelength red-shift and its RS peak intensity enhanced. The catalase activity (C) is linear to the enhanced RS intensity (DeltaI) in the range of 6 to 2,800 U/L, with regression equation of DeltaI = 0.168 C-0.2, the correlation coefficient of 0.9952, and detection limit of 2.8 U/L. This method was applied to the detection of serum samples, and the results were agreement with that of the spectrophotometry. A new catalytic mechanism of catalase was proposed with oxywater principle that was agreement with the results of resonance scattering spectroscopy, absorption spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy and laser scattering.

  20. Controlled preparation of Au/Ag/SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles using a photochemical method and applications in LSPR based sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Ye, Chen; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-05-21

    A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ∼442 nm RIU(-1). The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ∼7.5 × 10(-7) M. This photochemical method allows the controlled preparation of various Au/Ag/SnO2 nanoparticles to adjust their LSPR to suit various applications.

  1. Size evolution of nanomagnetic particles and magnetotransport properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films: influence of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüzoğlu, Ramis Mustafa; Meshcheryakov, Vladimir F.; Ayas, Erhan

    2012-06-01

    The influence of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film thickness and of Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer on nanomagnetic, magnetotransport and structural properties of (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 nanogranular films prepared by ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputtering technique have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and vibrating sample magnetometer. Films indicate a superparamagnetic behavior. The evolution of the magnetic particle size in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 film with different thicknesses was calculated by fit of magnetization curves using Langevin equation. A parallel resistance model has been used to determine particle size distribution. The average (mean) particle sizes range from 1.6 to 2.1 nm. A linear dependence of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) on the particle size has been found. This result is also supported by the observed linear correlation between the square root of the effective magnetization and the particle size. Furthermore, a linear correlation between the square of GMR and the distance between particles has been found. This remains unchanged also in (Co90Fe10)20Ag80 films with Cu80Ag15Au5 underlayer. Using of the underlayer leads to an enhancement of the mean particle size (1.8-2.5 nm) and GMR; however, to a reduction of distances between particles accompanied by the destruction of the <111> texture in the Ag matrix structure. The reason of the GMR effect in the nanogranular films is discussed by means of the obtained results.

  2. The synthesis, activity, stability and the charge transfer identification of Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 photocatalyst for organic pollutant decomposition in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Si, Zhichun; Weng, Duan

    2015-12-01

    Highly stable Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 photo-catalyst was obtained by dispersing AgBr sol on hollow γ-Al2O3 microsphere. Metallic Ag nanoparticles were in situ generated on AgBr crystals by a photo-reduction method. The activity of catalyst was characterized by MO and phenol decomposition. The light irradiation response, the life times of the photo-induced charges, and the charge separation and transition were determined by the UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, open circuit voltage decay spectra and transient photocurrent responses. The as-prepared Ag:AgBr/γ-Al2O3 catalyst can response to visible light irradiation. Charge separation was clarified to correlate with electrons transferring from Ag to AgBr surface and the consequent reaction with ads-O2 to generate rad O2- species. It was found that the rad O2- rather than rad OH played a dominant role in the photocatalytic oxidation of MO and phenol in water. However, the electrons trended to transfer from AgBr to Ag intrinsically without light irradiation. Therefore, the electron transfer between Ag and AgBr reaching the dynamic equilibrium was the key factor for obtaining a high stable Ag/AgBr catalyst which can be obtained by optimizing the Ag:AgBr ratio. Loading amount of Ag:AgBr on γ-Al2O3 was optimized to 30 wt.% and the metallic Ag content was stabilized at 9 wt.% of Ag:AgBr catalyst.

  3. On the Effect of Native SiO2 on Si over the SPR-mediated Photocatalytic Activities of Au and Ag Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiale; de Freitas, Isabel; Alves, Tiago; Ando, Romulo A; Fang, Zebo; Camargo, Pedro

    2017-04-11

    In hybrid materials containing plasmonic nanoparticles such as Au and Ag, charge transfer processes from and to Au or Ag can affect both activities and selectivity in plasmonic catalysis. Inspired by the widespread utilization of commercial Si wafers in SERS studies, we investigated herein the effect of the native SiO2 layer on Si wafers over the SPR-mediated activities of the Au and Ag NPs. We prepared SERS-active plasmonic comprised of Au and Ag NPs deposited onto a Si wafer. Here, two kinds of Si wafers were employed: Si having a native oxide surface layer (Si/SiO2) and Si without a native oxide surface layer (Si). This led to Si/SiO2/Au, Si/SiO2/Ag, Si/Au, and Si/Ag NPs. The SPR-mediated oxidation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) was employed as a model transformation. By comparing the performances and band structures for the Si/Au and Si/Ag relative to Si/SiO2/Au and Si/SiO2/Ag NPs, it was found that the presence of a SiO2 layer was crucial to enable higher SPR-mediated PATP to DMAB conversions. The SiO2 layer acts preventing the charge transfer of SPR-excited hot electrons from Au or Ag nanoparticles to the Si substrate. This enabled SPR-excited hot electrons to be transferred to adsorbed O2 molecules, which then participate in the selective oxidation of PATP to DMAB. In the absence of a SiO2 layer, SPR-excited hot electrons are preferentially transferred to Si instead of adsorbed O2 molecules, leading to much lower PATP oxidation.

  4. Highly efficient and porous TiO2-coated Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au microspheres for degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mao; Chen, Suqing; Jia, Wenping; Fan, Guodong; Jin, Yanxian; Liang, Huading

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we reported a novel hierarchical porous Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au@TiO2 core@shell microspheres with a highly photocatalytic activity and magnetically separable properties. The synthesis method is included of a Fe3O4 magnetic embedded Ag core (Ag@Fe3O4), an interlayer of carbon modified by PEI to form sufficient amounts of amine functional groups (Ag@Fe3O4@C-PEI), the grafting of Au nanoparticles on the surface of Ag@Fe3O4@C-PEI (Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au), and an ordered porous TiO2 structured shell. As an example of the applications, the photocatalytic activities of the samples were investigated by the reduction of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The results show that the porous Ag@Fe3O4@C-Au@TiO2 core@shell microspheres display higher adsorption and photocatalytic activities compared to the pure porous TiO2 and Ag@Fe3O4@C@TiO2 microspheres, which are attributed to the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) by the Ag and Au nanoparticles and the high specific surface area.

  5. Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for Hg(2+) by using hybridization chain reaction coupled with Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongbing; Miao, Xiangmin; Xing, Ke; Peng, Xue; Zhu, Aihua; Ling, Liansheng

    2016-06-15

    A novel electrochemical biosensor for Hg(2+) detection was reported by using DNA-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR) coupled with positively charged Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles ((+)Ag@Au CSNPs) amplification. To construct the sensor, capture probe (CP ) was firstly immobilized onto the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE). In the presence of Hg(2+), the sandwiched complex can be formed between the immobilized CP on the electrode surface and the detection probe (DP) modified on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based on T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. The carried DP then opened two ferrocene (Fc) modified hairpin DNA (H1 and H2) in sequence and propagated the happen of HCR to form a nicked double-helix. Numerous Fc molecules were formed on the neighboring probe and produced an obvious electrochemical signal. Moreover, (+)Ag@Au CSNPs were assembly onto such dsDNA polymers as electrochemical signal enhancer. Under optimal conditions, such sensor presents good electrochemical responses for Hg(2+) detection with a detection limit of 3.6 pM. Importantly, the methodology has high selectivity for Hg(2+) detection.

  6. Overpotential deposition of Ag monolayer and bilayer on Au(1 1 1) mediated by Pb adlayer underpotential deposition/stripping cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Ocko, B. M.; Adzic, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ultra-thin Ag films on the Au(1 1 1) surface were prepared via overpotential deposition (OPD) in the presence of Pb 2+ ions. By carrying out repetitive Pb adlayer underpotential deposition (UPD) and stripping cycles during Ag bulk deposition, the two-dimensional growth of Ag films was significantly enhanced in high OPD. The Ag monolayer sample was made by comparing the voltammetry curves, in which the signatures for Pb adlayer UPD on Au(1 1 1) changed to that on Ag(1 1 1). As demonstrated by the X-ray specular reflectivity measurements, nearly complete monolayer and bilayer films can be made with optimized deposition procedures. On subatomic scale, however, we found that these films have significant higher root-mean-square displacement amplitudes than those underpotentially deposited Ag monolayer and bilayer on either Au(1 1 1) or Pt(1 1 1).

  7. Global transverse and forward energy measurements for Si+A and Au+A at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, B.; E802 /866 Collaboration

    1993-04-01

    The global transverse and forward energy from Si+Al,Au at 14.6A GeV/c and Au+Al,Au, at 11.6A GeV/c have been measured using the E802 lead-glass and ZCAL. Preliminary d{sigma}/dE{sub T}, dE{sub T}/d{eta} and d{sigma}dT{sub ZCAL} spectra are presented, and the shapes of the spectra from different systems are compared. The transverse and forward energies in Au+Au are observed to be anticorrelated in a manner that is reproduced by the cascade model ARC but not by the essentially geometric model Fritiof.

  8. Global transverse and forward energy measurements for Si+A and Au+A at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The global transverse and forward energy from Si+Al,Au at 14.6A GeV/c and Au+Al,Au, at 11.6A GeV/c have been measured using the E802 lead-glass and ZCAL. Preliminary d[sigma]/dE[sub T], dE[sub T]/d[eta] and d[sigma]dT[sub ZCAL] spectra are presented, and the shapes of the spectra from different systems are compared. The transverse and forward energies in Au+Au are observed to be anticorrelated in a manner that is reproduced by the cascade model ARC but not by the essentially geometric model Fritiof.

  9. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer’s redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors.

  10. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-02-03

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer's redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors.

  11. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer’s redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors. PMID:28155913

  12. Characteristics and Distribution of Mineral Textures and Fluid Inclusions in the Epithermal Ag-Au Deposits at Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, D.; Bodnar, R. J.; Reynolds, T. J.; Rimstidt, J. D.; Mutchler, S.

    2009-05-01

    Fluid inclusion and mineralogical features indicative of boiling have been characterized in 855 samples from epithermal precious metals deposits along the Veta Madre at Guanajuato, Mexico. Features associated with boiling that have been identified include colloform texture silica, plumose texture silica, moss texture silica, ghost-sphere texture silica, lattice-bladed calcite, lattice-bladed calcite replaced by quartz and pseudo-acicular quartz after calcite and coexisting liquid-rich and vapor-rich fluid inclusions. Samples were assayed for Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, As and Sb, and were divided into high-grade and low-grade samples based on the gold and silver concentrations. For silver, the cutoff for high grade was 100 ppm, and for gold the cutoff was 1 ppm. The feature that is most closely associated with high grades of both gold and silver is colloform texture silica, and this feature also shows the largest difference in grade based on the presence or absence of that feature (178.8 ppm Ag versus 17.2 ppm Ag, and 1.1 ppm Au versus 0.2 ppm Au). For both Ag and Au, there is no significant difference in average grade in samples that contain coexisting liquid-rich and vapor-rich fluid inclusions and those where this feature is absent. The textural and fluid inclusion data were analyzed using the binary classifier within SPSS Clementine. The models that correctly distinguish between high and low grade samples most consistently (˜70-75% of the tests) for both Ag and Au were the neural network, the C5 decision tree and Quest decision tree models. For both Au and Ag, the presence of colloform silica texture is the variable with the greatest importance, i.e., the variable that has the greatest predictive power. Boiling features are absent or rare in samples collected along a traverse perpendicular to the Veta Madre. This suggests that if an explorationist observes these features in samples collected during exploration, an environment favorable to precious metal mineralization

  13. Au-Ag polymetallic mineralization within tectonically weak zones along the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Silberman, M.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The Music Mountain mining district lies at the base of the Grand Wash Cliffs, a major fault-line scarp along the Grand Wash fault, which marks the SW margin of the Colorado Plateau. Nearly vertical Au-Ag polymetallic quartz veins parallel, and are in contact with, altered diabase and granite porphyry dikes that cut Proterozoic granite, schist, and gneiss. The gold-bearing veins range in thickness from an inch to several feet and contain significant amounts of sulfide minerals. Diabase dikes and quartz veins in the district and to the north consistently strike N42[degree]W to N57[degree]W, which is one of the most prevalent fracture orientation throughout NW Arizona. In the Gold Basin-Lost Basin districts to the north, the Au occurs in such pegmatite-quartz veins that strike NE. Thirty miles east along Diamond Creek, quartz veins and diabase dikes strike N45[degree]E and are associated with Au and Ag anomalies in stream-sediments and panned concentrates. To the west major Au-Ag polymetallic quartz veins of the Wallapai mining district show consistent strikes from N30[degree] to 60[degree]W. K-Ar ages of hydrothermal alterations of 4 NW oriented diabase dikes that have quartz veins along them, range from 935 [+-] 35 to 755 [+-] 21 Ma. Sericite from altered granite porphyry, adjacent to a mineralized vein, gave a K-Ar age of 72 [+-]2 Ma. All geochemical sites (within a 1,000 mi[sup 2] area) determined to be anomalous in Au lie within 2 mi of either the Grand Wash or Hurricane faults. The Hurricane and Grand Wash faults, major Precambrian fault zones that were reactivated in the Phanerozoic, appear to be good exploration targets for Au-rich quartz veins associated with pegmatite or diabase dikes, many of which may be buried beneath the thick alluvium of Hualapai Valley.

  14. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Gymama; Stevens, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed on the surface of Al/Au/ZnO anode in various electrolyte environments were examined by electrochemical methods. The presence of phosphate buffer and physiological saline (NaCl) buffer allows for the formation of aluminum hyrdroxide and zinc phosphite composite films on the surface of the Al/Au/ZnO anode that prevent further corrosion of the anode. The highly protective films formed on the Al/Au/ZnO anode during energy harvesting in a physiological saline environment resulted in 98.5% corrosion protective efficiency, thereby demonstrating that the formation of aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films are effective in the prevention of anode corrosion during energy harvesting. A cell assembly consisting of the Al/Au/ZnO anode and platinum cathode resulted in an open circuit voltage of 1.03 V. A maximum power density of 955.3 μW/ cm2 in physiological saline buffer at a cell voltage and current density of 345 mV and 2.89 mA/ cm2, respectively. PMID:26580661

  15. Hotspots engineering by grafting Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles substrate for on-site paraquat sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoguang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2016-12-15

    Paraquat (PQ) pollutions are ultra-toxic to human beings and hard to be decomposed in the environment, thus requiring an on-site detection strategy. Herein, we developed a robust and rapid PQ sensing strategy based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. A hybrid SERS substrate was prepared by grafting the Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles (Au FOSEN). Hotspots were engineered at the junctions as indicated by the finite difference time domain calculation. SERS performance of the hybrid substrate was explored using p-ATP as the Raman probe. The hybrid substrate gives higher enhancement factor comparing to either the Au FOSEN substrate or the Au@Ag core-shell NPs, and exhibits excellent reproducibility, homogeneity and stability. The proposed SERS substrates were prepared in batches for the practical PQ sensing. The total analysis time for a single sample, including the pre-treatment and measurement, was less than 5min with a PQ detection limit of 10nM. Peak intensities of the SERS signal were plotted as a function of the PQ concentrations to calibrate the sensitivity by fitting the Hill's equation. The plotted calibration curve showed a good log-log linearity with the coefficient of determination of 0.98. The selectivity of the sensing proposal was based on the "finger print" Raman spectra of the analyte. The proposed substrate exhibited good recovery when it applied to real water samples, including lab tap water, bottled water, and commercially obtained apple juice and grape juice. This SERS-based PQ detection method is simple, rapid, sensitive and selective, which shows great potential in pesticide residue and additives abuse monitoring.

  16. Millimeter distance effects of surface plasmon polaritons in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal diodes is a soft dielectric breakdown that changes the high resistance of as-prepared diodes to a low resistance state. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-metal diodes with anodic Al2O3 results in voltage-controlled negative resistance in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM). EL is due to electrons injected at the Al-Al2O3 interface combining with radiative defects in Al2O3. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that can be excited by photons or electrons. SPPs are confined to a metal-dielectric interface, cause large electric fields in the metal and dielectric, and have ranges of micrometers. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EL, and EM of a group of electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 20 nm, group A, was measured between 200 K and 300 K. After a sequence of temperature measurements, the Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, the Al-Al2O3 regions between diodes, and portions of the Ag on the glass region that provides contacts to the diodes are darkened. The range of darkening is >7 mm in a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 and 2.0-3.5 mm in diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 14 nm and 20 nm. Darkening is attributed to the occurrence of SPPs generated by EL photons at the Ag-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3 interfaces. The results are compared to a second group of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with identical Al2O3 thicknesses, group B, that were prepared in the same way as the diodes of group A except for a difference in the deposition of Al films for the two groups. Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes of group B exhibit enhanced EL, which is attributed to spontaneous emission of recombination centers in Al2O3 being enhanced by large electromagnetic fields that are due to SPPs that are generated by EL photons.

  17. The Low-Lying States of AlCu and AlAg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The singlet and triplet states of AlCu and AlAg below about 32 000/cm are studied using the internally contracted multireference configuration-interaction method. A more elaborate study of the X(sup 1)Sum(sup +) ground state of AlCu is undertaken using extended Gaussian basis sets, including the effect of inner-shell correlation and including a perturbational estimate of relativistic effects. Our best estimate of the spectroscopic constants (r(sub 0), DeltaG(sub 1/2), and D(sub 0)) for the X(sup 1)Sum(sup+) state with the experimental values in parentheses are: 4.416(4.420) a(sub 0), 295 (294) /cm, and 2.318 (2.315) eV. The calculations definitively assign the upper state in the observed transition at 14 892/cm to the lowest (sup 1)Prod state. The calculated spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetime for the (sup 1)Prod state are in good agreement with experiment. The calculations support the tentative assignments of Behm et al. for three band systems observed in the visible region between 25 000 and 28 000 / cm. However, the computed spectroscopic constants are in very poor agreement with those deduced from an analysis of the spectra. Analogous theoretical results for AlAg suggest that the (2)(sup 3)Prod, (3)(sup 3)Prod, and (3)(sup 1)Sum(sup +) states account for the bands observed, but not assigned, by Duncan and co-workers.

  18. Effect of Aluminum Concentration on the Interfacial Reactions of Sn-3.0Ag- xAl Solders with Copper and ENIG Metallizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y. H.; Jee, Y. K.; Yu, J.; Lee, T. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Aluminum was added into Sn-3.0Ag (wt.%) solder to investigate the effect of aluminum concentration on the interfacial reaction of Sn-3.0Ag- xAl solders with copper or electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) metallizations. Four different Sn-3.0Ag- xAl solders ( x = 0 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, 0.5 wt.%, and 1.0 wt.%) were used for comparison. It was found that the composition, morphology, and thickness of interfacial reaction products were strongly dependent on aluminum concentration. At low aluminum concentration (0.1 wt.%), the typical Cu6Sn5 layer was formed at the interface. When the aluminum concentration was 0.5 wt.%, a continuous CuAl2 layer spalled off from the interfacial Cu-Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) layer. Only a planar CuAl2 layer was observed at the interface when the aluminum concentration was increased to 1.0 wt.%. In Sn-Ag-Al/ENIG reactions, Ni3Sn4 was formed and spallation occurred near the interface in the Sn-3.0Ag and Sn-3.0Ag-0.1Al solder joints. When the aluminum concentration was higher than 0.1 wt.%, a thin planar AuAl compound formed at the interface. There was no P-rich phase formation that retarded the spalling phenomenon. The aluminum additive in Sn-Ag solder inhibited the growth of IMCs in the reaction with copper or ENIG metallizations, which was favorable for the reliability of solder joints.

  19. M-Au/TiO2 (M = Ag, Pd, and Pt) nanophotocatalyst for overall solar water splitting: role of interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Ambrose A.; Illath, Kavya; Das, Tanmay; Raja, Thirumalaiswamy; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.

    2015-08-01

    M-Au/TiO2 (M = Ag, Pd, Pt) composites were prepared through a facile one-pot photodeposition synthesis and evaluated for solar water splitting (SWS) with and without a sacrificial agent. The M-Au combination exhibits a dominant role in augmenting the H2 generation activity by forming a bi-metallic system. Degussa P25 was used as a TiO2 substrate to photodeposit Au followed by Au + M (M = Ag/Pd/Pt). The SWS activity of the M-Au/TiO2 was determined through photocatalytic H2 production in the presence of methanol as a sacrificial agent under one sun conditions with an AM1.5 filter. The highest H2 yield was observed for Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2 and was around 1.3 +/- 0.07 mmol h-1 g-1, with an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 6.4%. Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2 also demonstrated the same activity for 25 cycles of five hours each for 125 h. Critically, the same Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2 catalyst was active in overall SWS (OSWS) without any sacrificial agent, with an AQY = 0.8%. The amount of Au and/or Pt was varied to obtain the optimum composition and it was found that the Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2 composition exhibits the best activity. Detailed characterization by physico-chemical, spectral and microscopy measurements was carried out to obtain an in-depth understanding of the origin of the photocatalytic activity of Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2. These in-depth studies show that gold interacts predominantly with oxygen vacancies present on titania surfaces, and Pt preferentially interacts with gold for an effective electron-hole pair separation at Pt-Au interfaces and electron storage in metal particles. The Pt in Pt0.5-Au1/TiO2 is electronically and catalytically different from the Pt in Pt/TiO2 and it is predicted that the former suppresses the oxygen reduction reaction.M-Au/TiO2 (M = Ag, Pd, Pt) composites were prepared through a facile one-pot photodeposition synthesis and evaluated for solar water splitting (SWS) with and without a sacrificial agent. The M-Au combination exhibits a dominant role in augmenting the H2

  20. Hardening behavior after high-temperature solution treatment of Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys with different Cu contents for dental prosthetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys have been used widely for dental prosthetic applications. Significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of the Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloy as a result of the precipitation of the β' phase through high-temperature solution treatment (ST), which is different from conventional aging treatment in these alloys, has been reported. The relationship between the unique hardening behavior and precipitation of the β' phase in Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys (x=6.5, 13, 14.5, 17, and 20mass%) subjected to the high-temperature ST at 1123K for 3.6ks was investigated in this study. Unique hardening behavior after the high-temperature ST also occurs in Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys (x=13, 17, and 20) with precipitation of the β' phase. However, hardening is not observed and the β' phase does not precipitate in the Ag-20Pd-12Au-6.5Cu alloy after the same ST. The tensile strength and 0.2% proof stress also increase in Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys (x=13, 14.5, 17, and 20) after the high-temperature ST. In addition, these values after the high-temperature ST increase with increasing Cu content in Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys (x=14.5, 17, and 20). The formation process of the β' phase can be explained in terms of diffusion of Ag and Cu atoms and precipitation of the β' phase. Clarification of the relationship between hardening and precipitation of the β' phase via high-temperature ST is expected to help the development of more effective heat treatments for hardening in Ag-20Pd-12Au-xCu alloys.

  1. Effect of Mg or Ag addition on the evaporation field of Al.

    PubMed

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Nako, Hidenori; Tsuneishi, Hidemasa; Hasegawa, Yuki; Tao, Hiroaki; Ichihara, Chikara; Serizawa, Ai

    2013-09-01

    It is known that the distribution of the charge-states as well as the evaporation field shift to higher values as the specimen temperature is decreased at a constant rate of evaporation. This study has explored the effect of Mg or Ag addition on the evaporation field of Al in terms of the charge state distribution of the field evaporated Al ions. The fractional abundance of Al(2+) ions with respect to the total Al ions in Al-Mg alloy is lower than that in pure Al, whereas it shows higher level in the Al-Ag alloy at lower temperatures. The temperature dependence of the fractional abundance of Al(2+) ions has been also confirmed, suggesting that Al atoms in the Al-Mg alloy need lower evaporation field, while higher field is necessary to evaporate Al atoms in the Al-Ag alloy, compared with pure Al. This tendency is in agreement with that of the evaporation fields estimated theoretically by means of measurements of the work function and calculations of the binding energy of the pure Al, Al-Mg and Al-Ag alloys.

  2. Integrated logic gate for fluorescence turn-on detection of histidine and cysteine based on Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters-Cu²⁺ ensemble.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Chuanxia; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-04-01

    By means of employing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) as a reducing agent and protecting ligand, we present straightforward one-pot preparation of fluorescent Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters (namely AgAuNCs@11-MUA) from AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in alkaline aqueous solution at room temperature. It is found that the fluorescence of AgAuNCs@11-MUA has been selectively quenched by Cu(2+) ions, and the nonfluorescence off-state of the as-prepared AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble can be effectively switched on upon the addition of histidine and cysteine. By incorporating Ni(2+) ions and N-ethylmaleimide, this phenomenon is further exploited as an integrated logic gate and a specific fluorescence turn-on assay for selectively and sensitively sensing histidine and cysteine has been designed and established based on the original noncovalent AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble. Under the optimal conditions, histidine and cysteine can be detected in the concentration ranges of 0.25-9 and 0.25-7 μM; besides, the detection limits are found to be 87 and 111 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed AgAuNCs@11-MUA-based fluorescent assay can be successfully utilized for biological fluids sample analysis.

  3. DNA origami based Au-Ag-core-shell nanoparticle dimers with single-molecule SERS sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, J.; Heck, C.; Ellerik, L.; Merk, V.; Bald, I.

    2016-03-01

    DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled.DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about materials and methods, designs of DNA origami templates, height profiles, additional SERS spectra, assignment of DNA

  4. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We report a novel process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs. • The effect of SCWO on the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd in waste PCBs was studied. • SCWO was highly efficient for enhancing the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd. • The optimum leaching parameters for Au, Ag, and Pd in iodine–iodide were studied. - Abstract: Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine–iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO + HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420 °C and 60 min for Au and Pd, and 410 °C and 30 min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO + HL)-treated PCBs with iodine–iodide system were leaching time of 120 min (90 min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10 g/mL (1:8 g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process.

  5. Degradation mechanisms of Ti/Al/Ni/Au-based Ohmic contacts on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    DOE PAGES

    Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ahn, Shihyun; Dong, Chen; ...

    2015-04-27

    We investigated the degradation mechanism of Ti/Al/Ni/Au-based Ohmic metallization on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors upon exposure to buffer oxide etchant (BOE). The major effect of BOE on the Ohmic metal was an increase of sheet resistance from 2.89 to 3.69 Ω/ₜafter 3 min BOE treatment. The alloyed Ohmic metallization consisted 3–5 μm Ni-Al alloy islands surrounded by Au-Al alloy-rings. The morphology of both the islands and ring areas became flatter after BOE etching. Lastly, we used energy dispersive x-ray analysis and Auger electron microscopy to analyze the compositions and metal distributions in the metal alloys prior to and aftermore » BOE exposure.« less

  6. Degradation mechanisms of Ti/Al/Ni/Au-based Ohmic contacts on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ahn, Shihyun; Dong, Chen; Zhu, Weidi; Kim, Byung-Jae; Le, Lingcong; Ren, Fan; Lind, Aaron G.; Dahl, James; Jones, Kevin S.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Zhang, Ming-Lan

    2015-04-27

    We investigated the degradation mechanism of Ti/Al/Ni/Au-based Ohmic metallization on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors upon exposure to buffer oxide etchant (BOE). The major effect of BOE on the Ohmic metal was an increase of sheet resistance from 2.89 to 3.69 Ω/ₜafter 3 min BOE treatment. The alloyed Ohmic metallization consisted 3–5 μm Ni-Al alloy islands surrounded by Au-Al alloy-rings. The morphology of both the islands and ring areas became flatter after BOE etching. Lastly, we used energy dispersive x-ray analysis and Auger electron microscopy to analyze the compositions and metal distributions in the metal alloys prior to and after BOE exposure.

  7. Surface segregation in an Al-4.2 at% Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. K.; Hyland, R. W.; Aaronson, H. I.; Wynblatt, P. P.

    1998-06-01

    The equilibrium surface composition of a polycrystalline Al-4.2 at% Ag alloy has been measured as a function of temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy. These results indicate that silver segregates to surfaces with an apparent enthalpy of segregation of about -38.5 kJ/mol. The equilibrium average surface composition of the alloy has been calculated as a function of surface orientation using the Lee-Aaronson discrete lattice plane model. A modified regular solution model originally due to Alexander et al. was used to represent the interactions between Al and Ag atoms. While this model successfully described the relevant portion of the Al-Ag phase diagram and the faceting behavior of GP zones in Al rich Al-Ag alloys, it predicted no surface segregation of Ag in the present studies. These results are in contrast to the results obtained experimentally. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement are considered. Finally, the surface segregation of silver measured by AES was compared with that predicted by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, wherein the latter calculation made use of the results of ultra high vacuum measurements of the bulk composition dependence of the surface tension of α Al-Ag alloys (to be reported elsewhere). Qualitative agreement was found between the two experimental methods, both indicating enrichment of Ag at the free surfaces.

  8. Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic AU/AG layers for nitride light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Tansu, Nelson; Zhao, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Guangyu

    2014-04-01

    A double-metallic deposition process is used whereby adjacent layers of different metals are deposited on a substrate. The surface plasmon frequency of a base layer of a first metal is tuned by the surface plasmon frequency of a second layer of a second metal formed thereon. The amount of tuning is dependent upon the thickness of the metallic layers, and thus tuning can be achieved by varying the thicknesses of one or both of the metallic layers. In a preferred embodiment directed to enhanced LED technology in the green spectrum regime, a double-metallic Au/Ag layer comprising a base layer of gold (Au) followed by a second layer of silver (Ag) formed thereon is deposited on top of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on a sapphire/GaN substrate.

  9. Fano effect in the angle-integrated valence band photoemission of the noble metals Cu, Ag, and Au

    SciTech Connect

    De Nadaie, C.; Brookes, N.B.; Minar, J.; Ebert, H.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Tagliaferri, A.

    2004-10-01

    Results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the Fano-effect in the angle-integrated valence band photoemission of the noble metals are presented. In line with the fact that the Fano-effect is caused by the spin-orbit-coupling, the observed spin polarization of the photocurrent was found to be the more pronounced the higher the atomic number of the element investigated. The ratio of the normalized spin difference curves, however, agreed only for Cu and Ag with the ratio of the corresponding spin-orbit coupling strength parameters. The deviation from this expected behavior in the case of Au could be explained by the properties of individual d-p- and d-f-contributions to the total spin difference curves, that were found to be quite different for Au compared to Cu and Ag.

  10. Enzymatic plasmonic engineering of Ag/Au bimetallic nanoshells and their use for sensitive optical glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Wu, Haoxi; Jin, Yongdong

    2012-04-03

    Enzyme works for plasmonic nanostructure: an interesting enzyme-responsive hybrid Ag/Au-GOx bimetallic nanoshell (NS) system is reported, in which control over the enzyme reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx) can automatically fine-tune the morphology (from complete NS to porous NS) and optical properties of the hybrid nanostructure. The phenomenon is further exploited as a new platform for sensitive optical glucose sensing.

  11. Uniform and controllable preparation of Au-Ag core-shell nanorods using anisotropic silver shell formation on gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yoshifumi; Nishioka, Koji; Kiya, Ayaka; Nakashima, Naotoshi; Ishibashi, Ayumu; Niidome, Yasuro

    2010-08-01

    Anisotropic and controllable silver shell formation on gold nanorods was realized in a micellar solution of hexadecytrimethylammonium chloride. Uniformity of the anisotropic Au-Ag core-shell particles contributes separation of four extinction bands. The ability to manipulate the shapes and sizes of these nanoparticles offers a wide-range control of the surface extinction from the visible to the near infrared regions (450-800 nm).

  12. Plasmon coupling-enhanced two-photon photoluminescence of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles and applications in the nuclease assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Peiyan; Ma, Rizhao; Gao, Nengyue; Garai, Monalisa; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been known to display significantly enhanced two-photon photoluminescence (2PPL) upon the formation of nanoparticle aggregates. The enhancement effect of the core-shell nanoparticles has not been explored so far. Here we have prepared Au@Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with different thicknesses (1.1, 2.1, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 nm) of silver coating on 19 nm Au NPs to investigate the composition effects on plasmon coupling-enhanced 2PPL. A maximum 2PPL enhancement factor (IcoupledNPs/IisolatedNPs) of up to 840-fold was obtained for Au@Ag NPs with ~3.5 nm Ag nanoshells. These Au@Ag NPs were subsequently utilized in two-photon detection of S1 nuclease as a photoluminescence turn on probe. This method displayed high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 1.4 × 10-6 U μL-1 and an excellent selectivity.Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been known to display significantly enhanced two-photon photoluminescence (2PPL) upon the formation of nanoparticle aggregates. The enhancement effect of the core-shell nanoparticles has not been explored so far. Here we have prepared Au@Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with different thicknesses (1.1, 2.1, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 nm) of silver coating on 19 nm Au NPs to investigate the composition effects on plasmon coupling-enhanced 2PPL. A maximum 2PPL enhancement factor (IcoupledNPs/IisolatedNPs) of up to 840-fold was obtained for Au@Ag NPs with ~3.5 nm Ag nanoshells. These Au@Ag NPs were subsequently utilized in two-photon detection of S1 nuclease as a photoluminescence turn on probe. This method displayed high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 1.4 × 10-6 U μL-1 and an excellent selectivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, histograms of the sizes of Au@Ag NPs; extinction, 2PPL spectra of aggregated NPs, cysteamine, ssDNA and S1 nuclease; 2-photon action cross section of aggregated NPs; lengths of ssDNA and [NaCl] effect; excitation power

  13. Formation of recent Pb-Ag-Au mineralization by potential sub-surface microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Menor-Salván, César; Delgado, Antonio; Slack, John F.; Escobar, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Las Cruces is a base-metal deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, one of the world’s best-known ore provinces. Here we report the occurrence of major Pb-Ag-Au mineralization resulting from recent sub-surface replacement of supergene oxyhydroxides by carbonate and sulphide minerals. This is probably the largest documented occurrence of recent microbial activity producing an ore assemblage previously unknown in supergene mineralizing environments. The presence of microbial features in the sulphides suggests that these may be the first-described natural bacteriomorphs of galena. The low δ13C values of the carbonate minerals indicate formation by deep anaerobic microbial processes. Sulphur isotope values of sulphides are interpreted here as reflecting microbial reduction in a system impoverished in sulphate. We suggest that biogenic activity has produced around 3.1 × 109 moles of reduced sulphur and 1010 moles of CO2, promoting the formation of ca. 1.19 Mt of carbonates, 114,000 t of galena, 638 t of silver sulphides and 6.5 t of gold.

  14. Formation of recent Pb-Ag-Au mineralization by potential sub-surface microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Menor-Salván, César; Delgado, Antonio; Slack, John F; Escobar, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-06

    Las Cruces is a base-metal deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, one of the world's best-known ore provinces. Here we report the occurrence of major Pb-Ag-Au mineralization resulting from recent sub-surface replacement of supergene oxyhydroxides by carbonate and sulphide minerals. This is probably the largest documented occurrence of recent microbial activity producing an ore assemblage previously unknown in supergene mineralizing environments. The presence of microbial features in the sulphides suggests that these may be the first-described natural bacteriomorphs of galena. The low δ(13)C values of the carbonate minerals indicate formation by deep anaerobic microbial processes. Sulphur isotope values of sulphides are interpreted here as reflecting microbial reduction in a system impoverished in sulphate. We suggest that biogenic activity has produced around 3.1 × 10(9) moles of reduced sulphur and 10(10) moles of CO2, promoting the formation of ca. 1.19 Mt of carbonates, 114,000 t of galena, 638 t of silver sulphides and 6.5 t of gold.

  15. Electronic structure and conductivity of nanocomposite metal (Au,Ag,Cu,Mo)-containing amorphous carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Endrino, Jose L.; Horwat, David; Gago, Raul; Andersson, Joakim; Liu, Y.S.; Guo, Jinghua; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-14

    In this work, we study the influence of the incorporation of different metals (Me = Au, Ag, Cu, Mo) on the electronic structure of amorphous carbon (a-C:Me) films. The films were produced at room temperature using a novel pulsed dual-cathode arc deposition technique. Compositional analysis was performed with secondary neutral mass spectroscopy whereas X-ray diffraction was used to identify the formation of metal nanoclusters in the carbon matrix. The metal content incorporated in the nanocomposite films induces a drastic increase in the conductivity, in parallel with a decrease in the band gap corrected from Urbach energy. The electronic structure as a function of the Me content has been monitored by x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the C K-edge. XANES showed that the C host matrix has a dominant graphitic character and that it is not affected significantly by the incorporation of metal impurities, except for the case of Mo, where the modifications in the lineshape spectra indicated the formation of a carbide phase. Subtle modifications of the spectral lineshape are discussed in terms of nanocomposite formation.

  16. Probing the mechanism of plasma protein adsorption on Au and Ag nanoparticles with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Fu, Cuiping; Liu, Xingang; Lin, Zhipeng; Yang, Ning; Yu, Shaoning

    2015-09-01

    Protein-nanoparticle interactions are important in biomedical applications of nanoparticles and for growing biosafety concerns about nanomaterials. In this study, the interactions of four plasma proteins, human serum albumin (HSA), myoglobin (MB), hemoglobin (HB), and trypsin (TRP), with Au and Ag nanoparticles were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The secondary structure of thio-proteins changed with time during incubation with Au and Ag nanoparticles, but the secondary structures of non-thio-proteins remained unchanged. The incubation time for structural changes depended on the sulfur-metal bond energy; the stronger the sulfur-metal energy, the less the time needed. H/D exchange experiments revealed that protein-NP complexes with thio-proteins were less dynamic than free proteins. No measurable dynamic differences were found between free non-thio-proteins and the protein-Au (or Ag) nanoparticle complex. Therefore, the impact of covalent bonds on the protein structure is greater than that of the electrostatic force.

  17. The enhancing of Au-Ag-Te content in tellurium-bearing ore mineral by bio-oxidation-leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, PyeongMan; Kim, HyunSoo; Myung, EunJi; Kim, YoonJung; Lee, YongBum; Park*, CheonYoung

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the content of valuable metals such as Au-Ag-Te in tellurium-bearing minerals by bio-oxidation-leaching. It was confirmed that pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena were produced together with tellurium-bearing minerals including hessite, sylvanite and tellurobismuthite from ore minerals and concentrates through microscopic observation and SEM/EDS analysis. In a bio-oxidation-leaching experiment, with regard to Au, Ag, Te, Cu and Fe, the changes in the amount of leaching and the content of leaching residues were compared and analyzed with each other depending on the adaptation of an indigenous microbe identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. As a result of the experiment, the Au-Ag-Te content in tellurium-bearing ore mineral was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation leaching, physical/non-adaptive bio-oxidation-leaching and physical/adaptive biological leaching. It suggests that the bio-oxidation-leaching using microbes adapted in tellurium-bearing ore mineral can be used as a pre-treatment and a main process in a recovery process of valuable metals. "This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2013R1A1A2004898)"

  18. DNA biosensor-based on fluorescence detection of E. coli O157:H7 by Au@Ag nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiadi; Ji, Jian; Sun, Yanqing; Abdalhai, Mandour H; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2015-08-15

    A novel DNA sensor for the detection of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) eaeA gene was constructed using surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF). The spacing distance dependence nature of Au@Ag nanorods surface enhanced fluorescence was investigated when the cy3-labled single strand DNA(ssDNA) and the stem-loop DNA probe modified on the nanorods was co-hybridized. The result revealed that the fluorescence intensity reached the maximum value with the spacing distance of about 10nm between cy3 and the Au@Ag nanorods surface. Based on this result, a fluorescence "ON/OFF" switch for detecting the eaeA gene of E. coli O157:H7 was constructed. Under optimal conditions, the DNA sensor produced a linear range from 10(-17) to 10(-11) M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9947 and a detection limit of 3.33×10(-18) M, and was also found to be specific in targeting eaeA. The DNA sensor demonstrated a new strategy of combining eaeA recognition and Au@Ag nanorods for fluorescence signal enhancement, and increased sensitivity in the detection of bacterial specific genes.

  19. The Intermetallic Compound Formation for the Wire Bond Between an Al Pad and Ag-xPd Alloy Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Lin, Yu-Wei; Cheng, Yun-Kai

    2016-12-01

    Silver-palladium alloy wire has been shown as an economical and reliable substitute for gold wire in various applications in the electronic packaging industry. The success of wire bonding relies on the formation of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC). This study is aimed to investigate the formation behavior of IMCs between an Al pad and Ag-Pd alloy wire with various Pd concentrations of 1.0-6.0% for the as-bonded commercial Ag/Al joint. The interfacial IMCs were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The IMCs formed are separate (Ag, Pd)2Al and (Ag, Pd)3Al2 for a Ag6Pd wire bond, while (Ag, Pd)2Al and (Ag, Pd)3Al2 are mixed for the other Ag(1-4.5)Pd alloy wire bonds. The thickness of the total IMC layer varies from 0.65 μm for Ag1Pd to 0.91 μm for Ag6Pd, yet a minimum of 0.44 μm exists for Ag3.5Pd. The compound formation behavior was found to correspond with the Ag-Al phase diagram. After pressure cooker tests, a less stable IMC (Ag, Pd)3Al formed at the AgxPd/Al interface.

  20. Equilibrium geometries, stabilities, and electronic properties of the bimetallic M2-doped Au(n) (M = Ag, Cu; n = 1-10) clusters: comparison with pure gold clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-Ru; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zheng, Bao-Bing; Li, Yan-Fang; Wang, Su-Juan

    2011-02-10

    The density functional method with relativistic effective core potential has been employed to investigate systematically the geometrical structures, relative stabilities, growth-pattern behaviors, and electronic properties of small bimetallic M(2)Au(n) (M = Ag, Cu; n = 1-10) and pure gold Au(n) (n ≤ 12) clusters. The optimized geometries reveal that M(2) substituted Au(n+2) clusters and one Au atom capped M(2)Au(n-1) structures are dominant growth patterns of the stable alloyed M(2)Au(n) clusters. The calculated averaged atomic binding energies, fragmentation energies, and the second-order difference of energies as a function of the cluster size exhibit a pronounced even-odd alternation phenomenon. The analytic results exhibit that the planar structure Ag(2)Au(4) and Cu(2)Au(2) isomers are the most stable geometries of Ag(2)Au(n) and Cu(2)Au(n) clusters, respectively. In addition, the HOMO-LUMO gaps, charge transfers, chemical hardnesses and polarizabilities have been analyzed and compared further.

  1. Ab initio study of MXe{sub n}{sup +} (M=Cu, Ag, and Au; n=1,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinying; Cao Xue

    2008-02-15

    The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, and populations of the title species were studied at Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2), and coupled-cluster singles-doubles (triples) [CCSD(T)] levels. The electron correlation effects and relativistic effects on the geometry and stability were investigated at the CCSD(T) level. Both effects stabilize title species. The populations analyses show that M-Xe bonding is dominated by electrostatic interactions and the best theoretical estimate of the dissociation energies are 1.104 and 2.260 eV for AuXe{sup +} and AuXe{sub 2}{sup +}, respectively. The Cu and Ag are weakly bonded to Xe compared to Au.

  2. Interaction of Au, Ag, and Bi ions with Ba2YCu3O(7-y) - Implications for superconductor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Gaier, J. R.; Pouch, J. J.; Hambourger, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented on the reactions of Au, Ag, and Bi ions with Ba2YCu3O(7-y) oxides and on the properties of the resultant materials. The results indicate that Au(3+) structural chemistry makes gold an excellent candidate for multiphase structures of the Ba2Y(Cu/1-x/Au/x/)3O(7-y)-type substituted superconductors. Silver is structurally and chemically compatible with the perovskite structure, but when it forms a second phase, it does so without the destruction of the superconducting phase, making silver a useful metal for metal/ceramic applications. On the other hand, bismuth was shown to degrade Tc phase or to form other phases, indicating that it may not be useful in applications with rare-earth-based superconductors.

  3. Desulfinylation of Ag(I) Sulfinyl Mesoionic Carbenes: Preparation of C-Unsubstituted Au(I)-1,2,3-Triazole Carbene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María; Ortuño, Manuel A; Lledos, Agustí; Viso, Alma; Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; de la Torre, María C; Sierra, Miguel A; Gornitzka, Heinz; Hemmert, Catherine

    2017-02-17

    New and well-characterized Ag-bis(1,2,3-triazolylidene) complexes having enantiopure (S)-sulfoxides upon sequential treatment with alcohols and Au(I) form separable mixtures of regioisomeric C-unsubstituted Au-1,2,3-triazolylidene complexes. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations support a desulfinylation process for in situ generated free triazolylidene salts.

  4. Infrared Brazing Fe3Al Using Ag-Based Filler Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Kae; Li, Yao; Wu, Shyi-Kaan; Wu, Ling-Mei

    2010-11-01

    The microstructural evolution and bonding shear strength of infrared brazed Fe3Al using Ag and BAg-8 (72Ag-28Cu in wt pct) braze alloys have been studied. The Ag-rich phase alloyed with Al dominates the entire Ag brazed joints, and the shear strength is independent of the brazing time. The BAg-8 brazed joint contains Ag-Cu eutectic for all brazing conditions, and its shear strength increases slightly with increasing brazing time. The highest shear strength of 181 MPa is acquired from the joint infrared brazed at 1073 K (800 °C) for 600 seconds. A thin layer of Fe3Al is identified at the interface between the brazed zone and the substrate for both braze alloys. An Al depletion zone in the Fe3Al substrate next to the interfacial Fe3Al is identified as the α-Fe phase. The dissolution of Al from the Fe3Al substrate into the molten braze causes the formation of α-Fe in the Fe3Al substrate.

  5. Probing the electronic and vibrational structure of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} using photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution photoelectron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gary V.; Czekner, Joseph; Jian, Tian; Li, Wei-Li; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-14

    The electronic and vibrational structures of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} have been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), high-resolution photoelectron imaging, and theoretical calculations. Photoelectron spectra taken at high photon energies with a magnetic-bottle apparatus reveal numerous detachment transitions and a large energy gap for the neutral Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}. Vibrationally resolved PE spectra are obtained using high-resolution photoelectron imaging for the ground state detachment transition of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at various photon energies (670.55−843.03 nm). An accurate electron affinity of 1.4438(8) eV is obtained for the Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} neutral cluster, as well as two vibrational frequencies at 57 ± 8 and 305 ± 13 cm{sup −1}. Hot bands transitions yield two vibrational frequencies for Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at 57 ± 10 and 144 ± 12 cm{sup −1}. The obtained vibrational and electronic structure information is compared with density functional calculations, unequivocally confirming that both Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} possess C{sub 2v} tetrahedral structures.

  6. Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Nanoscale Al/AgIO3: A Potential Energetic Biocidal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    reaction of Al/AgIO3 thermites for potential use in biocidal applications . Rapid-heating wire experiments were performed to measure the ignition...OF: This work investigates the ignition and reaction of Al/AgIO3 thermites for potential use in biocidal applications . Rapid-heating wire experiments...were performed to measure the ignition temperature and investigate the thermal decomposition of the oxidizer using a T-Jump/TOF Mass Spectrometer

  7. Nanoengineering the antibacterial activity of biosynthesized nanoparticles of TiO2, Ag, and Au and their nanohybrids with Portobello mushroom spore (PMS) (TiOx/PMS, Ag/PMS and Au/PMS) and making them optically self-indicating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer Al-Timimi, Iman A.; Sermon, Paul A.; Burghal, Ahmed A.; Salih, Afrodet A.; Alrubaya, Inaam M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Results show that nanoparticles (NPs) can be biosynthesized at room temperature on the reductive and chelating surfaces of Portobello mushroom spores (PMS). Using this green approach TiOx, Ag, Au, Ag-TiOx and Au-TiOx NPs have been prepared. These were characterized by TEM, SIMS and μFTIR-FTIR. TiOx/PMS, Ag-TiOx/PMS, Au-TiOx/PMS and Ag/PMS were active in bacterial inhibition towards Eschericia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but Au/PMS was not active (suggesting a strong Au-PMS interaction). TiOx/PMS, Ag/PMS and Ag-TiOx/PMS were equally active in an antibacterial and an antifungal sense when tested against Asperillus and Candide. All samples (except Ag-TiOx/PMS and Au-TiOx/PMS) showed an interesting interaction with DNA. We report on the process of fine-tuning these antibacterial properties, progress on making these nanomaterials optically self-indicating and movement towards optical control of their antibacterial activity. Au-TiOx/PMS shows a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a maximum at 518 nm that might be useful in following its anti-bacterial properties (i.e. making the bionanomaterial self-indicating). The future of such green bio-nanomaterials is strong.

  8. Exploration and geology of the Karangahake and Rahu epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Hauraki Goldfield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Mark P.; Stevens, Murray R; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Harris, Matthew C; Stuart, Alistair G J

    2016-01-01

    Karangahake was the third largest gold producer in the Hauraki goldfield. In 2009, New Talisman Gold mines was granted a mining permit, and plans are underway to commence underground mine development of the Maria vein, which has a maiden Ore Reserve (consistent with the 2012 JORC Code) of 28 800 oz Au and 127 800 oz Ag. Exploration drilling at Rahu, located 2 km north of Karangahake has identified polymictic hydrothermal breccias and quartz veins that are strongly gold anomalous. Some quartz vein clasts within the breccia have up to 8.7 g/t Au, suggesting the presence of higher grade quartz vein(s) either below or directly adjacent to the breccias. A controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey at Rahu revealed that strongly resistive zones extend below the Barbara and Eunice anomalies to at least 300 m depth and likely correspond to areas of increased silicification, breccias and/or veins. Future drilling will focus on these targets. Detailed geophysical, alteration and fluid inclusion studies have been undertaken at Karangahake, Rahu and Ascot (c 1 km NW of Rahu). Karangahake and Rahu both occur within a broad demagnetised zone, c 4.2 × 2.7 km, in which magnetite has been destroyed by strong hydrothermal alteration. At Karangahake, andesite and overlying minor rhyolite are replaced by adularia, chlorite, illite, pyrite, plus minor albite, epidote and calcite, which have formed from upwelling chloride waters that at depth were hotter than 280°C. At Rahu, localised adularia coupled with complex distributions of illite and interstratified illite-smectite, suggest cooler (c 180° to 240°C) and more focused fluid flow, as well as inferred cool groundwater influx. Fluid inclusion data suggest veins at Karangahake, Rahu and Ascot formed beneath palaeowater tables at 920 m, 440 m and 430 m relative to current sea level (asl), respectively. At Ascot, the presence of silica sinter at 135 m asl, which formed at the palaeosurface, is shallower compared

  9. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-07-01

    Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine-iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO+HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420°C and 60min for Au and Pd, and 410°C and 30min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO+HL)-treated PCBs with iodine-iodide system were leaching time of 120min (90min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10g/mL (1:8g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process.

  10. The mechanism of N-Ag bonding determined tunability of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on MAg (M = Cu, Ag, Au) diatomic clusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Gao, Yang; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2014-10-14

    Binary coinage metal clusters can show a significantly different enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from that of pure element clusters, owing to their tunable surface plasmon resonance energies affected by the composition and atomic ordering. Yet, the tunability by composition requires a deep understanding in order to further optimize the SERS-based detection technique. Here, to fill this deficiency, we conducted detailed analyses of the SERS of pyridine adsorbed through N-Ag bonding on the homonuclear diatomic metal cluster Ag2 and heteronuclear diatomic metal clusters of AuAg and CuAg, as well as the involved charge transfer under an intracluster excitation, based on calculations using time-dependent density functional theory with a short-time approximation for the Raman cross-section. We find that although the SERS enhancements for all complexes can reach the order of 10(3)-10(4), the corresponding wavelengths used for SERS excitation are significantly different. Our molecular orbital analysis reveals that the complexes based on heteronuclear metal clusters can produce varied electronic transitions owing to the polarization between different metal atoms, which tune the SERS enhancements with altered optical properties. Our analyses are expected to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the multi-composition SERS substrates applicable for single molecular detection, nanostructure characterization, and biological molecular identification.

  11. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe and Au Ion-Implanted Al2O3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Honda, Shigeo; Ishida, Tomoya; Iio, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Toriyama, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Au ion implantation in Fe ion-implanted Al2O3 (Fe/Al2O3) has been performed in order to tailor the structural, magnetic and optical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix. After Au ion implantation, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements indicate the decrease and the redistribution of retained Fe atoms with the inclusion of Au atoms, and the patterns of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3. Besides, the magnetization curves of the Fe/Al2O3 after Au ion implantation show still the superparamagnetic characteristics and the decrease of saturation magnetization, and the optical absorption measurements indicate the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3 in accordance with the XRD result. In addition, we investigated a behavior of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), which indicates the decrease of superparamagnetic state as a function of Au ion dose. As a result, it is suggested that Au ion implantation has potentialities to tailor the physical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix.

  12. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salgado, R. J.; Sotelo-Mazon, O.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; Salinas-Solano, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN− anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN− anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions. PMID:27660601

  13. Surface Thiolation of Al Microspheres to Deposite Thin and Compact Ag Shells for High Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilong; Wen, Jianghong; Zhao, Suling; Chen, Zhihong; Ren, Ke; Sun, Jie; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-12-15

    In this work, we have demonstrated a method for controllable thiolated functionalization coupled with electroless silver plating to achieve aluminum@silver (Al@Ag) core-shell composite particles with thin and compact layers. First, Al microspheres were functionalized by a well-known polymerizable silane coupling agent, i.e., 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Decreasing the ethanol-to-water volume ratio (F) in silane solution produces modification films with high content of thiol groups on Al microspheres, owing to the dehydration of silane molecules with hydroxyl groups on Al microspheres and self-polymerization of silane molecules. Then, ethanol was used as one of the solvents to play a major role in the uniform dispersion of silane coupling agent in the solution, resulting in uniformly distributing and covalently attaching thiol groups on Al microspheres. In electroless silver plating, thiol groups being densely grafted on the surface of Al microspheres favor the heterogeneous nucleation of Ag, since the thiol group can firmly bind with Ag(+) and enable the in situ reduction by the reducing reagent. In this manner, dense Ag nuclei tend to produce thin and compact silver shells on the Al microspheres surfaces. The as-obtained Al@Ag core-shell composite particles show a resistivity as low as (8.58 ± 0.07) × 10(-5) Ω·cm even when the Ag content is as low as 15.46 wt %. Therefore, the as-obtained Al@Ag core-shell composite particles have advantages of low weight, low silver content and high conductivity, which could make it a promising candidate for application in conductive and electromagnetic shielding composite materials.

  14. A general approach to fabricate diverse noble-metal (Au, Pt, Ag, Pt/Au)/Fe2O3 hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xianghong; Guo, Xianzhi; Wu, Shihua; Wang, Shurong

    2010-07-19

    A novel, facile, and general one-pot strategy is explored for the synthesis of diverse noble-metal (Au, Pt, Ag, or Pt/Au)/Fe(2)O(3) hybrid nanoparticles with the assistance of lysine (which is a nontoxic, user friendly amino acid that is compatible with organisms) and without using any other functionalization reagents. Control experiments show that lysine, which contains both amino and carboxylic groups, plays dual and crucial roles as both linker and capping agents in attaching noble metals with a small size and uniform distribution onto an Fe(2)O(3) support. Considering the perfect compatibility of lysine with organism, this approach may find potentials in biochemistry and biological applications. Furthermore, this novel route is also an attractive alternative and supplement to the current methods using a silane coupling agent or polyelectrolyte for preparing hybrid nanomaterials. To demonstrate the usage of such hybrid nanomaterials, a chemical gas sensor has been fabricated from the as-synthesized Au/Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles and investigated for ethanol detection. Results show that the hybrid sensor exhibits significantly improved sensor performances in terms of high sensitivity, low detection limit, better selectivity, and good reproducibility in comparison with pristine Fe(2)O(3). Most importantly, this general approach can be further employed to fabricate other hybrid nanomaterials based on different support materials.

  15. Preparation of PdAg and PdAu nanoparticle-loaded carbon black catalysts and their electrocatalytic activity for the glycerol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Binh Thi Xuan; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    PdAg and PdAu alloy nanoparticle catalysts for the glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR) were prepared at room temperature by a wet method. The molar ratio of the precursors controlled the bulk composition of the PdAg and PdAu alloys, and their surface composition was Ag-enriched and Pd-enriched, respectively. On PdAg-loaded carbon black (PdAg/CB) electrodes, the onset potential of GOR was 0.10-0.15 V more negative than on the Pd/CB electrode due to the electronic effect. The ratio of GOR peak current densities in the backward and forward sweeps of CVs (ib/if) was smaller because of the improved tolerance to the poisoning species. The ratio of the GOR current density at 60 and 5 min (i60/i5) for the PdAg/CB electrodes was higher for more negative potentials than the Pd/CB electrode. In contrast, the PdAu-loaded CB (PdAu/CB) electrodes had an onset potential of GOR similar to the Pd/CB electrode and a higher GOR peak current density owing to the bi-functional effect. However, the ib/if ratio was higher for PdAu/CB because of the increase in ib as the Pd surface was recovered, and the i60/i5 ratio was higher for more positive potentials, similar to the Pd/CB electrode.

  16. A SERS and fluorescence dual mode cancer cell targeting probe based on silica coated Au@Ag core-shell nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Yang, Jing; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

    2012-08-15

    We report a dual mode cancer cell targeting probe based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) conjugated, silica coated Au@Ag core-shell nanorods (Au@Ag NRs), which can generate both surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence signals. In such a probe, folic acid (FA) is used as a targeting ligand for folate receptors (FRs) overexpressed cancer cells. To synthesize the probe, Au@Ag NRs were first prepared to serve as the SERS substrates by coating an Ag shell on the gold nanorods. Then the Au@Ag NRs were labeled with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) to generate SERS signals, followed by being coated with a silica shell through a modified Stöber method. Finally, CdTe QDs and FA were conjugated to the silica coated Au@Ag NRs by the carbodiimide chemistry to yield fluorescence and the targeting ability, respectively. To validate the targeting capability of the probe, in vitro experiments were conducted, using HeLa cells with overexpressed FRs as the model target cells and MRC-5 cells with a low folate receptor expression level as the negative control. Both the fluorescence imaging and the SERS mapping results confirmed that the proposed probe can be used as an efficient cancer cell targeting agent. This kind of multifunctional probe has great potential in the diagnosis and therapeutics of cancerous diseases due to its specific targeting and multiplex imaging abilities, especially in the simultaneous tracking of multiple components in a hybrid bio-system.

  17. Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in water: Effect of plasmon coupling and their SERS performance.

    PubMed

    Vinod, M; Gopchandran, K G

    2015-01-01

    Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles are synthesised by pulsed laser ablation in water using low energy laser pulses. The plasmon characteristics of these core-shell nanoparticles are found to be highly sensitive to the thickness of Au coating. In the synthesis, at first silver nanocolloid was prepared by ablating Ag target and then it is followed by ablation of Au target for different time durations to form Ag@Au core-shell nanostructures. The effect of plasmon-plasmon coupling on the absorption spectra is investigated by decreasing the effective distance between the nanoparticles. This is achieved by reducing the total volume of the colloidal suspension by simple evaporation of water, the solvent used. The suitability of these core-shell nanostructures for application as surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates are tested with crystal violet as probe molecules. Influence of plasmon coupling on the enhancement of Raman bands is found to be different for different bands.

  18. Genesis of Middle Miocene Yellowstone hotspot-related bonanza epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Northern Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, J. A.; Unger, D. L.; Kamenov, G. D.; Fayek, M.; Hames, W. E.; Utterback, W. C.

    2008-09-01

    Epithermal deposits with bonanza Au-Ag veins in the northern Great Basin (NGB) are spatially and temporally associated with Middle Miocene bimodal volcanism that was related to a mantle plume that has now migrated to the Yellowstone National Park area. The Au-Ag deposits formed between 16.5 and 14 Ma, but exhibit different mineralogical compositions, the latter due to the nature of the country rocks hosting the deposits. Where host rocks were primarily of meta-sedimentary or granitic origin, adularia-rich gold mineralization formed. Where glassy rhyolitic country rocks host veins, colloidal silica textures and precious metal-colloid aggregation textures resulted. Where basalts are the country rocks, clay-rich mineralization (with silica minerals, adularia, and carbonate) developed. Oxygen isotope data from quartz (originally amorphous silica and gels) from super-high-grade banded ores from the Sleeper deposit show that ore-forming solutions had δ 18O values up to 10‰ heavier than mid-Miocene meteoric water. The geochemical signature of the ores (including their Se-rich nature) is interpreted here to reflect a mantle source for the “epithermal suite” elements (Au, Ag, Se, Te, As, Sb, Hg) and that signature is preserved to shallow crustal levels because of the similar volatility and aqueous geochemical behavior of the “epithermal suite” elements. A mantle source for the gold in the deposits is further supported by the Pb isotopic signature of the gold ores. Apparently the host rocks control the mineralization style and gangue mineralogy of ores. However, all deposits are considered to have derived precious metals and metalloids from mafic magmas related to the initial emergence of the Yellowstone hotspot. Basalt-derived volatiles and metal(loid)s are inferred to have been absorbed by meteoric-water-dominated geothermal systems heated by shallow rhyolitic magma chambers. Episodic discharge of volatiles and metal(loid)s from deep basaltic magmas mixed with

  19. Spectra of surface plasmon polariton enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2015-03-07

    Narrow band-pass filters have been used to measure the spectral distribution of electroluminescent photons with energies between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown that results in a conducting channel in the insulator and changes the initial high resistance of the MIM diode to a low resistance state. It is a critical step in the development of resistive-switching memories that utilize MIM diodes as the active element. Electroforming of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes in vacuum results in voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) develop simultaneously with the current increase that results in VCNR in the I-V characteristics. EL is due to recombination of electrons injected at the Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with radiative defect centers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Measurements of EL photons between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV using a wide band-pass filter showed that EL intensity is exponentially dependent on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes between 12 nm and 20 nm thick. Enhanced El intensity in the thinnest diodes is attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of recombination centers due to high electromagnetic fields generated in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} when EL photons interact with electrons in Ag or Al to form surface plasmon polaritons at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al interface. El intensity is a maximum at 2.0–2.2 eV for Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 18 nm. EL in diodes with 12 nm or 14 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is enhanced by factors of 8–10 over EL from a diode with 18 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The extent of EL enhancement in

  20. Length scale of the dendritic microstructure affecting tensile properties of Al-(Ag)-(Cu) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Roberto N.; Faria, Jonas D.; Brito, Crystopher; Veríssimo, Nathalia C.; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2016-12-01

    The dependence of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of Al-Cu, Al-Ag and Al-Ag-Cu alloys is experimentally investigated. These alloys were directionally solidified (DS) under a wide range of cooling rates (Ṫ), permitting extensive microstructural scales to be examined. Experimental growth laws are proposed relating the primary dendritic arm spacing, λ1 to Ṫ and tensile properties to λ1. It is shown that the most significant effect of the scale of λ1 on the tensile properties is that of the ternary alloy, which is attributed to the more homogeneous distribution of the eutectic mixture for smaller λ1 and by the combined reinforcement roles of the intermetallics present in the ternary eutectic: Al2Cu and nonequilibrium Ag3Al.

  1. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  2. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  3. Selectivity control of photosensitivity of Ag-GaP and Ag- AlGaN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamkin, I. A.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.; Andreev, M. Y.; Kurin, S. Yu

    2015-12-01

    Design, growth and studies of photosensitive structures based on Ag-GaP and Ag- AlxGa1-xN contacts are reported. Methods for structure selectivity control, which allow changing the sensitivity spectrum half-width in a range of 11-210 nm were worked out. By varying the metal layer thickness, a set of Ag-GaP short-wavelength photodetectors (PD) was fabricated. The set includes PDs from broadband (spectrum half-width Δλ=210 nm, sensitivity SI = 0,19 A/W) to visible-blind (Δλ=15 nm, SI = 0,034 A/W). The use of Ag-AlxGa1-xN structures provided increased sensitivity (SI = 0,071 A/W) and Δλ reduced to 11 nm due to special selection of solid solution composition.

  4. Network Formation by Condensed Tetrahedral [Au3Al] Units in Na2Au3Al: Crystal and Electronic Structure, Spectroscopic Investigations, and Physical Properties of an Ordered Ternary Auride.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Frank; Benndorf, Christopher; Zhang, Yuemei; Bartsch, Manfred; Zacharias, Helmut; Fokwa, Boniface P T; Eckert, Hellmut; Janka, Oliver

    2017-02-20

    Na2Au3Al, the first experimentally prepared compound in the ternary Na-Au-Al system, crystallizes in the cubic crystal system with space group P4132 (a = 771.42(2) pm). It can be described as a P-centered ternary ordered variant of the F-centered Laves phase MgCu2 and is isostructural to Mo3Al2C. A phase width was found for the series Na2Au4-xAlx allowing a successive substitution of Au by Al. The primitive structure forms for x ≥ 0.5. Na2Au3Al is diamagnetic at room temperature but metallic in nature, as seen from susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements. Band structure calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the metallic nature of the title compound as states are found at the Fermi level of the DOS, along with its "auride" character. (23)Na and (27)Al solid-state-NMR investigations show the existence of both a disordered (x = 0.5 and 0.75) and a fully ordered (x = 1.0) representative within this series. Both COHP and Bader charge analyses suggest the presence of strong Au-Al interactions forming an anionic [Au3Al](δ-) network, with the Na cations occupying the cavities.

  5. Plasmon-induced photodegradation of toxic pollutants with Ag-AgI/Al2O3 under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Peng, Tianwei; Hu, Xuexiang; Nie, Yulun; Zhou, Xuefeng; Qu, Jiuhui; He, Hong

    2010-01-20

    A plasmonic photocatalyst Ag-AgI supported on mesoporous alumina (Ag-AgI/Al(2)O(3)) was prepared by deposition-precipitation and photoreduction methods. The catalyst showed high and stable photocatalytic activity for the degradation and mineralization of toxic persistent organic pollutants, as demonstrated with 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and trichlorophenol (TCP) under visible light or simulated solar light irradiation. On the basis of electron spin resonance, cyclic voltammetry analyses under a variety of experimental conditions, two electron transfer processes were verified from the excited Ag NPs to AgI and from 2-CP to the Ag NPs, and the main active species of O(2)(*-) and excited h(+) on Ag NPs were involved in the photoreaction system of Ag-AgI/Al(2)O(3). A plasmon-induced photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. Accordingly, the plasmon-induced electron transfer processes elucidated the photostability of Ag-AgI/Al(2)O(3). This finding indicates that the high photosensitivity of noble metal NPs due to surface plasmon resonance could be applied toward the development of new plasmonic visible-light-sensitive photocatalysts and photovoltaic fuel cells.

  6. Kinetically controlled overgrowth of Ag or Au on Pd nanocrystal seeds: from hybrid dimers to nonconcentric and concentric bimetallic nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cun; Zeng, Jie; Tao, Jing; Johnson, Matthew C; Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Blubaugh, Lynn; Zhu, Yimei; Gu, Zhongze; Xia, Younan

    2012-09-26

    This article describes a systematic study of the nucleation and growth of Ag (and Au) on Pd nanocrystal seeds. By carefully controlling the reaction kinetics, the newly formed Ag atoms could be directed to selectively nucleate and then epitaxially grow on a specific number (ranging from one to six) of the six faces on a cubic Pd seed, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanocrystals with a variety of different structures. In addition to changing the injection rate of precursor, we also systematically investigated other reaction parameters including the capping agent, reductant, and reaction temperature. Our results suggest that the site-selective growth of Ag on cubic Pd seeds could be readily realized by optimizing these reaction parameters. On the basis of the positions of Pd seeds inside the bimetallic nanocrystals as revealed by TEM imaging and elemental mapping, we could identify the exact growth pathways and achieve a clear and thorough understanding of the mechanisms. We have successfully applied the same strategy based on kinetic control to cubic Pd seeds with different sizes and octahedral Pd seeds of one size to generate an array of novel bimetallic nanocrystals with well-controlled structures. With cubic Pd seeds as an example, we have also extended this strategy to the Pd-Au system. We believe this work will provide a promising route to the fabrication of bimetallic nanocrystals with novel structures and properties for applications in plasmonics, catalysis, and other areas.

  7. AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 visible light photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, A; Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Kashefian, E

    2010-12-01

    A novel photocatalytic material was synthesized by dispersion of AgBr in nanoAlMCM-41 material. The AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41 sample shows strong absorption in the visible region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in AgBr/nanoAlMCM-41. The catalysts were characterized using XRD (X-ray diffraction), UV-visible diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity and stability of the synthesized catalysts were evaluated for methylene blue (MB) degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of 200 W tungsten filament Philips lamp. Several parameters were examined, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of MB, AgBr loading. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.05-1.00 g/L. It was seen that 0.1 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. The support size was obtained about 9-100 nm. In the same way, the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 10nm before visible radiation. After visible radiation the average size of AgBr nanoparticles was about 25 nm.

  8. A highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on (Ag-Au NPs)/poly[o-phenylenediamine] modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Karimi, Ziba; Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Herein, the poly(o-phenylenediamine) decorated with gold-silver nanoparticle (Ag-Au NPs) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon was used for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical experiments indicated that the proposed sensor possesses an excellent sensitivity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The resulting sensor exhibited a good response to hydrogen peroxide over linear range from 0.2 to 60.0μM with a limit of detection of 0.08μM, good reproducibility, long-term stability and negligible interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in human serum sample.

  9. Dirac and Weyl Semimetal in XYBi (X = Ba, Eu; Y = Cu, Ag and Au)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yongping; Wan, Bo; Wang, Di; Sheng, Li; Duan, Chun-Gang; Wan, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Weyl and Dirac semimetals recently stimulate intense research activities due to their novel properties. Combining first-principles calculations and effective model analysis, we predict that nonmagnetic compounds BaYBi (Y = Au, Ag and Cu) are Dirac semimetals. As for the magnetic compound EuYBi, although the time reversal symmetry is broken, their long-range magnetic ordering cannot split the Dirac point into pairs of Weyl points. However, we propose that partially substitute Eu ions by Ba ions will realize the Weyl semimetal. PMID:26399742

  10. Nonresonant surface-enhanced Raman scattering of ZnO quantum dots with Au and Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rumyantseva, Anna; Kostcheev, Sergey; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Gaponenko, Sergey V; Vaschenko, Svetlana V; Kulakovich, Olga S; Ramanenka, Andrey A; Guzatov, Dmitry V; Korbutyak, Dmytro; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Stroyuk, Alexander; Shvalagin, Vitaliy

    2013-04-23

    Pronounced 10(4)-fold enhancement of Raman scattering has been obtained for ZnO nanocrystals on substrates coated with 50 nm Ag nanoparticles under nonresonant excitation with a commercial red-emitting laser. This makes feasible beyond 10(-18) mole detection of ZnO nanocrystals with a commercial setup using a 0.1 mW continuous wave laser and can be purposefully used in analytical applications where conjugated nanocrystals serve as Raman markers. For Au-coated surfaces the enhancement is much lower and the heating effects in the course of Raman experiments are pronounced.

  11. Effect of cross-sectional shape on the propagation characteristics of fundamental plasmon mode guided along Au and Ag nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitender; Kumar, Arun

    2017-01-01

    We numerically examine the effect of the cross-sectional shape on the propagation characteristics of the fundamental surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode guided along Au and Ag nanowires. It is observed that as the cross-sectional symmetry decreases from circular to triangular via pentagonal and square, the modal confinement, loss and dispersion increases. Further the difference in propagation characteristics between circular and other cross-sections increases rapidly as the wavelength of operation decreases. The study should be useful for selecting the cross-sectional shape of the nanowire for a particular application.

  12. Study of the effects of MeV Ag, Cu, Au, and Sn implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, E. K.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Curley, M.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Borel, C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO3. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 x 17(exp 16)/sq cm at room temperature. Au and Cu were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Sn was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm at 160 kV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak for the Au implanted samples after heat treatment at 1,000 C at approx. 620 nm. The Ag implanted samples absorption peaks shifted from approx. 450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500 C for 1h. Heat treatment at 800 C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500 C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm diameter upon heat treatment at 1000 C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm).

  13. Atomic structure and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Chukurov, E. N.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Eremeev, S. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, ab initio random structure searching, and density functional theory electronic structure calculations was applied to elucidate the atomic arrangement and electron band structure of the (Au ,Al )/Si (111 )2 ×2 two-dimensional compound formed upon Al deposition onto the mixed 5 ×2 /√{3 }×√{3 } Au/Si(111) surface. It was found that the most stable 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) compound incorporates four Au atoms, three Al atoms, and two Si atoms per 2 ×2 unit cell. Its atomic arrangement can be visualized as an array of meandering Au atomic chains with two-thirds of the Al atoms incorporated into the chains and one-third of the Al atoms interconnecting the chains. The compound is metallic and its electronic properties can be controlled by appropriate Al dosing since energetic location of the bands varies by ˜0.5 eV during increasing of Al contents. The 2 ×2 -(Au, Al) structure appears to be lacking the C3 v symmetry typical for the hexagonal lattices. The consequence of the peculiar atomic structure of the two-dimensional alloy is spin splitting of the metallic states, which should lead to anisotropy of the current-induced in-plane spin polarization.

  14. Bulk Properties of Ni3Al(gamma') With Cu and Au Additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1995-01-01

    The BFS method for alloys is applied to the study of 200 alloys obtained from adding Cu and Au impurities to a Ni3Al matrix. We analyze the trends in the bulk properties of these alloys (heat of formation, lattice parameter, and bulk modulus) and detect specific alloy compositions for which these quantities have particular values. A detailed analysis of the atomic interactions that lead to the preferred ordering patterns is presented.

  15. Pd effect on reliability of Ag bonding wires in microelectronic devices in high-humidity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jong-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Son, Seoung-Bum; Lee, Se-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effect of Pd concentration in Pd-doped Ag wires on the humidity reliability and interfacial corrosion characteristics between Ag wire and Al metallization. Additionally, we confirmed no corrosion problem between Ag wire and noble metal (Pd, Au) metallization, even after a pressure cooker test (PCT). The chemical composition of the tested Ag wires was pure Ag, Ag-1wt% Pd and Ag-3wt% Pd. These wires were bonded to Al and noble metal (Au, Pd) metallization using a thermo-sonic bonder. The interfaces were characterized by focused ion beam (FIB), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The interface corrosion of Pd doped Ag wires was significantly reduced as the Pd concentration in the Ag wires increased. Furthermore, the Ag wires on the noble metal (Au, Pd) metallization exhibited stable reliability during the PCT.

  16. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  17. Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

  18. Changes in the microbiological and chemical characteristics of white bread during storage in paper packages modified with Ag/TiO2-SiO2, Ag/N-TiO2 or Au/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Peter, Anca; Mihaly-Cozmuta, Leonard; Mihaly-Cozmuta, Anca; Nicula, Camelia; Ziemkowska, Wanda; Basiak, Dariusz; Danciu, Virginia; Vulpoi, Adriana; Baia, Lucian; Falup, Anca; Craciun, Grigore; Ciric, Alexandru; Begea, Mihaela; Kiss, Claudia; Vatuiu, Daniela

    2016-04-15

    Microbiological and chemical characteristics of white bread during storage in paper-packages modified with Ag/TiO2-SiO2, Ag/N-TiO2 or Au/TiO2 were investigated. The whiteness and the water retention of the modified packages were slightly superior to those exhibited by the reference sample, as the color of the composite was lighter. The water retention was very good especially for the Ag/TiO2-SiO2-paper. These improvements can be associated with the high specific surface area and with the low agglomeration tendency of Ag nanoparticles in comparison with the Au ones. The preservation activity of the composites for the bread storage is positively influenced by photoactivity and presence of nano-Ag. Packages Ag/TiO2-SiO2-paper and Ag/N-TiO2-paper can find their applicability for extending the shelf life of bread by 2 days as compared with the unmodified paper-package. No influence of the Au/TiO2 on the extending the shelf life of bread was observed.

  19. Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color surface plasmon resonance biosensor with enhanced sensitivity, color contrast and great linearity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Tien; Lo, Kun-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Ho, Jennifer H; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In wavelength surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, the manipulation of SPR dispersion relation by Ag/Au bi-metallic film was first time implemented. Due to the enhanced resonant wavelength shift and the sharper SPR slope of using Ag/Au bi-metallic film, the illuminated color of reflection shows one order of magnitude greater contrast than conventional SPR biosensors. Such an Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color SPR biosensor (CSPRB) allows the detail bio-interactions, for example 100 nM streptavidin, to be distinguished by directly observing the color change of reflection through naked eyes rather than the analysis of spectrometer. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity and color contrast, this CSPRB also possesses a great linear detection range up to 0.0254 RIU, which leading to the application of point-of-care tests.

  20. Au or Ag nanoparticle-decorated 3D urchin-like TiO2 nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liqin; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Shang, Chaohong; Yin, Jianbo

    2013-08-01

    The semiconductors decorated with noble metals have attracted increasing attention due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. Here, 3D urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures decorated with Au or Ag nanoparticles were prepared by wet-chemical process. The morphology and structure were characterized by different techniques. It shows that Au or Ag nanoparticles with narrow distribution are uniformly loaded on urchin-like TiO2 nanostructures, and the resulted composite nanostructures show distinct surface plasmon absorption band and quenched photoluminence compared to pure TiO2 nanostructures. Photocatalytic tests show both Au-decorated TiO2 and Ag-decorated TiO2 exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methyl blue in water.

  1. Schottky Diodes Prepared with Ag, Au, or Pd Contacts on a MgZnO/ZnO Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Hong Seung; Jang, Nak Won; Yun, Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Pin, Min Wook; Lee, Won Jae

    2012-09-01

    We successfully fabricated lateral Schottky diodes with a thin MgZnO layer inserted between the ZnO and Schottky contact metal layers. The MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure was deposited onto a c-sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition using Mg0.3Zn0.7O and ZnO targets. Ti/Au was used to achieve ohmic contact with the Mg0.3Zn0.7O thin film layer, whereas Schottky contacts were prepared using silver (Ag), gold (Au), and palladium (Pd). The Ag Schottky diode devices exhibited rectification ratios as high as ˜103 at a bias voltage of ±1 V, with an ideality factor of 2.37 and a work function of 0.73 eV. The possibility of preparing Schottky contacts with a high carrier concentration on the ZnO layer is discussed as a function of the presence or absence of a MgZnO thin layer and in terms of the measured current-voltage properties.

  2. Effects of Ga addition on the mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masahiko; Goto, Shin-ichi; Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Ogura, Hideo

    2002-12-01

    Ten 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 2.00, 4.00, or 6.00% Ga were experimentally prepared to investigate the effect of Ga on their mechanical properties in addition to their use for denture frameworks, connectors and clasps. The effect of Ga addition on the mechanical properties was marked with a significant increase in the tensile strength, 0.2% off-set proof stress (proof stress) and Vickers hardness observed at low Ga contents (0.25-2.00%). On the other hand, the elongation significantly decreased with the addition of Ga at all contents used in this study. The tensile strength, proof stress and Vickers hardness of the 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing 0.25-2.00% Ga were in the range of 809-957 MPa, 669-857 MPa and 260-301 MPa, respectively. These values are similar to those of Co-Cr alloys, suggesting that 0.25-2.00% Ga alloys can be used for denture frameworks, clasps and connectors.

  3. Investigation of interfacial reaction between Sn-Ag eutectic solder and Au/Ni/Cu/Ti thin film metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Yang, C. W.; Ha, J. S.; Kim, C.-U.; Kwon, E. J.; Jung, S. B.; Kang, C. S.

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports the formation of intermetallic compounds in Au/Ni/Cu/Ti under-bump-metallization (UBM) structure reacted with Ag-Sn eutectic solder. In this study, UBM is prepared by evaporating Au(500 Å)/Ni(1000 Å)/Cu(7500 Å) /Ti (700 Å) thin films on top of Si substrates. It is then reacted with Ag-Sn eutectic solder at 260 C for various times to induce different stages of the interfacial reaction. Microstructural examination of the interface, using both chemical and crystallographic analysis, indicates that two types of intermetallic compounds are formed during the interfacial reaction. The first phase, formed at the intial stage of the reaction, is predominantly Ni3Sn4. At longer times the Ni3Sn4 phase transforms into (Cu, Ni)6Sn6, probably induced by interdiffusion of Cu and Ni. At this stage, the underlying Cu layer also reacts with Sn and forms the same phase, (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. As a result, the fully reacted interface is found to consist of two intermetallic layers with the same phase but different morphologies.

  4. Gamma Spectra Resulting From the Annihilation of Positrons with Electrons in Single, Selected Core Levels of Cu, Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Eshed, A; Goktepeli, S; Sterne, P A; Koymen, A R; Chen, W C; Weiss, A H

    2005-07-25

    The {gamma}-ray energy spectra due to positron annihilation with the 3p core-level of Cu, the 4p core-level of Ag, and 5p core level of Au were obtained separately from the total annihilation spectrum by measuring the energies of {gamma}-rays time coincident with Auger electrons emitted as a result of filling the core-hole left by annihilation. The results of these measurements are compared to the total annihilation spectra and with LDA based theoretical calculations. A comparison of area normalized momentum distributions with the individual cores extracted from the Doppler measurements shows good qualitative agreement, however, in all three spectra, the calculated values of the momentum density appears to fall below the measured values as the momentum increases. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are well outside the statistical uncertainties of the experiment and become more pronounced with increasing Z going down the column from Cu to Ag to Au. The comparison with the experimental results clearly indicates that the calculations are not predicting the correct ratio of high momentum to low momentum spectral weight and suggest the need to improve the treatment of many body electron-positron correlation effects in annihilation as they pertain to core levels.

  5. Thermodynamic-temperature determinations of the Ag and Au freezing temperatures using a detector-based radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Howard W.; Allen, David W.; Gibson, Charles E.; Litorja, Maritoni; Saunders, Robert D.; Brown, Steven W.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Lykke, Keith R

    2007-05-20

    The development of a radiation thermometer calibrated for spectral radiance responsivity using cryogenic, electrical-substitution radiometry to determine the thermodynamic temperatures of the Ag- and Au-freezing temperatures is described. The absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer is measured in the NIST Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources (SIRCUS) facility with a total uncertainty of0.15% (k=2) and is traceable to the electrical watt, and thus the thermodynamic temperature of any blackbody can be determined by using Planck radiation law and the measured optical power. The thermodynamic temperatures of the Ag- and Au-freezing temperatures are determined to be1234.956 K ({+-}0.110 K) (k=2) and1337.344 K({+-}0.129 K) (k=2) differing from the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) assignments by 26 mK and 14 mK, respectively,within the stated uncertainties. The temperatures were systematically corrected for the size-of-source effect, the nonlinearity of the preamplifier and the emissivity of the blackbody.The ultimate goal of these thermodynamic temperature measurements is to disseminate temperature scales with lower uncertainties than those of the ITS-90. These results indicate that direct disseminations of thermodynamic temperature scales are possible.

  6. Properties of a new type Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode for zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-tao; Liu, Huan-rong; Zhang, Yong-chun; Chen, Bu-ming; Guo, Zhong-cheng; Xu, Rui-dong

    2013-10-01

    An Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy composite anode was produced via composite casting. Its electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction and corrosion resistance was evaluated by anodic polarization curves and accelerated corrosion test, respectively. The microscopic morphologies of the anode section and anodic oxidation layer during accelerated corrosion test were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the composite anode (hard anodizing) displays a more compact interfacial combination and a better adhesive strength than plating tin. Compared with industrial Pb-0.3%Ag anodes, the oxygen evolution overpotentials of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) at 500 A·m-2 were lower by 57 and 14 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion rates of Pb-0.3%Ag alloy, Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing), and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) were 13.977, 9.487, and 11.824 g·m-2·h-1, respectively, in accelerated corrosion test for 8 h at 2000 A·m-2. The anodic oxidation layer of Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (hard anodizing) is more compact than Pb-0.3%Ag alloy and Al/Pb-0.3%Ag alloy (plating tin) after the test.

  7. Density functional theory study of the carbonyl-ene reaction of encapsulated formaldehyde in Cu(I), Ag(I), and Au(I) exchanged FAU zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wannakao, Sippakorn; Khongpracha, Pipat; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2011-11-17

    Carbonyl-ene reactions, which involve C-C bond formation, are essential in many chemical syntheses. The formaldehyde-propene reaction catalyzed by several of the group 11 metal cations, Cu(+), Ag(+), and Au(+) exchanged on the faujasite zeolite (metal-FAU) has been investigated by density functional theory at the M06-L/6-31G(d,p) level. The Au-FAU exhibits a higher activity than the others due to the high charge transfer between the Au and the reactant molecules, even though it is located at a negatively charged site of the zeolite. This site enables it to compensate for the charge of the Au(+) ion. The NBO analysis reveals that the 6s orbital of the Au atom plays an important role, inducing a charge on the probe molecules. Moreover, the effect of the zeolite framework makes the Au-FAU more active than the others by stabilizing the high charge induced transition structure. The activation energy of the reaction catalyzed by Au-FAU is 13.0 kcal/mol whereas that of Cu and Ag-FAU is found to be around 17 kcal/mol. The product desorption needs to be improved for Au-FAU; however, we suggest that catalysts with high charge transfer might provide a promising activity.

  8. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum.

  9. Proximity effect and hot-electron diffusion in Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Netel, H., Jochum, J., Labov, S.E., Mears, C.A., Frank, M.; Chow, D., Lindeman, M.A., Hiller, L.J.

    1997-02-18

    We have fabricated Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al tunnel junctions on Si substrates using a new process. This process was developed to fabricate superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) on the surface of a superconductor. These junctions allow us to study the proximity effect of a superconducting Al film on a normal metal trapping layer. In addition, these devices allow us to measure the hot-electron diffusion constant using a single junction. Lastly these devices will help us optimize the design and fabrication of tunnel junctions on the surface of high-Z, ultra-pure superconducting crystals. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Comparison of laser ablation and sputter desorption of clusters from Au7Cu5Al4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, B. V.; Moore, J. F.; Cui, Y.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ionized and neutral clusters were desorbed from spangold, a polycrystalline ternary alloy with composition Au7Cu5Al4, using both a femtosecond laser beam and an energetic ion beam and the resulting time of flight mass spectra compared. Neutral clusters containing up to 7 atoms were ejected by the 15 keV Ar+ beam whereas only smaller positively and negatively charged clusters were observed from the laser ablated spangold surface. Laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS) positive ion spectra were dominated by Al containing cluster ions whereas Au containing ions dominated the negative LIMS spectrum. An odd-even variation in LIMS cluster yield was observed, consistent with previous results and due to fragmentation of photoionized clusters. The laser sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (laser SNMS) spectrum showed that larger desorbed clusters were gold rich. The cluster signals also followed a power law dependence with cluster size with the exponent value of 6-7.6 for sputtered mixed clusters being greater than that found from sputtering of pure elements, similar to the result found previously in the Cu-Au system.

  11. RuSi@Ru(bpy)3(2+)/Au@Ag2S nanoparticles electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer system for sensitive DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Sheng; He, Li-Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-05-06

    This work describes a new electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) system with graphene oxide(GO)-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy)3(2+)/chitosan (CS) composites as the ECL donor and Au@Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) as ECL the acceptor for the first time. The ECL signal observed by the application of GO-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy)3(2+)/CS composites was enhanced for 5-fold compared to that of RuSi@Ru(bpy)3(2+)/CS in the presence of coreactant tripropylamine (TPA) due to the increased surface area and improved electrical conductivity by using graphene oxide-gold nanoparticles (GO-Au) composite materials. In addition, we synthesized Au@Ag2S core-shell NPs, whose UV-vis absorption spectrum shows good spectral overlap with the ECL spectrum of GO-Au/RuSi@Ru(bpy)3(2+)/CS composites by adjusting the amount of Na2S and AgNO3 in the process of synthesis. The distance between energy donor and acceptor was studied to get the highly effective ECL-RET. Then, this ECL-RET system was developed for sensitive and specific detection of target DNA, and the ECL quenching efficiency (ΔI/I0, ΔI = I0 - I) was found to be logarithmically related to the concentration of the target DNA in the range from 10 aM to 10 pM.

  12. Photoluminescence of Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles applied in Bio-LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan Bo; Su, Yen Hsun

    2013-12-01

    In this work, transition elements, including Cu2+, Ag+, and Au3+, were used to dope in zinc sulfide (ZnS) by chemical solution synthesis to prepare Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles, respectively. Transition elements doping ZnS nanoparticles form the electronic energy level between the conduction band and valance band, which will result in the green light emission. There is a zinc sulfide emission shift from blue (~3.01 eV) to green light (~2.15 eV). We also found that Au:ZnS nanoparticles will emit a green light (~2.3 eV) and a blue light (~2.92 eV) at the same time because the mechanism of blue light emission was not broken after Au element had been doped. Furthermore, we used sodium chlorophyllin copper salt to simulate chlorophyll in biological light emission devices (Bio-LED). We combined copper chlorophyll with Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles by a self-assembly method. Then, we measured its photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study its emission spectrum and bonding mode. We found that Au:ZnS nanoparticles are able to emit green and blue light to excite the red light emission of copper chlorophyll, which is a potential application of Bio-LED.

  13. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2014-09-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  14. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  15. Tribological properties of self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Eryong; Gao, Yimin; Bai, Yaping; Yi, Gewen; Wang, Wenzhen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Jia, Junhong

    2014-11-15

    Silver vanadate (AgVO{sub 3}) nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The composition and microstructure of NiAl/Mo-based composites were characterized and the tribological properties were investigated from room temperature to 900 °C. The results showed that NiAl/Mo-based composites were consisted of nanocrystalline B2 ordered NiAl matrix, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase. The appearance of metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase can be attributed to the decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} during sintering. Wear testing results confirmed that NiAl/Mo-based composites have excellent tribological properties over a wide temperature range. For example, the friction coefficient and wear rate of NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} were significantly lower than the composites containing only metallic Mo or AgVO{sub 3} lubricant when the temperature is above 300 °C, which can be attributed to the synergistic lubricating action of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3} lubricants. Furthermore, Raman results indicated that the composition on the worn surface of NiAl-based composites was self-adjusted after wear testing at different temperatures. For example, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} lubricants were responsible for the improvement of tribological properties at 500 °C, AgVO{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and molybdate for 700 °C, and AgVO{sub 3} and molybdate for 900 °C of NiAl-based composites with the addition of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical alloying and sintering. • AgVO{sub 3} decomposed to metallic Ag and vanadium oxide during the sintering process. • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} exhibited superior tribological properties at a board temperature range. • Phase composition on the worn surface was varied with temperatures. • Self-adjusted action

  16. Linkage disequilibria between polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene signal peptide Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g) in the Singapore Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, C.K.; Saha, N.; Tay, J.S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Three polymorphisms [insertion/deletion polymorphisms of signal peptides (ins/del), Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g)] were studied in one hundred and ninety-five healthy Singaporean Chinese of both sexes. The respective regions of the apoB gene were amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The amplified products of Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g) were digested by restriction enzymes AluI and ApaLI, respectively. Their DNA fragments were subsequently separated and visualized on a 2% agarose gel. Ins/del polymorphism could be typed directly on 4% agarose gel without any digestion. Computation of the chi-square and delta value revealed linkage disequilibria between ins/del and Ag(c/g) [{chi}{sup 2}=43.24, {triangle}=0.31, P<0.00001], ins/del and Ag(al/d) [{chi}{sup 2}=22.28, {triangle}=0.32, P<0.001], Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) [{chi}{sup 2}=106.01, {triangle}=0.63, P<0.00001].

  17. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.G.; Paganotti, A.; Gama, S.; Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A.

    2013-01-15

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

  18. Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2013-12-21

    Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, V{sub LP}, is ∼1.5 V. V{sub LP} is nearly independent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, V{sub SP}. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, V{sub S} ≲ 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing V{sub S}, for diodes with the smallest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, L{sub MX}, at a voltage, V{sub LMX}, followed by a decrease to a plateau. L{sub MX} and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness. The ratio of L{sub MX} at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to L{sub MX} for a diode with 25 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is ∼140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ∼3 and ∼35; it depends on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and V{sub S}. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al{sub 2}O

  19. Influence of Ag contents on structure and tribological properties of TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chaoqun; Li, Jinlong; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yitao; Wang, Yongxin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-02-01

    TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings with different Ag contents were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V using reactive co-sputtering in multi-arc ion plating system. Influence of Ag contents on structure and tribological properties of TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings was investigated. The TiSiN-Ag coatings were found to have unique nanocomposite structures composed of nanocrystallite and amorphous nc-TiN/nc-Ag/a-Si3N4. When the silver content was 1.4 at.%, the coating exhibited high hardness (36 GPa), but poor wear resistance. When the silver content was increased from 5.3 to 8.7 at.%, the coatings possessed homogeneous distribution and small variation in hardness. Although these coatings revealed obvious decrease in hardness, significantly reduced in the friction coefficient and possessed excellent tribological properties, besides, the coating with the Ag content of 5.3 at.% showed best wear resistance in artificial seawater and the coating (7.9 at.% Ag) revealed the best wear resistance in ambient air. However, with a further increased incorporation of Ag into the TiSiN-Ag coating (17.0 at.%) resulted in the formation of a large volume fraction of metallic silver, which caused a decrease both in hardness and wear resistance. The coating containing highest Ag concentration (21.0 at.%) exhibited low friction coefficient both in ambient air and artificial seawater, although possessing low hardness.

  20. Vapochromic behavior of {Ag2(Et2O)2[Au(C6F5)2]2}n with volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eduardo J; López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena; Puelles, Raquel C; Laguna, Antonio; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Fackler, John P

    2008-09-15

    The vapochromic behaviors of {Ag2L2[Au(C6F5)2]2}n (L = Et2O (1), Me2CO (2), THF (3), CH3CN (4)) were studied. {Ag2L2[Au(C6F5)2]2}n (L = Et2O (1)) was synthesized by the reaction of [Bu4N][Au(C6F5)2] with AgOClO3 in 1:1 molar ratio in CH2Cl2/Et2O (1:2). 1 was used as starting material with THF to form {Ag2L2[Au(C6F5)2]2}n (L = THF (3)). 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c and consists of tetranuclear units linked together via aurophilic contacts resulting in the formation of a 1D polymer that runs parallel to the crystallographic z axis. The gold(I) atoms are linearly coordinated to two pentafluorophenyl groups and display additional Au...Ag close contacts within the tetranuclear units with distances of 2.7582(3) and 2.7709(3) A. Each silver(I) center is bonded to the two oxygen atoms of the THF molecules with a Ag-O bond distance of 2.307(3) A. TGA analysis showed that 1 loses two molecules of the coordinated solvent per molecular unit (1st one: 75-100 degrees, second one: 150-175 degrees C), whereas 2, 3, and 4 lose both volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and fluorinated ligands in a less well defined manner. Each complex loses both the fluorinated ligands and the VOCs by a temperature of about 325 degrees C to give a 1:1 gold/silver product. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirm that the reaction of vapors of VOCs with 1 in the solid state produce complete substitution of the ether molecules by the new VOC. The VOCs are replaced in the order CH3CN > Me2CO > THF > Et2O, with the ether being the easiest to replace. {Ag2(Et2O)2[Au(C6F5)2]2}n and {Ag2(THF)2[Au(C6F5)2]2} n both luminesce at room temperature and at 77 K in the solid state. Emission maxima are independent of the excitation wavelength used below about 500 nm. Emission maxima are obtained at 585 nm (ether) and 544 nm (THF) at room temperature and at 605 nm (ether) and 567 nm (THF) at 77 K.

  1. Phonons, nature of bonding, and their relation to anomalous thermal expansion behavior of M{sub 2}O (M = Au, Ag, Cu)

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rols, S.

    2014-03-07

    We report a comparative study of the dynamics of Cu{sub 2}O, Ag{sub 2}O, and Au{sub 2}O (i.e., M{sub 2}O with M = Au, Ag, and Cu) using first principle calculations based on the density functional theory. Here, for the first time, we show that the nature of chemical bonding and open space in the unit cell are directly related to the magnitude of thermal expansion coefficient. A good match between the calculated phonon density of states and that derived from inelastic neutron scattering measurements is obtained for Cu{sub 2}O and Ag{sub 2}O. The calculated thermal expansions of Ag{sub 2}O and Cu{sub 2}O are negative, in agreement with available experimental data, while it is found to be positive for Au{sub 2}O. We identify the low energy phonon modes responsible for this anomalous thermal expansion. We further calculate the charge density in the three compounds and find that the magnitude of the ionic character of the Ag{sub 2}O, Cu{sub 2}O, and Au{sub 2}O crystals is in decreasing order, with an Au-O bond of covalent nature strongly rigidifying the Au{sub 4}O tetrahedral units. The nature of the chemical bonding is also found to be an important ingredient to understand the large shift of the phonon frequencies of these solids with pressure and temperature. In particular, the quartic component of the anharmonic term in the crystal potential is able to account for the temperature dependence of the phonon modes.

  2. High precision analysis modeling by backward elimination with attitude on interaction effects on Au (Ag)-polymetallic mineralization of Glojeh, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi-Golestan, F.; Hezarkhani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Identification of possible relationship between the elements, in mineralization and geochemical modeling is very important. The Full Cubic Model (FCM) with 90 Predictors including the main effects, quadratic terms, and interaction effects of Ag, As, Cu, Hg, Mn, Nb, P, Pb, Sn, Sr, Zn and U elements was used to create an Optimal and Reduced Cubic Model (ORCM) at vein-style Au (Ag)-polymetallic mineralization of Glojeh. It was generated with multiple regression and variance analysis and enhanced by Backward Elimination Procedure (BEP) for insignificant predictors through 15 steps. All the predictors contributed in ORCM by lowest p-value of 0.07 at degree of freedom (DF) equaled to 36. F ratio and R2 (pred.) criteria showed increasing trend from 0% to 77.80% and 6.12-262.51, respectively in model optimization. The main and interacted elements at ORCM are Sn, U, Pb, Cu and Ag × Sn, As × Mn, As × Zn, Hg × P, P × Sn, Sn2, P2, respectively based on related t-values. Interaction occurred when a pair of elements produces no similar trend on the response at different levels (associated to populations) of another element. Therefore, interaction of two elements on Au concentration was considered, simultaneously. By investigation, a disordinal interaction effect occurs on deposit for Au-As-Mn, Au-Ag-As and Au-Hg-Mn when the third element changes across the background level to vein values. Whereas, ordinal effects was observed at both population for Au-Ag-Hg and Au-As-Hg, since the lines were parallel. It implies that As has similar trend on Au for each value of Hg. The Au-Ag line explains the general downward shift by increasing Hg concentrations from vein to background. It revealed that Hg is more concentrated in background area. The accuracy and precision of this approach have been studied extensively for sample analysis, parameter identification, and modeling to ensure about BEP.

  3. Pyridine substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as supports for Au(I)-Ag(I) interactions: formation of a chiral coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Vincent J; Malwitz, Mark A; Etogo, Anthony O

    2004-09-06

    Reaction of 1,3-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1H-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [H(pyCH(2))(2)im]BF(4), with silver oxide in dichloromethane readily yields [Ag((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 1.BF(4)(). 1.BF(4) is converted to the analogous Au(I)-containing species, [Au((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 3, by a simple carbene transfer reaction in dichloromethane. Further treatment with two equivalents of AgBF(4) produces the trimetallic species [AuAg(2)((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)(NCCH(3))(2)](BF(4))(3), 4, which contains two silver ions each coordinated to the pyridine moieties on one carbene ligand and to an acetonitrile molecule in a T-shaped fashion. Monometallic [Ag((py)(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 5, and [Au((py)(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 6, are made analogously to 1.BF(4) and 3 starting from 1,3-bis(2-pyridyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene tetrafluoroborate, [H(py)(2)im]BF(4). Addition of excess AgBF(4) to 6 yields the helical mixed-metal polymer, ([AuAg((py)(2)im)(2)(NCCH(3))](BF(4))(2))(n), 7 which contains an extended Au(I)-Ag(I) chain with short metal-metal separations of 2.8359(4) and 2.9042(4) A. Colorless, monometallic [Hg((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)](BF(4))(2), 8, is easily produced by refluxing [H(pyCH(2))(2)im)]BF(4) with Hg(OAc)(2) in acetonitrile. The related quinolyl-substituted imidazole, [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6), is produced analogously to [H(pyCH(2))(2)im]BF(4). [Hg((quinCH(2))(2)im)(2)](PF(6))(2), 9, is isolated in good yield as a white solid from the reaction of Hg(OAc)(2) and [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6). The reaction of [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6) with excess Ag(2)O produces the triangulo-cluster [Ag(3)((quinCH(2))(2)im)(3)](PF(6))(3), 11. All of these complexes were studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and complexes 3-9 were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes are photoluminescent in the solid state and in solution with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor.

  4. Silver nanoparticle gated, mesoporous silica coated gold nanorods (AuNR@MS@AgNPs): low premature release and multifunctional cancer theranostic platform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhehua; Liu, Changhui; Bai, Junhui; Wu, Cuichen; Xiao, Yue; Li, Yinhui; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Ronghua; Tan, Weihong

    2015-03-25

    Multifunctional nanoparticles integrated with an imaging module and therapeutic drugs are promising candidates for future cancer diagnosis and therapy. Mesoporous silica coated gold nanorods (AuNR@MS) have emerged as a novel multifunctional cancer theranostic platform combining the large specific surface area of mesoporous silica, which guarantees a high drug payload, and the photothermal modality of AuNRs. However, premature release and side effects of exogenous stimulus still hinder the further application of AuNR@MS. To address these issues, herein, we proposed a glutathione (GSH)-responsive multifunctional AuNR@MS nanocarrier with in situ formed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as the capping agent. The inner AuNR core functions as a hyperthermia agent, while the outer mesoporous silica shell exhibits the potential to allow a high drug payload, thus posing itself as an effective drug carrier. With the incorporation of targeting aptamers, the constructed nanocarriers show drug release in accordance with an intracellular GSH level with maximum drug release into tumors and minimum systemic release in the blood. Meanwhile, the photothermal effect of the AuNRs upon application to near-infrared (NIR) light led to a rapid rise in the local temperature, resulting in an enhanced cell cytotoxicity. Such a versatile theranostic system as AuNR@MS@AgNPs is expected to have a wide biomedical application and may be particularly useful for cancer therapy.

  5. Origin of Quantum Criticality in Yb-Al-Au Approximant Crystal and Quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2016-06-01

    To get insight into the mechanism of emergence of unconventional quantum criticality observed in quasicrystal Yb15Al34Au51, the approximant crystal Yb14Al35Au51 is analyzed theoretically. By constructing a minimal model for the approximant crystal, the heavy quasiparticle band is shown to emerge near the Fermi level because of strong correlation of 4f electrons at Yb. We find that charge-transfer mode between 4f electron at Yb on the 3rd shell and 3p electron at Al on the 4th shell in Tsai-type cluster is considerably enhanced with almost flat momentum dependence. The mode-coupling theory shows that magnetic as well as valence susceptibility exhibits χ ˜ T-0.5 for zero-field limit and is expressed as a single scaling function of the ratio of temperature to magnetic field T/B over four decades even in the approximant crystal when some condition is satisfied by varying parameters, e.g., by applying pressure. The key origin is clarified to be due to strong locality of the critical Yb-valence fluctuation and small Brillouin zone reflecting the large unit cell, giving rise to the extremely-small characteristic energy scale. This also gives a natural explanation for the quantum criticality in the quasicrystal corresponding to the infinite limit of the unit-cell size.

  6. Probing of the pseudogap via thermoelectric properties in the Au-Al-Gd quasicrystal approximant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Asuka; Takagiwa, Yoshiki; Kimura, Kaoru; Tamura, Ryuji

    2017-03-01

    The pseudogap of the recently discovered Au-Al-Gd quasicrystal approximant crystal (AC) is investigated over a wide electron-per-atom (e /a ) ratio of ˜0.5 using thermoelectric properties as an experimental probe. This Au-Al-Gd AC provides an ideal platform for fine probing of the pseudogap among a number of known ACs because the Au-Al-Gd AC possesses an extraordinarily wide single-phase region with respect to the variation in the electron concentration [A. Ishikawa, T. Hiroto, K. Tokiwa, T. Fujii, and R. Tamura, Phys. Rev. B 93, 024416 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.024416], in striking contrast to, for instance, binary stoichiometric C d6R ACs. As a result, a salient peak structure is observed in the Seebeck coefficient, S , with the composition as well as that of the power factor S2σ , in addition to a gradual variation in the conductivity, σ , and S . These two features are directly associated with rapid and slow variations, respectively, of spectral conductivity σ (E ) , and hence the fine structure inside the pseudogap, in the vicinity of the Fermi level EF. Based on the observed continuous variation of the Fermi wave vector reported in the previous experimental work, fine tuning of EF toward an optimal position was attempted, which led to the successful observation of a sharp peak in S2σ with a value of ˜270 μ W /m .K2 at 873 K. This is the highest value ever reported among both Tsai-type and Bergman-type compounds. The dimensionless figure of merit was determined as 0.026 at 873 K, which is also the highest reported among both Tsai-type and Bergman-type compounds.

  7. Ag-Al based air braze for high temperature electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-11-01

    Silver-aluminum based air brazing was attempted using an in-situ alloying and brazing process. In this process, layers of foils of aluminum and silver were laid up between alumina plates in alternating fashion to achieve three target compositions representing Ag, Ag3Al, and Ag2Al phases. Each alloy composition revealed different microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. Joints brazed with foils containing 9.8 at% Al formed a long continuous layer parallel to the direction of the original aluminum foil. The fracture occurred through the interface between this long alumina layer and the braze filler, resulting in low bend strength (6 ~ 12 MPa). Joints containing 26.5 at% Al in the braze filler metal experienced the series of phase transformations, leading to cracks in as-brazed specimens. The fracture initiated through these pre-existing cracks, thus the joint strength observed in these specimens was extremely low. The joints prepared using foils with 35.1 at% Al exhibited a good interface even though interfacial alumina particles formed during air brazing. Crack propagation occurred through the interface between the alumina substrate and in-situ formed interfacial alumina particles or directly through these particles and the best bend strength (46 ~ 52 MPa) among Al-added braze compositions was achieved.

  8. A set of f-polarization functions for pseudo-potential basis sets of the transition metals ScCu, YAg and LaAu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, A. W.; Böhme, M.; Dapprich, S.; Gobbi, A.; Höllwarth, A.; Jonas, V.; Köhler, K. F.; Stegmann, R.; Veldkamp, A.; Frenking, G.

    1993-06-01

    A Set of seven-component f-type polarization functions has been optimized for use with the pseudo-potentials of Hay and Wadt at the CISD level of theory for the transition metals ScCu, YAg, LaAu in the energetically lowest-lying s 1 d n electronic state.

  9. Theoretical study of the homonuclear tetramers and pentamers of the group IB metals (Cu, Ag, and Au)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The optimal structures of the homonuclear tetramers and pentamers of Cu, Ag, and Au are found to be planar trapezoidal. However, on the basis of spin densities deduced from electron spin resonance experiments, it has been suggested that these pentamers have distorted trigonal bipyramidal structures. This apparent discrepancy is reconciled by the fact that Mulliken populational analyses indicate that the open-shell spin density distribution on the planar structures are also consistent with experiment. Since the vertical electron attachment energies for both the tetramers and pentamers are in good agreement with experiment, the negative ions probably also have planar trapezoidal structures. The trends in ionization potentials, atomization energies, and electron affinities with cluster size are discussed.

  10. Temperature controlled fluorescence on Au@Ag@PNIPAM-PTEBS microgels: effect of the metal core size on the MEF extension.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Caceres, Rafael; Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Mendez-Gonzalez, Diego; Laurenti, Marco; Maldonado-Valdivia, Ana; Garcia-Blanco, Francisco; López Cabarcos, Enrique; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio; Lopez-Romero, José Manuel; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2014-12-30

    In this work, we present a novel method to produce thermoresponsive, monodisperse microgels which display temperature-dependent photoluminescence. The system is based on bimetallic cores of Au@Ag encapsulated within thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels and coated with a photoluminescent polymer (poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS) using the Layer-by-Layer technique. The electromagnetic radiation used to excite the PTEBS induces a local electromagnetic field on the surface of the bimetallic cores that enhances the excitation and emission rates of the PTEBS, yielding a metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). This effect was studied as a function of the bimetallic core size and the separation distance between the PTEBS and the bimetallic cores. Our results permit evaluation of the effect that the metallic core size of colloidal particles exerts on the MEF for the first time, and prove the relevance of the metallic cores to extend the effect far away from the metallic surface.

  11. Ultrasensitive SERS detection of VEGF based on a self-assembled Ag ornamented-AU pyramid superstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sen; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-06-15

    For the first time, we demonstrated the fabrication of silver nanoparticle ornamented-gold nanoparticle pyramids (Ag-Au Pys) using an aptamer-based self-assembly process and investigated their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties in the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Under optimized conditions, the SERS signal was negatively related to VEGF concentration over the range 0.01-1.0 fM and the limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 22.6 aM. The matrix effect and the specificity of this developed method were further examined, and the results showed that the superstructure sensor was ultrasensitive and highly selective. This developed aptamer-based SERS detection method suggests that it may be a promising strategy for a variety of sensing applications.

  12. Au@Ag SERRS tags coupled to a lateral flow immunoassay for the sensitive detection of pneumolysin.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Covián, Lucía; Montes-García, Verónica; Girard, Alexandre; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan; Blanco-López, M Carmen

    2017-02-02

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis of pneumonia using conventional tests is difficult and expensive. Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are an advantageous point of care (POC) test option, but they have some limitations in terms of detection and quantification. In this work we have developed a lateral flow immunoassay for the ultrasensitive detection of penumolysin employing plasmonic Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) tag as labelled probe. The combination of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles as plasmonic platform and Rhodamine B Isothiocyanate as Raman reporter has allowed us to fabricate a SERRS tag with high efficiency and reliability. The limit of detection of the SERRS-based LFIA was 1 pg mL(-1). This could be a strong foundation for a pneumonia diagnosis test based on pneumolysin detection.

  13. Multishell Au/Ag/SiO2 nanorods with tunable optical properties as single particle orientation and rotational tracking probes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuangcai; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Vela, Javier; Fang, Ning

    2015-04-21

    Three-layer core-shell plasmonic nanorods (Au/Ag/SiO2-NRs), consisting of a gold nanorod core, a thin silver shell, and a thin silica layer, were synthesized and used as optical imaging probes under a differential interference contrast microscope for single particle orientation and rotational tracking. The localized surface plasmon resonance modes were enhanced upon the addition of the silver shell, and the anisotropic optical properties of gold nanorods were maintained. The silica coating enables surface functionalization with silane coupling agents and provides enhanced stability and biocompatibility. Taking advantage of the longitudinal LSPR enhancement, the orientation and rotational information of the hybrid nanorods on synthetic lipid bilayers and on live cell membranes were obtained with millisecond temporal resolution using a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized hybrid nanorods are promising imaging probes with improved sensitivity and good biocompatibility for single plasmonic particle tracking experiments in biological systems.

  14. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin; Fu, Qiang; Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kedong; Xiao, Xudong

    2017-04-01

    The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  15. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag

  16. Sulfur isotope and trace element systematics of zoned pyrite crystals from the El Indio Au-Cu-Ag deposit, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Dominique; Henley, Richard W.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Holden, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We present a comparative study between early, massive pyrite preceding (Cu-Ag) sulfosalt mineralization in high-temperature feeder zones (`early pyrite') and late pyrite that formed during silicic alteration associated with Au deposition (`late pyrite') at the El Indio high-sulfidation Au-Ag-Cu deposit, Chile. We use coupled in situ sulfur isotope and trace element analyses to chronologically assess geochemical variations across growth zones in these pyrite crystals. Early pyrite that formed in high-temperature feeder zones shows intricate oscillatory zonation of Cu, with individual laminae containing up to 1.15 wt% Cu and trace Co, As, Bi, Ni, Zn, Se, Ag, Sb, Te, Au, Pb and Bi. Late pyrite formed after (Cu-Ag) sulfosalt mineralization. It contains up to 1.14 wt% As with trace Cu, Zn, Pb, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Ge, Se, Ag, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi, as well as colloform Cu-rich growth bands containing vugs toward the outer edges of some crystals. Plotting the trace element data in chronological order (i.e., from core to rim) revealed that Co and Ni were the only elements to consistently co-vary across growth zones. Other trace elements were coupled in specific growth zones, but did not consistently co-vary across any individual crystal. The δ34S of early pyrite crystals in high-temperature feeder zones range from -3.19 to 1.88 ‰ (±0.5 ‰), consistent with sublimation directly from a high-temperature magmatic vapor phase. Late pyrite crystals are distinctly more enriched in δ34S than early pyrite (δ34S = 0.05-4.77 ‰, ±0.5 ‰), as a consequence of deposition from a liquid phase at lower temperatures. It is unclear whether the late pyrite was deposited from a small volume of liquid condensate, or a larger volume of hydrothermal fluid. Both types of pyrite exhibit intracrystalline δ34S variation, with a range of up to 3.31 ‰ recorded in an early pyrite crystal and up to 4.48 ‰ in a late pyrite crystal. Variations in δ34Spyrite at El Indio did not correspond with

  17. Ionic conductivity and thermoelectric power of pure and Al2O3-dispersed AgI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ionic and electronic conductivities, and thermoelectric power have been measured for AgI and AgI containing a dispersion of submicron size Al2O3 particles. While the dispersion of Al2O3 enhances the ionic conductivity significantly, it does not affect the electronic properties of the matrix. The enhancement is a strong function of the size and concentration of the dispersoid. Various models have been tested to account for the enhanced conduction. However, the complex behavior of the present results points out the need for more sophisticated theoretical models. Ionic conduction and thermoelectric power data suggest that the dispersed Al2O3 generates an excess of cation vacancies and thereby enhances the conductivity and suppresses the thermoelectric power of the matrix. The individual heats of transport of cation interstitials and vacancies have been estimated and compared to their respective migration energies.

  18. Label free sub-picomole level DNA detection with Ag nanoparticle decorated Au nanotip arrays as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy platform.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hung-Chun; Hsiung, Hsin-I; Chattopadhyay, Surojit; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Fu; Leu, Jih Perng; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2011-01-15

    Label free optical sensing of adenine and thymine oligonucleotides has been achieved at the sub-picomole level using self assembled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated gold nanotip (AuNT) arrays. The platform consisting of the AuNTs not only aids in efficient bio-immobilization, but also packs AgNPs in a three dimensional high surface area workspace, assisting in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The use of sub-10 nm AgNPs with optimum inter-particle distance ensures amplification of the chemically specific Raman signals of the adsorbed adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine molecules in SERS experiments. High temporal stability of the Raman signals ensured reliable and repeatable DNA detection even after three weeks of ambient desk-top conservation. This facile architecture, being three dimensional and non-lithographic, differs from conventional SERS platforms.

  19. An in situ study on the coalescence of monolayer-protected Au-Ag nanoparticle deposits upon heating

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The structural evolution of thiolate-protected nanoparticles of gold, silver, and their alloys with various Au/Ag ratios (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) upon heating was investigated by means of in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. The relationships between the coalescence and composition of nanoparticles, as well as the surfactant reactions, were clarified. Experimental results show that there existed a critical temperature ranging from 120°C to 164°C, above which the tiny broad X-ray diffraction peaks became sharp and strong due to particle coalescence. The coalescence temperatures for alloy nanoparticle deposits were clearly lower than those for pure metals, which can be ascribed to the rivalry between the thermodynamic effect due to alloying and the interactions between surface-assembled layers and the surface atoms of the nanoparticles. The strong affinity of thiolates to Ag and thus complex interactions give rise to a greater energy barrier for the coalescence of nanoparticles into the bulk and subsequent high coalescence temperature. The influences of particle coalescence on the optical and electrical properties of the nanoparticle deposits were also explored. PMID:25246861

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Alois; Dalla Marta, Silvia; Spizzo, Riccardo; Cervo, Silvia; Steffan, Agostino; Colombatti, Alfonso; Sergo, Valter

    2014-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a good candidate for the development of fast and easy-to-use diagnostic tools, possibly used on biofluids in point-of-care or screening tests. In particular, label-free SERS spectra of blood serum and plasma, two biofluids widely used in diagnostics, could be used as a metabolic fingerprinting approach for biomarker discovery. This study aims at a systematic evaluation of SERS spectra of blood serum and plasma, using various Ag and Au aqueous colloids, as SERS substrates, in combination with three excitation lasers of different wavelengths, ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. The analysis of the SERS spectra collected from 20 healthy subjects under a variety of experimental conditions revealed that intense and repeatable spectra are quickly obtained only if proteins are filtered out from samples, and an excitation in the near-infrared is used in combination with Ag colloids. Moreover, common plasma anticoagulants such as EDTA and citrate are found to interfere with SERS spectra; accordingly, filtered serum or heparin plasma are the samples of choice, having identical SERS spectra. Most bands observed in SERS spectra of these biofluids are assigned to uric acid, a metabolite whose blood concentration depends on factors such as sex, age, therapeutic treatments, and various pathological conditions, suggesting that, even when the right experimental conditions are chosen, great care must be taken in designing studies with the purpose of developing diagnostic tests.

  1. Effect of active component addition and support modification on catalytic activity of Ag/Al2O3 for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbon - A review.

    PubMed

    More, Pavan M

    2017-03-01

    The effect of active component addition and support modification of Ag/Al2O3 has been reviewed to examine their contribution to HC-SCR of NOx. This review has depicted the possible mechanisms of reduction of NO by hydrocarbon using metal/metal oxide doped Ag/Al2O3. The addition of second metal results in the maximum formation of well dispersed Agn(δ+) clusters. Specifically, addition of Au improves the low-temperature activity of the catalyst. However, the role of second metal also depends on the pretreatment to the catalyst and nature of the reductants. The support modification of Ag/Al2O3 by the addition of different metal oxides has also been reviewed. Modification by MgO showed improvement in activity besides sulfur tolerance. In situ DRIFT study demonstrates that the modification by MgO leads to the inhibition of sulfate formation of Ag and Al2O3. Enhancement in activity after second metal addition and support modification attributed to the synergistic effect and improved surface properties of Ag/Al2O3 catalyst.

  2. Nano-Crystal Formation and Growth from High-Fluence Ion Implantation of Au, Ag or Cu in Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ila, D.; Baglin, J. E. E.; Zimmerman, R. L.

    The linear and non-linear optical properties of silica may be tailored by the introduction of a random distribution of nanocrystallites of an immiscible metal within a near-surface region. The size, size distribution, and spatial distribution of these crystallites must be controllable in order to optimize the functional properties for device applications. In this paper, we present a novel fabrication technique that offers such control. Energetic metal ions are implanted in silica at room temperature. Subsequent heat treatment leads to diffusion of the implanted atoms, nucleation and growth of metal crystallites, and Ostwald ripening of the resulting clusters. We have observed the kinetics and effective activation energies describing the multiple processes involved, for the cases of Au, Ag or Cu implanted at MeV energies, at various fluences, and then annealed at fixed temperatures in the range 500 °C-1000 °C. Effective activation energies found for nanocrystal nucleation and growth at temperatures below 800 °C (e.g. 64 meV for Ag) are replaced above this temperature range by much higher activation energies (e.g. 400 meV for Ag). We may attribute this to the depletion of un-attached mobile metal atoms (so that ripening of clusters will be limited by energy barriers for escape of such mobile atoms from small crystallites), and/or the annealing of implant-caused stress in the silica structure at high temperatures, that creates new channels for thermal diffusion of metal atoms within the silica host.

  3. Microstructure-property relationships in Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, were studied. Specifically, the microstructural features along with tensile strength, weldability, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were studied for Weldalite (tm) 049 type alloys with Li contents ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 wt. pct. The tensile properties of Weldalite 049 and Weldalite 049 reinforced with TiB2 particles fabricated using the XD (tm) process were also evaluated at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an experimental alloy, similar in composition to Weldalite 049 but without the Ag+Mg, was fabricated. The microstructure of this alloy was compared with that of Weldalite 049 in the T6 condition to assess the effect of Ag+Mg on nucleation of strengthening phases in the absence of cold work.

  4. In situ heating transmission electron microscopy observation of nanoeutectic lamellar structure in Sn-Ag-Cu alloy on Au under-bump metallization.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Won; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Chang, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kon-Bae; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Fleury, Eric; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of Sn(96.4)Ag(2.8)Cu(0.8) solder through in situ heating transmission electron microscopy observations. As-soldered bump consisted of seven layers, containing the nanoeutectic lamella structure of AuSn and Au₅Sn phases, and the polygonal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄, on Au-plated Cu bond pads. Here, we found that there are two nanoeutectic lamellar layers with lamella spacing of 40 and 250 nm. By in situ heating above 140°C, the nanoeutectic lamella of AuSn and Au₅Sn was decomposed with structural degradation by sphering and coarsening processes of the lamellar interface. At the third layer neighboring to the lamella layer, on the other hand, Au₅Sn particles with a zig-zag shape in AuSn matrix became spherical and were finally dissipated in order to minimize the interface energy between two phases. In the other layers except both lamella layers, polycrystal grains of AuSn₂ and AuSn₄ grew by normal grain growth during in situ heating. The high interface energy of nanoeutectic lamella and polygonal nanograins, which are formed by rapid solidification, acted as a principal driving force on the microstructural change during the in situ heating.

  5. Synthesis of bi-metallic Au-Ag nanoparticles loaded on functionalized MCM-41 for immobilization of alkaline protease and study of its biocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.; Zare, K.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, Au-Ag nanoparticles (Au-Ag-bi-MNPs) have been prepared on amine functionalized Si-MCM-41 (NH 2-Si-MCM-41) particles through a reduction of AgNO 3 and HAuCl 4 by NaBH 4 at ambient conditions. Au-Ag-bi-MNPs loaded on the NH2-Si-MCM-41, provide a good biocompatible surface for immobilization of the enzyme alkaline protease. This immobilization, presumably due to bonding between core shell nanoparticles and OH in serine 183 in alkaline protease seems to be of an ionic exchange nature. We found that the alkaline protease immobilized on the Au-Ag-bi-MNPs/Si-MCM-41 is an active biocatalyst, stable at different pH and temperature. The bio catalytic activity of free alkaline protease in solution was 64 U/mg (Units per milligram), whereas that of the alkaline protease immobilized on Au-Ag-bi-MNPs/Si-MCM-41 was 75 U/mg. This improvement of the biocatalytic activity may be due to a really increased activity per molecule of immobilized enzyme or to a purification of the enzyme. The alkaline protease molecules immobilized on the (Au-Ag)/ NH 2-MCM-41 surface retained as much as 80% of the catalytic activity recorded at pH=8, and showed significant catalytic activity of alkaline protease in the bioconjugate material. The biocatalytic materials were easily separated from the reaction medium by mild centrifugation and exhibits excellent reuse and stability characteristics over four successive cycles. The optimum temperature ranged from 35 ∘C-55 ∘C and pH=8 for bioactivity of the alkaline protease in the assembly system was observed to be higher than that of the free enzyme in solution. The enzyme biocatalytic activity was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and dispersive analysis of X-RAY (EDAX) were used to characterize the size and morphology of the prepared materials.

  6. Transparent capacitors with hybrid ZnO:Al and Ag nanowires as electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ti; Liu, Chang

    2016-03-11

    Transparent conducting films with a composite structure of AlZnO-Ag nanowires (AgNWs) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. The sheet resistance was reduced from 120 to 9 Ω when the AgNW networks were involved. Transparent capacitors with Al2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 dielectrics were fabricated on the composite electrodes and demonstrated a capacitance density of 10.1 fF μm(-2), which was significantly higher than that of capacitors with AlZnO electrodes (8.8 fF μm(-1)). The capacitance density remained almost unchanged in a broad frequency range from 3 kHz to 1 MHz. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 2.4 × 10(-7) A cm(-2) at 1 V was achieved. Transparent and flexible capacitors were also fabricated using the composite electrodes, and demonstrated an improved bendability. The transparent capacitors showed an average optical transmittance over 70% in the visible range, and thus open the door to practical applications in transparent integrated circuits.

  7. Reduction of Ag{sup I}, Au{sup III}, Cu{sup II}, and Hg{sup II} by Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} hydroxysulfate green rust.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Csencsits, R.; Cook, R. E.

    2003-11-01

    Green rusts are mixed Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} hydroxides that are found in many suboxic environments where they are believed to play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of iron. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of hydroxysulfate green rust suspensions spiked with aqueous solutions of AgCH{sub 3}COO, AuCl{sub n}(OH){sub 4-n}, CuCl{sub 2}, or HgCl{sub 2} showed that Ag{sup I}, Au{sup III}, Cu{sup II}, and Hg{sup II} were readily reduced to Ag{sup 0}, Au{sup 0}, Cu{sup 0}, and Hg{sup 0}. Imaging of the resulting solids from the Ag{sup I}-, Au{sup III}-, and Cu{sup II}-amended green rust suspensions by transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of submicron-sized particles of Ag{sup 0}, Au{sup 0}, and Cu{sup 0}. The facile reduction of Ag{sup I}, Au{sup III}, Cu{sup II}, and Hg{sup II} to Ag{sup 0}, Au{sup 0}, Cu{sup 0}, and Hg{sup 0}, respectively, by green rust suggests that the presence of green rusts in suboxic soils and sediments can have a significant impact on the biogeochemistry of silver, gold, copper, and mercury, particularly with respect to their mobility.

  8. Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hun-Bok; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Soon-Oh; Park, Seong-Sook; Lee, Pyeong-Koo

    2005-08-01

    Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals (Cr, Co, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd) in acid mine drainage were studied in two creeks in the Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, southern part of Korea. Chemical analysis of stream waters and the weak acid (0.1 N HCl) extraction, strong acid (HF-HNO3-HClO4) extraction, and sequential extraction of stream sediments were performed. Heavy metal pollution of sediments was higher in Chonam-ri creek than in Sagok-ri creek, because there is a larger source of base metal sulfides in the ores and waste dump upstream of Chonam-ri creek. The sediment-water distribution coefficients ( K d) for metals in both creeks were dependent on the water pH and decreased in the order Pb ≈ Al > Cu > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni ≈ Cd. K d values for Al, Cu and Zn were very sensitive to changes in pH. The results of sequential extraction indicated that among non-residual fractions, Fe-Mn oxides are most important for retaining trace metals in the sediments. Therefore, the precipitation of Fe(-Mn) oxides due to pH increase in downstream sites plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved trace metals in both creeks. For Al, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, the metal concentrations determined by 0.1 N HCl extraction (Korean Standard Method for Soil Pollution) were almost identical to the cumulative concentrations determined for the first three weakly-bound fractions (exchangeable + bound to carbonates + bound to Fe-Mn oxides) in the sequential extraction procedure. This suggests that 0.1 N HCl extraction can be effectively used to assess the environmentally available and/or bioavailable forms of trace metals in natural stream sediments.

  9. Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) of Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barriers under Ultra High Vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, R. G.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2000-03-01

    BEEM investigations of the Au/GaAs system have reported substantial redirection of the ballistic current into the L-valley of GaAs, based on a study of the I-V spectroscopic measurement. The result has been attributed to the absence of conservation of interface parallel wave-vector in the non-epitaxial Au/GaAs system. Theory has modeled the effect and it suggests an interesting scenario based on a progressive redistribution of the ballistic current between the relevant bands as a function of scattering strength at the interface. Experiments reported here attempt to investigate this regime by examining BEEM in Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barrier devices that preserve the topographic image of Au at the metal surface, while changing the metal semiconductor interface by placing Al between the surface Au surface layer and the GaAs substrate. As aluminum has been reported to grow epitaxially on GaAs, this approach has been pursued here in the hopes of realizing a metal-semiconductor device with varying degree of interfacial order depending upon growth conditions. Thus, we have fabricated Au/Al/GaAs Schottky barrier devices in a three chamber UHV system and subsequently carried out BEEM measurements between 90 K and 300 K. Collector current images and spectroscopic results obtained in such specimens will be compared with expectations based on relevant theory in order to obtain possible new insight into interface scattering in metal semiconductor structures.

  10. Evaluation of the microstructure of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Joseph R.; Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy designed to have ultrahigh strength and to serve in aerospace applications. The alloy displays significantly higher strength than competitive alloys in both naturally aged and artificially aged tempers. The strengthening phases in such tempers have been identified to, in part, explain the mechanical properties attained. In general, the alloy is strengthened by delta prime Al3Li and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in the naturally aged tempers. In artificially aged tempers in slightly underaged conditions, strengthening is provided by several phases including GP zones, theta prime Al2Cu, S prime Al2CuMg, T(sub 1) Al2CuLi, and possibly a new phase. In the peak strength artificially aged tempers, T(sub 1) is the predominant strengthening phase.

  11. RE(AuAl2)nAl2(AuxSi1-x)2: a new homologous series of quaternary intermetallics grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2008-03-17

    The combination of early rare earth metals (La- to Gd and Yb), gold, and silicon in molten aluminum results in the formation of intermetallic compounds with four related structures, forming a new homologous series: RE[AuAl2]nAl2(AuxSi(1-x))2, with x approximately 0.5 for most of the compound and n = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Because of the highly reducing nature of the Al flux, rare earth oxides instead of metals can also be used in these reactions. These compounds grow as large plate-like crystals and have tetragonal structure types that can be viewed as intergrowths of the BaAl4 structure and antifluorite-type AuAl2 layers. REAuAl2Si materials form with the BaAl4 structure type in space group I4/mmm (cell parameters for the La analogue are a = 4.322(2) A, c = 10.750(4) A, and Z = 2). REAu2Al4Si forms in a new ordered superstructure of the KCu4S3 structure type, with space group P4/nmm and cell parameters of the La analogue of a = 6.0973(6) A, c = 8.206(1) A, and Z = 2. REAu3Al6Si forms in a new I4/mmm symmetry structure type with cell parameters of a = 4.2733(7) A, c = 22.582(5) A, and Z = 2 for RE = Eu. The end member of the series, REAu4Al8Si, forms in space group P4/mmm with cell parameters for the Yb analogue of a = 4.2294(4) A, c = 14.422(2) A, and Z = 1. New intergrowth structures containing two different kinds of AuAl2 layers were also observed. The magnetic behavior of all these compounds is derived from the RE ions. Comparison of the susceptibility data for the europium compounds indicates a switch from 3-D magnetic interactions to 2-D interactions as the size of the AuAl2 layer increases. The Yb ions in YbAu(2.91)Al(6)Si(1.09) and YbAu(3.86)Al(8)Si(1.14) are divalent at high temperatures.

  12. Visual and colorimetric detection of p-aminophenol in environmental water and human urine samples based on anisotropic growth of Ag nanoshells on Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tianran; Li, Zhihong; Song, Zhiping; Chen, Huan; Guo, Liangqia; Fu, Fengfu; Wu, Zujian

    2016-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, selective and high-resolution colorimetric method has been developed for the detection of p-aminophenol in environmental water and human urine samples. In the presence of p-aminophenol, silver ions are reduced to silver atoms and subsequently Ag nanoshells anisotropically grow on the surface of Au nanorods to generate orange slice-like Au@Ag core-shell nanocrystals, thereby resulting in the blue-shift of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band of Au nanorods accompanying a sharp-contrast multicolor change. Using Au@Ag core-shell nanocrystals as the transducer, sub-micromolar p-aminophenol can be detected by the colorimetric method and 10 μmol L(-1) p-aminophenol can be visual readout by the naked eyes. Furthermore, a simple, cheap, portable test kit is constructed for the visual assay of urinary p-aminophenol without complicated sample pretreatment and sophisticated instruments. The proposed colorimetric method has the potential for the rapid and on-site analyses of p-aminophenol in environmental water and human urine samples.

  13. In vitro study on the corrosion behavior of three commercial Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys in Ringer's and 0.1%Na2S solutions.

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Araki, Y; Kawashima, I; Yamane, Y; Ohno, H; Matsuda, K

    1989-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of three commercial Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys was estimated in Ringer's and 0.1% Na2S solutions by electrochemical techniques and surface analyses. In Ringer's solution, the three alloys showed high corrosion resistance and there was no significant difference in the anodic polarization characteristics of the three alloys. In the 0.1% Na2S solution, the Alloy A which had the lowest noble metal content (Au + Pd) exhibited the highest anodic reactivity with the largest amount of corrosion product on the alloy surface. It was determined that the Ag-rich phase of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was preferentially attacked to form Ag2S corrosion product. The polarization resistance data showed that the corrosion rate for Alloy A in 0.1% Na2S solution was determined to be 500 times higher than that in Ringer's solution. The corrosion rate of the alloy in the freely corroded condition can be estimated quantitatively and precisely by measuring the polarization resistance.

  14. Phase constitution and interface structure of nano-sized Ag-Cu/AlN multilayers: Experiment and ab initio modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pigozzi, Giancarlo; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta; Passerone, Daniele; Antonio Pignedoli, Carlo; Patscheider, Joerg; Jeurgens, Lars P. H.; Antusek, Andrej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Bissig, Vinzenz

    2012-10-29

    Nano-sized Ag-Cu{sub 8nm}/AlN{sub 10nm} multilayers were deposited by reactive DC sputtering on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. Investigation of the phase constitution and interface structure of the multilayers evidences a phase separation of the alloy sublayers into nanosized grains of Ag and Cu. The interfaces between the Ag grains and the quasi-single-crystalline AlN sublayers are semi-coherent, whereas the corresponding Cu/AlN interfaces are incoherent. The orientation relationship between Ag and AlN is constant throughout the entire multilayer stack. These observations are consistent with atomistic models of the interfaces as obtained by ab initio calculations.

  15. Optical properties and oxidation of α-phase Ag-Al thin films.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Kaludewa S B; Keast, Vicki J; Gentle, Angus; Cortie, Michael B

    2017-03-03

    We investigate a series of Ag-Al thin films containing up to 12 at% Al with the purpose of discovering whether these alloys would be a better choice for nanophotonic applications than pure Ag. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, AFM, x-ray diffraction and density functional theory are applied to explore and characterize the materials. Electromagnetic simulations of optical properties are used to place the results into a theoretical framework. We find that the increase in electron-to-atom ratio associated with the Al additions changes the optical properties: additions of the order of 1-2 at% Al are beneficial as they are associated with favorable changes in the dielectric function, but for greater additions of Al there is a flattening of the absorption edge and an increase in optical loss. In addition, contents of more than about 2 at% Al are associated with the onset of time-dependent intergranular oxidation, which causes a pronounced dip in the reflectance spectrum at about 2.3-2.4 eV (∼500-540 nm).

  16. Boat-like Au nanoparticles embedded mesoporous γ-Al2O3 films: an efficient SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Anirban; Pramanik, Sourav; Bysakh, Sandip; De, Goutam

    2013-07-01

    Boat-like Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized within the mesoporous γ-Al2O3 films. First, mesoporous γ-Al2O3 film was prepared using aluminum alkoxide derived boehmite sol in the presence of CTAB as structure directing agent. The film was heat-treated at 500 °C to obtain γ-Al2O3 film with an average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. HAuCl4 solution was then soaked into the porous film followed by heat-treatment at 500 °C to generate Au NPs. The blue-colored films so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, FESEM, and TEM studies. FESEM and TEM studies reveal the formation boat-like Au NPs in γ-Al2O3 film matrix. Cross-sectional FESEM shows the thickness of the films to be 2.2 μm. These nanocomposite films were used as a unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for easy detection of low concentration (10-8 M) analyte (methylene blue) molecule. Boat-like shape of Au NPs have several edges and junctions that contain high density of hotspots to exhibit very high SERS signals. Due to such shape of Au NPs, the films also show strong absorption in the visible-NIR region that would extend the use of the films in heat-absorbing and biomedical applications.

  17. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design. PMID:27230692

  18. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design.

  19. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D; Kyriakides, Themis R; Schroers, Jan

    2016-05-27

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design.

  20. Ag-Pd-Si (009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Pd-Si (009)' with the content:

  1. Atomic scale analysis of phase formation and diffusion kinetics in Ag/Al multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulfadl, Hisham; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf; Mücklich, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Thin films generally exhibit unusual kinetics leading to chemical reactions far from equilibrium conditions. Binary metallic multilayer thin films with miscible elements show some similar behaviors with respect to interdiffusion and phase formation mechanisms. Interfacial density, lattice defects, internal stresses, layer morphologies and deposition conditions strongly control the mass transport between the individual layers. In the present work, Ag/Al multilayer thin films are used as a simple model system, in which the effects of the sputtering power and the bilayer period thickness on the interdiffusion and film reactions are investigated. Multilayers deposited by DC magnetron sputtering undergo calorimetric and microstructural analyses. In particular, atom probe tomography is extensively used to provide quantitative information on concentration gradients, grain boundary segregations, and reaction mechanisms. The magnitude of interdiffusion was found to be inversely proportional to the period thickness for the films deposited under the same conditions, and was reduced using low sputtering power. Both the local segregation at grain boundaries as well as pronounced non-equilibrium supersaturation effects play crucial roles during the early stages of the film reactions. For multilayers with small periods of 10 nm supersaturation of the Al layers with Ag precedes the polymorphic nucleation and growth of the hcp γ-Ag2Al phase. In larger periods the γ phase formation is triggered at junctions between grain boundaries and layers interfaces, where the pathway to heterogeneous nucleation is local supersaturation. Other Ag-rich phases also form as intermediate phases due to asymmetric diffusion rates of parent phases in the γ phase during annealing.

  2. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  3. Frictional behavior and adhesion of Ag and Au films applied to aluminum oxide by oxygen-ion assisted Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.

    1994-01-01

    A modified dc-diode ion plating system, by utilizing a metallic screen cage as a cathode, is introduced for coating nonconductors such as ceramics. Screen cage ion plating (SCIP) is used to apply Ag and Au lubricating films on aluminum oxide surfaces. This process has excellent ability to coat around corners to produce three-dimensional coverage of the substrate. A dramatic increase in adhesion is achieved when plating is performed in a reactive 50 percent O2 - 50 percent Ar glow discharge compared to the adhesion when plating is performed in 100 percent Ar. The presence of oxygen ion assistance contributes to the excellent adhesion as measured in a pull-type adhesion tester. The Ag and Au film adhesion is significantly increased (less than 70MPa) and generally exceeds the cohesion of the substrate such that portions of the alumina are pulled out.

  4. On the Structural Features of Mechanically Alloyed Cu-Ag and Au-Co by Severe Cold and Cryogenic Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmachev, T.; Pilyugin, V.; Ancharov, A.; Patselov, A.; Chernyshev, E.; Zolotarev, K.

    The effect of cryogenic temperature on the formation of solid solutions by mechanical alloying (MA) was studied using synchrotron diffraction and some additional methods. Two systems with different positive enthalpy of mixing (Cu-Ag i Au-Co) were involved. MA by severe plastic deformation at 293 K and 80 K leads to the formation of fcc substitutional solid solutions, with the excess of the equilibrium concentration for both systems. The effect of cryogenic deformation consists in smaller dissolution of the original basic element of the charge (Cu) for Cu-Ag solid solution and in increasing of solute (Co) for Au-Co one. Diffraction experiments were performed at the SR beamline №4 of the VEPP-3 storage ring.

  5. Exploring the benefits of electron tomography to characterize the precise morphology of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles and its implications on their plasmonic properties.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Garrido, J C; Moreno, M S; Ducati, C; Pérez, L A; Midgley, P A; Coronado, E A

    2014-11-07

    In the design and engineering of functional core-shell nanostructures, material characterization at small length scales remains one of the major challenges. Here we show how electron tomography in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) mode can be applied successfully to perform nano-metrological characterization of Au@Ag core-shell nanostructures. This work stresses the benefits of HAADF-STEM tomography and its use as a novel and rigorous tool for understanding the physical-chemical properties of complex 3D core-shell nanostructures. The reconstructed Au@Ag core-shell architecture was used as an input for discrete dipole approximation (DDA)-based electrodynamics simulations of the optical properties of the nanostructures. The implications of localized surface plasmon spectroscopy as well as Raman-enhanced spectroscopy are analysed.

  6. Composition dependent adsorption of multiple CO molecules on binary silver-gold clusters Ag(n)Au(m)+ (n + m = 5): theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Popolan, Denisia M; Nössler, Melanie; Mitrić, Roland; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Bonacić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2010-07-28

    The binding energies of multiple CO molecules to five-atom silver-gold cluster cations have been obtained employing temperature dependent gas phase ion trap measurements and ab initio calculations. The CO binding energies to Ag(n)Au(m)(+) (n + m = 5) decrease with increasing number of silver atoms. Most strikingly, after the adsorption of the fourth CO to Au(5)(+) and of the third CO to Ag(5)(+), respectively, a pronounced decrease in the binding energies of further CO molecules was observed. This is related to a CO-induced structural transformation yielding more compact metal cluster geometries. First principles calculations revealed that the exact structure of the carbonyl complexes with multiple CO and the nature of the CO-induced structural transformation strongly depend on the composition of the metal cluster as well as on the number of adsorbed CO molecules.

  7. Plasmon enhanced photoelectrochemical sensing of mercury (II) ions in human serum based on Au@Ag nanorods modified TiO₂ nanosheets film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Shoaib, Anwer; Li, Jiaojiao; Ji, Muwei; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Jiatao; Wei, Qin

    2016-05-15

    Taking advantages of the monodisperse TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with high active crystal face exposure and the tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of Au@Ag nanorods (NRs), this study demonstrated that TiO2 NSs film with trace amount of Au@Ag NRs modification possess a strong enhancement of photocurrent response, which was remarkably inhibited with the addition of mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+)). Based on the selective decrease of photocurrent with the addition of Hg(2+), a simple photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor has been assembled. The PEC sensor exhibits wide linear range (0.01-10nM), low detection limit (2.5 pM), satisfying selectivity, reproducibility and acceptable stability for Hg(2+) detection. The feasibility of this method for practical application in human serum has been evaluated and the result was satisfactory. This PEC sensing method would provide a potential application for Hg(2+) detection in clinical diagnosis.

  8. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porobova, Svetlana; Markova, Tat'jana; Klopotov, Vladimir; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Loskutov, Oleg; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen's law.

  9. Effects of Ag(I), Au(III), and Cu(II) on the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by green rust.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward J; Kemner, Kenneth M; Burris, David R

    2003-07-01

    Green rusts (GRs), mixed iron(II)/iron(III) hydroxide minerals found in many suboxic environments, have been shown to reduce a range of organic and inorganic contaminants, including several chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies have demonstrated the catalytic activity of transition metal species in the reduction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, suggesting the potential for enhanced reduction by GR in the presence of an appropriate transition metal catalyst. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was examined in aqueous suspensions of GR amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II). The CT reduction rates were greatly increased for systems amended with Cu(II), Au(III), and Ag(I) (listed in order of increasing rates) relative to GR alone. Observed intermediates and products included chloroform, dichloromethane, chloromethane, methane, acetylene, ethene, ethane, carbon monoxide, tetrachloroethene, and various nonchlorinated C3 and C4 compounds. Product distributions for the reductive dechlorination of CT were highly dependent on the transition metal used. A reaction pathway scheme is proposed in which CT is reduced primarily to methane and other nonchlorinated end products, largely through a series of one-electron reductions forming radicals and carbenes/carbenoids. Recently, X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of aqueous GR suspensions amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II) showed that the metals were reduced to their zerovalent forms. A possible mechanism for CT reduction is the formation of a galvanic couple involving the zerovalent metal and GR, with reduction of CT occurring on the surface of the metal and GR serving as the bulk electron source. The enhanced reduction of CT by GR suspensions amended with Ag(I), Au(III), or Cu(II) may prove useful in the development of improved materials for remediation of chlorinated organic contaminants.

  10. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Porobova, Svetlana Loskutov, Oleg; Markova, Tat’jana; Klopotov, Vladimir; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-15

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen’s law.

  11. Luminescence properties of phosphors based on Tb3Al5O12 (TbAG) terbium-aluminum garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Zorenko, T.; Kuklinski, B.; Turos-Matysyak, R.; Grinberg, M.

    2009-03-01

    The processes of excitation energy transfer in phosphors based on single-crystal Tb3Al5O12:Ce (TbAG:Ce) and Tb3Al5O12:Ce,Eu (TbAG:Ce,Eu) garnet films have been investigated. These films are considered to be promising materials for screens for X-ray images and luminescence converters of blue LED radiation. The conditions for excitation energy transfer from the matrix (Tb3+ cations) to Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions in TbAG:Ce and TbAG:Ce,Eu phosphors have been analyzed in detail. It is established that a cascade process of excitation energy transfer from Tb3+ ions to Ce3+ and Eu3+ ions and from Ce3+ ions to Eu3+ ions is implemented in TbAG:Ce,Eu via dipole-dipole interaction and through the Tb3+ cation sublattice.

  12. [Effects of SO2 on NO reduction with methanol over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tianle; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangyu; Wang, Yanji

    2002-07-01

    Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with 5% Ag loading was prepared by the single step sol-gel mixture method and the effects of adding SO2 to reaction feed on NO reduction by CH3OH over the catalyst was investigated in the presence of oxygen. The results showed that in the absence of SO2 and H2O the catalyst displayed lower activity temperature and higher N2O selectivity, which was attributed to the partial reduction of oxidized Ag into metallic Ag under reaction conditions. Selective catalytic reduction activity was not decreased but significantly increased, N2O formation was suppressed and most effective NO reduction temperature shifted to higher temperature by pre-sulfated Ag/Al2O3 or addition of SO2 to reaction mixture. XPS analysis showed that the sulfate-like species were formed by the effect of SO2.

  13. Fabrication of Au- and Ag-SiO2 inverse opals having both localized surface plasmon resonance and Bragg diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erola, Markus O. A.; Philip, Anish; Ahmed, Tanzir; Suvanto, Sari; Pakkanen, Tuula T.

    2015-10-01

    The inverse opal films of SiO2 containing metal nanoparticles can have both the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanoparticles and the Bragg diffraction of inverse opal crystals of SiO2, which are very useful properties for applications, such as tunable photonic structures, catalysts and sensors. However, effective processes for fabrication of these films from colloidal particles have rarely been reported. In our study, two methods for preparation of inverse opal films of SiO2 with three different crystal sizes and containing gold or silver nanoparticles (NPs) via self-assembly using electrostatic interactions and capillary forces are reported. The Bragg diffraction of inverse opal films of SiO2 in the presence and absence of the template was measured and predicted on the basis of with UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The preparation methods used provided good-quality inverse opal SiO2 films containing highly dispersed, plasmonic AuNPs or AgNPs and having both Bragg diffractions and LSPRs.

  14. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-02-24

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  15. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-01

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 105 and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  16. Probing the Ag, Au, and Cu electrode/pyridine-α-hydroxymethyl biphenyl phosphine oxide isomer interface with SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Boduszek, Bogdan; Olszewski, Tomasz K.; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata; Kim, Younkyoo

    2015-04-01

    The potential-dependent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis (G2DCA) methods were used to characterize three pyridine-α-hydroxymethyl biphenyl phosphine oxide isomers: (diphenylphosphoryl)(pyridine-2-yl)methanol (α-Py), (diphenylphosphoryl)(pyridine-3-yl)methanol (β-Py), and (diphenylphosphoryl)(pyridine-4-yl)methanol (γ-Py). The aforementioned compounds were deposited onto Ag, Au, and Cu electrode surfaces under different applied electrode potentials in an aqueous solution at physiological pH. On the basis of the enhancement, broadening, and shift in wavenumbers of individual bands, the geometry of the investigated molecules and influence of substituent position on the adsorption mode (in the α-(2-), β-(3-), and γ-(4-) positions), electrode type, and applied electrode potential were examined. It was found that the SERS spectra are dominated by bands assigned to phenyl (Ph) and pyridine (Py) ring vibrations. However, some differences in the arrangement of the aforementioned fragments were observed with changes to the type of the metal surface and the applied electrode potential.

  17. Induced polarization imaging applied to exploration for low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Seongsan mineralized district, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Man-Ho; Shin, Seung Wook; Park, Samgyu; Cho, Seong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The determination of mineralization boundaries during mineral exploration for undiscovered low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits is a significant challenge because of the extensive survey areas required. Induced polarization (IP) imaging is an effective geophysical technique for the detection of sulfides or clay. Thus, this method is considered useful to determine the boundaries of subsurface mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal deposits. We used 2D and 3D IP imaging to define the silicification and mineralization boundaries of the Moisan deposit in the Seongsan mineralized district, which is geologically well-known. The boundaries of the silicification zone were defined by high resistivity values of 600 Ω-m, and those of the mineralization zone were defined by high global chargeability values of 3 mV V-1. The continuity of the high resistivity anomaly corresponded well to the silicification (quartz veins) exposed in outcrop. In addition, it is geologically reasonable that the chargeability anomaly, ⩾3 mV V-1, associated with the mineralization/hydrothermal alteration zone was concentrated at near-surface depths, and extensively surrounding the resistivity anomaly, ⩾600 Ω-m, associated with the silicification zone.

  18. Multishell Au/Ag/SiO2 nanorods with tunable optical properties as single particle orientation and rotational tracking probes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Kuangcai; Lin, Chia -Cheng; Vela, Javier; ...

    2015-04-07

    In this study, three-layer core–shell plasmonic nanorods (Au/Ag/SiO2–NRs), consisting of a gold nanorod core, a thin silver shell, and a thin silica layer, were synthesized and used as optical imaging probes under a differential interference contrast microscope for single particle orientation and rotational tracking. The localized surface plasmon resonance modes were enhanced upon the addition of the silver shell, and the anisotropic optical properties of gold nanorods were maintained. The silica coating enables surface functionalization with silane coupling agents and provides enhanced stability and biocompatibility. Taking advantage of the longitudinal LSPR enhancement, the orientation and rotational information of the hybridmore » nanorods on synthetic lipid bilayers and on live cell membranes were obtained with millisecond temporal resolution using a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized hybrid nanorods are promising imaging probes with improved sensitivity and good biocompatibility for single plasmonic particle tracking experiments in biological systems.« less

  19. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-02-01

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  20. Intraband optical conductivity sigma/omega,T/ of Cu, Ag, and Au - Contribution from electron-electron scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkins, G. R.; Lawrence, W. E.; Christy, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency and temperature dependence of the intraband optical conductivity of the noble metals Cu, Ag and Au is measured and contributions of electron-electron scattering are assessed. Optical measurements were performed at temperatures of 77, 295 and 425 K to obtain values of the Drude electron scattering rate with a linear dependence on temperature which may be attributed to electron-phonon scattering, and a quadratic dependence on photon energy, which is suggestive of electron-electron scattering but is a factor of two to three times greater than would be expected. Comparison of the optical data with dc electrical and thermal resistivity data which also show behavior attributed to electron-electron scattering reveals discrepancies of up to an order of magnitude. Other possible mechanisms for the frequency dependence, including absorptance, electron-surface plasmon interactions, a two-carrier model, and a structure dependence are considered, and it is concluded that the frequency dependence in the Drude scattering rates of the noble metals is not yet quantitatively understood

  1. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2017-01-01

    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties. PMID:28233838

  2. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-07

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  3. Relativistic and Correlation Effects in CuH, AgH and AuH: Comparison of Various Relativistic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Charlene L.; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1994-01-01

    The effects of relativity on the bond lengths, dissociation energies, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the 1Epsilon(+) electronic ground states of the group IB hydrides CuH, AgH and AuH have been evaluated with a variety of ab initio methods. These properties were investigated with moderately-sized basis sets at the self-consistent field Hartree Fock (SCF HF) level and with second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for electron correlation. Comparisons were made between all-electron results using the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian, perturbation theory (PT) at first-order with only the one-electron non-fine structure terms of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, the spin-free Douglas-Kroll (DK) transformed Dirac Hamiltonian and the untransformed Dirac Hamiltonian, and results using two sets of relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). The expected trends of bond length decrease, dissociation energy increase and harmonic frequency increase with both relativity and correlation are found. Both sets of RECPs are shown to give good results, if accompanied by a reasonable basis set. The DK method is demonstrated to be an inexpensive, reliable approximation to the DHF method.

  4. A model electrode of well-defined geometry prepared by direct laser-induced decoration of nanoporous templates with Au-Ag@C nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Stefanie; Kireev, Alexey; Vasileva, Anna; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Manshina, Alina A; Bachmann, Julien

    2017-02-10

    We present an original type of model electrode system consisting of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix with an extremely well-defined geometry of parallel, straight, cylindrical macropores. The samples are prepared in one step by direct laser deposition of the metal/carbon composite onto the inner walls of a porous 'anodic' alumina matrix serving as a template. The coating is homogeneous from top to bottom of the pores, and the amount of material deposited can be tuned by the duration of the deposition procedure. As a test system, we demonstrate that a bimetallic Ag-Au@C system is catalytically active for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution, the anodic reaction of a direct glucose fuel cell. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic current density increases with the amount of Ag-Au@C NPs deposited, up to a point at which the pores are clogged with it. This type of model system allows for the systematic study of geometric effects in fuel cell electrodes. It can be generalized to a number of different nanoparticle compositions, and thereby, to various electrocatalytic reactions.

  5. Effect of additive metals, Sn, Ga, and In in Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin-ichi; Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three additives, Sn, Ga, and In, as well as the main constituents, Pd and Cu, of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on the initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys. The Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys consisted of 20%, 30% or 40% Pd, and 10%, 15% or 20% Cu, 20% Au, and Ag as balance. Besides, additive metals (Sn, Ga, and In) of 2% and 4% were added to these compositions. The addition of three additives, in general, increased the initial bond strength of the cement in comparison to the mother compositions (0% additives), although the degrees of effectiveness of the three additives were different and varied with their contents. Among these additives, a remarkable increase in bond strength was observed with the addition of In. The increase in Cu content, in many cases, resulted in an increase in bond strength at high Pd contents (30% and 40%), but a decrease at low Pd content (20%) in some cases. The positive effects of the three additives and Cu could be due to the formation of a suitable oxide layer for strong bonding with 4-META.

  6. Scalable Synthesis of Ag Networks with Optimized Sub-monolayer Au-Pd Nanoparticle Covering for Highly Enhanced SERS Detection and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyu; Vongehr, Sascha; Tang, Shaochun; Dai, Yuming; Huang, Xiao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-01-01

    Highly porous tri-metallic AgxAuyPdz networks with a sub-monolayer bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle coating were synthesized via a designed galvanic replacement reaction of Ag nanosponges suspended in mixed solutions of HAuCl4 and K2PdCl4. The resulting networks’ ligaments have a rough surface with bimetallic nanoparticles and nanopores due to removal of Ag. The surface morphology and composition are adjustable by the temperature and mixed solutions’ concentration. Very low combined Au and Pd atomic percentage (1−x) where x is atomic percentage of Ag leads to sub-monolayer nanoparticle coverings allowing a large number of active boundaries, nanopores, and metal-metal interfaces to be accessible. Optimization of the Au/Pd atomic ratio y/z obtains large surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection sensitivity (at y/z = 5.06) and a higher catalytic activity (at y/z = 3.55) toward reduction reactions as benchmarked with 4-nitrophenol than for most bimetallic catalysts. Subsequent optimization of x (at fixed y/z) further increases the catalytic activity to obtain a superior tri-metallic catalyst, which is mainly attributed to the synergy of several aspects including the large porosity, increased surface roughness, accessible interfaces, and hydrogen absorption capacity of nanosized Pd. This work provides a new concept for scalable synthesis and performance optimization of tri-metallic nanostructures. PMID:27845400

  7. A model electrode of well-defined geometry prepared by direct laser-induced decoration of nanoporous templates with Au-Ag@C nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlicht, Stefanie; Kireev, Alexey; Vasileva, Anna; Grachova, Elena V.; Tunik, Sergey P.; Manshina, Alina A.; Bachmann, Julien

    2017-02-01

    We present an original type of model electrode system consisting of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix with an extremely well-defined geometry of parallel, straight, cylindrical macropores. The samples are prepared in one step by direct laser deposition of the metal/carbon composite onto the inner walls of a porous ‘anodic’ alumina matrix serving as a template. The coating is homogeneous from top to bottom of the pores, and the amount of material deposited can be tuned by the duration of the deposition procedure. As a test system, we demonstrate that a bimetallic Ag-Au@C system is catalytically active for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution, the anodic reaction of a direct glucose fuel cell. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic current density increases with the amount of Ag-Au@C NPs deposited, up to a point at which the pores are clogged with it. This type of model system allows for the systematic study of geometric effects in fuel cell electrodes. It can be generalized to a number of different nanoparticle compositions, and thereby, to various electrocatalytic reactions.

  8. Synthesis and optical properties study of nanocomposites based on AuNPs and AgNPs obtained by laser ablation in liquid monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulina, Natalia A.; Pavlovetc, Ilia M.; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Kaliabin, Viacheslav O.; Denisyuk, Igor Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Ag and Au nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) stable colloid solution were prepared by laser ablation of chemically pure silver rod and gold film in liquid monomer isodecyl acrylate (IDA). Sizes of obtained nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscope and vary from 30 to 130 nm. Nanocomposites films were prepared from obtained stable colloid solution by photocuring. To prepare solid film based on aliphatic polymer IDA long molecules cross-linking, 1,6-Hexandiol diacrylate was used. Obtained films were transparent, homogenous and colored in brown for AgNPs and purple for AuNPs-filled nanocomposites. Prepared nanomaterials exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical responses under CW laser irradiation at 532 nm, which was estimated by using z-scan technique performed with open and close aperture. The real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of the studied nanocomposites were found to be up to Reχ (3) = 1.31 × 10-5 (esu) and Imχ (3) = 7.64 × 10-5 (esu), for samples negative nonlinear refractive index was obtained, which corresponds to self-defocusing effect.

  9. Green synthesis, characterization of Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles using gripe water and their applications in nonlinear optics and surface enhanced Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubha, E.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years there has been excessive progress in the ‘green’ chemistry approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles have gained special significance due to their unique tunable optical properties. Herein we report a facile one-pot, eco-friendly synthesis of Au-Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles using gripe water as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The as-synthesized Au-Ag nanoparticles are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the surface plasmon resonance, and using transmission electron microscopy to study the morphology and the particle size. The optical nonlinearity of the bimetallic nanoparticles investigated by z-scan technique using femtosecond Ti:sapphire is in the order of 109. The nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index n2, nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the third order nonlinear susceptibility χ3 are measured for various wavelengths from 700 nm to 950 nm. The Au-Ag nanoparticles are also used in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies to enhance the Raman signals of rhodamine 6G.

  10. Contribution of β' and β precipitates to hardening in as-solutionized Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys for dental prosthesis applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-04-01

    Dental Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys exhibit a unique hardening behavior, which the mechanical strengths enhance significantly which enhances the mechanical strength significantly after high-temperature (1123K) solution treatment without aging treatment. The mechanism of the unique hardening is not clear. The contribution of two precipitates (β' and β phases) to the unique hardening behavior in the as-solutionized Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys was investigated. In addition, the chemical composition of the β' phase was investigated. The fine β' phase densely precipitates in a matrix. The β' phase (semi-coherent precipitate), which causes lattice strain, contributes greatly to the unique hardening behavior. On the other hand, the coarse β phase sparsely precipitates in the matrix. The contribution of the β phase (incoherent precipitate), which does not cause lattice strain, is small. The chemical composition of the β' phase was determined. This study reveals that the fine β' phase precipitated by high-temperature solution treatment leads to the unique hardening behavior in dental Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys in the viewpoints of the lattice strain contrast and interface coherency. It is expected to make the heat treatment process more practical for hardening. The determined chemical composition of β' phase would be helpful to study an unknown formation process of β' phase.

  11. A coupled-cluster study on the noble gas binding ability of metal cyanides versus metal halides (metal = Cu, Ag, Au).

    PubMed

    Pan, Sudip; Gupta, Ashutosh; Saha, Ranajit; Merino, Gabriel; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2015-11-05

    A coupled-cluster study is carried out to investigate the efficacy of metal(I) cyanide (MCN; M = Cu, Ag, Au) compounds to bind with noble gas (Ng) atoms. The M-Ng bond dissociation energy, enthalpy change, and Gibbs free energy change for the dissociation processes producing Ng and MCN are computed to assess the stability of NgMCN compounds. The Ng binding ability of MCN is then compared with the experimentally detected NgMX (X = F, Cl, Br) compounds. While CuCN and AgCN have larger Ng binding ability than those of MCl and MBr (M = Cu, Ag), AuCN shows larger efficacy toward bond formation with Ng than that of AuBr. Natural bond orbital analysis, energy decomposition analysis in conjunction with the natural orbital for chemical valence theory, and the topological analysis of the electron density are performed to understand the nature of interaction occurring in between Ng and MCN. The Ng-M bonds in NgMCN are found comprise an almost equal contribution from covalent and electrostatic types of interactions. The different electron density descriptors also reveal the partial covalent character in the concerned bonds.

  12. Toward a modular multi-material nanoparticle synthesis and assembly strategy via bionanocombinatorics: bifunctional peptides for linking Au and Ag nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Beverly D.; Palafox-Hernandez, J. Pablo; Li, Yue; Lim, Chang-Keun; Woehl, Taylor J.; Bedford, Nicholas M.; Seifert, Soenke; Swihart, Mark T.; Prasad, Paras N.; Walsh, Tiffany R.; Knecht, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Materials-binding peptides represent a unique avenue towards controlling the shape and size of nanoparticles (NPs) grown under aqueous conditions. Here, employing a bionanocombinatorics approach, two such materials-binding peptides were linked at either end of a photoswitchable spacer, forming a multi-domain materials-binding molecule to control the in situ synthesis and organization of Ag and Au NPs under ambient conditions. These multi-domain molecules retained the peptides’ ability to nucleate, grow, and stabilize Ag and Au NPs in aqueous media. Disordered co-assemblies of the two nanomaterials were observed by TEM imaging of dried samples after sequential growth of the two metals, and showed a clustering behavior that was not observed without both metals and the linker molecules. While TEM evidence indicated the formation of AuNP/AgNP assemblies upon drying, SAXS analysis indicated that no extended assemblies existed in solution, suggesting that sample drying plays an important role in facilitating NP clustering. Molecular simulations and experimental data revealed tunable materials-binding based upon the isomerization state of the photoswitchable unit and metal employed. This work is a first step in generating externally actuated biomolecules with specific material-binding properties that could be used as the building blocks to achieve multi-material switchable NP assemblies.

  13. Effects of heat treatments and Sn, Ga and In additives on mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Goto, Shin-ichi; Ogura, Hideo

    2004-12-01

    The mechanical properties of six 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing different contents (2% and 4%) of Sn, Ga, or In and a 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy without additives were evaluated. These alloys were subjected to four different heat treatments before a mechanical test. The distribution of the elements and their contents were analyzed. The mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy changed in wide-ranging ways with different heat treatments and with different additive contents. The effects of heat treatment on tensile strength and hardness significantly varied with different additives and their contents. These different changes could be attributed to the formation of different phases in these alloys. Based on the high strength and wide-ranging changes in the mechanical properties when subjected to softening and hardening heat treatments, the 2% Sn-added, 2% In-added, and 4% Ga-added alloys can be recommended for different dental restorations such as crown & bridges, inlays, and denture frameworks.

  14. Scalable Synthesis of Ag Networks with Optimized Sub-monolayer Au-Pd Nanoparticle Covering for Highly Enhanced SERS Detection and Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianyu; Vongehr, Sascha; Tang, Shaochun; Dai, Yuming; Huang, Xiao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-11-01

    Highly porous tri-metallic AgxAuyPdz networks with a sub-monolayer bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle coating were synthesized via a designed galvanic replacement reaction of Ag nanosponges suspended in mixed solutions of HAuCl4 and K2PdCl4. The resulting networks’ ligaments have a rough surface with bimetallic nanoparticles and nanopores due to removal of Ag. The surface morphology and composition are adjustable by the temperature and mixed solutions’ concentration. Very low combined Au and Pd atomic percentage (1‑x) where x is atomic percentage of Ag leads to sub-monolayer nanoparticle coverings allowing a large number of active boundaries, nanopores, and metal-metal interfaces to be accessible. Optimization of the Au/Pd atomic ratio y/z obtains large surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection sensitivity (at y/z = 5.06) and a higher catalytic activity (at y/z = 3.55) toward reduction reactions as benchmarked with 4-nitrophenol than for most bimetallic catalysts. Subsequent optimization of x (at fixed y/z) further increases the catalytic activity to obtain a superior tri-metallic catalyst, which is mainly attributed to the synergy of several aspects including the large porosity, increased surface roughness, accessible interfaces, and hydrogen absorption capacity of nanosized Pd. This work provides a new concept for scalable synthesis and performance optimization of tri-metallic nanostructures.

  15. A first principle study of encapsulated and functionalized silicon nanotube of chirality (6,6) with monoatomically thin metal wires of Ag, Au and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Chandel, Surjeet; Kumar, Arun; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, Raman

    2015-04-01

    First principle calculations have been performed to study the influence of interaction of monoatomically thin metal nanowires of Ag, Au and Cu placed inside (encapsulation) and outside (functionalization) the silicon nanotube having armchair conformation with chirality (6,6). The cohesive energy for all the encapsulated and functionalized systems under study was found to be almost same. In comparison to the pristine silicon nanotube (SiNT) which is found to be semiconducting in nature, all the encapsulated and functionalized systems of SiNT are found to be metallic in nature. The calculated electronic band structures show that the conductance in case of Ag, Au and Cu nanowires encapsulation is 2G0. However, its value for functionalized Ag, Au and Cu nanowires is found to be 1G0, 2G0 and 4G0 for the outside positioning of nanowires respectively. Optical properties of all the encapsulated and functionalized SiNTs have been studied. All the systems under study show reflectivity in the infrared (IR) region and behave as non-absorbing transparent conductors in the visible region.

  16. The Improvement of Ion Plated Ag and Au Film Adherence to Si3N4 and SiC Surfaces for Increased Tribological Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1998-01-01

    A modified dc-diode plating system, utilizing a metallic screen cage as a cathode and referred as SCREEN CAGE ION PLATING (SCIP), is used to deposit Ag and Au lubricating films on Si3N4 and SiC surfaces. When deposition is performed in Ar or N2, glow discharge, the surface displays poor adhesive strength (less than 5 MPa). A dramatic increase in adhesive strength (less than 80 MPa) is achieved when plating is performed in a reactive 50% 02 + 50% Ar glow discharge. The excited/ionized oxygen species (O2(+)/O(+) in the glow discharge contribute to the oxidation of the Si3N4 or SiC surfaces as determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XTS) depth profiling. The reactively sputter-oxidized S3N4 or SiC surfaces and the activated-oxidized-metastable Ag or Au species formed in the plasma cooperatively contribute to the increased adherence. As a result, the linear thermal expansion coefficient mismatch at the interface is reduced. These lubricating Ag and Au films under sliding conditions reduce the friction coefficient by a factor of 2-1/2 to 4.

  17. The Tuscarora Au-Ag district: Eocene volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits in the Carlin gold region, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castor, S.B.; Boden, D.R.; Henry, C.D.; Cline, J.S.; Hofstra, A.H.; McIntosh, W.C.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Tuscarora mining district contains the oldest and the only productive Eocene epithermal deposits in Nevada. The district is a particularly clear example of association of low-sulfidation deposits with igneous activity and structure, and it is unusual in that it consists of two adjoining but physically and chemically distinct types of low-sulfidation deposits. Moreover, Tuscarora deposits are of interest because they formed contemporaneously with nearby, giant Carlin-type gold deposits. The Tuscarora deposits formed within the 39.9 to 39.3 Ma Tuscarora volcanic field, along and just outside the southeastern margin of the caldera-like Mount Blitzen volcanic center. Both deposit types formed at 39.3 Ma, contemporaneous with the only major intrusive activity in the volcanic field. No deposits are known to have formed during any of the intense volcanic phases of the field. Intrusions were the apparent heat source, and structures related to the Mount Blitzen center were conduits for hydrothermal circulation. The ore-forming fluids interacted dominantly with Eocene igneous rocks. The two deposit types occur in a northern silver-rich zone that is characterized by relatively high Ag/Au ratios (110-150), narrow alteration zones, and quartz and carbonate veins developed mostly in intrusive dacite, and in a southern gold-rich zone that is typified by relatively low Ag/Au ratios (4-14), more widespread alteration, and quartz-fissure and stockwork veins commonly developed in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. The deposit types have similar fluid inclusion and Pb and S isotope characteristics but different geochemical signatures. Quartz veins from both zones have similar thermal and paragenetic histories and contain fluid inclusions that indicate that fluids cooled from between 260?? and 230??C to less than 200??C. Fluid boiling may have contributed to precious-metal deposition. Veins in both zones have relatively high As and Sb and low Bi, Te, and W. The silver zone has high Ca

  18. Mechanical properties and dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-Al based braze

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-03-14

    Reactive air brazing (RAB) based on the silver-copper oxide system was recently developed for use in sealing high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells. One of the concerns regarding the viability of this joining technique is the long-term stability of silver-based alloys under a high-temperature, dual oxidizing/reducing gas environment. One possible solution to improve the dual atmosphere tolerance of the silver-based system is the addition of elements which can preferentially react with oxygen over hydrogen and minimize the pore formation caused by the reaction of oxygen with hydrogen in the silver matrix. In this paper, the effects of aluminum addition into silver-based air braze filler materials on microstructure, mechanical properties, and high temperature dual atmosphere tolerance were investigated using foils and pastes of aluminum-added braze filler materials. Joints brazed with binary Ag-Al braze foils containing more than 2 at% of Al retained a metallic form of aluminum in the metallic braze filler matrix after brazing at 1000°C in air. The flexural strength of joints prepared with binary Ag-Al braze foils decreased with increase in Al content due to the formation of interfacial aluminum oxide. The existence of metallic aluminum in the braze filler matrix, however, enhanced the high temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of the silver-based braze filler, showing smaller size of porosity after dual reducing/oxidizing atmosphere tests at 800°C for 1000 hrs. The Binary and ternary braze pastes based on the Ag-Al(-Cu) system were also tried as a sealant. Alumina joints brazed with these pastes showed increase in flexural strength with Cu content. However, a braze filler containing 5 at% Al and 8 at% Cu possessed nearly no metallic aluminum in the braze filler matrix after brazing, while the as-brazed sample prepared using a binary braze filler with 5 at% Al kept some metallic Al in the braze matrix. Thus, the addition of copper

  19. Theoretical study of the structures and electron affinities of the dimers and trimers of the group IB metals (Cu, Ag, and Au)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1989-01-01

    The molecular structure of both the neutral and negatively charged diatomic and triatomic systems containing the Cu, Ag, and Au metals are determined from ab initio calculations. For the neutral triatomic systems, the lowest energy structure is found to be triangular. The relative stability of the 2A1 and 2B2 structures can be predicted simply by knowing the constituent diatomic bond distances and atomic electron affinities (EAs). The lowest energy structure is linear for all of the negative ions. For anionic clusters containing Au, the Au atom(s) preferentially occupy the terminal position(s). The EAs of the heteronuclear systems can be predicted relatively accurately from a weighted average of the corresponding homonuclear systems. Although the theoretical EAs are systematically too small, accurate predictions for the EAs of the triatomics are obtained by uniformly scaling the ab initio results using the accurate experimental EA values available for the atoms and homonuclear diatomics.

  20. Geology, alteration and mesothermal Au-Ag-mineralization associated with a volcanic-intrusive complex at Mt. Shamrock-Mt. Ophir, SE Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. J.

    1991-04-01

    Au-Ag mineralization in the Mt-Shamrock — Mt. Ophir area of SE Queensland is related to a geographically-isolated calc-alkaline igneous centre consisting of high level plutonic and minor intrusions emplaced into the eroded remains of a silicic volcanic ediface and its basement. Mineralization occurs in both the igneous rocks and in the Permian siltstone country rocks and is controlled by a NE-trending structure parallel to Late Triassic lineaments. This structure is unrelated to, and younger than the exposed intrusions. Au-Ag-As-rich, Cu-Mo-poor mineralization occurs in breccias and veinlet networks within pervasively altered rocks characterized by silicification and H (sericite), CO2 (calcite-ankerite), Na (albite), B (tourmaline), and S (pyrite) metasomatism. Secondary mineral compositions suggest that most of this alteration occurred at temperatures between 350 ° and 400 °C. The alteration was complex in detail and characterized by multiple hydrothermal events and space and/or time variations of physico-chemical conditions. Although some of these features are similar to prophyry deposits the chemical character of the alteration and mineralization is not typical of Cu-Mo-Au porphyries and has more in common with tectonometamorphic Au deposits formed at considerably greater depths.

  1. Magnetic disorder in diluted FexM100-x granular thin films (M=Au, Ag, Cu; x < 10 at.%).

    PubMed

    Alba Venero, D; Fernández Barquín, L; Alonso, J; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Rodríguez Fernández, L; Boada, R; Chaboy, J

    2013-07-10

    Nanogranular thin films of Fe7Au93, Fe7Ag93 and Fe9Cu91 have been sputtered onto Si(100) substrates with the aim of studying the magnetic interactions. X-ray diffraction shows a major noble metal matrix with broad peaks stemming from (111) textured fcc-Au, Ag and Cu. The noble metal forms a nanogranular environment, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, with mean particle sizes below 10 nm. The high magnetoresistance (>6%) reveals the existence of Fe nanoparticles. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy confirms the presence of a bcc-Fe atom arrangement and some dissolved Fe atoms in the matrix, and XMCD shows the polarization of Au by the Fe nanoparticles. DC-magnetization displays a field-dependent irreversibility produced by the freezing of magnetic nanoparticles into a superspin-glass state. The hysteresis loops remain unsaturated at 5 K and 45 kOe. The coercivity displays a sharp temperature decrease towards a minimum below 50 K, levelling off at higher values, reaching Hc = 200 Oe at 300 K. Annealing of FeAu results in a double-peak zero field cooled magnetization and a slight decrease of the coercivity. The interpretation of the results supports the presence of Fe nanoparticles embedded in the major noble matrix, with some diluted Fe atoms/clusters.

  2. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloy Bearing Al for Electronics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdul-Ameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Hoe, Teh Guan; Che, Fa Xing; Abood, Adnan Naama

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the effects of 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions on bulk alloy microstructure and tensile properties as well as on the thermal behavior of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) lead-free solder alloy. The addition of 0.1 wt.% Al reduces the amount of Ag3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) particles and leads to the formation of larger ternary Sn-Ag-Al IMC particles. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al suppresses the formation of Ag3Sn IMC particles and leads to a large amount of fine Al-Ag IMC particles. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions suppress the formation of Cu6Sn5 IMC particles and lead to the formation of larger Al-Cu IMC particles. The 0.1 wt.% Al-added solder shows a microstructure with coarse β-Sn dendrites. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al has a great effect on suppressing the undercooling and refinement of the β-Sn dendrites. In addition to coarse β-Sn dendrites, the formation of large Sn-Ag-Al and Al-Cu IMC particles significantly reduces the elastic modulus and yield strength for the SAC105 alloy containing 0.1 wt.% Al. On the other hand, the fine β-Sn dendrite and the second-phase dispersion strengthening mechanism through the formation of fine Al-Ag IMC particles significantly increases the elastic modulus and yield strength of the SAC105 alloy containing 0.5 wt.% Al. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions worsen the elongation. However, the reduction in elongation is much stronger, and brittle fracture occurs instead of ductile fracture, with 0.5 wt.% Al addition. The two additions of Al increase both solidus and liquidus temperatures. With 0.5 wt.% Al addition the pasty range is significantly reduced and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) endotherm curve gradually shifts from a dual to a single endothermic peak.

  3. MIES investigation of alkanethiol monolayers self-assembled on Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Bertram; Morgner, Harald

    1997-02-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols (SH(CH 2) mCH 3, m=7,8,9,11,15,17) have been prepared to study their electronic properties by means of metastable induced electron spectroscopy (MIES). The thermal metastable helium atoms used as projectiles in this technique interact exclusively with molecular orbitals exposed at the top of the film, which makes the method perfectly surface sensitive. Access of metastable helium atoms to the methyl group or to the CH 2-groups of the alkyl chain depends strongly on the orientation of the molecular axis. The MIE-spectrum of nonanethiol on Au(111) and the MIE-spectrum of hexadecane physisorbed on graphite served as references for upright aligned and flat lying alkyl chains. Both MIE-spectra can be related to the electronic bandstructure of polyethylene. Electron emission originating from the upright methyl groups and flat lying CH 2-groups is distinguished by characteristic intensities in the MIE-spectra. On this basis, a quantity R has been introduced as a measure for the molecular orientation of the alkyl chain at the top surface of the films. The evolution of R with respect to different molecular assemblies of the alkyl chains is consistent with XPS, LEED and UPS results. Within the series of dense and ordered alkanethiol films on gold and silver R decreases monotonously upon increasing the alkyl chain length. This behaviour indicates either the emergence of CH 2-groups at the cost of methyl groups at the top surface or a decreasing degree of orientational order of the methyl groups or both in the case of longer alkyl chains.

  4. Thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of Cu-Zr-Al-Ag BMGs investigated with isothermal electrical resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Cui, Xiao; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Zu, Fang-Qiu

    2014-07-01

    The thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of the Cu x Zr84- x Al8Ag8 ( x = 42, 40, 38, and 36) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were studied by measurement of isothermal electrical-resistance. As the composition becomes richer in Zr, the longer incubation time at the same relative annealing temperature, and the larger local activation energy needed to achieve the same crystallized volume-fraction, indicate improved thermal stability, which resists crystallization. The improved thermal stability is attributed to a denser atomic random-stacking structure and larger negative heat-of-mixing. During isothermal annealing processes, the four BMGs exhibited the same nucleation mechanism, which is a decreasing rate of nucleation over time. However, the crystal growth mechanisms of the four BMGs are different. The crystallization of the Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 and Cu38Zr46Al8Ag8 BMGs is interface-controlled growth, contrasting with diffusion-controlled growth for the Cu40Zr44Al8Ag8 and Cu42Zr42Al8Ag8 alloys. The different growth modes may be caused by fluctuations in composition due to changes in the quantity and distribution of Cu-rich and Ag-rich regions.

  5. La-doped Al2O3 supported Au nanoparticles: highly active and selective catalysts for PROX under PEMFC operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingquan; Qiao, Botao; Huang, Yanqiang; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Xiao Yan; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Wen-Cui; Zhang, Tao

    2014-03-14

    La-doped γ-Al2O3 supported Au catalysts show high activity and selectivity for the PROX reaction under PEMFC operation conditions. The superior performance is attributed to the formation of LaAlO3, which suppresses H2 oxidation and strengthens CO adsorption on Au sites, thereby improving competitive oxidation of CO at elevated temperature.

  6. Silver-rich telluride mineralization at Mount Charlotte and Au-Ag zonation in the giant Golden Mile deposit, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Muhling, Janet R.

    2013-03-01

    The gold deposits at Kalgoorlie in the 2.7-Ga Eastern Goldfields Province of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, occur adjacent to the D2 Golden Mile Fault over a strike of 8 km within a district-scale zone marked by porphyry dykes and chloritic alteration. The late Golden Pike Fault separates the older (D2) shear zone system of the Golden Mile (1,500 t Au) in the southeast from the younger (D4) quartz vein stockworks at Mt Charlotte (126 t Au) in the northwest. Both deposits occur in the Golden Mile Dolerite sill and display inner sericite-ankerite alteration and early-stage gold-pyrite mineralization replacing the wall rocks. Late-stage tellurides account for 20 % of the total gold in the first, but for <1 % in the second deposit. In the Golden Mile, the main telluride assemblage is coloradoite + native gold (898-972 fine) + calaverite + petzite ± krennerite. Telluride-rich ore (>30 g/t Au) is characterized by Au/Ag = 2.54 and As/Sb = 2.6-30, the latter ratio caused by arsenical pyrite. Golden Mile-type D2 lodes occur northwest of the Golden Pike Fault, but the Hidden Secret orebody, the only telluride bonanza mined (10,815 t at 44 g/t Au), was unusually rich in silver (Au/Ag = 0.12-0.35) due to abundant hessite. We describe another array of silver-rich D2 shear zones which are part of the Golden Mile Fault exposed on the Mt Charlotte mine 22 level. They are filled with crack-seal and pinch-and-swell quartz-carbonate veins and are surrounded by early-stage pyrite + pyrrhotite disseminated in a sericite-ankerite zone more than 6 m wide. Gold grade (0.5-0.8 g/t) varies little across the zone, but Au/Ag (0.37-2.40) and As/Sb (1.54-13.9) increase away from the veins. Late-stage telluride mineralization (23 g/t Au) sampled in one vein has a much lower Au/Ag (0.13) and As/Sb (0.48) and comprises scheelite, pyrite, native gold (830-854 fine), hessite, and minor pyrrhotite, altaite, bournonite, and boulangerite. Assuming 250-300 °C, gold-hessite compositions

  7. Au on MgAl2O4 spinels: The effect of support surface properties in glycerol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Gaiassi, Aureliano; Rossetti, Ilenia; Bianchi, Claudia; van Benthem, Klaus; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigated the properties of Au nanoparticles, prepared via three different techniques and supported on three different MgAl2O4 spinels. The surface composition and area of the spinel plays an important role in determining the selectivity of the catalyst in the selective oxidation of glycerol. it was found that aluminum rich surfaces enhance the C-C bond cleavage reaction for large gold particles which is opposite of what is normally observed for large clusters which typically show no C-C cleavage. We also report that similarly sized AuNPs on the different MgAl2O4 spinels with the same surface Al/Mg ratio, show a similar selectivity; however activity depends on surface area.

  8. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  9. Smooth ZnO:Al-AgNWs Composite Electrode for Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Kun; Tao, Ye; Li, Jun; Li, Ye; Gao, Lan-Lan; Jin, Guang-Yong; Duan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The high interest in organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology is largely due to their flexibility. Up to now, indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been widely used as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic opto-electronic devices. However, ITO films, typically deposited on glass are brittle and they make it difficult to produce flexible devices, restricting their use for flexible devices. In this study, we report on a nano-composite TCE, which is made of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, combined with aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, AZO) by atomic layer deposition. The AgNWs/AZO composite electrode on photopolymer substrate shows a low sheet resistance of only 8.6 Ω/sq and a high optical transmittance of about 83% at 550 nm. These values are even comparable to conventional ITO on glass. In addition, the electrodes also have a very smooth surface (0.31 nm root-mean-square roughness), which is flat enough to contact the OLED stack. Flexible OLED were built with AgNWs/AZO electrodes, which suggests that this approach can replace conventional ITO TCEs in organic electronic devices in the future.

  10. Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Castro-Lopez, Marta; Brinks, Daan; Sapienza, Riccardo; van Hulst, Niek F

    2011-11-09

    Resonant optical antennas are ideal for nanoscale nonlinear optical interactions due to their inherent strong local field enhancement. Indeed second- and third-order nonlinear response of gold nanoparticles has been reported. Here we compare the on- and off-resonance properties of aluminum, silver, and gold nanoantennas, by measuring two-photon photoluminescence. Remarkably, aluminum shows 2 orders of magnitude higher luminescence efficiency than silver or gold. Moreover, in striking contrast to gold, the aluminum emission largely preserves the linear incident polarization. Finally, we show the systematic resonance control of two-photon excitation and luminescence polarization by tuning the antenna width and length independently. Our findings point to aluminum as a promising metal for nonlinear plasmonics.

  11. The antimony-group 11 chemical bond: Dissociation energies of the diatomic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, V.; Ciccioli, A. E-mail: andrea.ciccioli@uniroma1.it; Gigli, G. E-mail: andrea.ciccioli@uniroma1.it

    2014-02-14

    The intermetallic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb were identified in the effusive molecular beam produced at high temperature under equilibrium conditions in a double-cell-like Knudsen source. Several gaseous equilibria involving these species were studied by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature in the overall range 1349–1822 K, and the strength of the chemical bond formed between antimony and the group 11 metals was for the first time measured deriving the following thermochemical dissociation energies (D{sub 0}{sup ∘}, kJ/mol): 186.7 ± 5.1 (CuSb), 156.3 ± 4.9 (AgSb), 241.3 ± 5.8 (AuSb). The three species were also investigated computationally at the coupled cluster level with single, double, and noniterative quasiperturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The spectroscopic parameters were calculated from the potential energy curves and the dissociation energies were evaluated at the Complete Basis Set limit, resulting in an overall good agreement with experimental values. An approximate evaluation of the spin-orbit effect was also performed. CCSD(T) calculations were further extended to the corresponding group 11 arsenide species which are here studied for the first time and the following dissociation energies (D{sub 0}{sup ∘}, kJ/mol): 190 ± 10 (CuAs), 151 ± 10 (AgAs), 240 ± 15 (AuAs) are proposed. Taking advantage of the new experimental and computational information here presented, the bond energy trends along group 11 and 4th and 5th periods of the periodic table were analyzed and the bond energies of the diatomic species CuBi and AuBi, yet experimentally unobserved, were predicted on an empirical basis.

  12. Geometries of H2S⋯MI (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes studied by rotational spectroscopy: The effect of the metal atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medcraft, Chris; Bittner, Dror M.; Tew, David P.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-11-01

    Complexes formed between H2S and each of CuI, AgI, and AuI have been isolated and structurally characterised in the gas phase. The H2S⋯ MI complexes (where M is the metal atom) are generated through laser vaporisation of a metal rod in the presence of a low concentration of H2S and CF3I in a buffer gas of argon undergoing supersonic expansion. The microwave spectra of six isotopologues of each of H2S⋯ CuI , H2S⋯ AgI and three isotopologues of H2S⋯ AuI have been measured by chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectra are interpreted to determine geometries for the complexes and to establish the values of structural parameters. The complexes have Cs symmetry at equilibrium and have a pyramidal configuration about the sulfur atom. The local C2 axis of the hydrogen sulfide molecule intersects the linear axis defined by the three heavy atoms at an angle, ϕ = 75.00(47)° for M = Cu, ϕ = 78.43(76)° for M = Ag, and ϕ = 71.587(13)° for M = Au. The trend in the molecular geometries is consistent with significant relativistic effects in the gold-containing complex. The force constant describing the interaction between the H2S and MI sub-units is determined from the measured centrifugal distortion constant, ΔJ, of each complex. Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, χa a(M) and χa a(I) (where M denotes the metal atom), are determined for H2S⋯ CuI and H2S⋯ AuI for the first time.

  13. Radiation effects in multilayer ohmic contacts Au-Ti-Al-Ti-n-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. E.; Boltovets, N. S.; Ivanov, V. N.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Konakova, R. V. Kudryk, Ya. Ya.; Lytvyn, O. S.; Milenin, V. V.; Sheremet, V. N.; Sveshnikov, Yu. N.

    2009-07-15

    Radiation effects in the Au-Ti-Al-Ti-n-GaN multilayer metallization subjected to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray photons in the dose range 4 x 10{sup 6}-2 x 10{sup 7} Gy are considered, and the effect of radiation on the initial contact structures and the structures subjected to a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at high-temperature in the nitrogen atmosphere is studied. Irradiation does not significantly affect the properties of structures that were not subjected to the heat treatment. An RTA at 700 deg. C brings about a deterioration of the contact-layer morphology. The morphological and structural transformations in the contact metallization due to the RTA are enhanced by irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons. The combined radiation-thermal treatment is conducive to the mass transfer between contacting layers. In addition, after {gamma}-ray irradiation with the dose of 2 x 10{sup 7} Gy, the oxygen-impurity atoms appear over the entire contact's structure and are observed in a large amount in the near-contact GaN region.

  14. Resonant core spectroscopies of the charge transfer interactions between C60 and the surfaces of Au(111), Ag(111), Cu(111) and Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Temperton, Robert H.; Handrup, Karsten; O'Shea, James N.

    2017-03-01

    Charge transfer interactions between C60 and the metal surfaces of Ag(111), Cu(111), Au(111) and Pt(111) have been studied using synchrotron-based photoemission, resonant photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. By placing the X-ray absorption and valence band spectra on a common binding energy scale, the energetic overlap of the unoccupied molecular orbitals with the density of states of the underlying metal surface have been assessed in the context of possible charge transfer pathways. Resonant photoemission and resonant Auger data, measuring the valence region as a function of photon energy for C60 adsorbed on Au(111) reveals three constant high kinetic energy features associated with Auger-like core-hole decay involving an electron transferred from the surface to the LUMO of the molecule and electrons from the three highest occupied molecular orbitals, respectively and in the presence of ultra-fast charge transfer of the originally photoexcited molecule to the surface. Data for the C60/Ag(111) surface reveals an additional Auger-like feature arising from a core-hole decay process involving more than one electron transferred from the surface into the LUMO. An analysis of the relative abundance of these core-hole decay channels estimates that on average 2.4 ± 0.3 electrons are transferred from the Ag(111) surface into the LUMO. A core-hole clock analysis has also been applied to assess the charge transfer coupling in the other direction, from the molecule to the Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Resonant photoemission and resonant Auger data for C60 molecules adsorbed on the Pt(111) and Cu(111) surfaces are shown to exhibit no super-Auger features, which is attributed to the strong modification of the unoccupied molecular orbitals arising from stronger chemical coupling of the molecule to the surface.

  15. Evolution of a high local strain in rolling up MoS2 sheets decorated with Ag and Au nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Da Young; Hack Suh, Dong

    2017-01-01

    We report that a high local strain was obtained for multilayer MoS2 nanoscrolls decorated with noble nanoparticles (Ag and Au NPs) using a rolling process beyond breaking or slipping of MoS2. The local strain was estimated through the bending strain in the nanoscrolls and the extent of coverage of Ag and Au NPs decorated on MoS2, exhibiting magnified surface-enhanced Raman scattering. TEM images showed that the MoS2-Ag and MoS2-Au nanoscrolls have a tube-like morphology decorated with NPs on the inner and outer sides of the MoS2 nanoscrolls. In the Raman spectra, we confirmed the red shift and broadness of the FWHM for nanoscrolls in the eigenvectors of the {{{E}}}{2{{g}}+}1 and {{{E}}}{2g+}1 modes. From the Grüneisen parameter γ and the shear deformation potential β, we obtained peak shifts of ˜4.9 cm-1/% at {{{E}}}{2g-}1 and ˜1.1 cm-1/% strain at {{{E}}}{2g+}1 for free-standing MoS2. According to the obtained relationship of the Raman shift and the induced uniaxial tensile strain, the {{{E}}}{2g-}1 and {{{E}}}{2g+}1 peaks shifted upwards to around -12.8 cm-1 and -2.9 cm-1, respectively, and can be converted to an induced uniaxial tensile strain of about 2.6% for MoS2-Ag nanoscrolls.

  16. Different contact formations at the interfaces of C60/LiF/Al and C60/LiF/Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Pyungeun; Kang, Seong Jun; Lee, Hyunbok; Lee, Jeihyun; Jeong, Kwangho; Lee, JinWoo; Yi, Yeonjin

    2012-04-01

    C60 has been used as an electron accepting and transporting material in various organic electronic devices. In such devices, Al and Ag have been adopted as a common cathode in combination with electron injection layers (EIL), e.g., LiF. We found that the initial interface formations of C60/LiF/Al and C60/LiF/Ag are quite different in terms of interfacial electronic structures. We measured the interfacial electronic structures with photoemission spectroscopy and found that LiF works well as an EIL on Al but performs poorly on Ag. The origin of this difference could be attributed to the larger interface dipole on Al, highlighting the importance of the choice of cathode materials.

  17. Structuring by field enhancement of glass, Ag, Au, and Co thin films using short pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmeanu, M.; Zamfirescu, M.; Rusen, L.; Luculescu, C.; Moldovan, A.; Stratan, A.; Dabu, R.

    2009-12-01

    Single pulse laser ablation of glass, Ag, Au, and Co thin films was experimentally investigated with a laser pulse width of 400 ps at a wavelength of 532 nm both in the far and near fields. In the far-field regime, the electromagnetic field results from a focused laser beam, while the near-field regime is realized by a combination of the focused laser beam incident on a spherical colloidal particle. For the near-field experiments we have used polystyrene colloidal particles of 700 nm diameter self-assembled or spin coated on top of the surfaces. Laser fluences applied are in the range of 0.01-10 J/cm{sup 2}. The diameter and the morphologies of the ablated holes were investigated by optical microscopy, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The dependence of the shape of the holes reflects the fluence regime and the thermophysical properties, i.e., melting temperature and thermal diffusivity of the surfaces involved in the experiments. We give quantitative data about the fluence threshold, diameter, and depth ablation dependence for the far and near fields and discuss their values with respect to the enhancement factor of the intensity of the electromagnetic field due to the use of the colloidal particles. Theoretical estimations of the intensity enhancement were done using the finite-difference time-domain method by using the RSOFT software. The application of near fields allows structuring of the surfaces with structure dimension in the order of 100 nm and even below.

  18. Nanosized Fe3O4 an efficient PCR yield enhancer-Comparative study with Au, Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kambli, Priyanka; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials-assisted PCR is a promising field of nanobiotechnology that amalgamates nanomaterials into the conventional PCR system to achieve better amplification of desired product. With literature documenting the variable effects of these nanomaterials on the PCR yield and amplification; it was thought worthwhile to compare the PCR enhancing efficiency of three transition metal nanoparticles in form of stable colloidal suspensions at varying concentrations.The nanoparticles(NPs) of silver, gold and magnetite were chemically synthesized by reducing their respective salts and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. Their morphology was assessed using nanoparticle tracking system and AFM. The effect of these nanofluids on amplification of 800 bp prokaryotic DNA template with 30% GC content was studied using conventional thermal cycler. The reaction kinetics for all the three nanofluids yielded a Gaussian curve of amplification with varying concentrations. The ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.72 × 10(-2)nM and average size of 33 nm demonstrated highest amplification efficiency of 190% as compared to the citrate stabilized AgNP-25 nm (45%) and AuNP-15.19 nm (134%) using a conventional PCR system. The major reasons that allow Fe3O4 NPs outperform the other 2 transition metal NP's seem to be attributed to its heat conduction property as well as effective adsorption of PCR components onto the ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite nanofluids. The data from our study offers valuable information for the application of ferrofluids as economically, efficient and effective alternative for nanomaterial-assisted PCR yield enhancers.

  19. Boiling, colloid nucleation and aggregation, and the genesis of bonanza Au-Ag ores of the sleeper deposit, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, J. A.; Schoenly, P. A.

    1995-06-01

    A deep “parent” composition for bonanza oreforming fluids at the Sleeper deposit was calculated by the computer program SOLVEQ using fluid-inclusion microthermometric and gas data, and by assuming equilibrium with the following minerals present in vein samples below the bonanza zones: gold, chalcedony, adularia, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and acanthite. The calculated dissolved gold content of 295 ppb is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that assumed for typical geothermal systems. Thus, a gold-enriched fluid appears to have been a principal factor in the genesis of bonanza Au-Ag ores at the Sleeper deposit. Geochemical modelling of possible ore-forming processes using the computer program CHILLER, with the reconstructed ore-forming solution as a starting composition, indicates that boiling most closely reproduces observed minerals and their relative abundances in bonanza ores. The constraint imposed by the association of amorphous silica with gold precludes all of the mixing scenarios modelled, such as mixing with cold and steam-heated groundwaters (acid-sulfate, CO2-rich). Modelling indicates that boiling of a gold-rich deep solution leads to rapid gold precipitation, and that the amount of gold precipitated initially is large relative to other minerals. These factors apparently led to nucleation of colloidal gold particles instead of in-situ gold deposition or coprecipitation with other phases. Gold colloids apparently were entrained in the upward-flowing hydrothermal solutions and grew as they travelled. Upon reaching a critical size (10 100 nm?), they were deposited due to orthokinetic aggregation at an elevation and temperature at which amorphous silica was nucleating and aggregating.

  20. [Quantitative surface analysis of Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag alloy films by XPS and AES].

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Zhong; Zhuo, Shang-Jun; Shen, Ru-Xiang; Qian, Rong; Gao, Jie

    2013-11-01

    In order to improve the quantitative analysis accuracy of AES, We associated XPS with AES and studied the method to reduce the error of AES quantitative analysis, selected Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag binary alloy thin-films as the samples, used XPS to correct AES quantitative analysis results by changing the auger sensitivity factors to make their quantitative analysis results more similar. Then we verified the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of AES when using the revised sensitivity factors by other samples with different composition ratio, and the results showed that the corrected relative sensitivity factors can reduce the error in quantitative analysis of AES to less than 10%. Peak defining is difficult in the form of the integral spectrum of AES analysis since choosing the starting point and ending point when determining the characteristic auger peak intensity area with great uncertainty, and to make analysis easier, we also processed data in the form of the differential spectrum, made quantitative analysis on the basis of peak to peak height instead of peak area, corrected the relative sensitivity factors, and verified the accuracy of quantitative analysis by the other samples with different composition ratio. The result showed that the analytical error in quantitative analysis of AES reduced to less than 9%. It showed that the accuracy of AES quantitative analysis can be highly improved by the way of associating XPS with AES to correct the auger sensitivity factors since the matrix effects are taken into account. Good consistency was presented, proving the feasibility of this method.

  1. Characterization and mechanical properties investigation of TiN-Ag films onto Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Dongxing; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Tang, Jingang; Xiang, Dinggen

    2016-03-01

    To investigate their effect on fretting fatigue (FF) resistance of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hard solid lubricating composite films of TiN with varying silver contents (TiN-Ag) were deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using ion-assisted magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology and structure were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness, bonding strength, and toughness of films were tested using a micro-hardness tester, scratch tester, and a repeated press-press test system that was manufactured in-house, respectively. The FF resistance of TiN-Ag composite films was studied using self-developed devices. The results show that the FF resistance of a titanium alloy can be improved by TiN-Ag composite films, which were fabricated using hard TiN coating doped with soft Ag. The FF life of Ag0.5, Ag2, Ag5, Ag10 and Ag20 composite films is 2.41, 3.18, 3.20, 2.94 and 2.87 times as great as that of the titanium alloy, respectively. This is because the composite films have the better toughness, friction lubrication, and high bonding strength. When the atomic fraction of Ag changes from 2% to 5%, the FF resistance of the composite films shows the best performance. This is attributed to the surface integrity of the composite film is sufficiently fine to prevent the initiation and early propagation of FF cracks.

  2. Nanoporous Gold Nanoparticles and Au/Al2O3 Hybrid Nanoparticles with Large Tunability of Plasmonic Properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenye; Wang, Dong; Kups, Thomas; Baradács, Eszter; Parditka, Bence; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Schaaf, Peter

    2017-02-22

    Nanoporous gold nanoparticles (NPG-NPs) with controlled particle size and pore size are fabricated via a combination of solid-state dewetting and a subsequent dealloying process. Because of the combined effects of size and porosity, the NPG-NPs exhibit greater plasmonic tunability and significantly higher local field enhancement as compared to solid NPs. The effects of the nanoscale porosity and pore size on the optical extinction are investigated for the NPG-NPs with different particle sizes experimentally and theoretically. The influences of both porosity and pore size on the plasmonic properties are very complicated and clearly different for small particles with dominated dipole mode and large particles with dominated quadrupole mode. Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs with controlled porosity and composition ratio are fabricated through plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 into the porous structure. In the Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs, both Au and Al2O3 components are bicontinuously percolated over the entire structure. A further red shift of the plasmon peak is observed in the hybrid NPs due to the change of the environmental refractive index. The high tunability of the plasmonic resonances in the NPG-NPs and the hybrid porous NPs can be very useful for many applications in sensing biological and organic molecules.

  3. The influence of electron confinement, quantum size effects, and film morphology on the dispersion and the damping of plasmonic modes in Ag and Au thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politano, Antonio; Chiarello, Gennaro

    2015-05-01

    Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs) are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor. SPs find applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. The investigation of SPs in silver and gold is relevant as these materials are extensively used in plasmonics. The theoretical approach for calculating plasmon modes in noble metals is complicated by the existence of localized d electrons near the Fermi level. Nevertheless, recent calculations based on linear response theory and time-dependent local density approximation adequately describe the dispersion and damping of SPs in noble metals. Furthermore, in thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications. The presence of quantum well states in the Ag and Au overlayer affects both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP. Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP) in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is the main experimental technique for investigating collective electronic excitations, with adequate resolution in both the energy and momentum domains to investigate surface modes. Herein we review on recent progress of research on collective electronic excitations in Ag and Au films deposited on single-crystal substrates.

  4. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  5. A (25)Mg, (89)Y and (115)In solid state MAS NMR study of YT2X and Y(T0.5T'0.5)2X (T/T' = Pd, Ag, Au; X = Mg, In) Heusler phases.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Christopher; Stein, Sebastian; Heletta, Lukas; Kersting, Marcel; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-12-20

    Yttrium-transition metal-magnesium (indium) Heusler phases YPd2Mg, YPd2In, YAg2Mg, YAg2In, YAu2Mg, and YAu2In and their quaternary compounds (solid solutions) Y(Pd0.5Ag0.5)2Mg, Y(Pd0.5Ag0.5)2In, Y(Pd0.5Au0.5)2Mg, Y(Pd0.5Au0.5)2In, Y(Ag0.5Au0.5)2Mg and Y(Ag0.5Au0.5)2In were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules in a high-frequency furnace or by arc-melting, respectively. All compounds crystallize with the cubic MnCu2Al type structure (Heusler phase), space group Fm3[combining macron]m. The structure of Y(Ag0.39Au0.61)2Mg was refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a = 689.97(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0619, 52 F(2) values, 6 parameters. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show Pauli paramagnetic behavior for all samples. The compounds were investigated by (25)Mg, (89)Y and (115)In solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy. Large positive resonance shifts are observed for all nuclei. A review of the present data in the context of literature data on isotypic Heusler phases with Cd and Sn indicates that the (89)Y shifts show a correlation with the electronegativity of the main group atoms (Mg, Cd, In, Sn). The solid solutions Y(Ag1-xTx)2Mg (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5; T = Pd, Au) clearly show Vegard-like behavior concerning their lattice parameters, and their main group element resonance shifts arising from spin and orbital contributions are close to the interpolated values of the corresponding end-member compounds.

  6. Control of Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au/SnO2 by Modification with Ag and Cu for Photoinduced Reactions under Visible-Light Irradiation over a Wide Range.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kominami, Hiroshi

    2016-03-18

    Gold particles supported on tin(IV) oxide (0.2 wt% Au/SnO2) were modified with copper and silver by the multistep photodeposition method. Absorption around λ=550 nm, attributed to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au, gradually shifted to longer wavelengths on modification with Cu and finally reached λ=620 nm at 0.8 wt% Cu. On the other hand, the absorption shifted to shorter wavelength with increasing amount of Ag and reached λ=450 nm at 0.8 wt% Ag. These Cu- and Ag-modified 0.2 wt% Au/SnO2 materials (Cu-Au/SnO2 and Ag-Au/SnO2) and 1.0 wt% Au/SnO2 were used for mineralization of formic acid to carbon dioxide in aqueous suspension under irradiation with visible light from a xenon lamp and three kinds of light-emitting diodes with different wavelengths. The reaction rates for the mineralization of formic acid over these materials depend on the wavelength of light. Apparent quantum efficiencies of Cu-Au/SnO2, Au/SnO2, and Ag-Au/SnO2 reached 5.5% at 625 nm, 5.8% at 525 nm, and 5.1% at 450 nm, respectively. These photocatalysts can also be used for selective oxidation of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. Broad responses to visible light in formic acid mineralization and selective alcohol oxidation were achieved when the three materials were used simultaneously.

  7. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  8. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.; Minor, A. M.; Karnthaler, H. P.; Eckert, J.; Pauly, S.; Rentenberger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. By analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clusters is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability. PMID:28322304

  9. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.; Minor, A. M.; Karnthaler, H. P.; Eckert, J.; Pauly, S.; Rentenberger, C.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. By analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clusters is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability.

  10. A Thermally Stable NiZn/Ta/Ni Scheme to Replace AuBe/Au Contacts in High-Efficiency AlGaInP-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Park, Jae-Seong; Kang, Daesung; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2017-03-01

    We developed NiZn/(Ta/)Ni ohmic contacts to replace expensive AuBe/Au contacts commonly used in high-efficiency AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and compared the electrical properties of the two contact types. Unlike the AuBe/Au (130 nm/100 nm) contact, the NiZn/Ta/Ni (130 nm/20 nm/100 nm) contact shows improved electrical properties after being annealed at 500°C, with a contact resistivity of 5.2 × 10-6 Ω cm2. LEDs with the NiZn/Ta/Ni contact exhibited a 4.4% higher output power (at 250 mW) than LEDs with the AuBe/Au contact. In contrast to the trend for the AuBe/Au contact, the Ga 2p core level for the NiZn/Ta/Ni contact shifted toward lower binding energies after being annealed at 500°C. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiles showed that annealing the AuBe/Au samples caused the outdiffusion of both Be and P atoms into the metal contact, whereas in the NiZn/Ta/Ni samples, Zn atoms indiffused into the GaP layer. The annealing-induced electrical degradation and ohmic contact formation mechanisms are described and discussed on the basis of the results of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and AES.

  11. Surface Analysis of sp2 Carbon in Ag and Al Covetic Alloys*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Cole, Daniel P.; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G.

    Ag, Al-6061 and Al-7075 were doped with carbon by an electrocharging assisted process where high electric current is applied to the molten metal containing particles of activated carbon. This process gives rise to epitaxial growth of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and carbon nanostructures within the metal matrix. Alloys produced with such technique are named Covetics. Al-6061 and Al-7075 covetics have shown superior mechanical, electrical and anti-corrosion properties. The nanostructured carbon incorporation has been confirmed by XPS, Raman, and TEM studies. Here, we present detailed surface characterization of the carbon nanostructures in these new alloys. Raman and EELS mapping of carbon nanostructure were carried out to identify the nature of bonding, strain and defect characteristics. Mostly, crystalline GNR or graphene sheets were found to create networks with sp2 character, under compressive strain with high concentration of defects. AFM and KPFM showed contrast in phases and potentials for ribbon like features. Incorporation of sp2 carbon in metals is an initial step for the integration of carbon nanostructures for future applications requiring high strength and conductivity.

  12. High-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays in applications of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Qingwei; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on high-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays. By ion beam etching (IBE) the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and subsequent Ag coating, ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays were created on the Si substrate. Unlike the ‘hot spots’ generated between adjacent metallic nanostructures, the Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl introduced ‘hot spots’ on the metal boundary of its hemispherical cavity. Based on the analysis of SERS signals, the optimized SERS substrate of Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays had both high sensitivity and large-area uniformity. A detection limit as low as 10-10 M was obtained using chemisorbed p-thiocresol (p-Tc) molecules, and the SERS signal was highly reproducible with a small standard deviation. The method opens up a new way to create highly sensitive SERS sensors with high-density ‘hot spots’, and it could play an important role in device design and corresponding biological and food safety monitoring applications.

  13. Effects of substitutional impurity Au and Si atoms on antiphase boundary energies in Ti3Al: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Yuichiro; Mizuno, Masataka; Sugihara, Atsushi; Minamino, Yoritoshi; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2010-10-01

    Effects of substitutional impurity atoms Au and Si on the energies of antiphase boundaries (APBs) on {1overline 1 00} and (0001) planes in a Ti3Al intermetallic compound were examined using first principles calculations. Au additions reduce the energies of APBs on both {1overline 1 00} and (0001) planes by up to more than 40%. The reduction tends to be more remarkable especially when the added Au atom has larger number of Al atoms on its second-nearest neighbor sites rather than on first-nearest neighbor ones. In addition, in the case of Si addition, a significant energy reduction was found only for APBs on (0001) planes, and no remarkable dependence of APB energies on the coordinating atoms was found even for APBs on (0001) planes. These results are crucial to both understanding of the effect of APBs on the impurity diffusivity and predicting the ability of impurity atoms to stabilize antiphase domain structure that increases the strength of Ti3Al dramatically.

  14. Electrochemistry in ultrahigh vacuum: underpotential deposition of Al on polycrystalline W and Au from room temperature AlCl(3)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride melts.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chottiner, Gary S; Miller, Barry; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Hussey, Charles L; Scherson, Daniel A

    2005-06-09

    The voltammetric characteristics of polycrystalline Au and W electrodes cleaned (thermal annealing at 1100 K) and characterized (Auger electron spectroscopy) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) have been examined in ultrapure AlCl(3)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EtMeImCl) melts in UHV. These experiments were performed using a custom-designed transfer system that allows for the all-Al electrochemical cell to be filled with EtMeImCl in an auxiliary UHV chamber and later transferred under UHV to the main UHV chamber that houses the Auger electron spectrometer. The results obtained for the underpotential (UPD) and bulk deposition of Al on Au were found to be very similar to those reported in the literature for measurements carried out under 1 atm of an inert gas in a glovebox. For the far more reactive W surfaces, voltammetric features ascribed to the stripping of underpotential-deposited Al could be observed following a single scan from 1.0 V vs Al(3+)/Al to a potential negative enough for bulk deposition of Al to ensue. This behavior is unlike that reported in the literature for experiments performed in a glovebox, which required either extensive potential cycling in the Al bulk deposition and stripping region or excursions to potentials positive enough for chlorine evolution to ensue for Al UPD features to be clearly discerned. These observations open new prospects for fundamental electrochemical studies of well-characterized, highly reactive metals, including single crystals, in a variety of low vapor pressure ionic liquids.

  15. [The study of dimethoate by means of vibrational and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Li, Si; Yu, Dan-Ni; Zhou, Gunag-Ming; Ji, Fang-Ying; Subklew, Guenter

    2010-12-01

    The vibrational structure of dimethoate, with its solid state and saturated solutions at acidic and basic conditions, was characterized with combination of means of FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational spectroscopy technology, and the comprehensive information about the dimethoate molecular groups' vibrational features was obtained. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of dimethoate at different concentrations with different acidic and basic conditions, and adsorbed on the substrate's surface of the core-shell Au/Ag nanoparticles, were also obtained. The adsorption states of dimethoate's molecule on the substrate's surface of the core-shell Au/Ag nanoparticles and the effects by the different acid-base conditions were investigated, with speculation of the adsorption mechanism. From the results, v(as)(NH), v(as)(CH3), v(O=C-N), tau(O=C-N), v(P-O), v(P=S), v(C-C) and delta(P-O-C) are the characteristic peaks of inner dimethoate structure's vibrations; and the concentration range in which dimethoate could interact with core-shell Au/Ag nanoparticles fully is about 1.0 x 10(-3) mol * L(-1) both in acidic and basic conditions. Dimethoate's molecule interacts with SERS' substrate surface mainly through P-O-C, O=C-C, (S-CH2), P=S, and CH3 structures; and the effects of dimethoate's hydrolysis path in acidic and basic conditions on the adsorption are discussed, which give some good references for the research of organophosphorus pesticides' transformations in different environmental systems.

  16. Distance-dependent emission from dye-labeled oligonucleotides on striped Au/Ag nanowires: effect of secondary structure and hybridization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoermer, Rebecca L; Keating, Christine D

    2006-10-11

    When fluorescently tagged oligonucleotides are located near metal surfaces, their emission intensity is impacted by both electromagnetic effects (i.e., quenching and/or enhancement of emission) and the structure of the nucleic acids (e.g., random coil, hairpin, or duplex). We present experiments exploring the effect of label position and secondary structure in oligonucleotide probes as a function of hybridization buffer, which impacts the percentage of double-stranded probes on the surface after exposure to complementary DNA. Nanowires containing identifiable patterns of Au and Ag segments were used as the metal substrates in this work, which enabled us to directly compare different dye positions in a single multiplexed experiment and differences in emission for probes attached to the two metals. The observed metal-dye separation dependence for unstructured surface-bound oligonucleotides is highly sensitive to hybridization efficiency, due to substantial changes in DNA extension from the surface upon hybridization. In contrast, fluorophore labeled oligonucleotides designed to form hairpin secondary structures analogous to solution-phase molecular beacon probes are relatively insensitive to hybridization efficiency, since the folded form is quenched and therefore does not appreciably impact the observed distance-dependence of the response. Differences in fluorescence patterning on Au and Ag were noted as a function of not only chromophore identity but also metal-dye separation. For example, emission intensity for TAMRA-labeled oligonucleotides changed from brighter on Ag for 24-base probes to brighter on Au for 48-base probes. We also observed fluorescence enhancement at the ends of nanowires and at surface defects where heightened electromagnetic fields affect the fluorescence.

  17. Structural evolution of Ag-Cu nano-alloys confined between AlN nano-layers upon fast heating.

    PubMed

    Janczak-Rusch, J; Chiodi, M; Cancellieri, C; Moszner, F; Hauert, R; Pigozzi, G; Jeurgens, L P H

    2015-11-14

    The structural evolution of a Ag-Cu/AlN nano-multilayer (NML), as prepared by magnetron-sputtering on a α-Al2O3 substrate, was monitored during fast heating by real-time in situ XRD analysis (at the synchrotron), as well as by ex situ microstructural analysis using SEM, XPS and in-house XRD. The as-deposited NML is constituted of alternating nano-layers (thickness ≈ 10 nm) of a chemically inert AlN barrier and a eutectic Ag-Cu(40at%) nano-alloy. The nano-alloy in the as-deposited state is composed of a fcc matrix of Ag nano-grains (≈6 nm), which are supersaturated by Cu, and some smaller embedded Cu rich nano-grains (≈4 nm). Heating up to 265 °C activates segregation of Cu out of the supersaturated Ag nano-grains phase, thus initiating phase separation. At T > 265 °C, the phase-separated Cu metal partially migrates to the top NML surface, thereby relaxing thermally-accumulated compressive stresses in the confined alloy nano-layers and facilitating grain coarsening of (still confined) phase-separated nano-crystallites. Further heating and annealing up to 420 °C results in complete phase separation, forming extended Ag and Cu domains with well-defined coherent Ag/AlN interfaces. The observed outflow of Cu well below the eutectic melting point of the bulk Ag-Cu alloy might provide new pathways for designing low-temperature nano-structured brazing materials.

  18. Selective oxidation of vinyl chloride on Ag2O(100), Cu2O(100), and Au2O(100) surfaces: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rui-Peng; Cheng, Lu; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2014-12-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is the simplest asymmetric olefin molecule and is greatly harmful to the environment and human health. To find an effective oxidation approach to decrease VC emission, the selective oxidation reaction of the VC molecule on Ag2O(100), Cu2O(100), and Au2O(100) surfaces has been investigated by using density functional theory in the present work. Five different reaction pathways in two steps on the three surfaces have been proposed and discussed. The result shows that the formation of chloroacetadehyde is more favored than the formation of chloroethylene epoxide and acetyl chloride, and the activation energy of chloroacetadehyde formation on the Ag2O(100) surface is lower than that on the other two surfaces.

  19. Self-field ac losses of a twisted multifilamentary (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10/AgAu tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, C. M.; Huang, Y. B.

    2000-06-01

    Self-field loss measurements at 77 K on a superconducting (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10/AgAu tape with twisted filaments are presented. Using the first- and third-harmonic components of the electric field, the hysteretic losses are separated from the total loss. At peak transport currents less than half the critical current, the hysteretic losses are considerably reduced. However, sizable nonhysteretic losses are also observed. At higher currents, the hysteretic loss increases, dominating the total loss, and is similar to that for an untwisted tape.

  20. Development of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Solders for Electronic Assembly by Micro-Alloying with Al

    SciTech Connect

    Boesenberg, Adam; Anderson, Iver; Harringa, Joel

    2012-03-10

    Of Pb-free solder choices, an array of solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic (T eut = 217°C) composition have emerged with potential for broad use, including ball grid array (BGA) joints that cool slowly. This work investigated minor substitutional additions of Al (<0.25 wt.%) to Sn-3.5Ag-0.95Cu (SAC3595) solders to promote more consistent solder joint microstructures and to avoid deleterious product phases, e.g., Ag3Sn “blades,” for BGA cooling rates, since such Al additions to SAC had already demonstrated excellent thermal aging stability. Consistent with past work, blade formation was suppressed for increased Al content (>0.05Al), but the suppression effect faded for >0.20Al. Undercooling suppression did not correlate specifically with blade suppression since it became significant at 0.10Al and increased continuously with greater Al to 0.25Al. Surprisingly, an intermediate range of Al content (0.10 wt.% to 0.20 wt.% Al) promoted formation of significant populations of 2-μm to 5-μm faceted Cu-Al particles, identified as Cu33Al17, that clustered at the top of the solder joint matrix and exhibited extraordinary hardness. Clustering of Cu33Al17 was attributed to its buoyancy, from a lower density than Sn liquid, and its early position in the nucleation sequence within the solder matrix, permitting unrestricted migration to the top interface. Joint microstructures and implications for the full nucleation sequence for these SAC + Al solder joints are discussed, along with possible benefits from the clustered particles for improved thermal cycling resistance.

  1. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  2. Different structural preference of Ag(I) and Au(I) in neutral and cationic luminescent heteropolynuclear platinum(II) complexes: Z (U)-shaped Pt2M2 type vs. trinuclear PtM2 type.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Kazuki; Ueda, Misa; Higashitani, Ami; Nakao, Yoshihide; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Sakuda, Eri; Umakoshi, Keisuke

    2016-03-28

    The reactions of monocationic Pt(II) complexes bearing N^C chelate ligands and Me2pzH, [Pt(N^C)(Me2pzH)2]PF6 (N^C = 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy(-)), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinate (dfppy(-)), benzo[h]quinolinate (bzq(-)); Me2pzH = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole), with Ag(I) ions gave Z (or U)-shaped neutral tetranuclear Pt2Ag2 complexes [Pt2Ag2(N^C)2(Me2pz)4], while those with Au(I) ions gave neutral trinuclear PtAu2 complexes [PtAu2(N^C)(Me2pz)3]. On the contrary, the reactions of the dicationic Pt(II) complex bearing a N^N chelate ligand and Me2pzH, [Pt(bpy)(Me2pzH)2](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with Ag(I) and Au(I) ions both gave Z (or U)-shaped dicationic tetranuclear Pt2M2 complexes, [Pt2M2(bpy)2(Me2pz)4](PF6)2 (M = Ag, Au). The structures of heteropolynuclear Pt(II) complexes were dominated by the nature of incorporated group 11 metal ions and the charge of complexes.

  3. Room temperature syntheses of AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} and PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} salts, Ag{sup +}AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, Ag{sup 2+}PtF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}, and Ag{sup 2+}PdF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}, and an estimate for E (MF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}) [M = Pt, Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Graudejus, O.; Elder, S.H.; Lucier, G.M.; Shen, C.; Bartlett, N. |

    1999-05-17

    Solutions of AuF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} or PtF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} salts, prepared from the metals at {approximately}20 C, in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF), made basic with alkali fluorides, are further oxidized by photodissociated F{sub 2} (visible or near-UV light) to give AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} or PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} salts, including O{sub 2}{sup +}AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} (with O{sub 2} in the F{sub 2}). Similar photochemical oxidation of PdF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} salts does not occur. This new synthetic approach has provided LiAuF{sub 6} and LiPtF{sub 6} for the first time, each of which has the LiSbF{sub 6} type (R{bar 3}) structure with (hexagonal cell). New cubic modifications (probable space group Ia3) have been found for AgMF{sub 6}. The preference for Ag{sup 2+}Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} over Ag{sup +}Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup {minus}} is attributed to a second electron affinity of Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}, E(Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup {minus}}) > 60 kcal/mol.

  4. Coating geometry of Ag, Ti, Co, Ni, and Al nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Stranges, F.; Xu, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present a morphology study on laser ablation produced metal nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on carbon nanotube (CNT) substrates. We analyzed the coating geometry and topography by processing AFM and SEM images. Our results show that Ag NPs aggregate together to form large agglomerates, that Ti NPs are well dispersed on the substrate surface forming a quasi-continuous layer, and that Co, Ni, and Al NPs coat quite uniformly CNTs and locally grow in a layer like fashion. We interpret the coating and clustering geometries in terms of cohesion, surface, and interfacial energies and diffusion barriers. Fractal analysis of composites morphology suggests the formation of structures with a smoother topography relative to pure carbon nanotubes for reactive metal nanoparticles.

  5. Microstructural evolution during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys in the Al-Cu-Li Ag-Mg subsystem were developed that exhibit desirable combinations of strength and ductility. These Weldalite (trademark) alloys, are unique for Al-Cu-Li alloys in that with or without a prior cold stretching operation, they obtain excellent strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. This is significant because it enables complex, near-net shape products such as forgings and super plastically formed parts to be heat treated to ultra-high strengths. On the other hand, commercial extrusions, rolled plates and sheets of other Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a cold stretching operation before artificial aging to the highest strength tempers to introduce dislocations that provide low-energy nucleation sites for strengthening precipitates such as the T(sub 1) phase. The variation in yield strength (YS) with Li content in the near-peak aged condition for these Weldalite (trademark) alloys and the associated microstructures were examined, and the results are discussed.

  6. Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William L; Fisher, Galen; Toops, Todd J

    2012-01-01

    A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x} reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.

  7. Screening on binary Zr-1X (X = Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Li, H F; Huang, T; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic susceptibility of Zr-1X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi, were systematically investigated to explore their potential use in biomedical applications. The experimental results indicated that annealed Zr-1X alloys consisted entirely or primarily of α phase. The alloying elements significantly increased the strength and hardness of pure Zr and had a relatively slight influence on elastic modulus. Ru was the most effective enhancing element and Zr-1Ru alloy had the largest elongation. The results of electrochemical corrosion indicated that adding various elements to Zr improved its corrosion resistance, as indicated by the reduced corrosion current density. The extracts of the studied Zr-1X alloys produced no significant deleterious effects on osteoblast-like cells (MG 63), indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. All except for Zr-1Ag alloy showed decreased magnetic susceptibility compared to pure Zr, and Zr-1Ru alloy had the lowest magnetic susceptibility value, being comparable to that of α' phase Zr-Mo alloy and Zr-Nb alloy and far lower than that of Co-Cr alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Among the experimental Zr-1X alloys, Zr-1Ru alloy possessing high strength coupled with good ductility, good in vitro cytocompatibility and low magnetic susceptibility may be a good candidate alloy for medical devices within a magnetic resonance imaging environment.

  8. M\\TiO₂ (M=Au, Ag) transparent aqueous sols and its application on polymeric surface antibacterial post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangzhuan; Yu, Yuan; Song, Le; Zhi, Jinfang

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we reported a simple and mild chemical method for synthesis of crystalline metal\\TiO2 (M=Au, Ag) transparent aqueous sols at low temperature (80°C). It should be found that the as-synthesized metal\\TiO2 sols could easily be coated on the flexible PET surfaces of the through the as-developed electroless-plating-like solution deposition (EPLSD) procedure. The as-prepared metal\\TiO2 sols and related flexible thin film were characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, UV-vis, and FTIR analysis. The results showed that the Au and Ag nanoparticles can significantly improve the optical absorption properties of TiO2 due to the surface plasmon generated by the noble metal, which in turn enhanced the photo-induced antibacterial performance of the as-prepared metal\\TiO2 flexible film. Moreover, the photo-generated electrons could transfer between the metal and titanium dioxide under different irradiation (ultraviolet or visible light), which could significantly reduce the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes, resulting in the better photo-induced antibacterial performance. Therefore, the EPLSD procedure may be used as a general polymeric surface antibacterial post-treatment procedure for preparing the metal\\TiO2 flexible film because of the noble metal enhanced antibacterial performance.

  9. Fabrication of Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er Core-Shell Hybrid and its Tunable Upconversion Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Zhou, Donglei; Xu, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Pan, Gencai; Yin, Ze; Wang, He; Zhu, Yongsheng; Shaobo, Cui; Song, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Localized electric filed enhancement by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles is an effective method to amplify the upconversion luminescence (UCL) strength of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), whereas the highly effective UCL enhancement of UCNPs in colloids has not been realized until now. Here, we designed and fabricated the colloidal Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er core-shell hybrid with different intermediate thickness (NaYF4) and tunable SPR peaks from visible wavelength region to NIR region. After the optimization of the intermediate spacer thickness (~7.5 nm) of NaYF4 NPs and the SPR peak (~950 nm) of noble metal nanoparticles, an optimum enhancement as high as ~25 folds was obtained. Systematic investigation indicates that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the influence of the intermediate spacer and the coupling of Au-Ag nanocages with the excitation electromagnetic field of the UCNPs. Our findings may provide a new thinking on designing highly effective metal@UCNPs core-shell hybrid in colloids. PMID:28106128

  10. TEM study on the interfacial reaction between electroless plated Ni-P/Au UBM and Sn-3.5Ag solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Ho; Kwon, Eun-Jung; Kang, Han-Byul; Jung, Seung-Boo; Yang, Cheol-Woong

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the interfacial reaction between electroless plated Ni-P/Au under bump metallization (UBM) and a eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical and crystallographic analysis using TEM provided important information on the microstructural evolution at the interface. In this study, UBM was prepared by the electroless plating of Au (0.15 μm)/Ni-15 at %P (5 μm) on a bare Cu substrate and was then reacted with a Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder at 260°C for various amounts of time to examine the different sequential stages of the interfacial reaction TEM analyses confirmed that beside the Ni3Sn4 layer, there were three more IMC layers at the interface: the Ni-Sn-P ternary layer, Ni3P layer, and the layer of phase mixture of the Ni3P and Ni2SnP ternary phases.

  11. Fabrication of Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er Core-Shell Hybrid and its Tunable Upconversion Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Zhou, Donglei; Xu, Wen; Zhu, Jinyang; Pan, Gencai; Yin, Ze; Wang, He; Zhu, Yongsheng; Shaobo, Cui; Song, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Localized electric filed enhancement by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles is an effective method to amplify the upconversion luminescence (UCL) strength of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), whereas the highly effective UCL enhancement of UCNPs in colloids has not been realized until now. Here, we designed and fabricated the colloidal Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er core-shell hybrid with different intermediate thickness (NaYF4) and tunable SPR peaks from visible wavelength region to NIR region. After the optimization of the intermediate spacer thickness (~7.5 nm) of NaYF4 NPs and the SPR peak (~950 nm) of noble metal nanoparticles, an optimum enhancement as high as ~25 folds was obtained. Systematic investigation indicates that UCL enhancement mainly originates from the influence of the intermediate spacer and the coupling of Au-Ag nanocages with the excitation electromagnetic field of the UCNPs. Our findings may provide a new thinking on designing highly effective metal@UCNPs core-shell hybrid in colloids.

  12. Relationship between element-selective electronic states and hydrogen absorption properties of Pd-M (M =Ru ,Rh,Ag, and Au) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kanako; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Shishidou, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kawamura, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    To understand how the constituent atoms participate in the hydrogenation of Pd-based alloys at ˜0.1 MPa of hydrogen pressure (PH2),we investigated the electronic states in Pd-M (M =Ru,Rh,Ag, and Au) alloys and their hydrides element-selectively by using x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L2 ,3 edges. Spectral changes near the absorption edge demonstrate that both Pd and M atoms form bonds with H atoms in the Pd-M (M =Ru and Rh) alloys even at PH 2˜0.1 MPa. This is a striking result because high pressures of more than 1 GPa are required for the hydrogenation of Rh and Ru pure metals. In contrast, only Pd atoms bond with H atoms and the M -H bond is absent in the case of Pd-M (M =Ag and Au) alloys. Therefore, the hydrogen-induced changes in the electronic states differ between M s with fully occupied d shells and M s with partially occupied d shells. This study reveals that the thermodynamic hydrogenation properties of Pd-M alloys can be determined by a combination of the formation of the M -H bond and lattice expansion or compression by alloying Pd metal with M .

  13. Density functional embedded cluster study of Cu(4), Ag(4) and Au(4) species interacting with oxygen vacancies on the MgO(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Konstantin M; Inntam, Chan; Moskaleva, Lyudmila V; Rösch, Notker

    2007-01-01

    Cu(4), Ag(4), and Au(4) species adsorbed on an MgO(001) surface that exhibits neutral (F(s)) and charged (F(s) (+)) oxygen vacancies have been studied using a density functional approach and advanced embedding models. The gas-phase rhombic-planar structure of the coinage metal tetramers is only moderately affected by adsorption. In the most stable surface configuration, the plane of the tetramers is oriented perpendicular to the MgO(001) surface; one metal atom is attached to an oxygen vacancy and another one is bound to a nearby surface oxygen anion. A very similar structural motif was recently found on defect-free MgO(001), where two O(2-) ions serve as adsorption sites. Following the trend of the interactions with the regular MgO(001) surface, Au(4) and Cu(4) bind substantially stronger to F(s) and F(s) (+) sites than Ag(4). This stronger adsorption interaction at oxygen vacancies, in particular at F(s), is partly due to a notable accumulation of electron density on the adsorbates. We also examined the propensity of small supported metal species to aggregate to adsorbed di-, tri- and tetramers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that core-level ionization potentials offer the possibility for detecting experimentally supported metal tetramers and characterizing them structurally with the help of calculated data.

  14. Evidence for throttling as a control over localized late-stage Au/Ag mineralization in the Mineral Hill breccia pipe, Golden Sunlight mine, Jefferson County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Coppinger, W.W.; Porter, E.

    1985-01-01

    A restricted zone of anomalous gold and silver mineralization, coupled with localized intense alteration and textural variations, documents the existence of a natural throttle which controlled Au/Ag emplacement during late-stage mineralization of the Mineral Hill breccia pipe. The zone is roughly funnel-shaped with a maximum width of 10m and a length of 30m. Mineralization and alteration are developed along the trend of a steep-dipping to vertical fracture zone and apparently pinch out at depth. Small displacement post-mineralization cross-faults offset contacts and influence grade distribution within the feature. Breccia texture, nature and intensity of alteration, and ore grade very systematically from the margin to the interior of the zone. The breccia becomes rubbly and friable, with frothy, cellular quartz comprising the matrix and as much as 50 percent of the rock in some locations. Au/Ag grades vary directly with the development of the cellular quartz and are highest in the interior, grading to local background levels in the wallrock. Barite and minor white opaline quartz occur in the matrix adjacent to contacts, diminishing in volume toward the interior. Minor primary hematite occurs in some clasts in the interior. Iron-oxides after sulfides are common throughout the zone. The feature is interpreted as late-stage localized zone of venting and pressure-release developed above a constriction in the Mineral Hill hydrothermal mineralizing system.

  15. Bio-mimetic nanostructure self-assembled from Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods and phage fusion proteins for targeted tumor optical detection and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Pei; Sun, Lin; Li, Cuncheng; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2014-10-28

    Nanomaterials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption have been widely studied in cancer detection and photothermal therapy (PTT), while it remains a great challenge in targeting tumor efficiently with minimal side effects. Herein we report a novel multifunctional phage-mimetic nanostructure, which was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of Au@Ag heterogenous nanorods (NRs) with rhodamine 6G, and specific pVIII fusion proteins. Au@Ag NRs, first being applied for PTT, exhibited excellent stability, cost-effectivity, biocompatibility and tunable NIR absorption. The fusion proteins were isolated from phage DDAGNRQP specifically selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against colorectal cancer cells in a high-throughput way. Considering the definite charge distribution and low molecular weight, phage fusion proteins were assembled on the negatively charged NR core by electrostatic interactions, exposing the N-terminus fused with DDAGNRQP peptide on the surface. The fluorescent images showed that assembled phage fusion proteins can direct the nanostructure into cancer cells. The nanostructure was more efficient than gold nanorods and silver nanotriangle-based photothermal agents and was capable of specifically ablating SW620 cells after 10 min illumination with an 808 nm laser in the light intensity of 4 W/cm(2). The prepared nanostructure would become an ideal reagent for simutaneously targeted optical imaging and PTT of tumor.

  16. Bio-mimetic Nanostructure Self-assembled from Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods and Phage Fusion Proteins for Targeted Tumor Optical Detection and Photothermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Pei; Sun, Lin; Li, Cuncheng; Petrenko, Valery A.; Liu, Aihua

    2014-10-01

    Nanomaterials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption have been widely studied in cancer detection and photothermal therapy (PTT), while it remains a great challenge in targeting tumor efficiently with minimal side effects. Herein we report a novel multifunctional phage-mimetic nanostructure, which was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of Au@Ag heterogenous nanorods (NRs) with rhodamine 6G, and specific pVIII fusion proteins. Au@Ag NRs, first being applied for PTT, exhibited excellent stability, cost-effectivity, biocompatibility and tunable NIR absorption. The fusion proteins were isolated from phage DDAGNRQP specifically selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against colorectal cancer cells in a high-throughput way. Considering the definite charge distribution and low molecular weight, phage fusion proteins were assembled on the negatively charged NR core by electrostatic interactions, exposing the N-terminus fused with DDAGNRQP peptide on the surface. The fluorescent images showed that assembled phage fusion proteins can direct the nanostructure into cancer cells. The nanostructure was more efficient than gold nanorods and silver nanotriangle-based photothermal agents and was capable of specifically ablating SW620 cells after 10 min illumination with an 808 nm laser in the light intensity of 4 W/cm2. The prepared nanostructure would become an ideal reagent for simutaneously targeted optical imaging and PTT of tumor.

  17. Laser-induced transformation of supramolecular complexes: approach to controlled formation of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Manshina, A. A.; Grachova, E. V.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Petrov, Y. V.; Koshevoy, I. O.; Makarova, A. A.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Tunik, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work an efficient approach of the controlled formation of hybrid Au–Ag–C nanostructures based on laser-induced transformation of organometallic supramolecular cluster compound is suggested. Herein the one-step process of the laser-induced synthesis of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles which are bimetallic gold-silver subnanoclusters dispersed in nanospheres of amorphous hydrogenated a-C:H carbon is reported in details. It has been demonstrated that variation of the experimental parameters such as type of the organometallic precursor, solvent, deposition geometry and duration of laser irradiation allows directed control of nanoparticles’ dimension and morphology. The mechanism of Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles formation is suggested: the photo-excitation of the precursor molecule through metal-to-ligand charge transfer followed by rupture of metallophilic bonds, transformation of the cluster core including red-ox intramolecular reaction and aggregation of heterometallic species that results in the hybrid metal/carbon nanoparticles with multi-yolk-shell architecture formation. It has been found that the nanoparticles obtained can be efficiently used for the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy label-free detection of human serum albumin in low concentration solution. PMID:26153347

  18. 78 FR 14803 - Ag-Mark, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ag-Mark, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of 19 new animal drug applications (NADAs) and 1 abbreviated...

  19. Raman Reporter-Coupled Ag(core)@Au(shell) Nanostars for in Vivo Improved Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Imaging and Near-infrared-Triggered Photothermal Therapy in Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Leyong; Pan, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouju; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Xinmei; Ren, Wenzhi; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-08-05

    Noble-metal nanomaterials were widely investigated as theranostic systems for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging, and also for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancers. However, it was still a major challenge to explore multifunctional nanoprobes with high performance, high stability, and low toxicity. In this work, Raman reporter (DTTC)-coupled Agcore@Aushell nanostars (Ag@Au-DTTC) were synthesized and investigated for in vivo improved SERS imaging and near-infrared (NIR)-triggered PTT of breast cancers. By the two-step coupling of DTTC, the SERS signal was improved obviously, and the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was also decreased by coating Au nanostars onto Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars showed high photostability and excellent photothermal performance, in which the photothermal conversion efficiency was up to 79.01% under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser. The in vitro and in vivo SERS measurements of Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars showed that the many sharp and narrow Raman peaks located at 508, 782, 844, 1135, 1242, 1331, 1464, 1510, and 1580 cm(-1) could be obviously observed in MCF-7 cells and in MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice, compared with that in pure DTTC. In 14-day treatments, the tumor volume of MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice injected with Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars and irradiated by an 808 nm laser almost disappeared. This study demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag@Au-DTTC nanostars could be excellent multifunctional agents for improved SERS imaging and NIR-triggered PTT of breast cancers with low risk.

  20. Vibrational states on vicinal surfaces of Al, Ag, Cu and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Rusina, G. G.; Chulkov, E. V.

    1998-10-01

    We present the calculation of vibrational modes and lattice relaxation for the (110), (211), (311), (511), (331) and (221) surfaces of Al, Ag, Cu and Pd. The surface phonon frequencies and polarizations are obtained for relaxed and unrelaxed surfaces using embedded atom model potentials. On all surfaces studied step-localized vibrational modes and surface states localized on terrace atoms are found. It is shown that as the terrace width increases so does the number of surface phonons. It is found that interlayer relaxation leads to a shift in the frequencies of the surface states and to a change in the number and localization. In particular, it may cause the appearance or disappearance of step modes. It is shown that the character of relaxation on vicinal surfaces is determined by the number of atoms on a terrace. A comparison of the results with the available experimental data for the Al(221), Cu(211), and Cu(511) surfaces indicates that there is a good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. On the mechanisms of cation injection in conducting bridge memories: The case of HfO2 in contact with noble metal anodes (Au, Cu, Ag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, M.; Gonon, P.; Vallée, C.; Mannequin, C.; Grampeix, H.; Jalaguier, E.; Jomni, F.; Bsiesy, A.

    2016-03-01

    Resistance switching is studied in HfO2 as a function of the anode metal (Au, Cu, and Ag) in view of its application to resistive memories (resistive random access memories, RRAM). Current-voltage (I-V) and current-time (I-t) characteristics are presented. For Au anodes, resistance transition is controlled by oxygen vacancies (oxygen-based resistive random access memory, OxRRAM). For Ag anodes, resistance switching is governed by cation injection (Conducting Bridge random access memory, CBRAM). Cu anodes lead to an intermediate case. I-t experiments are shown to be a valuable tool to distinguish between OxRRAM and CBRAM behaviors. A model is proposed to explain the high-to-low resistance transition in CBRAMs. The model is based on the theory of low-temperature oxidation of metals (Cabrera-Mott theory). Upon electron injection, oxygen vacancies and oxygen ions are generated in the oxide. Oxygen ions are drifted to the anode, and an interfacial oxide is formed at the HfO2/anode interface. If oxygen ion mobility is low in the interfacial oxide, a negative space charge builds-up at the HfO2/oxide interface. This negative space charge is the source of a strong electric field across the interfacial oxide thickness, which pulls out cations from the anode (CBRAM case). Inversely, if oxygen ions migration through the interfacial oxide is important (or if the anode does not oxidize such as Au), bulk oxygen vacancies govern resistance transition (OxRRAM case).

  2. Regional setting and characteristics of the Neoproterozoic Wadi Hamama Zn-Cu-Ag-Au