Science.gov

Sample records for ag ans arec

  1. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  2. Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2013-02-15

    We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

  3. An Au/AgBr-Ag heterostructure plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced catalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2017-01-17

    This study reports an easy synthesis protocol of a novel bimetallic silver halide (Au/AgBr-Ag) plasmonic heterostructure as a visible light induced photocatalyst. In this process, first CTAB capped Au NPs were coated with AgBr, and then Ag nanoparticles were formed on the surface of AgBr by photoreduction, while exposing to daylight at room temperature. The presence of Au and Ag improves the visible absorption ability of NPs and avoids charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr during photoexcitation, which in turn enhances 16 and 8.9 fold the photocatalytic efficiency of Rhodamine B dye degradation under visible light irradiation compared to that of pure AgBr and AgBr/Ag, respectively. The recycling tests of the photocatalyst show only ∼8.7% decrease in efficiency after the 5(th) cycle of reuse without changing the morphology. During the photocatalytic process, active superoxide radicals (O2˙(-)) play a major role, proved through scavenger trapping and photoluminescence experiments. The presence of two plasmonic metals (Au and Ag) in the heterostructure helps to improve visible light absorption as well as avoid charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr to act as a better photocatalyst. Since this heteronanostructure can be easily synthesized by a one-step method, this study could provide a new approach for the development of efficient bimetallic/semiconductor halide plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible absorption and better charge separation.

  4. Theoretical modeling of optical properties of Ag8 and Ag14 silver clusters embedded in an LTA sodalite zeolite cavity.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-10-07

    Optical properties of silver Ag(n) nanoclusters are demonstrated to be dependent on their size, structure and charge state. It is found that when being contained in the sodalite cavity of LTA zeolite the tetradecanuclear hexacation silver cluster Ag14(6+) is stable. Its lower-lying states and optical spectrum are theoretically determined using the quantum chemical TD-DFT method. Its ground state possesses an outer-shell electron configuration of A1g(2)T2g(6) mimicking the s(2)p(6) valence of noble gas atoms. These frontier orbitals are constructed from 5s,5p(Ag)-AOs with contributions from framework oxygen atoms. Light absorption of Ag14(6+) embedded in the sodalite cage which is characterized by strong peaks centered at 331 and 476 nm (transitions 5s,p(Ag) → 5s,p(Ag)) leads to much longer wavelength emission. The sodalite cage, as a container, stabilizes the central Ag14(6+) cluster by electrostatic attraction. The absorption spectrum of the isovalent neutral Ag8 cluster embedded inside the same sodalite cavity is also simulated using TD-DFT and CASPT2 methods. This absorption spectrum which is similar to that of the Ag14(6+) cluster has two absorption bands in the near UV and visible regions.

  5. An Ab Initio Study of the Low-Lying Doublet States of AgO and AgS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Spectroscopic constants (D(sub o), r(sub e), mu(sub e), T(sub e)) are determined for the doublet states of AgO and AgS below approx. = 30000/cm. Large valence basis sets are employed in conjunction with relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). Electron correlation is included using the modified coupled-pair functional (MCPF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods. The A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) - X(sup 2)Pi band system is found to occur in the near infrared (approx. = 9000/cm) and to be relatively weak with a radiative lifetime of 900 microns for A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) (upsilon = 0). The weakly bound C(sup 2)Pi state (our notation), the upper state of the blue system, is found to require high levels of theoretical treatment to determine a quantitatively accurate potential. The red system is assigned as a transition from the C(sup 2)Pi state to the previously unobserved A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) state. Several additional transitions are identified that should be detectable experimentally. A more limited study is performed for the vertical excitation spectrum of AgS. In addition, a detailed all-electron study of the X(sup 2)Pi and A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) states of AgO is carried out using large atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets. Our best calculated D(sub o) value for AgO is significantly less than the experimental value, which suggests that there may be some systematic error in the experimental determination.

  6. Response properties of AgCl and AgBr under an external static electric field: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, C. S.; Kokalj, A.; Rérat, M.; Valant, M.

    2012-10-01

    Density functional theory has been applied to investigate the effect of electric field on the electronic properties of AgCl and AgBr crystals using a static electric field perturbation. A reduction in the band gap value and widening of the band widths are observed with increase in the macroscopic field value indicating a considerable red shift in the absorption spectrum of AgCl and AgBr in the presence of an external electric field. Further, dielectric properties and lattice vibrations at the gamma point are calculated with three different functionals using the CPKS and the Berry phase approach as implemented in CRYSTAL09 code. Finally, the breakdown strength of AgCl and AgBr crystal is evaluated using Callen's equation. In contrast to the case of alkali halides, it is found that the inclusion of the numerically calculated effective mass ratio into the Callen's equation considerably improves the agreement between the calculated dielectric strength and the available experimental datum.

  7. The Ratio of 2-AG to Its Isomer 1-AG as an Intrinsic Fine Tuning Mechanism of CB1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dócs, Klaudia; Mészár, Zoltán; Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Holló, Krisztina; Antal, Miklós; Hegyi, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are pleiotropic lipid messengers that play pro-homeostatic role in cellular physiology by strongly influencing intracellular Ca2+ concentration through the activation of cannabinoid receptors. One of the best-known endocannabinoid ‘2-AG’ is chemically unstable in aqueous solutions, thus its molecular rearrangement, resulting in the formation of 1-AG, may influence 2-AG-mediated signaling depending on the relative concentration and potency of the two isomers. To predict whether this molecular rearrangement may be relevant in physiological processes and in experiments with 2-AG, here we studied if isomerization of 2-AG has an impact on 2-AG-induced, CB1-mediated Ca2+ signaling in vitro. We found that the isomerization-dependent drop in effective 2-AG concentration caused only a weak diminution of Ca2+ signaling in CB1 transfected COS7 cells. We also found that 1-AG induces Ca2+ transients through the activation of CB1, but its working concentration is threefold higher than that of 2-AG. Decreasing the concentration of 2-AG in parallel to the prevention of 1-AG formation by rapid preparation of 2-AG solutions, caused a significant diminution of Ca2+ signals. However, various mixtures of the two isomers in a fix total concentration – mimicking the process of isomerization over time – attenuated the drop in 2-AG potency, resulting in a minor decrease in CB1 mediated Ca2+ transients. Our results indicate that release of 2-AG into aqueous medium is accompanied by its isomerization, resulting in a drop of 2-AG concentration and simultaneous formation of the similarly bioactive isomer 1-AG. Thus, the relative concentration of the two isomers with different potency and efficacy may influence CB1 activation and the consequent biological responses. In addition, our results suggest that 1-AG may play role in stabilizing the strength of cannabinoid signal in case of prolonged 2-AG dependent cannabinoid mechanisms. PMID:28265242

  8. Mepilex Ag: an antimicrobial, absorbent foam dressing with Safetac technology.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Simon

    This article examines the role of a unique dressing-Mepilex Ag--that incorporates the rapid and sustained antimicrobial action of ionic silver with the benefits of Safetac soft silicone adhesive technology. The combined attributes of each component of this dressing allow both the control of pain and infection to be achieved simultaneously. This dual approach to the management of wounds is of significance since the evidence suggests that wound infection and the release of pro-inflammatory modulators result in both local pain and delayed healing. In this respect the control and treatment of pain is as important as the treatment of infection itself. A review of the clinical evidence relating to Safetac technology clearly demonstrates that it can be used to prevent dressing-related trauma, minimize pain at dressing change, and control exudate when used on a wide range of wound types and skin injuries. In combination with silver, this technology has been shown in in-vitro studies to have an almost instant and sustainable antimicrobial effect on a broad range of pathogens associated with delayed healing. Finally, in small clinical and case studies, Mepilex Ag has been shown to control wound bioburden and improve healing rates.

  9. High strength bonding of titanium to stainless steel using an Ag interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung G.; Hong, S. J.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Strong bonding between titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (STS) was achieved by employing a commercially available Ag-28Cu (wt.%) filler, and more importantly with a help of an Ag interlayer. A mass transport of the Ti elements from the substrate into the molten filler was completely prevented through the use of the Ag interlayer, so the resultant brazed joint was free from any brittle Ti-based intermetallic compounds. Notably, this Ti-STS dissimilar joint displayed a remarkable improvement in its bonding strength, demonstrating the potential application of an Ag interlayer for joining Ti and its alloys to various structural steels.

  10. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION AT THE BROOKHAVEN AGS - AN UPDATE.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; AHRENS,L.; ALESSI,J.; BAI,M.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BROWN,K.A.; GLENN,W.; LUCCIO,A.U.; MACKAY,W.W.; MONTAG,C.; PTITSYN,V.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; ZELENSKI,A.; ZENO,K.; CADMAN,B.; SPINKA,H.; UNDERWOOD,D.; RANJBAR,V.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC spin design goal assumes 2 x 10{sup 11} proton/bunch with 70% polarization. As the injector to RHIC, polarized protons have been accelerated at the AGS for years to increase the polarization transmission efficiency. Several novel techniques have been applied in the AGS to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. Progress on understanding the beam polarization behavior is presented. The outlook and future plan are also discussed.

  11. Overcoming an intrinsic depolarizing resonance with a partial snake at the Brookhaven AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K. A.; Glenn, W.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zeno, K.; Ranjbar, V.; Cadman, R. V.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.; High Energy Physics; BNL; Indiana Univ.

    2004-06-01

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized protons through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS or other medium energy proton synchrotrons to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances.

  12. An experimental investigation of the elastic scattering of He and H 2 from Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, James M.; Yerkes, Steven C.; Miller, David R.

    1980-03-01

    Experimental diffraction probabilities for 63 meV He and 66 meV H 2 scattering from Ag(111) along the <112¯> direction are reported. Debye-Waller experiments for the He/Ag(111) system yield a mean well depth of 9.3 meV and an effective surface Debye temperature of 253 K.

  13. Durability to Electromigration of an Annealing-Twinned Ag-4Pd Alloy Wire Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tung-Han; Lin, Hsin-Jung; Chuang, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jun-Der; Tsai, Hsing-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Ag-4Pd binary alloy wire has been produced as an alternative to a previously developed Ag-8Au-3Pd ternary alloy wire to meet requirements for high electrical conductivity and low cost. The electrical resistivity of this Ag-4Pd bonding wire, manufactured with a conventional method, is 3.7 μΩ cm, close to the values of traditional 3N Au wire (3.5 μΩ cm) and Pd-coated Cu wire (1.8 μΩ cm). To further improve the performance of this bonding wire, a large amount of annealing twins were introduced in this Ag-4Pd alloy wire through an innovative concept of sequential drawing and multiple annealing processes. The resulting electrical resistivity of this annealing-twinned Ag-4Pd wire is 3.5 μΩ cm. In contrast to the apparent increase in grain size in the conventional Ag-4Pd wire under electrical stressing with a current density of 1.23 × 105 A/cm2 for various times, the grains in this annealing-twinned wire grow much more slowly. The breaking load and elongation of this annealing-twinned Ag-4Pd wire are also higher than those of conventional wire. Furthermore, annealing twins increase the durability to electromigration of this Ag-4Pd wire under electrical stressing with various current densities.

  14. An electrochemical and multispectroscopic study of corrosion of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Niemi, L; Minni, E; Ivaska, A

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion of a multi-phase Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-based commercial dental casting alloy and a Cu-Pd-rich and Ag-rich single-phase alloy was studied by open-circuit potential measurements, atomic absorption spectrometry, and electron spectroscopy. The alloys were immersed in an artificial saliva solution for 24 hr while the open-circuit potentials of the alloys were measured. The potentials were found to stabilize at certain levels after a steep rise during the first hours of the experiment. Cu was found to dissolve considerably from the Cu-Pd-rich alloy, with simultaneous enrichment of Pd in the surface layer of the alloy. Ag dissolved slightly from the Ag-rich alloy, but both Cu and Ag were found to dissolve from the multi-phase alloy. Neither Pd nor Au dissolved from any of the alloys studied.

  15. Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans does not require an AG at the 3' splice acceptor site.

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, R V; Levy, A D; Koga, M; Ohshima, Y; Kramer, J M; Sternberg, P W

    1993-01-01

    The dinucleotide AG, found at the 3' end of virtually all eukaryotic pre-mRNA introns, is thought to be essential for splicing. Reduction-of-function mutations in two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, the receptor tyrosine kinase gene let-23 and the collagen gene dpy-10, both alter the AG at the end of a short (ca. 50-nucleotide) intron to AA. The in vivo effects of these mutations were studied by sequencing polymerase chain reaction-amplified reverse-transcribed RNA isolated from the two mutants. As expected, we find transcripts that splice to a cryptic AG, skip an exon, and retain an unspliced intron. However, we also find significant levels of splicing at the mutated 3' splice site (AA) and at nearby non-AG dinucleotides. Our results indicate that for short C. elegans introns an AG is not required for splicing at either the correct 3' splice site or incorrect sites. Analysis of a splice site mutant involving a longer, 316-nucleotide C. elegans intron indicates that an AG is also not required there for splicing. We hypothesize that elements besides the invariant AG, e.g., an A-U-rich region, a UUUC motif, and/or a potential branch point sequence, are directing the selection of the 3' splice site and that in wild-type genes these elements cooperate so that proper splicing occurs. Images PMID:8417357

  16. The Intermetallic Compound Formation for the Wire Bond Between an Al Pad and Ag-xPd Alloy Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Lin, Yu-Wei; Cheng, Yun-Kai

    2016-12-01

    Silver-palladium alloy wire has been shown as an economical and reliable substitute for gold wire in various applications in the electronic packaging industry. The success of wire bonding relies on the formation of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC). This study is aimed to investigate the formation behavior of IMCs between an Al pad and Ag-Pd alloy wire with various Pd concentrations of 1.0-6.0% for the as-bonded commercial Ag/Al joint. The interfacial IMCs were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The IMCs formed are separate (Ag, Pd)2Al and (Ag, Pd)3Al2 for a Ag6Pd wire bond, while (Ag, Pd)2Al and (Ag, Pd)3Al2 are mixed for the other Ag(1-4.5)Pd alloy wire bonds. The thickness of the total IMC layer varies from 0.65 μm for Ag1Pd to 0.91 μm for Ag6Pd, yet a minimum of 0.44 μm exists for Ag3.5Pd. The compound formation behavior was found to correspond with the Ag-Al phase diagram. After pressure cooker tests, a less stable IMC (Ag, Pd)3Al formed at the AgxPd/Al interface.

  17. An overview of Booster and AGS polarized proton operation during Run 15

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2015-10-20

    This note is an overview of the Booster and AGS for the 2015 Polarized Proton RHIC run from an operations perspective. There are some notable differences between this and previous runs. In particular, the polarized source intensity was expected to be, and was, higher this year than in previous RHIC runs. The hope was to make use of this higher input intensity by allowing the beam to be scraped down more in the Booster to provide a brighter and smaller beam for the AGS and RHIC. The RHIC intensity requirements were also higher this run than in previous runs, which caused additional challenges because the AGS polarization and emittance are normally intensity dependent.

  18. A novel hexanuclear silver(I) cluster containing a regular Ag6 ring with short Ag-Ag distances and an argentophilic interaction.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Elena; Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Laguna, Antonio; López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Sánchez, Agustin; Sordo, José; Vázquez López, Ezequiel M

    2013-04-28

    The hexanuclear complex [HQ][Ag(p-mpspa)] (H2-p-mpspa = 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acid) was prepared by reacting the precursor [Ag(H-p-mpspa)] with diisopropylamine (Q). The complex was characterized by spectroscopic techniques and the structure was solved by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The crystal contains hydrogen-bonded diisopropylammonium cations and [Ag6(p-mpspa)6](6-) anions that are based on a regular Ag6 ring with each S-donor atom of the sulfanylcarboxylate ligand bridging two Ag atoms. The Ag-Ag bond distances, 2.8036(6) Å, are very short and suggest a closed shell d(10)···d(10) argentophilic interaction. To analyze the relative role of this interaction and that of the S-bridging atom the anionic [Ag6(p-mpspa)6](6-) moiety has been studied theoretically at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and 2(nd) order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) levels on a very simple [Ag6(SH)6] A model system. A large model system [Ag6(p-mpspa)6](6-)B has also been studied by applying the ONIOM (QM/MM) approach using HF/UFF and MP2/UFF combinations as levels of theory. The six experimentally observed Ag(I)···Ag(I) supported interactions are reproduced when dispersion-type interactions are considered in the theory levels MP2 and ONIOM MP2/UFF for models A and B, respectively. The use of HF and ONIOM HF/UFF levels led to a similar hexanuclear structure but displayed a large hexagonal disposition without argentophilic contacts for both models A and B. The steric hindrance exerted by the ligands did not preclude the formation of argentophilic interactions, as observed experimentally.

  19. An expedient route to a potent gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist (+)-AG-041R.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeki; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kanoh, Naoki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2009-10-02

    An enantiocontrolled synthesis of (+)-AG-041R (1), a potent gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist, has been achieved employing a chiral rhodium(II)-catalyzed, oxidative intramolecular aza-spiroannulation as the key step.

  20. Surface segregation in an Al-4.2 at% Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. K.; Hyland, R. W.; Aaronson, H. I.; Wynblatt, P. P.

    1998-06-01

    The equilibrium surface composition of a polycrystalline Al-4.2 at% Ag alloy has been measured as a function of temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy. These results indicate that silver segregates to surfaces with an apparent enthalpy of segregation of about -38.5 kJ/mol. The equilibrium average surface composition of the alloy has been calculated as a function of surface orientation using the Lee-Aaronson discrete lattice plane model. A modified regular solution model originally due to Alexander et al. was used to represent the interactions between Al and Ag atoms. While this model successfully described the relevant portion of the Al-Ag phase diagram and the faceting behavior of GP zones in Al rich Al-Ag alloys, it predicted no surface segregation of Ag in the present studies. These results are in contrast to the results obtained experimentally. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement are considered. Finally, the surface segregation of silver measured by AES was compared with that predicted by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, wherein the latter calculation made use of the results of ultra high vacuum measurements of the bulk composition dependence of the surface tension of α Al-Ag alloys (to be reported elsewhere). Qualitative agreement was found between the two experimental methods, both indicating enrichment of Ag at the free surfaces.

  1. Stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles: An effective platform for catalytic activity tuning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yao, Qiaofeng; Cao, Hongbin; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Pt-based nanomaterials for catalysis can be greatly enhanced by coupling morphology engineering to the strategic presence of a second or even third metal. Here we demonstrate the design and preparation of stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles where significant activity difference between the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) may be realized by relegating Ag to the core or by hollowing out the core. In particular the stellated Pt surface, with an abundance of steps, edges, corner atoms, and {111} facets, is highly effective for the ORR but is ineffective for MOR. MOR activity is only observed in the presence of a Ag core through electronic coupling to the stellated Pt shell. The bimetallic Ag-Pt stellates therefore demonstrate the feasibility of tuning a Pt surface for two very different structure sensitive catalytic reactions. Stellated bimetallics may therefore be an effective platform for highly tunable catalyst designs. PMID:24495979

  2. Nonreciprocal optical transmission through a single conical air hole in an Ag film.

    PubMed

    Peng, Nan; Li, Xiaokang; She, Weilong

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we propose a simple metal micro-nano structure having the character of nonreciprocal optical zero-order transmission. The structure is a single conical air hole (CAH) in an Ag film whose optical absorption with geometric asymmetry breaks the time reversal symmetry of the electromagnetic field. By comparing the transmissions of Ag CAH with those of ideal conductor (IC) CAH, three effects of Ag CAH, including diffraction, Fabry-Perot-like (FPL) resonance and localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance, are analyzed and discussed. Under optimized conditions, we find that the ratio of forward transmission to backward one can be larger than 9 at a proper wavelength in visible range. This kind of Ag CAH is expected to have the potential served as all-optical diode.

  3. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5-25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance

  4. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and

  5. Underpotential deposition of Cd on Ag(1 1 1): an in situ STM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, S. G.; Salinas, D. R.; Staikov, G.

    2005-02-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of Cd underpotential deposition (UPD) and involved surface alloy formation processes in the system Ag(1 1 1)/Cd 2+, SO42-, are studied by means of combined electrochemical measurements and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The results show that the UPD process starts with a formation of an expanded (diluted) adlayer with a superlattice structure Ag(1 1 1)- (√{3}×√{19})R23.4°. In the underpotential range 50 mV < Δ E < 80 mV this adlayer transforms to a condensed close packed Cd monolayer via a first order phase transition. At long polarization times the condensed monolayer undergoes structural changes involving place exchange processes between Cd atoms and surface Ag atoms. A formation of a second Cd monolayer and a significant Ag-Cd surface alloying take place at lower underpotentials (Δ E < 50 mV). The kinetics of surface alloying are analyzed on the basis of a recently proposed diffusion model including a relatively fast initial formation of a very thin surface alloy film and a subsequent slow alloy growth controlled by solid state diffusion. The anodic dealloying results in an appearance of monatomically deep pits, which disappear quickly at relatively high underpotentials (Δ E > 550 mV) indicating a high mobility of surface Ag atoms.

  6. Synthesis and Complete Antimicrobial Characterization of CEOBACTER, an Ag-Based Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez-Peña, M.; Raymond-Herrera, O.; Villavicencio-García, H.; Petranovskii, V.; Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Huerta-Saquero, A.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently used as an alternative disinfectant with diverse applications, ranging from decontamination of aquatic environments to disinfection of medical devices and instrumentation. However, incorporation of AgNPs to the environment causes collateral damage that should be avoided. In this work, a novel Ag-based nanocomposite (CEOBACTER) was successfully synthetized. It showed excellent antimicrobial properties without the spread of AgNPs into the environment. The complete CEOBACTER antimicrobial characterization protocol is presented herein. It is straightforward and reproducible and could be considered for the systematic characterization of antimicrobial nanomaterials. CEOBACTER showed minimal bactericidal concentration of 3 μg/ml, bactericidal action time of 2 hours and re-use capacity of at least five times against E. coli cultures. The bactericidal mechanism is the release of Ag ions. CEOBACTER displays potent bactericidal properties, long lifetime, high stability and re-use capacity, and it does not dissolve in the solution. These characteristics point to its potential use as a bactericidal agent for decontamination of aqueous environments. PMID:27824932

  7. Synthesis and Complete Antimicrobial Characterization of CEOBACTER, an Ag-Based Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Acuña, O E; Meza-Villezcas, A; Vasquez-Peña, M; Raymond-Herrera, O; Villavicencio-García, H; Petranovskii, V; Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Huerta-Saquero, A

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently used as an alternative disinfectant with diverse applications, ranging from decontamination of aquatic environments to disinfection of medical devices and instrumentation. However, incorporation of AgNPs to the environment causes collateral damage that should be avoided. In this work, a novel Ag-based nanocomposite (CEOBACTER) was successfully synthetized. It showed excellent antimicrobial properties without the spread of AgNPs into the environment. The complete CEOBACTER antimicrobial characterization protocol is presented herein. It is straightforward and reproducible and could be considered for the systematic characterization of antimicrobial nanomaterials. CEOBACTER showed minimal bactericidal concentration of 3 μg/ml, bactericidal action time of 2 hours and re-use capacity of at least five times against E. coli cultures. The bactericidal mechanism is the release of Ag ions. CEOBACTER displays potent bactericidal properties, long lifetime, high stability and re-use capacity, and it does not dissolve in the solution. These characteristics point to its potential use as a bactericidal agent for decontamination of aqueous environments.

  8. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  9. Microstructure evolution during annealing of an SPD- processed supersaturated Cu - 3 at.% Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubicza, J.; Hegedüs, Z.; Lábár, J. L.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Kauffmann, A.; Freudenberger, J.

    2014-08-01

    Supersaturated Cu - 3 at.% Ag alloy was processed by rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature and subsequent annealing at 623 K up to 20 min. It was found that after annealing, an inhomogeneous solute atom distribution developed, since the Ag particles with small size and/or large specific interfacial energy were dissolved due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect. In the region where the solute concentration increased, a high dislocation density was retained in the Cu matrix even after annealing, while in the region where the Ag solute content did not increase, the dislocation density decreased by more than one order of magnitude. Therefore, in the cryorolled and annealed samples, heterogeneous microstructures were developed where both the dislocation density and the solute concentration varied considerably.

  10. Switching behaviour of individual Ag-TCNQ nanowires: an in situ transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Ke; Rösner, Benedikt; Butz, Benjamin; Fink, Rainer H.; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2016-10-01

    The organic semiconductor silver-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Ag-TCNQ) exhibits electrical switching and memory characteristics. Employing a scanning tunnelling microscopy setup inside a transmission electron microscope, the switching behaviour of individual Ag-TCNQ nanowires (NWs) is investigated in detail. For a large number of NWs, the switching between a high (OFF) and a low (ON) resistance state was successfully stimulated by negative bias sweeps. Fitting the experimental I-V curves with a Schottky emission function makes the switching features prominent and thus enables a direct evaluation of the switching process. A memory cycle including writing, reading and erasing features is demonstrated at an individual NW. Moreover, electronic failure mechanisms due to Joule heating are discussed. These findings have a significant impact on our understanding of the switching behaviour of Ag-TCNQ.

  11. Ru-Ag and Ru-Au dicarbene complexes from an abnormal carbene ruthenium system.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Mario J; Pöthig, Alexander; Jandl, Christian; Kühn, Fritz E; Baratta, Walter

    2015-07-14

    Reaction of [Ru(OAc)2(PPh3)2] with a P-functionalized imidazolium bromide easily affords a cationic abnormal carbene Ru system. Metalation with Ag2O yields a Ru-Ag complex containing an anionic dicarbene ligand, while subsequent transmetalation with Au(tht)Cl leads to the corresponding Ru-Au system. The bimetallic complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and are the first examples of complexes bearing anionic dicarbene ligands connecting two different d-block elements.

  12. Comparative investigation of underpotential deposition of Ag from aqueous and ionic electrolytes: An electrochemical and in situ STM study.

    PubMed

    Borissov, D; Aravinda, C L; Freyland, W

    2005-06-16

    Underpotential deposition (UPD) of Ag on Au(111) has been studied with two different electrolytes: aqueous 0.1 M H2SO4 solution in comparison with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride BMICl + AlCl3. Of particular interest is the distinct behavior of 2D phase formation at both interfaces, which has been investigated by cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry in combination with in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). It is found that one monolayer (ML) of Ag is formed in the UPD region in both electrolytes. In aqueous solution, atomically resolved STM images at 500 mV versus Ag/Ag+ show a (3 x 3) adlayer of Ag, whereas after sweeping the potential just before the commencement of the bulk Ag deposition, a transition from expanded (3 x 3) to pseudomorphic ML of Ag on Au(111) occurs. In BMICl-AlCl3, the first UPD process of Ag exhibits two peaks at 410 and 230 mV indicating that two distinct processes on the surface take place. For the first time, STM images with atomic resolution reveal a transition from an inhomogeneous to an ordered phase with a (square root of 3 x square root of 3)R30 degrees structure and an adsorption of AlCl4- anions having a superlattice of (1.65 x square root of 3)R30 degrees preceding the deposition of Ag.

  13. An efficient visible-light photocatalyst prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Desong Zhao, Mangmang; Luo, Qingzhi; Yin, Rong; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by modifying AgBr particles. • A small amount of activated carbon was used to modify AgBr particles. • The modified AgBr exhibited improved visible-light photocatalytic performances. - Abstract: An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was successfully prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon (AC) via a simple chemical precipitation approach. The AC/AgBr composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the AC/AgBr composite were investigated by evaluating photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and phenol under visible light irradiation, and the effects of the AC content in the composite, concentrations of AC/AgBr composite and MO, carrier scavengers on MO photodegradation rate were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the modification of AC can hardly change the crystalline and crystal size of AgBr particles, while significantly improve their specific surface areas, visible-light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Compared with pure AgBr, the AC/AgBr composite exhibited drastically enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. The photogenerated electrons and holes, hydroxyl radicals are responsible to the photodegradation of organic pollutants, and the photogenerated holes are the main active species. On the basis of the results and the properties of AC and AgBr, the visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the AC/AgBr composite was discussed.

  14. An ultrasensitive, uniform and large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate based on Ag or Ag/Au nanoparticles decorated Si nanocone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. P.; Gao, J.; Sun, X. H.

    2015-01-01

    Large-area and highly ordered Si nanocone arrays decorated with Ag or Au/Ag nanoparticles have been fabricated via a mask-free lithography with reaction ion etching, followed by metal deposition process. Ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering signals with an enhancement factor of 1012 were achieved even at the concentration of the Rhodamine 6G as low as 10-15 M. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate was also applied on the detection of Sudan I dye and the Raman signals were substantially enhanced as well. The stability of the SERS substrate can be significantly improved by covering Ag nanoparticles with Au thin layer, which maintain a high SERS performance even after one month storage. This nanofabrication process appears to be a feasible approach to prepare uniform and reproducible SERS-active substrates with high sensitivity and stability for practical SERS applications.

  15. The Characteristics of an Antibacterial TiAgN Thin Film Coated by Physical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Park, Gye-Choon; Yoon, Dong-Joo; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lim, Yeong-Seog

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we found the characteristics of an antibacterial TiAgN thin film coated on the pure titanium specimen via the physical vapor deposition process (PVD). TiAgN thin films were coated using TiAg alloy targets by arc ion plating method. Changing the process parameters, the surface analysis of TiAgN thin film was observed by FE-SEM and the force of adhesion was measured with Scratch Tester. The proliferation of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells was examined by XTT test assay and the antibacterial properties were investigated by culturing Streptococus Mutans (KCTC 3065) using paper disk techniques. At the result of experiment, cytotoxic effects were not found and the antibacterial effects against Streptococus Mutans were appeared over 5 wt% TiAgN specimens.

  16. An Ag-grid/graphene hybrid structure for large-scale, transparent, flexible heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Junmo; Jang, Yonghee; Kim, Youngsoo; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Suhr, Jonghwan; Hong, Byung Hee; Choi, Jae-Boong; Byun, Doyoung

    2015-04-01

    Recently, carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for fabricating transparent conducting materials. However, obtaining low sheet resistance and high transmittance of these carbon materials has been challenging due to the intrinsic properties of the materials. In this paper, we introduce highly transparent and flexible conductive films based on a hybrid structure of graphene and an Ag-grid. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing was used to produce a micro-scale grid consisting of Ag lines less than 10 μm wide. We were able to directly write the Ag-grid on a large-area graphene/flexible substrate due to the high conductivity of graphene. The hybrid electrode could be fabricated using hot pressing transfer and EHD jet printing in a non-vacuum, maskless, and low-temperature environment. The hybrid electrode offers an effective and simple route for achieving a sheet resistance as low as ~4 Ω per square with ~78% optical transmittance. Finally, we demonstrate that transparent flexible heaters based on the hybrid conductive films could be used in a vehicle or a smart window system.Recently, carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for fabricating transparent conducting materials. However, obtaining low sheet resistance and high transmittance of these carbon materials has been challenging due to the intrinsic properties of the materials. In this paper, we introduce highly transparent and flexible conductive films based on a hybrid structure of graphene and an Ag-grid. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing was used to produce a micro-scale grid consisting of Ag lines less than 10 μm wide. We were able to directly write the Ag-grid on a large-area graphene/flexible substrate due to the high conductivity of graphene. The hybrid electrode could be fabricated using hot pressing transfer and EHD jet printing in a non

  17. Fabrication of an organic field effect transistor using nano imprinting of Ag inks and semiconducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, PingAn; Li, Kun; Chen, Weilin; Peng, Li; Chu, Daping; O'Neill, William

    2010-07-01

    A simple and cheap procedure for flexible electronics fabrication was demonstrated by imprinting metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on flexible substrates. Silver NPs with an average diameter of 10 nm were prepared via an improved chemical approach and Ag Np ink was produced in α-terpineol with a concentration up to 15%. Silver micro/nanostructures with a dimension varying from nanometres to microns were produced on a flexible substrate (polyimide) by imprinting the as-prepared silver ink. The fine fluidic properties of an Ag NP/α-terpineol solution and low melting temperatures of silver nanoparticles render a low pressure and low temperature procedure, which is well suited for flexible electronics fabrication. The effects of sintering and mechanical bending on the conductivity of imprinted silver contacts were also investigated. Large area organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates were fabricated using an imprinted silver electrode and semiconducting polymer. The OFET with silver electrodes imprinted from our prepared oleic acid stabilized Ag nanoparticle ink show an ideal ohmic contact; therefore, the OFET exhibit high performance (Ion/Ioff ratio: 1 × 103; mobility: 0.071 cm2 V-1 s-1).

  18. Heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Du, Hong; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wen, Tao; Xu, An-Wu

    2013-03-01

    A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high efficiencies of the photocatalytic activity and the improved stability. With the assistance of Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag heterostructures, only 8 min and 12 min are taken to completely decompose MO and MB molecules under visible-light irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the photodegradation rate does not show an obvious decrease during ten successive cycles, indicating that our heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts are extremely stable under visible-light irradiation.A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high

  19. Polyhedral AgBr microcrystals with an increased percentage of exposed {111} facets as a highly efficient visible-light photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lang, Xiufeng; Gao, Jian; Liu, Wei; Wu, Di; Wu, Yongmin; Guo, Lin; Li, Jinghong

    2012-04-10

    Synthesis of inorganic single crystals with exposed high-reactivity facets is a desirable target in the catalytic chemistry field. Polyhedral AgBr microcrystals with an increased percentage of exposed high-reactivity {111} facets have been successfully prepared for the first time, and the photocatalytic performance of these microcrystals when used as an AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was investigated. The results indicate that the as-prepared sample has high photocatalytic activity and, under the same measurement conditions, the photodegradation rate of methyl orange dye over these microcrystals is at least four times faster than with other shapes of AgBr/Ag microstructure, as well as 20 times faster than with the highly efficient Ag(3)PO(4) photocatalyst. DFT calculations suggest that the AgBr (111) surface is mainly composed of unsaturated Ag atoms and has a relatively high surface energy, both of which are favorable for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the AgBr/Ag polyhedron photocatalyst. This work not only provides a highly efficient plasmonic photocatalyst of polyhedral AgBr/Ag microcrystals with an increased percentage of exposed high-reactivity AgBr {111} facets, but also demonstrates that the shape and crystalline quality of the exposed facets have an important influence on the photocatalytic activities.

  20. SARS Grid--an AG-based disease management and collaborative platform.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shu-Hui; Hung, Tsung-Chieh; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the NCHC's Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Grid project-An Access Grid (AG)-based disease management and collaborative platform that allowed for SARS patient's medical data to be dynamically shared and discussed between hospitals and doctors using AG's video teleconferencing (VTC) capabilities. During the height of the SARS epidemic in Asia, SARS Grid and the SARShope website significantly curved the spread of SARS by helping doctors manage the in-hospital and in-home care of quarantined SARS patients through medical data exchange and the monitoring of the patient's symptoms. Now that the SARS epidemic has ended, the primary function of the SARS Grid project is that of a web-based informatics tool to increase pubic awareness of SARS and other epidemic diseases. Additionally, the SARS Grid project can be viewed and further studied as an outstanding model of epidemic disease prevention and/or containment.

  1. Molecular characterisation of an endornavirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT infecting potato.

    PubMed

    Das, Subha; Falloon, Richard E; Stewart, Alison; Pitman, Andrew R

    2014-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus that has a broad host range, including potato. In this study, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) profiles were defined for 39 Rhizoctonia solani isolates representative of two different anastomosis groups (AGs) associated with black scurf of potato in New Zealand. A large dsRNA of c. 12 kb-18 kb was detected in each of the isolates, regardless of AG or virulence on potato. Characterisation of the large dsRNA from R. solani AG-3PT isolate RS002, using random amplification of total dsRNA and analyses of overlapping cDNA sequences, resulted in the assembly of a consensus sequence of 14 694 nt. A single, large open reading frame was identified on the positive strand of the assembled sequence encoding a putative polypeptide of at least 4893 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 555.6 kDa. Conserved domains within this polypeptide included those for a viral methyltransferase, a viral RNA helicase 1 and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The domains and their sequential organisation revealed the polyprotein was very similar to those encoded by dsRNA viruses of the genus Endornavirus, in the family Endornaviridae. This is the first report of an endornavirus in R. solani, and thus the putative virus is herein named Rhizoctonia solani endornavirus - RS002 (RsEV-RS002). Partial characterisation of the large dsRNAs in five additional AG-3PT isolates of R. solani also identified them as probable endornaviruses, suggesting this family of viruses is widespread in R. solani infecting potato. The ubiquitous nature of endornaviruses in this plant pathogen implies they may have an important, but yet uncharacterised, role in R. solani.

  2. The spectroscopic constants and anharmonic force field of AgSH: An ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanliang; Wang, Meishan; Yang, Chuanlu; Ma, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Ziliang

    2016-07-05

    The equilibrium structure, spectroscopy constants, and anharmonic force field of silver hydrosulfide (AgSH) have been calculated at B3P86, B3PW91 and MP2 methods employing two basis sets, TZP and QZP, respectively. The calculated geometries, ground state rotational constants, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, and quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. The equilibrium rotational constants, fundamental frequencies, anharmonic constants, and vibration-rotation interaction constants, Coriolis coupling constants, cubic and quartic force constants are predicted. The calculated results show that the MP2/TZP results are in good agreement with experiment observation and are also an advisable choice to study the anharmonic force field of AgSH.

  3. An Ag-grid/graphene hybrid structure for large-scale, transparent, flexible heaters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junmo; Jang, Yonghee; Kim, Youngsoo; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Suhr, Jonghwan; Hong, Byung Hee; Choi, Jae-Boong; Byun, Doyoung

    2015-04-21

    Recently, carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for fabricating transparent conducting materials. However, obtaining low sheet resistance and high transmittance of these carbon materials has been challenging due to the intrinsic properties of the materials. In this paper, we introduce highly transparent and flexible conductive films based on a hybrid structure of graphene and an Ag-grid. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing was used to produce a micro-scale grid consisting of Ag lines less than 10 μm wide. We were able to directly write the Ag-grid on a large-area graphene/flexible substrate due to the high conductivity of graphene. The hybrid electrode could be fabricated using hot pressing transfer and EHD jet printing in a non-vacuum, maskless, and low-temperature environment. The hybrid electrode offers an effective and simple route for achieving a sheet resistance as low as ∼4 Ω per square with ∼78% optical transmittance. Finally, we demonstrate that transparent flexible heaters based on the hybrid conductive films could be used in a vehicle or a smart window system.

  4. The γ-polymorph of AgZnPO4 with an ABW zeolite-type framework topology

    PubMed Central

    Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2010-01-01

    The γ-polymorph of the title compound, silver zinc orthophos­phate, was synthesized under hydro­thermal conditions. The structure consists of ZnO4, PO4 and AgO4 units. The coord­ination spheres of ZnII and PV are tetra­hedral, whereas the AgI atom is considerably distorted from a tetra­hedral coordination. Each O atom is linked to each of the three cations. An elliptic eight-membered ring system is formed by corner-sharing of alternating PO4 and ZnO4 tetra­hedra, leading to a framework with an ABW-type zeolite structure. The framework encloses channels running parallel to [100] in which the Ag cations are located, with Ag⋯Ag contacts of 3.099 (3) Å. This short distance results from d 10⋯d 10 inter­actions, which play a substantial role in the crystal packing. The structure of γ-AgZnPO4 is distinct from the two other polymorphs α-AgZnPO4 and β-AgZnPO4, but is isotypic with NaZnPO4-ABW, NaCoPO4-ABW and NH4CoPO4-ABW. PMID:21588789

  5. Nanostructured AgBr loaded TiO2: An efficient sunlight active photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 120.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Rengasamy; Sreedhar, Bojja; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram

    2011-07-30

    The AgBr loaded TiO2 catalyst was prepared by a feasible approach with AgBr and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and characterized by BET surface area measurement, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. The results of characterization reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a nanostructure. Formation of the nanostructure in AgBr loaded TiO2 results in substantial shifting of the absorption edge of TiO2 to red and enhancement of visible light absorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a higher photoconductivity than prepared TiO2 due to higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal enhanced conductivity in AgBr loaded TiO2, which causes an increase in its photocatalytic activity. AgBr loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2-P25 and prepared TiO2 in the photodegradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120).

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of an efficient Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalyst under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The plasmatic Ag@AgBr sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts. • Ag@AgBr greatly increased visible light absorption for K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}. • The plamonic photocatalysts exhibited enhanced activity for the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Ag@AgBr nanoparticle-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts (Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}) were prepared by a facile precipitation–photoreduction method. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanocomposites were evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The composites exhibited excellent visible light absorption, which was attributable to the surface plasmon effect of Ag nanoparticles. The Ag@AgBr was uniformly scattered on the surface of K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} and possessed sizes in the range of 20–50 nm. The loading amount of Ag@AgBr was also studied, and was found to influence the absorption spectra of the resulting composites. Approximately 95.9% of RhB was degraded by Ag@AgBr (20 wt.%)/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} after irradiation for 1 h. The stability of the material was also investigated by performing consecutive runs. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that ·O{sub 2}{sup −} and Br{sup 0} acted as the main reactive species. Based on the experimental results, a photocatalytic mechanism for organics degradation over Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} photocatalysts was proposed.

  7. ZnO/Ag nanocomposite: an efficient catalyst for degradation studies of textile effluents under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Karthikeyan, N; Gupta, V K; Thirumal, E; Thangadurai, P; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2013-05-01

    Degradation of model organic dye and industry effluent was studied using different weight percentages of Ag into ZnO as a catalyst. In this study, the catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition method, which was employed for the first time in the preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite catalysts. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were studied using various techniques. The specific surface area, which plays an important role in the photocatalytic degradation, was studied using BET analysis and 10 wt.% Ag into ZnO showed the best degrading efficiency. The optical absorption (UV-vis) and emission (PL) properties of the samples were studied and results suggest better photocatalytic properties for 10 wt.% Ag sample compared to other samples.

  8. Highly thermostable, flexible, transparent, and conductive films on polyimide substrate with an AZO/AgNW/AZO structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qijin; Shen, Wenfeng; Fang, Xingzhong; Chen, Guofei; Yang, Ye; Huang, Jinhua; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2015-02-25

    Flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) are used in a variety of optoelectronic devices. However, their use is limited due to poor thermostability. We report hybrid TCFs incorporation in both aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The layered AZO/AgNWs/AZO structure was deposited onto a transparent polyimide (PI) substrate and displayed excellent thermostability. When heated to 250 °C for 1 h, the change in resistivity (Rc) was less than 10% (Rc of pure AgNW film > 500) while retaining good photoelectric properties (Rsh = 8.6 Ohm/sq and T = 74.4%). Layering the AgNW network between AZO films decreased the surface roughness (Rrms < 8 nm) and enhances the mechanical flexibility of the hybrid films. The combination of these characteristics makes the hybrid film an excellent candidate for substrates of novel flexible optoelectronic devices which require high-temperature processing.

  9. Ag Out-surface Diffusion In Crystalline SiC With An Effective SiO2 Diffusion Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, H.; Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Snead, Lance L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    For applications of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in high temperature reactors, release of radioactive Ag isotope (110mAg) through the SiC coating layer is a safety concern. To understand the diffusion mechanism, Ag ion implantations near the surface and in the bulk were performed by utilizing different ion energies and energy-degrader foils. High temperature annealing was carried out on the as-irradiated samples to study the possible out-surface diffusion. Before and after annealing, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements were employed to obtain the elemental profiles of the implanted samples. The results suggest little migration of buried Ag in the bulk, and an out-diffusion of the implanted Ag in the near-surface region of single crystal SiC. It is also found that a SiO2 layer, which was formed during annealing, may serve as an effective barrier to reduce or prevent Ag out diffusion through the SiC coating layer.

  10. Lithogeochemistry and fluid inclusions of an Au-Ag vein deposit in a granodiorite intrusive

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, R.; Ikramuddin, M.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-eight samples of altered and unaltered rocks and quartz veins from the Acme mine in northeast Washington, an Au-Ag vein deposit in a granodiorite intrusive, have been analyzed for SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Feo, MgO, CaO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, MnO, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, Ag, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, and Zn. A comparison of major and trace elements shows that the altered granodiorite is enriched in SiO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, Ag, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, Rb, Tl, and Zn and depleted in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, MnO, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Sr. The average contents of Au in unaltered and altered granodiorite and quartz veins are 9 ppb. 270 ppb and 1020 ppb respectively. The average Ba/Tl ratio in the altered samples decrease and average Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios increase. K, Rb, and Tl are enriched in the altered granodiorite by factors of 1.5, 1.6, and 1.4 respectively. Tl is not enriched relative to Rb and K in the altered samples due to the high temperature of the deposit. The Ba/Tl, K/Tl and K/Rb ratios do not show complete separation of altered from unaltered samples. However, the Ba/Tl and K/Tl ratios in the quartz vein are significantly lower than the unaltered and altered granodiorite. This is due to the enrichment of Tl over K and Rb in the quartz veins. The Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios are higher in the altered granodiorite and quartz veins compared to unaltered samples. The enrichment of Tl and presence of low Ba/Tl and high Rb/Sr and Tl/Sr ratios in a granodiorite indicate that the rocks are hydrothermally altered and represent a possible Au-Ag target.

  11. Genetic characterization of an isolate of HIV type 1 AG recombinant form circulating in Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Baryshev, P B; Bogachev, V V; Gashnikova, N M

    2012-12-01

    Before 2008, HIV-1 subtype A was the predominant genetic variant in the Novosibirsk oblast of Russia as well as in most parts of this country. However, a rapid spread of the recombinant HIV-1 02_AG form has been reported in Novosibirsk since 2009. We have analyzed the genome of the 10.RU.6637 isolate, a HIV-1 02_AG recombinant form, which represents a monophyletic cluster of the HIV-1 variants widespread in this region. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the Siberian 10.RU.6637 isolate displays the highest sequence identity to the HIV-1 subtype AG forms circulating in Uzbekistan. However, recombination analysis of 10.RU.6637 has demonstrated that this isolate is a recombinant form between HIV-1 subtype A and CRF02_AG, differing in its genetic structure from both the CRF02_AG reference sequences and the Central Asian variants of HIV-1 02_AG.

  12. An intermetallic Au24Ag20 superatom nanocluster stabilized by labile ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Su, Haifeng; Xu, Chaofa; Li, Gang; Gell, Lars; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Häkkinen, Hannu; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-04-08

    An intermetallic nanocluster containing 44 metal atoms, Au24Ag20(2-SPy)4(PhC≡C)20Cl2, was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal analysis and density funtional theory computations. The 44 metal atoms in the cluster are arranged as a concentric three-shell Au12@Ag20@Au12 Keplerate structure having a high symmetry. For the first time, the co-presence of three different types of anionic ligands (i.e., phenylalkynyl, 2-pyridylthiolate, and chloride) was revealed on the surface of metal nanoclusters. Similar to thiolates, alkynyls bind linearly to surface Au atoms using their σ-bonds, leading to the formation of two types of surface staple units (PhC≡C-Au-L, L = PhC≡C(-) or 2-pyridylthiolate) on the cluster. The co-presence of three different surface ligands allows the site-specific surface and functional modification of the cluster. The lability of PhC≡C(-) ligands on the cluster was demonstrated, making it possible to keep the metal core intact while removing partial surface capping. Moreover, it was found that ligand exchange on the cluster occurs easily to offer various derivatives with the same metal core but different surface functionality and thus different solubility.

  13. An EELS study of the oxidation of H 2CO on Ag(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuve, E. M.; Madix, R. J.; Sexton, B. A.

    1982-07-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to study the oxidation of H 2CO by preadsorbed oxygen atoms on Ag(110). H 2CO reacted with O (a) upon adsorption at 100 K to give a product with intense symmetric and asymmetric OCO stretching modes at 960 and 1100 cm -1, respectively. These frequencies differed from those expected for adsorbed formate. Upon heating H 2CO (g) was evolved at about 225 K. EELS data taken after annealing to 225 K suggested the presence of an η 2-methylenedioxy intermediate (H 2CO 2(a)) which dehydrogenated to give adsorbed, ordered formate (HCOO (a)) and H 2(g) above 225 K. The overall stoichiometry combined with the EELS data strongly suggested a polymeric form of H 2CO at 100 K, probably paraformaldehyde. The decomposition to HCOO (a) was complete at about 250 K leaving only formate intermediates on the surface. The formate produced in this fashion was identical to ordered formate produced upon adsorption of formic acid on oxygen precovered Ag(110).

  14. Adsorption Behavior of Cellulose and Its Derivatives toward Ag(I) in Aqueous Medium: An AFM, Spectroscopic, and DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuantao; Dobryden, Illia; Rydén, Jens; Öberg, Sven; Holmgren, Allan; Mathew, Aji P

    2015-11-17

    The aim of this study was to develop a fundamental understanding of the adsorption behavior of metal ions on cellulose surfaces using experimental techniques supported by computational modeling, taking Ag(I) as an example. Force interactions among three types of cellulose microspheres (native cellulose and its derivatives with sulfate and phosphate groups) and the silica surface in AgNO3 solution were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using the colloidal probe technique. The adhesion force between phosphate cellulose microspheres (PCM) and the silica surface in the aqueous AgNO3 medium increased significantly with increasing pH while the adhesion force slightly decreased for sulfate cellulose microspheres (SCM), and no clear adhesion force was observed for native cellulose microspheres (CM). The stronger adhesion enhancement for the PCM system is mainly attributed to the electrostatic attraction between Ag(I) and the negative silica surface. The observed force trends were in good agreement with the measured zeta potentials. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analyses confirmed the presence of silver on the surface of cellulose microspheres after adsorption. This study showed that PCM with a high content of phosphate groups exhibited a larger amount of adsorbed Ag(I) than CM and SCM and possible clustering of Ag(I) to nanoparticles. The presence of the phosphate group and a wavenumber shift of the P-OH vibration caused by the adsorption of silver ions on the phosphate groups were further confirmed with computational studies using density functional theory (DFT), which gives support to the above findings regarding the adsorption and clustering of Ag(I) on the cellulose surface decorated with phosphate groups as well as IR spectra.

  15. An Ag based brazing system with a tunable thermal expansion for the use as sealant for solid oxide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiebach, Ragnar; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Sieborg, Bertil; Chen, Ming; Hjelm, Johan; Norrman, Kion; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2016-05-01

    An Ag-Al2TiO5 composite braze was developed and successfully tested as seal for solid oxide cells. The thermo-mechanical properties of the Ag-Al2TiO5 system and the chemical compatibility between this composite braze and relevant materials used in stacks were characterized and the leak rates as a function of the operation temperature were measured. The thermal expansion coefficient in the Ag-Al2TiO5 system can be tailored by varying the amount of the ceramic filler. The brazing process can be carried out in air, the joining partners showed a good chemical stability and sufficient low leak rates were demonstrated. Furthermore, the long-term stability of the Ag-Al2TiO5 composite braze was studied under relevant SOFC and SOEC conditions. The stability of brazed Crofer/Ag-Al2TiO5/NiO-YSZ assemblies in reducing atmosphere and in pure oxygen was investigated over 500 h at 850 °C. Additionally, a cell component test was performed to investigate the durability of the Ag-Al2TiO5 seal when exposed to dual atmosphere. The seals performed well over 900 h under electrolysis operation conditions (-0.5 A cm2, 850 °C), and no cell degradation related to the Ag-Al2TiO5 sealing was found, indicating that the developed braze system is applicable for the use in SOFC/SOEC stacks.

  16. Fabrication and characterisation of the graphene ring micro electrode (GRiME) with an integrated, concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, James W; Bromley, Michael; Andrieux, Fabrice P L; Boxall, Colin

    2013-03-14

    We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes with the addition of a miniature concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The graphene ring electrode is formed by dip coating fibre optics with graphene produced by a modified Hummers method. The reference electrode is formed using an established photocatalytically initiated electroless deposition (PIED) plating method. The performance of the so-formed graphene ring micro electrodes (GRiMEs) and associated reference electrode is studied using the probe redox system ferricyanide and electrode thicknesses assessed using established electrochemical methods. Using 220 µm diameter fibre optics, a ~15 nm thick graphene ring electrode is obtained corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring microelectrodes in data analysis. GRiMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3,000 scans), with the concentric reference electrode showing comparable stability (current response invariant over >300 scans). Furthermore the micro-ring design allows for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites and the associated nA scale currents obtained neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring microelectrodes improves the reliability of existing micro-electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices.

  17. Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, James W.; Bromley, Michael; Andrieux, Fabrice P. L.; Boxall, Colin

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes with the addition of a miniature concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The graphene ring electrode is formed by dip coating fibre optics with graphene produced by a modified Hummers method. The reference electrode is formed using an established photocatalytically initiated electroless deposition (PIED) plating method. The performance of the so-formed graphene ring micro electrodes (GRiMEs) and associated reference electrode is studied using the probe redox system ferricyanide and electrode thicknesses assessed using established electrochemical methods. Using 220 μm diameter fibre optics, a ∼15 nm thick graphene ring electrode is obtained corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring microelectrodes in data analysis. GRiMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3,000 scans), with the concentric reference electrode showing comparable stability (current response invariant over >300 scans). Furthermore the micro-ring design allows for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites and the associated nA scale currents obtained neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring microelectrodes improves the reliability of existing micro-electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices. PMID:23493126

  18. Preliminary design studies for an iridium rod target at the BNL-AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Hastings, J.; Montanez, P.; Todosow, M.

    1998-12-31

    The BNL-AGS is an intense source of 24 GeV protons. It is proposed to explore the potential to use these protons as the driver for a Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source target. The proposed target design is based on an edge cooled iridium rod concept--similar to the anti-proton production target which operated reliably at CERN under similar conditions. Lead, lead fluoride, and beryllium are investigated as possible reflector materials, and ambient temperature light water and 80 K light water ice are proposed as initial moderator materials. Both moderators are decoupled by cadmium containing moderator chamber walls. The small size of the target has the advantage that the moderators can be placed close to the target (resulting in a bright source), and since a large fraction of the radioactive inventory is contained in the iridium rod, removal and disposition of this inventory should be relatively simple and inexpensive.

  19. A platonic solid templating Archimedean solid: an unprecedented nanometre-sized Ag37 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Yu, Kai; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Xing-Po; Zhao, Ya-Qin; Sun, Di; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2015-04-01

    The spontaneous formation of discrete spherical nanosized molecules is prevalent in nature, but the authentic structural mimicry of such highly symmetric polyhedra from edge sharing of regular polygons has remained elusive. Here we present a novel ball-shaped {(HNEt3)[Ag37S4(SC6H4tBu)24(CF3COO)6(H2O)12]} cluster (1) that is assembled via a one-pot process from polymeric {(HNEt3)2[Ag10(SC6H4tBu)12]}n and CF3COOAg. Single crystal X-ray analysis confirmed that 1 is a Td symmetric spherical molecule with a [Ag36(SC6H4tBu)24] anion shell enwrapping a AgS4 tetrahedron. The shell topology of 1 belongs to one of 13 Archimedean solids, a truncated tetrahedron with four edge-shared hexagons and trigons, which are supported by a AgS4 Platonic solid in the core. Interestingly, the cluster emits green luminescence centered at 515 nm at room temperature. Our investigations have provided a promising synthetic protocol for a high-nuclearity silver cluster based on underlying geometrical principles.The spontaneous formation of discrete spherical nanosized molecules is prevalent in nature, but the authentic structural mimicry of such highly symmetric polyhedra from edge sharing of regular polygons has remained elusive. Here we present a novel ball-shaped {(HNEt3)[Ag37S4(SC6H4tBu)24(CF3COO)6(H2O)12]} cluster (1) that is assembled via a one-pot process from polymeric {(HNEt3)2[Ag10(SC6H4tBu)12]}n and CF3COOAg. Single crystal X-ray analysis confirmed that 1 is a Td symmetric spherical molecule with a [Ag36(SC6H4tBu)24] anion shell enwrapping a AgS4 tetrahedron. The shell topology of 1 belongs to one of 13 Archimedean solids, a truncated tetrahedron with four edge-shared hexagons and trigons, which are supported by a AgS4 Platonic solid in the core. Interestingly, the cluster emits green luminescence centered at 515 nm at room temperature. Our investigations have provided a promising synthetic protocol for a high-nuclearity silver cluster based on underlying geometrical principles

  20. The surface characterization of a series of hydroxybenzenes on Ag(111): An EELS and TDS study

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, B.S.

    1993-01-27

    Interaction of a series of hydroxybenzenes with Ag(111) is investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Studied were the mono-hydroxybenzene, phenol, the o-, m- and p-dihydroxybenzenes, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, respectively, and the 1,2.3-trihydroxybenzene, pyrogallol. Dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups upon adsorption is not directly observed in the TDS studies: however, the EELS results suggest possible dehydrogenation. The apparent O-H bond scission is attributed to hydrogen bonding between the surface molecules or to the orientation of the O-H bond aids with respect to the metal surface. Orientations of the mono- and dihydroxybenzene molecules are temperature dependent, whereas that of the trihydroxybenzene may be attributed to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitutents. Phenol and catechol both undergo an inclined-to-perpendicular orientational change. Resorcinol and hydroquinone undergo a perpendicular-to-inclined transformation. Finally, pyrogallol remains inclined at all temperatures until decomposition.

  1. Intermetallic compounds formed at the interface between Cu substrate and an Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.-C.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C

    2003-04-30

    The intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between Cu substrate and an Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder alloy have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED). The XRD patterns show that the main IMCs formed at the interface of Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag/Cu are {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} and {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. The Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC with orthorhombic structure was also observed at the Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag/Cu interface by TEM and ED analyses. The interfacial adhesion strength between the Cu substrate and Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder alloy is higher than that of the Sn-9Zn alloy due to the formation of Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC at the interface.

  2. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  3. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei; Hu, Wenping; Zhou, Xueqin

    2016-11-01

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl- N, N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag+ into Ag0 by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  4. Development of an empirical interatomic potential for the Ag-Ti system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D.; Lloyd, Adam L.

    2017-02-01

    Two interatomic potential mixing rules for the Ti-Ag system were investigated based on the embedded-atom method (EAM) elemental potentials. First principles calculations were performed using SIESTA for various configurations of the Ti-Ag system to see which model best fitted the ab initio results. The results showed that the surface energies, especially that of Ti, were not well fitted by either model and the surface binding energies differed from the ab initio calculations. As a result, the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) was investigated. In contrast to the other models, surface energies for pure Ti calculated by MEAM were in good agreement with the experimental data and the ab initio results. The MEAM mixing rule was used to investigate Ag ad-atoms on Ti and Ti ad-atoms on Ag. The results showed good agreement with SIESTA after parameter optimisation.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of silver(I) sulfanylcarboxylates. Structural isomers with identically or unequally coordinated Ag centers in an Ag4S4 ring.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Elena; Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Varela, José M; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel M

    2007-07-28

    We have investigated the reactions of silver nitrate and 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H(2)xspa, x: p = 3-phenyl-, f = 3-(2-furyl)-, t = 3-(2-thienyl)-, py = 3-(2-pyridyl)-] and 2-cyclopentylidene-2-sulfanylacetic acid (H(2)L) in 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 molar ratios. The 1 : 1 molar ratio gave compounds of type [Ag(HL)]; reaction of these compounds with diisopropylamine and NaOH gave [HQ][Ag(L)] (HQ = diisopropylammonium) and Na[Ag(L)] x H(2)O, respectively. These compounds, as well as those of type [Ag(2)(L)] obtained with the 1 : 2 molar ratio, were isolated and characterized by IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. (109)Ag NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry were also used in some cases. The crystal structures of [HQ][Ag(pspa)] (11), in which the presence of structural isomers was detected, and [HQ][Ag(cpa)] (15) were determined by X-ray diffractometry. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa/Resistant P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans was tested.

  6. An in-situ synthesis of Ag/AgCl/TiO2/hierarchical porous magnesian material and its photocatalytic performance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Fazhou; Shu, Chang; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Wenqin; Hu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    The absorption ability and photocatalytic activity of photocatalytic materials play important roles in improving the pollutants removal effects. Herein, we reported a new kind of photocatalytic material, which was synthesized by simultaneously designing hierarchical porous magnesian (PM) substrate and TiO2 catalyst modification. Particularly, PM substrate could be facilely prepared by controlling its crystal phase (Phase 5, Mg3Cl(OH)5·4H2O), while Ag/AgCl particles modification of TiO2 could be achieved by in situ ion exchange between Ag+ and above crystal Phase. Physiochemical analysis shows that Ag/AgCl/TiO2/PM material has higher visible and ultraviolet light absorption response, and excellent gas absorption performance compared to other controls. These suggested that Ag/AgCl/TiO2/PM material could produce more efficient photocatalytic effects. Its photocatalytic reaction rate was 5.21 and 30.57 times higher than that of TiO2/PM and TiO2/imporous magnesian substrate, respectively. Thus, this material and its intergration synthesis method could provide a novel strategy for high-efficiency application and modification of TiO2 photocatalyst in engineering filed. PMID:26883972

  7. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Maize-derived HBsAg for the Development of an Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shweta; Hayden, Celine A.; Fischer, Maria E.; Rao, A.Gururaj; Howard, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Although a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, it is estimated that 600,000 people die every year due to HBV. An affordable oral vaccine could help alleviate the disease burden and to this end the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was expressed in maize. Orally delivered maize material induced the strongest immune response in mice when lipid was extracted by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), compared to full fat and hexane-extracted material. The present study provides a biochemical and biophysical basis for these immunological differences by comparing the active ingredient in the differently treated maize material. Purified maize-derived HBsAg underwent biophysical characterization by gel filtration, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-CD, and fluorescence. Gel filtration showed that HBsAg forms higher-order oligomers and TEM demonstrated virus-like particle (VLP) formation. The VLPs obtained from SFE were more regular in shape and size compared to hexane or full fat material. In addition, SFE-derived HBsAg showed the greatest extent of α-helical structure by far UV-CD spectrum. Fluorescence experiments also revealed differences in protein conformation. This work establishes SFE-treated maize material as a viable oral vaccine candidate and advances the development of the first oral subunit vaccine. PMID:26519888

  8. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of maize-derived HBsAg for the development of an oral vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shweta; Hayden, Celine A; Fischer, Maria E; Rao, A Gururaj; Howard, John A

    2015-12-15

    Although a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, it is estimated that 600,000 people die every year due to HBV. An affordable oral vaccine could help alleviate the disease burden and to this end the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was expressed in maize. Orally delivered maize material induced the strongest immune response in mice when lipid was extracted by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), compared to full fat and hexane-extracted material. The present study provides a biochemical and biophysical basis for these immunological differences by comparing the active ingredient in the differently treated maize material. Purified maize-derived HBsAg underwent biophysical characterization by gel filtration, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-CD, and fluorescence. Gel filtration showed that HBsAg forms higher-order oligomers and TEM demonstrated virus-like particle (VLP) formation. The VLPs obtained from SFE were more regular in shape and size compared to hexane or full fat material. In addition, SFE-derived HBsAg showed the greatest extent of α-helical structure by far UV-CD spectrum. Fluorescence experiments also revealed differences in protein conformation. This work establishes SFE-treated maize material as a viable oral vaccine candidate and advances the development of the first oral subunit vaccine.

  9. Characterization of silver-kaolinite (AgK): an adsorbent for long-lived (129)I species.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Rao, Sudhakar M

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite is a preferred buffer and backfill material for deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Bentonite does not retain anions by virtue of its negatively charged basal surface. Imparting anion retention ability to bentonite is important to enable the expansive clay to retain long-lived (129)I (iodine-129; half-life = 16 million years) species that may escape from the HLW geological repository. Silver-kaolinite (AgK) material is prepared as an additive to improve the iodide retention capacity of bentonite. The AgK is prepared by heating kaolinite-silver nitrate mix at 400 °C to study the kaolinite influence on the transition metal ion when reacting at its dehydroxylation temperature. Thermo gravimetric-Evolved Gas Detection analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and electron probe micro analysis indicated that silver occurs as AgO/Ag2O surface coating on thermally reacting kaolinite with silver nitrate at 400 °C.

  10. Unveiling the atomic structure and electronic properties of atomically thin boron sheets on an Ag(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Shu, Haibo; Li, Feng; Liang, Pei; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-09-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets (i.e., borophene) have a huge potential as a basic building block in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics; such a situation is greatly promoted by recent experiments on fabrication of borophene on silver substrates. However, the fundamental atomic structure of borophene on the Ag substrate is still under debate, which greatly impedes further exploration of its properties. Herein, the atomic structure and electronic properties of borophene on an Ag(111) surface have been studied using first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that there exist three energetically favorable borophene structures (β5, χ1, and χ2) on the Ag(111) surface and their simulated STM images are in good agreement with experimental results, suggesting the coexistence of boron phases during the growth. All these stable borophene structures have a planar structure with slight surface buckling (∼0.15 Å) and relatively high hexagonal vacancy density (1/6 and 1/5) and exhibit typical metallic conductivity. These findings not only can be applied to solve the experimental controversies about the atomic structure of borophene on the Ag substrate but also provide a theoretical basis for exploring the fundamental properties and applications of 2D boron sheets.

  11. Synthesis, kinetics and photocatalytic study of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs obtained by a green chemistry method using an extract of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals aqueous extract (PERA) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. Its kinetics study and photocatalytic activity were also evaluated. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with 9.66% w/v, 7.25% w/v, and 4.20% w/v PERA as both reducing-stabilizing agent. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼0.5 and 1.4nm. A comparative study was done to determine which concentration was the best reducing-stabilizing agent, and we found out that "ultra-small" nanoparticles (0.5-1.1nm) were obtained with 9.66% w/v of PERA. The size of the Ag-NPs depends on the concentration of PERA and Ag(I). The reaction of formation of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs, proved to be first order for metallic precursor (silver) and second order for reducing-stabilizing agent (PERA). The Ag-NPs showed photocatalytic activity, in degradation of commercial dye with an efficiency of 95%.

  12. Spontaneous Formation of A Nanotube From A Square Ag Nanowire: An Atomistic View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk Onat, Mine; Durukanoglu, Sondan

    2012-02-01

    We have performed molecular static calculations to investigate the recently observed phenomenon of the spontaneous formation of a nanotube from a regular, square Ag nanowire[1]. In the simulations, atoms are allowed to interact via the model potential obtained from the modified embedded atom method. Our simulations predict that this particular type of structural phase transformation is controlled by the nature of applied strain, length of the wire and initial cross-sectional shape. For such a perfect structural transformation, the <100> axially oriented fcc nanowire needs (1) to be formed by stacking A and B layers of an fcc crystal, both possessing the geometry of two interpenetrating one-lattice-parameter-wide squares, containing four atoms each, (2) to have an optimum length of eight layers, and (3) to be exposed to a combination of low and high stress along the length direction. The results further offer insights into atomistic nature of this specific structural transformation into a nanotube with the smallest possible cross-section. [1] M.J. Lagos et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 149 (2009).

  13. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  14. An Evaluation of Prototype Circuit Boards Assembled with a Sn-Ag Bi Solder

    SciTech Connect

    ARTAKI,I.; RAY,U.; REJENT,JEROME A.; VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-09-01

    An evaluation was performed which examined the aging of surface mount solder joints assembled with 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder. Defect analysis of the as-fabricated test vehicles revealed excellent solderability, good package alignment, and a minimum number of voids. Continuous DC electrical monitoring of the solder joints did not reveal opens during as many as 10,000 thermal cycles (0 C, 100 C). The solder joints exhibited no significant degradation through 2500 cycles, based upon an absence of microstructural damage and sustained shear and pull strengths of chip capacitors and J-leaded solder joints, respectively. Thermal cycles of 5000 and 10,000 resulted in some surface cracking of the solder fillets and coatings. In a few cases, deeper cracks were observed in the thinner reaches of several solder fillets. There was no deformation or cracking in the solder located in the gap between the package I/O and the circuit board pad nor in the interior of the fillets, both locations that would raise concerns of joint mechanical integrity. A drop in the chip capacitor shear strength was attributed to crack growth near the top of the fillet.

  15. Rapid formation of Ag(n)X(X = S, Cl, PO4, C2O4) nanotubes via an acid-etching anion exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Yang, Wenlong; Ning, Jiqiang; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2014-06-07

    This work presents a rapid nanotube fabrication method for a series of silver compounds AgnX, such as Ag2S, AgCl, Ag3PO4, and Ag2C2O4, from pregrown Ag2CO3 nanorod templates. The anion exchange process involved takes place in non-aqueous solutions just at room temperature and completes within 10 minutes. An acid-etching anion exchange reaction mechanism has been proved underneath the transformation process from Ag2CO3 nanorods to AgnX nanotubes by the observation of an intermediate yolk-shell nanostructure. It has been found that the final structure of the products can be conveniently controlled by simply varying the concentration of HnX acids, and the organic solvents employed play a vital role in the formation of the nanotubes by effectively controlling the diffusion rates of different species of reacting ions. As a demonstration, the as-prepared AgCl and Ag3PO4 nanotubes exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity and favorable recyclability for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation.

  16. The chemistry and structure of ?222? CdO/Ag heterophase interfaces on an atomic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, D. K.; Seidman, D. N.; Merkle, K. L.

    1996-03-01

    The chemistry and structure of {222} CdO/Ag (ceramic/metal) heterophase interfaces are determined with sub-nanometer chemical and structural spatial resolution employing atom-probe field-ion and high-resolution electron microscopies. The interfaces are produced in a controlled manner via internal oxidation of a Ag1.62at%Cd alloy, which results in the formation of CdO precipitates in a Ag matrix. The CdO precipitates are octahedral-shaped with facets on the {222} polar planes, and have a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the Ag matrix. Atom-probe analyses are made along the chemically-ordered CdO <111>-type directions, thereby perpendicularly intersecting the {222} interfaces. A total of 35 {222} heterophase interfaces is chemically analyzed, of which 19 have the chemical sequence Ag|O|Cd|… and 16 the sequence Ag|Cd|O|…. High resolution electron microscopy analyses reveal that the {222} facet planes of the CdO precipitates con atomic height ledges, therefore indicating that the preciptates were in a coarsening stage. The combined atom-probe and high-resolution electron microscope results demonstrate that the chemistry of the terminating {222} facet plane of CdO is controlled by coarsening kinetics.

  17. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  18. Adiabatic compressibility of an immiscible molten NaCl-AgI salt mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. P.; Tkachev, N. K.; Kulik, N. P.; Peshkina, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    Adiabatic compressibility β of an immiscible 0.5NaCl + 0.5AgI liquid mixture in the immiscibility range is studied experimentally and theoretically using the model of charged hard spheres. The compressibility is calculated by the relationship β = 1/ u 2ρ studied using sound velocity u measured by a pulse method and density ρ determined by hydrostatic weighing. It is shown that the compressibility of the upper phase decreases and that of the lower phase increases when the temperature increases because of the superposition of the effects of the thermal motion of ions and the phase compositions. The temperature dependence of the difference between the compressibilities of the equilibrium phases is described using the empirical equation Δβ = ( T c- T)0.442, which is close to the mean-field theory description. The results of the model calculations adequately reproduce the experimentally observed temperature dependence of the compressibility of the coexisting phases. However, the theoretically predicted critical exponent (1/2) differs from the experimentally determined exponent by 13%. These results are discussed in terms of the nature of chemical bond in silver iodide.

  19. Development of an alternative eluent system for Ag+-HPLC analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Müller, André; Düsterloh, Kaja; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Steinhart, Hans

    2006-02-01

    In this study, 13 different eluent systems containing n-hexane, n-heptane and iso-octane as main solvents and ACN, propionitrile (PCN) and butyronitrile (BCN) in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2% as modifiers were tested for their influence on retention time shifts (RTS) and resolution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) methyl esters using two ChromSpher 5 Lipids columns (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) in series. The eluent system n-hexane/PCN 0.2% showed the highest stability with an obtained RTS of 0.26 min for the cis/trans-group after 14 consecutive injections of a CLA isomer mix compared to the reference system of n-hexane/ACN 0.15% (RTS of 2.35 min). This enhanced stability is due to better solubility of PCN in n-hexane compared to ACN. The enhanced stability coincided with a negligible loss in resolution for the cis,trans/trans,cis- and the cis,cis-groups. As shown for the analysis of human aortic endothelial cells spiked with t10c12-CLA, data from CLA-analysis by Ag+-HPLC-DAD must be judged very carefully, especially at low concentrations, as coeluting matrix compounds may give false-positive results. Therefore, results should be confirmed by GC-FID and GC-MS.

  20. Synergistic effect of interfacial lattice Ag(+) and Ag(0) clusters in enhancing the photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liming; Zhang, Dandan; Ming, Lufei; Jiao, Yanchao; Chen, Feng

    2014-09-28

    An interfacial lattice Ag(+) doped on TiO2 (Ag(+)/TiO2) was prepared by eluting Ag(0) clusters from a hydrothermally prepared Ag(0)/Ag(+)/TiO2 composite. An Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) composite photocatalyst was subsequently obtained via a secondary Ag(0) clusters loading process to the Ag(+)/TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) was greatly improved compared to Ag(0)/Ag(+)/TiO2 and Ag(+)/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) testing verified that Ag(+) ions occur as an interfacial lattice Ag(+) species in the composites. The enhancement effect of the interfacial lattice Ag(+) species is exhibited by the newly-formed Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) as the interfacial lattice Ag(+) is fully exposed but not overlapped with the re-loaded Ag(0) clusters. The interfacial lattice Ag(+) ions and Ag(0) clusters are both responsible for the photocatalytic performance improvement of the catalyst, in either the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange or photocurrent measurement.

  1. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles is 45-50 and 15-20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag2S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag2S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.

  2. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)-producing B cells restore antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Sun, Ying-Xue; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-05-15

    Restoration of the antigen (Ag)-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment is refractory. B cells are involved in immune regulation. Whether B cells facilitate the generation of Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment requires further investigation. This paper aims to elucidate the mechanism by which B cells restore the Ag-specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. In this study, a B cell-deficient mouse model was created by injecting an anti-CD20 antibody. The frequency of tolerogenic dendritic cell (TolDC) was assessed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) was assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and methylation-specific PCR. The results showed that B cells were required in the generation of the TGF-β-producing TolDCs in mice. B cell-derived TSP1 converted the latent TGF-β to the active TGF-β in DCs, which generated TGF-β-producing TolDCs. Exposure to IL-13 inhibited the expression of TSP1 in B cells by enhancing the TSP1 gene DNA methylation. Treating food allergy mice with Ag-specific immunotherapy and IL-13 antagonists restored the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the effect of specific immunotherapy. In conclusion, B cells play a critical role in the restoration of specific immune tolerance in an allergic environment. Blocking IL-13 in an allergic environment facilitated the generation of TolDCs and enhanced the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy.

  3. Reassessment of Atomic Mobilities in fcc Cu-Ag-Sn System Aiming at Establishment of an Atomic Mobility Database in Sn-Ag-Cu-In-Sb-Bi-Pb Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huixia; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Kaiming; Chen, Weimin; Du, Yong

    2017-04-01

    To establish an accurate atomic mobility database in solder alloys, a reassessment of atomic mobilities in the fcc (face centered cubic) Cu-Ag-Sn system was performed as reported in the present work. The work entailed initial preparation of three fcc Cu-Sn diffusion couples, which were used to determine the composition-dependent interdiffusivities at 873 K, 923 K, and 973 K, to validate the literature data and provide new experimental data at low temperatures. Then, atomic mobilities in three boundary binaries, fcc Cu-Sn, fcc Ag-Sn, and fcc Cu-Ag, were updated based on the data for various experimental diffusivities obtained from the literature and the present work, together with the available thermodynamic database for solder alloys. Finally, based on the large number of interdiffusivities recently measured from the present authors, atomic mobilities in the fcc Cu-Ag-Sn ternary system were carefully evaluated. A comprehensive comparison between various calculated/model-predicted diffusion properties and the experimental data was used to validate the reliability of the obtained atomic mobilities in ternary fcc Cu-Ag-Sn alloys.

  4. Replication of the association of chromosomal region 9p21.3 with generalized aggressive periodontitis (gAgP) using an independent case-control cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The human chromosomal region 9p21.3 has been shown to be strongly associated with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in several Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS). Recently, this region has also been shown to be associated with Aggressive Periodontitis (AgP), strengthening the hypothesis that the established epidemiological association between periodontitis and CHD is caused by a shared genetic background, in addition to common environmental and behavioural risk factors. However, the size of the analyzed cohorts in this primary analysis was small compared to other association studies on complex diseases. Using our own AgP cohort, we attempted to confirm the described associations for the chromosomal region 9p21.3. Methods We analyzed our cohort consisting of patients suffering from the most severe form of AgP, generalized AgP (gAgP) (n = 130) and appropriate periodontally healthy control individuals (n = 339) by genotyping four tagging SNPs (rs2891168, rs1333042, rs1333048 and rs496892), located in the chromosomal region 9p21.3, that have been associated with AgP. Results The results confirmed significant associations between three of the four SNPs and gAgP. The combination of our results with those from the study which described this association for the first time in a meta-analysis of the four tagging SNPs produced clearly lower p-values compared with the results of each individual study. According to these results, the most plausible genetic model for the association of all four tested SNPs with gAgP seems to be the multiplicative one. Conclusion We positively replicated the finding of an association between the chromosomal region 9p21.3 and gAgP. This result strengthens support for the hypothesis that shared susceptibility genes within this chromosomal locus might be involved in the pathogenesis of both CHD and gAgP. PMID:20696043

  5. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    PubMed

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  6. Determination of metal atoms incorporated in molecular intermediates: an STM study of acetylide on Ag(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.-C.; Madix, R. J.

    2004-08-01

    Many inorganic molecular intermediates, such as imide, nitrate, and sulfite, incorporate a stoichiometric number of added metal atoms into their structures on Ag(1 1 0) or Cu(1 1 0). In this paper an example of such general behavior is illustrated with an organic molecular intermediate--acetylide (C 2) on Ag(1 1 0). Acetylide is produced by reacting acetylene with oxygen atoms on the Ag(1 1 0)- p(2 × 1)-O surface. Acetylides form row structures along the <1 1¯ 0> axis, which, as coverage increases, are compressed along the <0 0 1> axis to form nominal " p(2 × 2)", " p(2 × 3)", " p(2 × 1)", and " p(14 × 1)" structures. The final acetylide structure incorporates 0.55 ML silver atoms, which may be released upon titration with acetic acid. A buckled structure is proposed where acetylide bonds to two added silver atoms in a linear configuration in the trough along the <1 1¯ 0> axis with seven equally spaced silver atoms in a p(13 × 1) unit cell.

  7. Adsorbed molecular shuttlecocks: An NIXSW study of Sn phthalocyanine on Ag(1 1 1) using Auger electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, R. A. J.; Martin, C. P.; Miller, G.; Dhanak, V. R.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Normal incidence X-ray standing wave (NIXSW) spectroscopy has been used to determine the orientation of Sn phthalocyanine (SnPc) molecules in a highly ordered, but incommensurate, monolayer on the Ag(1 1 1) surface. Our sample preparation procedure differs from that used in previous work on this system [C. Stadler, S. Hansen, F. Pollinger, C. Kumpf, E. Umbach, T.-L. Lee, J. Zegenhagen, Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006) 035404] and leads to a different unit cell with basis vector lengths of ˜15.0 Å and 15.3 Å ( γ = 98°) which is oriented at an angle of ˜5° to the underlying Ag(1 1 1) lattice. Structural parameters extracted from Sn MNN NIXSW spectra indicate that SnPc, a buckled, 'shuttlecock' phthalocyanine, adsorbs in a Sn-down geometry with the Sn atom approximately 2.3 Å above the Ag(1 1 1) surface plane. Despite the incommensurate nature of the overlayer, we find a surprisingly high coherent fraction for standing wave data taken for the (1¯ 1 1) reflection and argue that this arises from the small domain size of the superstructure.

  8. Long-range chemical interactions in solid-state reactions: effect of an inert Ag interlayer on the formation of L10-FePd in epitaxial Pd(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) and Fe(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Pd(0 0 1) trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, Victor; Bayukov, Oleg; Mikhlin, Yurii; Zhigalov, Victor; Bykova, Liudmila; Bondarenko, Galina

    2014-08-01

    The effect of 0, 0.5, and 1 μm-thick Ag interlayers on the chemical interaction between Pd and Fe in epitaxial Pd(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1) and Fe(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Pd(0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1) trilayers has been studied using X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetic structural measurements. No mixing of Pd and Fe occurs via the chemically inert Ag layer at annealing temperatures up to 400 °C. As the annealing temperature is increased above 400 °C, a solid-state synthesis of an ordered L10-FePd phase begins in the Pd(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) and Fe(0 0 1)/Ag(0 0 1)/Pd(0 0 1) film trilayers regardless of the thickness of the buffer Ag layer. In all samples, annealing above 500 °C leads to the formation of a disordered FexPd1-x(0 0 1) phase; however, in samples lacking the Ag layer, the synthesis of FexPd1-x is preceded by the formation of an ordered L12-FePd3 phase. An analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results shows that Pd is the dominant moving species in the reaction between Pd and Fe. According to the preliminary results, the 2.2 μm-thick Ag film does not prevent the synthesis of the L10-FePd phase and only slightly increases the phase's initiation temperature. Data showing the ultra-fast transport of Pd atoms via thick inert Ag layers are interpreted as direct evidence of the long-range character of the chemical interaction between Pd and Fe. Thus, in the reaction state, Pd and Fe interact chemically even though the distance between them is about 104 times greater than an ordinary chemical bond length.

  9. An electron microscopical study on the growth of TiO2-Ag antibacterial coatings on Ti6Al7Nb biomedical alloy.

    PubMed

    Necula, B S; Apachitei, I; Tichelaar, F D; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Duszczyk, J

    2011-06-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the growth mechanism of TiO(2)-Ag antibacterial coatings during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Ti6Al7Nb biomedical alloy in an electrolyte based on calcium acetate/calcium glycerophosphate bearing Ag nanoparticles. The focus was on the mechanism of incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, their distribution and chemical composition within the porous coatings using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging techniques combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for chemical analyses. The PEO coatings were grown using different oxidation times, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 s. The electron microscopy results confirmed the formation of a porous coating with incorporated Ag nanoparticles from the initial stages of oxidation (i.e. 10 s), with further Ag incorporation as the PEO process was continued for longer durations. The Ag nanoparticles were embedded in the dense oxide layer, fused into the pore walls and on the surface of the coatings without any change in their morphology or chemistry as detected by HRTEM, SEM and EDX. Ag seems to be delivered to the sites of coating growth (where dielectric breakdown occurs) through different transport pathways, i.e. open pores, cracks and short-circuit channels.

  10. Nanoindentation study of electrodeposited Ag thin coating: An inverse calculation of anisotropic elastic-plastic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yuxin; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    A new inverse method was proposed to calculate the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties (flow stress) of thin electrodeposited Ag coating utilizing nanoindentation tests, previously reported inverse method for isotropic materials and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analyses (FEA). Indentation depth was ~4% of coating thickness (~10 μm) to avoid substrate effect and different indentation responses were observed in the longitudinal (L) and the transverse (T) directions. The estimated elastic-plastic properties were obtained in the newly developed inverse method by matching the predicted indentation responses in the L and T directions with experimental measurements considering indentation size effect (ISE). The results were validated with tensile flow curves measured from free-standing (FS) Ag film. The current method can be utilized to characterize the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of coatings and to provide the constitutive properties for coating performance evaluations.

  11. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  12. Investigation of the surface passivation mechanism through an Ag-doped Al-rich film using a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Electronic recombination loss is an important issue for photovoltaic (PV) devices. While it can be reduced by using a passivating layer, most of the techniques used to prepare passivating layers are either not cost effective or not applicable for device applications. Previously, it was reported that a low cost sol-gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) film serves as an effective passivating layer for p-type silicon but is not effective for n-type silicon. Herein, we studied the elemental composition of the film and the interfacial structure of ZnO:Al:Ag/n-Si using TEM, XPS, FTIR, and SIMS analyses. The XPS analysis revealed that Ag-rich zones randomly formed in the film near the ZnO:Al:Ag//n-Si interface, which induced a positive charge at the interface. The maximal value of the effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff ~ 1581 μs) is obtained for a wafer using the ZnO:Al:Ag passivating layer with RAg/Zn = 2%. The corresponding limiting surface recombination velocity is ~16 cm s-1. The FTIR absorption area of Si-H bonds is used to calculate the hydrogen content in the film. The hydrogen content is increased with increasing Ag content up to RAg/Zn = 2% to a maximal value of 3.89 × 1022 atoms per cm3 from 3.03 × 1022 atoms per cm3 for RAg/Zn = 0%. The positive charge induced at the interface may cause band bending, which would produce an electric field that repels the minority charge carriers from the interface to the bulk of n-Si. Two basic phenomena, chemical passivation due to Si-H bonding and field effect passivation due to the charge induced at the interface, have been observed for effective passivation of the n-Si surface. An implied Voc of 688.1 mV is obtained at an illumination intensity of 1 sun.Electronic recombination loss is an important issue for photovoltaic (PV) devices. While it can be reduced by using a passivating layer, most of the techniques used to prepare passivating layers are either not cost effective or not applicable for device

  13. Exploring the cooperation effect of DBD byproducts and Ag/TiO2 catalyst for water treatment in an APPJ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangliang, Chen; Wei, Hu; Jinsong, Yu; Wenxia, Chen; Jun, Huang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the collective effects of combining heterogeneous Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite catalyst with the byproducts (primarily the irradiation and the O3 species) of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) were explored. The heterostructured Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was achieved via decorating the Ag quantum dots (QDs) on the commercially available TiO2 catalyst (P25) through a hydrothermal method. The x-ray diffraction analysis of the nanocomposite catalyst showed the diffraction peaks at 44.3°, 64.4°, and 77.5°, corresponding to the Ag planes of (200), (220) and (311), respectively. The high resolution transmission electron microscope characterization of the nanocomposite catalyst indicated that the Ag QDs with an average diameter of 5 nm were homogeneously distributed on the P25 surface. The experimental results on the MO photodegradation showed that the APPJ irradiation had a marginal effect on the cleavage of the MO molecules. When the Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite catalyst was used, the photodegradation rate of MO increased about 5 times. When both the APPJ byproducts and the Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite catalyst were used, however, over 90% of the MO in the tested solution was cleaved within 15 min, and the energy efficiency was about 0.6 g/kW h. Moreover, an optimal Ag dosage value was determined (6 wt%). The catalytic results indicated that combining the DBD plasma byproducts with heterogeneous nanocomposite catalysts may be an effect protocol for decreasing the application cost of the DBD system and mitigating the environment pollution by organic dyes in the textile industry.

  14. An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Al-doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Dewei; Gu, Deen; Kim, Hyunsoo; Ling, Tao; Wu, Yi-Kuei Ryan; Guo, L Jay

    2014-08-27

    An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Ag film without a wetting layer is achieved by co-depositing a small amount of Al into Ag. The film can be as thin as 6 nm, with a roughness below 1 nm and excellent mechanical flexibility. Organic photovoltaics that use these thin films as transparent electrode show superior efficiency to their indium tin oxide (ITO) counterparts because of improved photon management.

  15. AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system. • h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center.

  16. Interfacial structure of Si3N4 brazed with an Ag-Cu-Ti alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, H.; Petrovic, J. J.; Mitchell, T. E.; Yano, T.

    Single crystal Si3N4 was brazed using a Ag-Cu eutectic alloy containing 2 percent Ti at 950 C for 30 min and the interface was observed by high resolution electron microscopy. A layer of reaction products is formed between the Si3N4 and the brazed metal. TiN and Ti2N are formed near the interface; however, only TiN is found at the interface in contact with the Si3N4. A crystallographic orientation relationship was found between the TiN and Si3N4 in which the N atoms are shared between the two structures with little distortion.

  17. An AGS experiment to test bunching for the proton driver of the muon collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.

    1998-04-27

    The proton driver for the muon collider must produce short pulses of protons in order to facilitate muon cooling and operation with polarized beams. In order to test methods of producing these bunches they have operated the AGS near transition and studied procedures which involved moving the transition energy {gamma} to the beam energy. They were able to produce stable bunches with RMS widths of {sigma} = 2.2-2.7 ns for longitudinal bunch areas of {minus}1.5 V-s, in addition to making measurements of the lowest two orders of the momentum compaction factor.

  18. Structure and properties during aging of an ultra-high strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and properties of the strengthening phases formed during aging in an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy (Weldalite 049) were elulcidated, by following the development of the microstructure by means of TEM. The results of observations showed that the Weldalite 049 alloy has a series of unusual and technologically useful combinations of mechanical properties in different aging conditions, such as natural aging without prior cold work to produce high strengths, a reversion temper of lower yield strength and unusually high ductility, a room temperature reaging of the reversion temper eventually leading to the original T4 hardness, and ultrahigh-strength T6 properties.

  19. Ordered array of Ag semishells on different diameter monolayer polystyrene colloidal crystals: An ultrasensitive and reproducible SERS substrate

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zao; Niu, Gao; Luo, Jiangshan; Kang, Xiaoli; Yao, Weitang; Zhang, Weibin; Yi, Yougen; Yi, Yong; Ye, Xin; Duan, Tao; Tang, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Ag semishells (AgSS) ordered arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been prepared by depositing Ag film onto polystyrene colloidal particle (PSCP) monolayer templates array. The diversified activity for SERS activity with the ordered AgSS arrays mainly depends on the PSCP diameter and Ag film thickness. The high SERS sensitivity and reproducibility are proved by the detection of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules. The prominent enhancements of SERS are mainly from the “V”-shaped or “U”-shaped nanogaps on AgSS, which are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The higher SERS activity, stability and reproducibility make the ordered AgSS a promising choice for practical SERS low concentration detection applications. PMID:27586562

  20. Ordered array of Ag semishells on different diameter monolayer polystyrene colloidal crystals: An ultrasensitive and reproducible SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zao; Niu, Gao; Luo, Jiangshan; Kang, Xiaoli; Yao, Weitang; Zhang, Weibin; Yi, Yougen; Yi, Yong; Ye, Xin; Duan, Tao; Tang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Ag semishells (AgSS) ordered arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been prepared by depositing Ag film onto polystyrene colloidal particle (PSCP) monolayer templates array. The diversified activity for SERS activity with the ordered AgSS arrays mainly depends on the PSCP diameter and Ag film thickness. The high SERS sensitivity and reproducibility are proved by the detection of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules. The prominent enhancements of SERS are mainly from the “V”-shaped or “U”-shaped nanogaps on AgSS, which are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The higher SERS activity, stability and reproducibility make the ordered AgSS a promising choice for practical SERS low concentration detection applications.

  1. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3 ± 1.4 nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7 ppm (r2 = 0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n = 4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008 ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  2. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-05

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3±1.4nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7ppm (r(2)=0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n=4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  3. First-principles investigation of Ag-Cu alloy surfaces in an oxidizing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinin, Simone; Stampfl, Catherine; Scheffler, Matthias

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate by means of first-principles density functional theory calculations the (111) surface of the Ag-Cu alloy under varying conditions of pressure of the surrounding oxygen atmosphere and temperature. This alloy has been recently proposed as a catalyst with improved selectivity for ethylene epoxidation with respect to pure silver, the catalyst commonly used in industrial applications. Here, we show that the presence of oxygen leads to copper segregation to the surface. Considering the surface free energy as a function of the surface composition, we construct the convex hull to investigate the stability of various surface structures. By including the dependence of the free surface energy on the oxygen chemical potential, we are able compute the phase diagram of the alloy as a function of temperature, pressure, and surface composition. We find that, at temperature and pressure, typically used in ethylene epoxidation, a number of structures can be present on the surface of the alloy, including clean Ag(111), thin layers of copper oxide, and thick oxidelike structures. These results are consistent with, and help explain, recent experimental results.

  4. Thermal dissociation of chemisorbed oxygen molecules on Ag(110): an investigation by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambelli, T.; Barth, J. V.; Wintterlin, J.

    2002-04-01

    The thermal dissociation of oxygen molecules on Ag(110) was studied by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy. At temperatures around 170 K a fraction of the molecules dissociate to form pairs of O atoms on the unreconstructed surface. The atoms lie in the trenches between the close-packed Ag rows; the intrapair distance is two lattice constants. The O atoms are very reactive with CO at temperatures as low as 70 K. The preferential orientation of the pairs in the [001] direction contrasts with the finding in a previous study (Hahn J R, Lee H J and Ho W 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 85 1914) that electron-induced dissociation exclusively leads to [110]-oriented pairs. The trajectories of thermal and electron-induced dissociations must therefore be different. In the temperature range of the dissociation, several additional oxygen features occur on the surface. These include unreacted O2 molecules, the first nuclei of the added-row reconstruction, and two unidentified O-induced structures.

  5. Ordered silicon nanowire arrays prepared by an improved nanospheres self-assembly in combination with Ag-assisted wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guobin; Westphalen, Jasper; Drexler, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Dellith, Jan; Dellith, Andrea; Andrä, Gudrun; Falk, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    An improved Langmuir-Blodgett self-assembly process combined with Ag-assisted wet chemical etching for the preparation of ordered silicon nanowire arrays is presented in this paper. The new process is independent of the surface conditions (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) of the substrate, allowing for depositing a monolayer of closely packed polystyrene nanospheres onto any flat surface. A full control of the morphology of the silicon nanowire is achieved. Furthermore, it is observed that the formation of porous-Si at the tips of the nanowires is closely related to the release of Ag nanoparticles from the Ag mask during the etching, which subsequently redeposit on the surface initially free of Ag, and these Ag nanoparticles catalyze the etching of the tips and lead to the porous-Si formation. This finding will help to improve the resulting nano- and microstructures to get them free of pores, and renders it a promising technology for low-cost high throughput fabrication of specific optical devices, photonic crystals, sensors, MEMS, and NEMS by substituting the costly BOSCH process. It is shown that ordered nanowire arrays free of porous structures can be produced if all sources of Ag nanoparticles are excluded, and structures with aspect ratio more than 100 can be produced.

  6. Association between CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G polymorphism and asthma: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ying-Shui; Wang, Lin-Hong; Chang, Wei-Wei; He, Lian-Ping; Li, Jie; Jin, Yue-Long; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-01-01

    The results of studies on association between CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G (rs231775) polymorphism and susceptibility to asthma are controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between the CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G polymorphism and asthma, a meta-analysis of 15 published case-control studies was performed. 15 studies meeting our inclusion criteria comprising 4006 asthma cases and 3729 controls were included. The effect summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Publication bias was tested by funnel plot, Egger’s test and heterogeneity was assessed. The combined results showed that there were significant differences in genotype distribution between asthma cases and control on the basis of all studies, GG + GA versus AA (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.93; P = 0.008). When stratifying for the race, the phenomenon was found that asthma cases had a significantly higher frequency of GG/GA versus AA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99; P = 0.04) than control in Caucasian. Stratifying subjects by age indicated an association between CTLA-4 +49 GG + GA genotype and asthma in children (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62-0.90; P = 0.002), but no association in adults (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.76-1.14; P = 0.48). Furthermore, significant association was observed in atopic asthma under the fixed-effects model (GG + GA vs. AA: P = 0.03, OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.98, P heterogeneity = 0.22). Our meta-analysis results suggest that CTLA-4 exon-1 +49A/G polymorphism might be a risk factor for asthma susceptibility, at least in Caucasian, children, and patients with atopy status. PMID:26064199

  7. Sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C@Ag particles: an efficient SERS substrate for detection of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingjie; Chen, Jin; Ding, Qianqian; Lin, Dongyue; Dong, Ronglu; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2013-06-01

    Ag-coated sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C core-shell particles can be synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method, followed by deposition of high-density Ag nanoparticles onto the carbon surface through an in situ growth process, respectively. The as-synthesized Ag-coated Fe3O4@C particles can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate holding reproducible properties under an external magnetic force. The magnetic function of the particles allows concentrating the composite particles into small spatial regions, which can be exploited to decrease the amount of material per analysis while improving its SERS detection limit. In contrast to the traditional SERS substrates, the present Fe3O4@C@Ag particles hold the advantages of enrichment of organic pollutants for improving SERS detection limit and recycled utilization.Ag-coated sea-urchin-like Fe3O4@C core-shell particles can be synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method, followed by deposition of high-density Ag nanoparticles onto the carbon surface through an in situ growth process, respectively. The as-synthesized Ag-coated Fe3O4@C particles can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate holding reproducible properties under an external magnetic force. The magnetic function of the particles allows concentrating the composite particles into small spatial regions, which can be exploited to decrease the amount of material per analysis while improving its SERS detection limit. In contrast to the traditional SERS substrates, the present Fe3O4@C@Ag particles hold the advantages of enrichment of organic pollutants for improving SERS detection limit and recycled utilization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional XRD patterns and SEM images of Fe3O4@C particles, SERS spectra of 4-ATP and 4-MPY using Fe3O4@C@Ag particles as the active substrates, magnetic behaviour of Fe3O4@C and Fe3O4@C@Ag particles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01273e

  8. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  9. Vaccinia virus A12L protein and its AG/A proteolysis play an important role in viral morphogenic transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su Jung; Hruby, Dennis E

    2007-01-01

    Like the major vaccinia virus (VV) core protein precursors, p4b and p25K, the 25 kDa VV A12L late gene product (p17K) is proteolytically maturated at the conserved Ala-Gly-Ala motif. However, the association of the precursor and its cleavage product with the core of mature virion suggests that both of the A12L proteins may be required for virus assembly. Here, in order to test the requirement of the A12L protein and its proteolysis in viral replication, a conditional lethal mutant virus (vvtetOA12L) was constructed to regulate A12L expression by the presence or absence of an inducer, tetracycline. In the absence of tetracycline, replication of vvtetOA12L was inhibited by 80% and this inhibition could be overcome by transient expression of the wild-type copy of the A12L gene. In contrast, mutation of the AG/A site abrogated the ability of the transfected A12L gene to rescue, indicating that A12L proteolysis plays an important role in viral replication. Electron microscopy analysis of the A12L deficient virus demonstrated the aberrant virus particles, which were displayed by the AG/A site mutation. Thus, we concluded that the not only A12L protein but also its cleavage processing plays an essential role in virus morphogenic transition. PMID:17625005

  10. An investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of electrochemically coated Ag(4)Sn dental alloy particles condensed in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Jose Antonio

    As part of the ongoing scientific effort to develop a new amalgam-like material without mercury, a team of metallurgists and electrochemists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, announced in 1993 the development of a new Ag-Sn dental alloy system without mercury that sought to replace conventional dental amalgams. They used spherical Ag3Sn and Ag4Sn intermetallic dental alloy particles, commonly used in conventional dental alloys, and coated them with electrodeposited silver with newly-developed electrolytic and immersion techniques. The particles had relatively pure silver coatings that were closely adherent to the intermetalfic cores. These silver-coated particles, due to silver's plasticity at room temperature, were condensed into PlexiglasRTM molds with the aid of an acidic surface activating solution (HBF4) and a mechanical condensing device, producing a metal-matrix composite with Ag3,4Sn filler particles surrounded by a cold-welded silver matrix. Since silver strain hardens rather easily, the layers had to be condensed in less than 0.5 mm increments to obtain a dense structure. Mechanical testing at NIST produced compressive strength values equal to or greater than those of conventional dental amalgams. Because of its potential for eliminating mercury as a constituent in dental amalgam, this material created a stir in dental circles when first developed and conceivably could prove to be a major breakthrough in the field of dental restoratives. To date, the chief impediments to its approval for human clinical applications by the Food and Drug Administration are the potentially-toxic surface activating solution used for oxide reduction, and the high condensation pressures needed for cold welding because of the tendency for silver to strain harden. In this related study, the author, who has practiced general dentistry for 25 years, evaluates some of the mechanical and microstructural properties of these

  11. Effect of a prior stretch on the aging response of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a family of Al-Cu-Li alloys containing minor amounts of Ag, Mg, and Zr and having desirable combinations of strength and toughness were developed. The Weldalite (trademark) alloys exhibit a unique characteristic in that with or without a prior stretch, they obtain significant strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. The ultra-high strength (approximately 690 MPa yield strength) in the peak-aged tempers (T6 and T8) were primarily attributed to the extremely fine T(sub 1) (Al2CuLi) or T(sub 1)-type precipitates that occur in these alloys during artificial aging, whereas the significant natural aging response observed is attributed to strengthening from delta prime (Al3Li) and GP zones. In recent work, the aging behavior of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy without a prior stretch was followed microstructurally from the T4 to the T6 condition. Commercial extrusions, rolled plates, and sheets of Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a stretching operation before artificial aging to straighten the extrusions and, more importantly, introduce dislocations to simulate precipitation of strengthening phases such as T(sub 1) by providing relatively low-energy nucleation sites. The goals of this study are to examine the microstructure that evolves during aging of an alloy that was stretch after solution treatment and to compare the observations with those for the unstretched alloy.

  12. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  13. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  14. Study of NBE emission enhancement with an absence of DL emission from ZnO nanorods through controlled growth on ultra-thin Ag films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2015-04-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) exhibiting enhanced ultra-violet near band edge (UV-NBE) emission without a broad visible deep level (DL) emission has been investigated on catalytically grown ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructure. The hybrid structure is fabricated in two steps, (1) Thermal evaporation of ultra-thin catalytic layer of Ag with mass thickness ∼1 nm on glass substrate followed by annealing process from 50 to 250 °C and (2) vertical growth of ZnO NRs by hydrothermal reaction process on all Ag films. The surface properties of Ag layer such as particle size, inter-particle distance, particles number density, surface roughness and surface coverage area were altered through annealing process. Annealing at 100 °C modifies Ag from quasi-amorphous to nanocrystalline leading to high density growth and high aspect ratio of ZnO NRs where as a random and less density growth was realized at 250 °C due to increase of both particle size and inter-particles distance in Ag layer. X-ray diffraction reveals a predominant growth of (0 0 2) plane at 100 °C confirming the formation of wurtzite phase of ZnO NRs with highest texture coefficient of 2.35. Raman spectra verify the chemical structure of ZnO with very good crystallinity. Absorption spectra demonstrates the overlapping of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and exciton bands up to 200 °C while the excitonic absorption band is resolved at above 200 °C because of the red shift in SPR due to change in surface properties of Ag layer. At 250 °C, a broad optical absorption spectra from 300 to 800 nm attributed to the dominant properties of SPR and exciton. Besides acting as a catalyst, Ag interlayer enhances the NBE emission at above 200 °C through electrons transfer from Ag to ZnO which is quite possible because of the direct contact between them, explained by giving energy band diagram. The morphology is such that there is an increase in passage for light interaction due to less density and random growth of ZnO NRs leading to increase

  15. Strongly visible-light responsive plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles for reduction of CO2 to methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Changhua; Wang, Jizhuang; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Meiyu; Ming, Xijuan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Qinhui

    2012-08-01

    Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2 into useful organic compounds.Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2. For example, reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO2

  16. An oil-in-water self-assembly synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of nano Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The plasmatic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts. • Ag@AgCl greatly increased visible light absorption for K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}. • The photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic dye degradation. - Abstract: Nano-sized plasmonic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts (hereafter designated as Ag@AgCl/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}) was synthesized via a facile oil-in-water self-assembly method. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials for RhB (Rhodamine B) degradation was examined under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the size of Ag@AgCl, which evenly dispersed on the surface of K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}, distributes about 20–50 nm. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that Ag@AgCl/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} samples have a significantly enhanced optical absorption in 380–700 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgCl/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} samples increase first and then decrease with increasing amount of loading Ag@AgCl and the Ag@AgCl(20 wt.%)/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and 94.47% RhB was degraded after irradiation for 2 h. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O{sub 2}·{sup −} and Cl{sup 0} acted as the main reactive species. The electronic interaction was systematically studied and confirmed by the photo-electrochemical measurements.

  17. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  18. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and distribution to tissue of AG1343, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    PubMed

    Shetty, B V; Kosa, M B; Khalil, D A; Webber, S

    1996-01-01

    AG1343, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (Ki = 2 nM), was designed by protein structure-based drug design techniques. AG1343 has potent antiviral activity (95% effective dose = 0.04 microgram/ml) against a number of HIV-1 strains in acute and chronic models of infection. As part of its preclinical development, the oral bioavailability of AG1343 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and marmosets was determined and its tissue distribution in rats was evaluated. There were no major interspecies differences in AG1343 pharmacokinetics. Following intravenous administration, the elimination half-life of AG1343 ranged from 1 to 1.4 hr. The total volume of distribution (2 to 7 liters/kg) exceeded the volume of total body water, indicating extensive tissue distribution. Systemic clearance of AG1343 (1 to 4 liters/kg) in the different species corresponded to hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible hepatic involvement in the elimination of AG1343. Following oral administration, peak levels in plasma ranged from 0.34 microgram/ml after treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight in the dog to 1.7 micrograms/ml after dosing with 50 mg/kg in the rat. Because of the slow absorption of AG1343, plasma concentrations of AG1343 exceeding that required for 95% inhibition of HIV-1 replication were maintained for up to 7 h after a single oral dose in all species evaluated. Average oral bioavailability of AG1343 ranged from 17% in the marmoset to 47% in the dog. Studies of distribution to tissue in the rat after oral administration of 14C-AG1343 established extensive distribution with concentrations in most tissues exceeding that found in plasma. Of particular significance were high levels of AG1343 equivalent in mesenteric lymph nodes (32.05 micrograms/g) and spleen tissue (9.33 micrograms/g). The major excretory route for AG1343 was via feces, with 100% of the dose recovered by 48 h. Results from these studies demonstrate that AG1343 is orally bioavailable and

  19. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and distribution to tissue of AG1343, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, B V; Kosa, M B; Khalil, D A; Webber, S

    1996-01-01

    AG1343, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (Ki = 2 nM), was designed by protein structure-based drug design techniques. AG1343 has potent antiviral activity (95% effective dose = 0.04 microgram/ml) against a number of HIV-1 strains in acute and chronic models of infection. As part of its preclinical development, the oral bioavailability of AG1343 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and marmosets was determined and its tissue distribution in rats was evaluated. There were no major interspecies differences in AG1343 pharmacokinetics. Following intravenous administration, the elimination half-life of AG1343 ranged from 1 to 1.4 hr. The total volume of distribution (2 to 7 liters/kg) exceeded the volume of total body water, indicating extensive tissue distribution. Systemic clearance of AG1343 (1 to 4 liters/kg) in the different species corresponded to hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible hepatic involvement in the elimination of AG1343. Following oral administration, peak levels in plasma ranged from 0.34 microgram/ml after treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight in the dog to 1.7 micrograms/ml after dosing with 50 mg/kg in the rat. Because of the slow absorption of AG1343, plasma concentrations of AG1343 exceeding that required for 95% inhibition of HIV-1 replication were maintained for up to 7 h after a single oral dose in all species evaluated. Average oral bioavailability of AG1343 ranged from 17% in the marmoset to 47% in the dog. Studies of distribution to tissue in the rat after oral administration of 14C-AG1343 established extensive distribution with concentrations in most tissues exceeding that found in plasma. Of particular significance were high levels of AG1343 equivalent in mesenteric lymph nodes (32.05 micrograms/g) and spleen tissue (9.33 micrograms/g). The major excretory route for AG1343 was via feces, with 100% of the dose recovered by 48 h. Results from these studies demonstrate that AG1343 is orally bioavailable and

  20. Modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance for an array of Ag nanostructures layered with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhenzhen; Huang, Haishen; Wan, Yuan; Deng, Luogen

    2016-08-01

    Sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for an array of Ag (silver) nanostructures layered with nematic liquid crystals (NLC) is investigated. Calculations are made by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method under different geometrical and environmental parameters. Results show that the LSPR wavelength in this array can be controlled and tuned to infrared wavelength range by the rotation of the NLC optical-axis. The rotation of the array and the modifications to height of the NLC layer, the size and periods of the array can affect the sensitivity of the LSPR. The sensitivity is higher when the optical-axis is in xoz plane, than that for the optical-axis in xoy plane. An improved sensitivity has been obtained in the simulation.

  1. Microstructural evolution during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys in the Al-Cu-Li Ag-Mg subsystem were developed that exhibit desirable combinations of strength and ductility. These Weldalite (trademark) alloys, are unique for Al-Cu-Li alloys in that with or without a prior cold stretching operation, they obtain excellent strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. This is significant because it enables complex, near-net shape products such as forgings and super plastically formed parts to be heat treated to ultra-high strengths. On the other hand, commercial extrusions, rolled plates and sheets of other Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a cold stretching operation before artificial aging to the highest strength tempers to introduce dislocations that provide low-energy nucleation sites for strengthening precipitates such as the T(sub 1) phase. The variation in yield strength (YS) with Li content in the near-peak aged condition for these Weldalite (trademark) alloys and the associated microstructures were examined, and the results are discussed.

  2. Allergy Vaccines Using a Mycobacterium-Secreted Antigen, Ag85B, and an IL-4 Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Yusuke; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma, airway hypersensitivity, hay fever, and atopic dermatitis, has been increasing in the industrialized world, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic allergens. T helper (Th) 2 cells are thought to play a crucial role in the initiation, progression, and persistence of allergic responses in association with production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Therefore, a strategy of a shift from Th2- to Th1-type immune response may be valuable in the prophylaxis and management of allergic diseases. It is also necessary to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatment that induces homeostatic functions in the multifaceted allergic environment, because various factors including innate and adaptive immunity, mucosal immune response, and functional and structural maintenance of local tissue might be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We review herein recent findings related to the curative effect for mouse models of asthma and atopic dermatitis using DNA-, virus-, and protein-based vaccines of a Mycobacterium secretion antigen, Ag85B, and a plasmid encoding cDNA of antagonistic IL-4 mutant.

  3. Montmorillonite-supported Ag/TiO(2) nanoparticles: an efficient visible-light bacteria photodegradation material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Shun; Wang, Kai-Xue; Li, Guo-Dong; Sun, Shi-Yang; Sun, Jian; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2010-02-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT)-supported Ag/TiO(2) composite (Ag/TiO(2)/MMT) has been prepared through a one-step, low-temperature solvothermal technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the Ag particles coated with TiO(2) nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of MMT in the composite. As a support for the Ag/TiO(2) composite, the MMT prevents the loss of the catalyst during recycling test. This Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good recycling performance in the degradation of E. coli under visible light. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity of the Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite is ascribed to the increase in surface active centers and the localized surface plasmon effect of the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag/TiO(2)/MMT materials with excellent stability, recyclability, and bactericidal activities are promising photocatalysts for application in decontamination.

  4. Assessing Youth Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture: The Impact of Participating in an AgVenture Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, Alisa Nicole; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Cummins, Richard L.; Edwards, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural education programs such as AgVenture have been established to educate youth about the importance of agriculture. The study reported here examined the direct impact that one agricultural education program, specifically AgVenture, had on youth perceptions and knowledge of agriculture. Youth's perceptions and knowledge of agriculture…

  5. An AgI@g-C3N4 hybrid core@shell structure: Stable and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Qi, Yuehong; Yang, Jinyi; Cui, Wenquan; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    A novel visible-light-active material AgI@g-C3N4 was prepared by ultrasonication/chemisorption method. The core@shell structure AgI@g-C3N4 catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Nearly 96.5% of MB was degraded after 120 min of irradiation in the presence of the AgI@g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Superior stability was also observed in the cyclic runs indicating that the as prepared hybrid composite is highly desirable for the remediation of organic contaminated wastewaters. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to synergistic effects at the interface of AgI and g-C3N4 which can effectively accelerate the charge separation and reinforce the photostability of hybrid composite. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of AgI@g-C3N4 was tentatively proposed.

  6. An investigation of localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezgin, Serap Yiǧit; Kepceoǧlu, Abdullah; Kılıç, Hamdi Şükür

    2017-02-01

    Noble metal nano-structures such as Ag, Cu, Au are used commonly to increase power conversion efficiency of the solar cell by using their surface plasmons. The plasmonic metal nanoparticles of Ag among others that have strong LSPR in near UV range. They increase photon absorbance via embedding in the active semiconductor of the solar cell. Thin films of Ag are grown in the desired particle size and interparticle distance easily and at low cost by PLD technique. Ag nanoparticle thin films were grown on micro slide glass at 25-36 mJ laser pulse energies under by PLD using ns-Nd:YAG laser. The result of this work have been presented by carrying out UV-VIS and AFM analysis. It was concluded that a laser energy increases, the density and size of Ag-NPs arriving on the substrate increases, and the interparticle distance was decreases. Therefore, LSPR wavelength shifts towards to longer wavelength region.

  7. Machinability of an experimental Ti-Ag alloy in terms of tool life in a dental CAD/CAM system.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Takada, Yukyo; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Titanium is difficult to machine because of its intrinsic properties. In a previous study, the machinability of titanium was improved by alloying with silver. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of tungsten carbide burs after the fabrication of frameworks using a Ti-20%Ag alloy and titanium with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. There was a significant difference in attrition area ratio between the two metals. Compared with titanium, the ratio of the area of attrition of machining burs was significantly lower for the experimental Ti-20%Ag alloy. The difference in the area of attrition for titanium and Ti-20%Ag became remarkable with increasing number of machining operations. The results show that the same burs can be used for a longer time with Ti-20%Ag than with pure titanium. Therefore, in terms of tool life, the machinability of the Ti-20%Ag alloy is superior to that of titanium.

  8. An ab initio study of the structure and atomic transport in bulk liquid Ag and its liquid-vapor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Beatriz G.; González, David J.; González, Luis E.

    2016-10-01

    Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ag at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been calculated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows a very good agreement with the available experimental data. The dynamical structure reveals propagating excitations whose dispersion at long wavelengths is compatible with the experimental sound velocity. Results are also reported for other transport coefficients. Additional simulations have also been performed so as to study the structure of the free liquid surface. The calculated longitudinal ionic density profile shows an oscillatory behaviour, whose properties are analyzed through macroscopic and microscopic methods. The intrinsic X-ray reflectivity of the surface is predicted to show a layering peak associated to the interlayer distance.

  9. Enhancement of immune response to a DNA vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B by incorporation of an autophagy inducing system.

    PubMed

    Meerak, Jomkhwan; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P; Palaga, Tanapat

    2013-01-21

    DNA vaccines are a promising new generation of vaccines that can elicit an immune response using DNA encoding the antigen of interest. The efficacy of these vaccines, however, still needs to be improved. In this study, we investigated the effect of autophagy on increasing the efficacy of a candidate DNA vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a causative agent of tuberculosis. Low molecular weight chitosan was used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing a gene encoding MTB Antigen 85B (Ag85B), a secreted fibronectin-binding protein. To induce autophagy upon DNA vaccination, the kinase defective mTOR (mTOR-KD) was transfected into cells, and autophagy was detected based on the presence of LC3II. To investigate whether autophagy enhances an immune response upon DNA vaccination, we coencapsualted the Ag85B-containing plasmid with a plasmid encoding mTOR-KD. Plasmids encapsulated by chitosan particles were used for primary subcutaneous immunization and for intranasal boost in mice. After the boost vaccination, sera from the mice were measured for humoral immune response. The DNA vaccine with the autophagy-inducing construct elicited significantly higher Ag85B-specific antibody levels than the control group treated with the Ag85B plasmid alone or with the Ag85B plasmid plus the wild type mTOR construct. Upon in vitro stimulation of splenocytes from mice immunized with recombinant Ag85B, the highest levels of secreted IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in mice immunized with the autophagy-inducing plasmid, while no differences in IL-4 levels were detected between the groups, suggesting that the DNA vaccine regimen with autophagy induction induced primarily a Th1 immune response. Furthermore, the enhanced proliferation of CD4+ T cells from mice receiving the autophagy-inducing vaccine was observed in vitro. Based on the evidence presented, we conclude that incorporating an autophagy-inducing element into a DNA vaccine may help to improve immune response.

  10. Photo- and thermo-chemical transformation of AgCl and Ag2S in environmental matrices and its implication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Wei; Tan, Zhiqiang; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Weidong; Guo, Xiaoru; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    AgCl and Ag2S prevalently exist in the environment as minerals and/or the chlorination and sulfidation products of ionic silver and elemental silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this work, we investigated the chemical transformation of AgCl and Ag2S under simulated sunlight (in water) and incineration (in sludge and simulated municipal solid waste, SMSW). In the presence of natural organic matter, AgCl in river water was observed to be transformed into AgNPs under simulated sunlight, while photo-reduction of Ag2S could not take place under the same experimental conditions. During the course of incineration, pure Ag2S was transformed into elemental silver while AgCl remained stable; however, both Ag2S in sludge and AgCl in SMSW can be transformed to elemental silver under incineration, evident by the results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements. Incineration temperature played an important role in the transformation of Ag2S and AgCl into elemental silver. These results suggest that chemical transformations of Ag2S and AgCl into elemental silver could be a possible source of naturally occurring or unintentionally produced AgNPs, affecting the fate, transport, bioavailability and toxicity of silver. Therefore, it is necessary to include the contributions of this transformation process when assessing the risk of ionic silver/AgNPs and the utilization and management of incineration residues.

  11. AgH, Ag/sub 2/, and AgO revisited: Basis set extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    An extended basis set has been developed for Ag which significantly improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental spectroscopic parameters for AgH, AgO, and Ag/sub 2/. The major improvement comes about as a result of the improved treatment of electron correlation in the Ag d shell upon the introduction of f functions. Their inclusion produces very slight differences at the SCF level, but significant reductions in r/sub e/ and increases in ..omega../sub e/ and D/sub e/ in the Mo-dash-barller--Plesset perturbation theory expansion. At the MP4(SDTQ) level, typical results are 0.02 A too long for r/sub e/, 4% too low for ..omega../sub e/, and 10 kcal too small for D/sub e/. From a pragmatic standpoint, MP2 give results very similar to this at a much reduced level of effort.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Characterization of Ag adsorption on TiC(001) substrate: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shang-Yi; Wang, Shao-Qing

    2008-10-01

    Ag adsorptions at 0.25-3 monolayer (ML) coverage on a perfect TiC(001) surface and at 0.25 ML coverage on C vacancy are separately investigated by using the pseudopotential-based density functional theory. The preferential adsorption sites and the adsorption-induced modifications of electronic structures of both the substrate and adsorbate are analysed. Through the analyses of adsorption energy, ideal work of separation, interface distance, projected local density of states, and the difference electron density, the characteristic evolution of the adatom-surface bonding as a function of the amount of deposited silver is studied. The nature of the Ag/TiC bonding changes as the coverage increases from 0.25 to 3 MLs. Unlike physisorption in an Ag/MgO system, polar covalent component contributes to the Ag/TiC interfacial adhesion in most cases, however, for the case of 1-3 ML coverage, an additional electrostatic interaction between the absorption layer and the substrate should be taken into account. The value of ideal work of separation, 1.55 J/m2 for a 3-ML-thick adlayer accords well with other calculations. The calculations predict that Ag does not wet TiC(001) surface and prefers a three-dimensional growth mode in the absence of kinetic factor. This work reports on a clear site and coverage dependence of the measurable physical parameters, which would benefit the understanding of Ag/TiC (001) interface and the analysis of experimental data.

  13. Performance of an over-pressure processed Bi-2223/Ag/SUS tape and a small layer-winding coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Ken-ichiro; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Fujino, Kousou; Ayai, Naoki; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2009-04-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the utility and potential of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated by a CT-OP (controlled-overpressure) process. In this paper, we report the Ic-B-T performance of a short tape with stainless steel lamination and energizing-test results of a small layer-winding coil in an external magnetic field ranging from 0 to 12 T and at temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 90 K. The coil is a solenoid layer-winding of a 135 m piece of Bi-2223/Ag tape with stainless steel lamination on both sides. The dimensions of the conductor are 2.7 mm in width and 0.25 mm in thickness, including a 0.02 mm thick stainless steel lamination on both sides. A short sample cut from the same tape has critical currents exceeding 76 A, 307 A and 438 A at 77 K, 30 K and 4.2 K, respectively, in self-field. The winding was performed using a 'react & wind' technique and the resultant coil had 597 turns and dimensions of 65 mm (inner diameter), 83 mm (outer diameter) and 60 mm (winding height). In 12 T, 4.2 K, the coil-Ic is 191 A, which adds 1.42 T to the external field. In the present coil, the coil-Ic is controlled by the field component in the coil's radial direction generated by the coil itself. The Ic values of the coil agree very well with those estimated from the short sample's performance and field distribution. The results indicate that the homogeneity of the Bi-2223 conductor is very good throughout its whole 135 m length.

  14. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  15. Creating Open Education Resources for Teaching and Community Development through Action Research: An Overview of the Makerere AgShare Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneene, John B.; Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Kisaka, Stevens; Miller, RoseAnn; Kabasa, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The AgShare Phase I Program, conducted at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, was formed to create open education resources for teaching and community development through action research. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of investigators from fields of veterinary medicine and agri-business. Two master of science students…

  16. Characterization of spark plasma sintered Ag nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y Q; Shearwood, C; Xu, B; Yu, L G; Khor, K A

    2010-03-19

    The low temperature sintering behaviour of nanocrystalline Ag powder (with an average size of 70 nm) was characterized. Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), the Ag nanopowders can be successfully sintered at low pressure for only 5 min without external heating, and the sintering density increases and porosity decreases significantly with increase in the sintering temperature. Nanoindentation has been used to characterize the SPS sintered Ag samples. The mechanisms of the low sintering temperature behaviour of the nano-Ag powder and the nanoscale mechanical performance have been discussed. Compression tests were also used to characterize the mechanical properties of the sintered Ag sample with a maximum strain up to 15%.

  17. An Electrochemical Framework to Explain Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in an Al-5.4%Cu-0.5%Mg-0.5%Ag Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, D. A.; Connolly, B. J.; Scully, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A modified version of the Cu-depletion electrochemical framework was used to explain the metallurgical factor creating intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in an aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy, C416. This framework was also used to explain the increased resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the overaged temper. Susceptibility in the under aged and T8 condition is consistent with the grain boundary Cu-depletion mechanism. Improvements in resistance of the T8+ thermal exposure of 5000 h at 225 F (T8+) compared to the T8 condition can be explained by depletion of Cu from solid solution.

  18. Hierarchically plasmonic photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl nanocrystals coupled with single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Li, Tao; Chen, Qianqian; Gao, Jiabing; Fan, Bingbing; Li, Jian; Li, Xinjian; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2012-08-01

    The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in situ. WO3 nanocrystals with various shapes (i.e., nanoplates, nanorods, and nanoparticles) were used as the substrates to synthesize Ag/AgCl@WO3 photocatalysts, and the effects of the WO3 contents and photoreduction times on their visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance were investigated. The techniques of TEM, SEM, XPS, EDS, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and UV-vis DR spectra were used to characterize the compositions, phases and microstructures of the samples. The RhB aqueous solutions were used as the model system to estimate the photocatalytic performance of the as-obtained Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures under visible light (λ >= 420 nm) and sunlight. The results indicated that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalyst has a higher photodegradation rate than Ag/AgCl, AgCl, AgCl@WO3 and TiO2 (P25). The contents and morphologies of the WO3 substrates in the Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalysts have important effects on their photocatalytic performance. The related mechanisms for the enhancement in visible-light-driven photodegradation of RhB molecules were analyzed.The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in

  19. Apoptosis and G2/M arrest induced by Allium ursinum (ramson) watery extract in an AGS gastric cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Song, Guo-qing; Yu, Yan-qiu; Ma, Hai-ying; Ma, Ling; Jin, Yu-nan

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to determine whether Allium ursinum L (ramson) could inhibit the proliferation of human AGS gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether this inhibition could occur by targeting regulatory elements of the cell cycle. Methods Flow cytometry was used to observe apoptosis and the cell cycle in AGS cell lines treated or not treated with ramson watery extract. Proteins related to the cell cycle were detected by Western blotting. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Ramson watery extract induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in AGS cells. Western blotting showed that cyclin B was inhibited by ramson watery extract. However, G1 phase-related proteins remain unchanged after treatment. Conclusion Our results indicate that ramson effectively sup pressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest in AGS cells by regulating elements of the cell cycle. PMID:23836991

  20. Silanization of Ag-deposited magnetite particles: an efficient route to fabricate magnetic nanoparticle-based Raman barcode materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan; Choi, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyang Bong; Shin, Kuan Soo

    2010-07-01

    Silica-coated Ag nanostructures usable as magnetic nanoparticle-based Raman barcode materials were developed. Initially, 283 nm sized spherical magnetite particles composed of 13 nm sized superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were synthesized, and silver deposition was conducted using butylamine as the reductant of AgNO(3) in ethanol. The Ag-deposited Fe(3)O(4) (Fe(3)O(4)@Ag) particles are found to be efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with the enhancement factor at 632.8 nm excitation to be about 3 x 10(6). After SERS markers such as benzenethiol, 4-mercaptotoluene, 4-aminobenzenethiol, and 4-nitrobenzenethiol were adsorbed onto the silver surface, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) was coated onto them using the layer-by-layer deposition method such that a subsequent base-catalyzed silanization could readily form a 60 nm thick silica shell around the PAH layer by a biomimetic process. The cross-linked silica shells effectively prevented the SERS-marker molecules from being liberated from the surface of the Fe(3)O(4)@Ag particles. Although the gram magnetization decreased nearly to one-half of the initial value because of coating with silver and silica, the remaining magnetization was nonetheless strong enough for the silica-coated Fe(3)O(4)@Ag particles to be used as barcode materials operating via SERS.

  1. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  2. A localized and propagating SPR, and molecular imprinting based fiber-optic ascorbic acid sensor using an in situ polymerized polyaniline-Ag nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastav, Anand M.; Usha, Sruthi P.; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-08-01

    We report a successful approach for the fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic sensor for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, using a molecularly imprinted polyaniline-Ag (PANI-Ag) nanocomposite layer based on the combined phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and localized SPR (LSPR). The PANI-Ag nanocomposite is synthesized by an in situ polymerization process and AA imprints are prepared on the polymeric composite. The confirmation of the PANI-Ag nanocomposite and AA imprinting is performed using various characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. From XRD, the size of Ag nanoparticles is analyzed. The absorbance spectra are recorded for samples of different concentrations of AA around the sensing region of the probe. An increase in peak absorbance wavelength with the increase in AA concentration is observed with a linear response for the concentration range from 10-8 M to 10-6 M. The sensor possesses a high sensitivity of 45.1 nm log-1 M near an AA concentration of 10-8 M. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification of the sensor are found to be 7.383 × 10-11 M and 4.16 × 10-10 M, respectively. The LOD of the sensor is compared to studies reported in the literature and is found to be the lowest. The sensor possesses several other advantages such as cost effectiveness, selectivity, and low response time (<5 s), along with abilities of remote sensing and online monitoring.

  3. Structure and properties during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    An Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (trademark) 049, was recently introduced as an ultra-high strength alloy (7000 MPa yield strength in artificially aged tempers) with good weldability. In addition, the alloy exhibits an extraordinary natural aging response (440 MPa yield strength (YS) in the unstretch condition) and a high ductility reversion condition which may be useful as a cold-forming temper. In contrast to other Al-Li alloys, these properties can essentially be obtained with or without a stretch or other coldworking operation prior to aging. Preliminary studies have revealed that the T4 temper (no stretch, natural age) is strengthened by a combination of GP zones and delta prime (Al3Li). The T6 temper (no stretch, aged at 180 C to peak strength) was reported to be strengthened primarily by T(sub 1) phase (Al2CuLi) with a minor presence of a theta prime like (Al2Cu) phase. On the other hand, a similar but lower solute containing alloy was reported to contain omega, (stoichiometry unknown), theta prime, and S prime in the peak strength condition. The purpose of this study is to further elucidate the strengthening phases in Weldalite (trademark) 049 in the unstretched tempers, and to follow the development of the microstructure from the T4 temper through reversion (180 C for 5 to 45 minutes) to the T6 temper.

  4. Dynamic Mechanisms of the Bactericidal Action of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag Granular Material on an Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Tartanson, Marie-Anne; Rivallin, Matthieu; Pecastaings, Sophie; Chis, Cristian V.; Penaranda, Diego; Roques, Christine; Faur, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag granular material against an Escherichia coli strain was confirmed by a culture-based method. In particular, 100% of microorganisms were permanently inactivated in 30 to 45 min. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the bactericidal action of this material and their dynamics on Escherichia coli using different techniques. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different times of disinfection revealed morphological changes in the bacteria as soon as they were put in contact with the material. Notably highlighted were cell membrane damage; cytoplasm detachment; formation of vacuoles, possibly due to DNA condensation, in association with regions exhibiting different levels of electron density; and membrane lysis. PCR and flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm and quantify the observations of cell integrity. The direct exposure of cells to silver, combined with the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, was identified to be responsible for these morphological alterations. From the first 5 min of treatment with the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material, 98% of E. coli isolates were lysed. From 30 min, cell viability decreased to reach total inactivation, although approximately 1% of permeable E. coli cells and 1% of intact cells (105 genomic units · ml−1) were evidenced. This study demonstrates that the bactericidal effect of the material results from a synergic action of desorbed and supported silver. Supported silver was shown to generate the ROS evidenced. PMID:26253665

  5. Silver trimagnesium phosphate bis­(hydrogenphosphate), AgMg3(PO4)(HPO4)2, with an alluaudite-like structure

    PubMed Central

    Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; Zriouil, Mohammed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, AgMg3(PO4)(HPO4)2, which has been synthesized by the hydro­thermal method, has an alluaudite-like structure which is formed by edge-sharing MgO6 octa­hedra (one of which has symmetry 2), resulting in chains linked together by phosphate groups and hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional framework leads to two different channels along the c axis, one of which is occupied by Ag+ ions with a square-planar coordination. The Ag+ ions are disordered over two sites in a 0.89 (3):0.11 (3) ratio. The OH groups, which point into the other type of channel, are involved in strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The title compound is isotypic with the compounds AM 3H2(XO4)(HXO4)2 (A = Na or Ag, M = Mn, Co or Ni, and X = P or As) of the alluaudite structure type. PMID:21522513

  6. An easy and sensitive sandwich assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using quantum dots and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Eun Bee; Lee, Seung Woo; Cheon, Seon Ah; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jaebeom; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ko, Sungho; Park, Tae Jung

    2017-01-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious global infectious pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). The development of an easy and sensitive method for the detection of M. tuberculosis is in urgent need due to complex and low specificity of the current assays. Herein, we present a novel method for M. tuberculosis detection based on a sandwich assay via antigen-antibody interaction using silica-coated quantum dots (SiQDs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs). A genetically engineered recombinant antibody (GBP-50B14 and SiBP-8B3) was bound to surfaces of AuNRs and SiQDs respectively, without any surface modification. The antigen-antibody interaction was revealed using M. tuberculosis-specific secretory antigen, Ag85B. Two biocomplexes showed a quenching effect in the presence of the target antigen through a sandwich assay. The assay response was in the range of 1×10(-3)-1×10(-10)μgmL(-1) (R=0.969) and the limit of detection for Ag85B was 13.0pgmL(-1). The Ag85B was selectively detected using three different proteins (CFP10, and BSA), and further specifically confirmed by the use of spiked samples. Compared with existing methods, a highly sensitive and selective method for Ag85B-expressing M. tuberculosis detection has been developed for better diagnosis of TB.

  7. TiO2 nanotube composite layers as delivery system for ZnO and Ag nanoparticles - an unexpected overdose effect decreasing their antibacterial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Roguska, A; Belcarz, A; Pisarek, M; Ginalska, G; Lewandowska, M

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of implant materials is potentially beneficial for their practical value. Therefore, the use of metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial coatings components which induce minimized antibacterial resistance receives currently particular attention. In this work, TiO2 nanotubes layers loaded with ZnO and Ag nanoparticles were designed for biomedical coatings and delivery systems and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. TiO2 nanotubes themselves exhibited considerable and diameter-dependent antibacterial activity against planktonic Staphylococcus epidermidis cells but favored bacterial adhesion. Loading of nanotubes with moderate amount of ZnO nanoparticles significantly diminished S. epidermidis cell adhesion and viability just after 1.5h contact with modified surfaces. However, an increase of loaded ZnO amount unexpectedly altered the structure of nanoparticle-nanolayer, caused partial closure of nanotube interior and significantly reduced ZnO solubility and antibacterial efficacy. Co-deposition of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial properties of synthesized coatings. However, the increase of ZnO quantity on Ag nanoparticles co-deposited surfaces favored the adhesion of bacterial cells. Thus, ZnO/Ag/TiO2 nanotube composite layers may be promising delivery systems for combating post-operative infections in hard tissue replacement procedures. However, the amount of loaded antibacterial agents must be carefully balanced to avoid the overdose and reduced efficacy.

  8. Multifunctional nanotube-like Fe3O4/PANI/CDs/Ag hybrids: An efficient SERS substrate and nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Manqing; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Guiyang; Bi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the stable and environment-friendly Fe3O4 nanotubes with polyaniline (Fe3O4 NTs/PANI hybrids) have been prepared via mesoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template, sol-gel method and in-situ polymerization. Then multifunctional Fe3O4 NTs/PANI/Ag hybrids have been obtained by decorating Ag nanoparticles by glucose reduction on surface of Fe3O4 NTs/PANI hybrids. The morphologies and structures of these hybrids were subsequently investigated by SEM, XRD, TEM and XPS measurements. The Fe3O4 NTs/PANI/Ag hybrids presented high catalytic activity due to the template-assisted presence, preventing Ag particulate agglomeration. Importantly, the Fe3O4 NTs/PANI/Ag hybrids achieve sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Furthermore, the introduction of carbon dots (CDs) endows these hybrids good dispersion and stable photoluminescence (PL). Therefore, the obtained hybrids may have potential applications in waste water treatment, biomedicine, photocatalyst, and environmental analysis.

  9. Dealloying-driven synthesis and characterization of AgCl/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongyang; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Zhengfeng; Zhang, Lanxiang; Huang, Shifeng

    2017-03-01

    The combination of dealloying with acid treatment was used to fabricate mesoporous anatase TiO2 with high specific surface area of 233 m2/g. Using anatase TiO2 as a matrix, a photoreduction strategy was developed to synthesize AgCl/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites with different Ti/Ag molar ratios. The morphology and properties of AgCl/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgCl/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange solution under visible light irradiation. The optimum Ti/Ag molar ratio in the AgCl/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites was shown to be 6:1, which was attributed to its high specific surface area of 207 m2/g and the surface plasmon resonance effect.

  10. Ion-exchange synthesis of Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 ternary hollow microspheres with efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chaosheng; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Zhudong; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2014-02-21

    Ternary Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microspheres were synthesized via an in situ ion-exchange method using Cu7S4 hollow submicrospheres as the template. The as-obtained Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 composite exhibited a well-defined uniform hollow microsphere morphology with an average diameter of about 1.3 μm. The photocatalytic property of the as-prepared Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microsphere composite was investigated by the decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microsphere was higher than those of Ag/Ag2S, Cu2O, Cu7S4 and P25 for the photodegradation of MO under visible light irradiation. Radical scavenger experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals and holes were the main reactive species for MO degradation.

  11. AN INVESTIGATION OF WETTABILITY, AND MICROSTRUCTURE IN ALUMINA JOINTS BRAZED WITH Ag-CuO-TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-04-06

    A silver-based joining technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has been recently developed for joining high temperature structural ceramic components of the type used in gas turbines, combustion engines, heat exchangers, and burners. It was found that additions of CuO to silver have a significant effect on the wettability and joint strength characteristics of the resulting braze on polycrystalline alumina substrates. More recently, it has been found that by adding as little as 0.5 mol% titania to these Ag-CuO brazes, the wettability of the RAB on alumina surfaces is further enhanced. The results of wettabilty measurements of Ag-CuO-TiO2 RAB compositions on alumina will be presented along with the microstructural characterization of Ag-CuO-TiO2 braze joints in alumina.

  12. Unusual attempt to direct the growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets by electroless exchange of Cu by Pt for an efficient alcohol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeena, S. E.; Gnanaprakasam, P.; Selvaraju, T.

    2017-01-01

    A simple and an efficient tool for the direct growth of bimetallic Ag@Pt nanorods (NRDs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets was developed at glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Initially, Cu shell was grown on Ag core as Ag@Cu NRD by the seed-mediated growth method. Accordingly, Cu shell has been successfully replaced by Pt using the electroless galvanic replacement method with ease by effective functionalization of L-tryptophan on ERGO surface (L-ERGO), which eventually plays an important role in the direct growth of one-dimensional bimetallic NRDs. As a result, the synthesized Ag@Pt NRD-supported L-ERGO nanosheets (Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Raman spectroscopy. Anodic stripping voltammetry was used to explore its electrochemical properties. Finally, the developed bimetallic Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCEs were studied as a better electrocatalyst compared to the commercial catalysts such as Pt40/C or Pt20/C-loaded electrode for the oxidation of ethanol or methanol with a high tolerance level and an enhanced current density. In addition, the long-term stability was studied using chronoamperometry for 1000 s at the bimetallic NRD electrode for alcohol oxidation which impedes the fouling properties. The unfavourable and favourable electrooxidation of ethanol at Ag@Cu NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (a) and Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE (b) is discussed. The synergistic effect of Ag core and catalytic properties of Pt shell at Ag@Pt NRDs/L-ERGO/GCE tend to strongly minimize the CO poisoning effect and enhanced ethanol electrooxidation.

  13. Genetic effect of an A/G polymorphism in the HSP70 gene on thermotolerance in chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Zhang, W W; Gan, J K; Kong, L N; Zhang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Luo, Q B

    2016-07-14

    Studying thermotolerance is important for the prevention of thermostress in chickens. This study aimed to analyze the effect of mutations in the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene on chicken thermotolerance. The C.-69A>G SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the HSP70 gene was genotyped in Lingshan and White Recessive Rock (WRR) chickens. Association of this SNP with thermotolerance traits revealed it to be significantly associated with CD4+/CD8+, and potentially associated with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in WRR chickens exposed to thermoneutral temperature (15°C). Online prediction detected a putative myeloid zinc finger protein 1 binding factor in the C.-69A>G mutation. Under acute thermostress, mRNA levels of HSP70 in individuals with different C.-69A>G genotypes varied in the heart, leg muscle, and liver tissues. The HSP70 protein was expressed at higher levels in individuals with the GG genotype than in those with the AA genotype. In heart and liver, protein expression of HSP70 in individuals with the GG genotype was significantly higher than in those with the AA genotype. In leg muscle, protein expression was higher in birds with the GG genotype than in those with the AA and AG genotypes. Luciferase activity of the GG genotype was significantly higher than that of the AA genotype, suggesting that the C.-69A>G SNP regulates HSP70 gene expression. These results indicate that the C.-69A>G SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the HSP70 gene might affect chicken thermotolerance and that the GG genotype might be advantageous for the prevention of thermostress.

  14. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  15. Booster-to-AGS Multiwires and an Evolution of the Application Profile Display

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens,L.

    2008-07-01

    Follow up on BtA multiwire beam measurements taken during the 2008 polarized proton run has led to a number of better understandings (for the author) associated with the beam instrumentation involved. This history will be reviewed--some 'beam-based' results noted--and the present state of the application for these monitors described. The BtA multiwire system seems to be fundamentally an excellent diagnostic for allowing us to get the BtA line well under control in a defendable way. When beam is available in BtA, carrying out some systematic measurements with the system can get us there.

  16. Identification of an RNase that preferentially cleaves A/G nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jumin; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Xueyan; Chen, Honghe; Guan, Wuxiang

    2017-01-01

    Ribonucleases play an important role in the RNA metabolism which is critical for the localization, stability and function of mature RNA transcripts. More and more ribonucleases were discovered in recent years with the progress of technology. In the present study, we found that the uncharacterized C19orf43, a novel interacting protein of human telomerase RNA (hTR), digested T7 transcribed RNA, total cellular RNA and RNA oligos but not DNA. Thus we named this new RNase as hTRIR (human telomerase RNA interacting RNase). Genetic analysis showed that hTRIR is conserved among eukaryotic species and widely expressed in different cell lines. The RNase activity of hTRIR works in a broad temperature and pH range while divalent cations are not required. The conserved C-terminus of C19orf43 is necessary for its activity. Finally, we found that hTRIR cleaves all four unpaired RNA nucleotides from 5′ end or 3′ end with higher efficiency for purine bases, which suggested that hTRIR is an exoribonuclease. Taken together, our study showed the first evidence of the novel function of hTRIR in vitro, which provides clue to study the regulatory mechanism of hTR homeostasis in vivo. PMID:28322335

  17. Thermoelectric device including an alloy of GeTe and AgSbTe as the P-type element

    DOEpatents

    Skrabek, Emanuel Andrew; Trimmer, Donald Smith

    1976-01-01

    Improved alloys suitable for thermoelectric applications and having the general formula: (AgSbTe.sub.2).sub.1.sub.-x + (GeTe).sub.x wherein x has a value of about 0.80 and 0.85, have been found to possess unexpectedly high thermoelectric properties such as efficiency index, as well as other improved physical properties.

  18. A Comparison of AH6 AG Scores and GCE Examinations Taken after an Interval of One Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, A. W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    GCE O-and A-level examinations were correlated with the AH6 AG test scores obtained a year earlier. Results suggest that the predictive value of AH6 for success in individual subjects is almost as high as when the examinations and testing were taken within a few weeks of each other. (Authors/CB)

  19. Dynamic Mechanisms of the Bactericidal Action of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag Granular Material on an Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Tartanson, Marie-Anne; Soussan, Laurence; Rivallin, Matthieu; Pecastaings, Sophie; Chis, Cristian V; Penaranda, Diego; Roques, Christine; Faur, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    The bactericidal activity of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag granular material against an Escherichia coli strain was confirmed by a culture-based method. In particular, 100% of microorganisms were permanently inactivated in 30 to 45 min. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the bactericidal action of this material and their dynamics on Escherichia coli using different techniques. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different times of disinfection revealed morphological changes in the bacteria as soon as they were put in contact with the material. Notably highlighted were cell membrane damage; cytoplasm detachment; formation of vacuoles, possibly due to DNA condensation, in association with regions exhibiting different levels of electron density; and membrane lysis. PCR and flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm and quantify the observations of cell integrity. The direct exposure of cells to silver, combined with the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, was identified to be responsible for these morphological alterations. From the first 5 min of treatment with the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material, 98% of E. coli isolates were lysed. From 30 min, cell viability decreased to reach total inactivation, although approximately 1% of permeable E. coli cells and 1% of intact cells (10(5) genomic units·ml(-1)) were evidenced. This study demonstrates that the bactericidal effect of the material results from a synergic action of desorbed and supported silver. Supported silver was shown to generate the ROS evidenced.

  20. The cardiovascular response to the AGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Mctaggart, Wesley G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on human subjects conducted to study the cardiovascular response to various g-levels and exposure times using an artificial gravity simulator (AGS). The AGS is a short arm centrifuge consisting of a turntable, a traction system, a platform and four beds. Data collection hardware is part of the communication system. The AGS provides a steep acceleration gradient in subjects in the supine position.

  1. Morphology and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Cu/Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to study the microstructures of nanocrystalline (nc) Cu/Ag alloys with various Ag concentrations. When the Ag concentration is below 50 Ag atoms/nm!, an increase in Ag concentration leads to a gradual growth of monolayer grain boundary (GB) complexions into nanolayer complexions. Above the concentration of 50 Ag atoms/nm!, wetting layers with a bulk crystalline phase are observed. The effects of Ag on mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of nc Cu/Ag alloys are investigated in MD simulations of uniaxial tension. GB sliding resistance is found to first increase and then decrease with an increase in Ag concentration. Surprisingly, we also find that the dislocation density decreases monotonically with an increase in Ag concentration, which suggests that the grain interiors are softened by the introduction of Ag dopants at GBs. In addition, there is a critical Ag concentration that maximizes flow stress of nc Cu/Ag alloys. The flow stress, GB sliding resistance, and the intragranular dislocation densities become less sensitive to Ag dopants when the grain diameter increases from 5nm to 40nm.

  2. Experimental partitioning studies near the Fe-FeS eutectic, with an emphasis on elements important to iron meteorite chronologies (Pb, Ag, Pd, and Tl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. H.; Hart, S. R.; Benjamin, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    Partitioning coefficients for metal/sulfide liquid, troilite/sulfide liquid, and schreibersite/sulfide liquid were determined for Ag, Au, Mo, Ni, Pd, and Tl (using EMPA and proton-induced X-ray microprobe and ion microprobe analyses) in order to understand the chronometer systems of iron meteorites. In general, the obtained schreibersite/metal and troilite/metal partition coefficients for 'compatible' elements were quite similar to those inferred from natural assemblages, reinforcing an earlier made conclusion that there is a class of elements for which experimental troilite/metal and schreibersite/metal partition coefficients approximate those inferred from natural samples. The consistency between experimental and natural assemblages, however, was not observed for Ag, Pb, and Tl, indicating that the abundances of these elements determined in 'metal' and 'troilite' separates from iron meteorites are influenced by trace minerals that concentrate incompatible elements.

  3. Thin-film metallic glass: an effective diffusion barrier for Se-doped AgSbTe2 thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Hsin-Jay; Deng, Ping-Yuan; Agne, Matthias T.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Chu, Jinn P.

    2017-03-01

    The thermal stability of joints in thermoelectric (TE) modules, which are degraded during interdiffusion between the TE material and the contacting metal, needs to be addressed in order to utilize TE technology for competitive, sustainable energy applications. Herein, we deposit a 200 nm-thick Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG), which acts as an effective diffusion barrier layer with low electrical contact resistivity, on a high-zT Se-doped AgSbTe2 substrate. The reaction couples structured with TFMG/TE are annealed at 673 K for 8–360 hours and analyzed by electron microscopy. No observable IMCs (intermetallic compounds) are formed at the TFMG/TE interface, suggesting the effective inhibition of atomic diffusion that may be attributed to the grain-boundary-free structure of TFMG. The minor amount of Se acts as a tracer species, and a homogeneous Se-rich region is found nearing the TFMG/TE interface, which guarantees satisfactory bonding at the joint. The diffusion of Se, which has the smallest atomic volume of all the elements from the TE substrate, is found to follow Fick’s second law. The calculated diffusivity (D) of Se in TFMG falls in the range of D~10‑20–10‑23(m2/s), which is 106~107 and 1012~1013 times smaller than those of Ni [10‑14–10‑17(m2/s)] and Cu [10‑8–10‑11(m2/s)] in Bi2Te3, respectively.

  4. Thin-film metallic glass: an effective diffusion barrier for Se-doped AgSbTe2 thermoelectric modules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Hsin-jay; Deng, Ping-Yuan; Agne, Matthias T.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Chu, Jinn P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal stability of joints in thermoelectric (TE) modules, which are degraded during interdiffusion between the TE material and the contacting metal, needs to be addressed in order to utilize TE technology for competitive, sustainable energy applications. Herein, we deposit a 200 nm-thick Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG), which acts as an effective diffusion barrier layer with low electrical contact resistivity, on a high-zT Se-doped AgSbTe2 substrate. The reaction couples structured with TFMG/TE are annealed at 673 K for 8–360 hours and analyzed by electron microscopy. No observable IMCs (intermetallic compounds) are formed at the TFMG/TE interface, suggesting the effective inhibition of atomic diffusion that may be attributed to the grain-boundary-free structure of TFMG. The minor amount of Se acts as a tracer species, and a homogeneous Se-rich region is found nearing the TFMG/TE interface, which guarantees satisfactory bonding at the joint. The diffusion of Se, which has the smallest atomic volume of all the elements from the TE substrate, is found to follow Fick’s second law. The calculated diffusivity (D) of Se in TFMG falls in the range of D~10−20–10−23(m2/s), which is 106~107 and 1012~1013 times smaller than those of Ni [10−14–10−17(m2/s)] and Cu [10−8–10−11(m2/s)] in Bi2Te3, respectively. PMID:28327655

  5. Silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) doped gum acacia-gelatin-silica nanohybrid: an effective support for diastase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-03-01

    An effective carrier matrix for diastase alpha amylase immobilization has been fabricated by gum acacia-gelatin dual templated polymerization of tetramethoxysilane. Silver nanoparticle (AgNp) doping to this hybrid could significantly enhance the shelf life of the impregnated enzyme while retaining its full bio-catalytic activity. The doped nanohybrid has been characterized as a thermally stable porous material which also showed multipeak photoluminescence under UV excitation. The immobilized diastase alpha amylase has been used to optimize the conditions for soluble starch hydrolysis in comparison to the free enzyme. The optimum pH for both immobilized and free enzyme hydrolysis was found to be same (pH=5), indicating that the immobilization made no major change in enzyme conformation. The immobilized enzyme showed good performance in wide temperature range (from 303 to 323 K), 323 K being the optimum value. The kinetic parameters for the immobilized, (K(m)=10.30 mg/mL, V(max)=4.36 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) and free enzyme (K(m)=8.85 mg/mL, V(max)=2.81 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) indicated that the immobilization improved the overall stability and catalytic property of the enzyme. The immobilized enzyme remained usable for repeated cycles and did not lose its activity even after 30 days storage at 40°C, while identically synthesized and stored silver undoped hybrid lost its ~31% activity in 48 h. Present study revealed the hybrids to be potentially useful for biomedical and optical applications.

  6. Formation of AgGaS2 nano-pyramids from Ag2S nanospheres through intermediate Ag2S-AgGaS2 heterostructures and AgGaS2 sensitized Mn2+ emission.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Zhou, Jiangcong; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2014-02-21

    A one-pot solution synthesis of monodisperse AgGaS2 nanocrystals with uniform pyramid-like shape is realized for the first time, in which an interesting phase and shape evolution from monodisperse Ag2S nanospheres to pure AgGaS2 nano-pyramids through an intermediate stage of Ag2S-AgGaS2 heterostructures, is revealed. Evidently, upon introducing Mn(2+) ions into the reaction system, they are incorporated into AgGaS2 nano-pyramids which act as efficient sensitization matrixes for the red emission of Mn(2+) d-d transition under blue excitation. Benefiting from their non-toxicity and facile fabrication, Mn:AgGaS2 nanocrystals may find potential applications in some fields such as blue chip excited LEDs and bio-labeling.

  7. Crystal structure of an ethylene sorption complex of fully vacuum-dehydrated fully Ag+-exchanged zeolite X (FAU). Silver atoms have reduced ethylene to give CH2 2- carbanions at framework oxide vacancies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Seo Jung; Kim, Yang; Seff, Karl

    2005-11-03

    The crystal structure of an ethylene sorption complex of fully vacuum-dehydrated fully Ag(+)-exchanged zeolite X (FAU), a = 24.865(2) A, has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Fd at 21 degrees C. It is very different from the ethylene complex of Ag(92)-X that had been dehydrated at 400 degrees C in flowing oxygen, as were the two dehydrated structures. The crystal was prepared by ion exchange in a flowing stream of aqueous 0.05 M AgNO(3) for 3 days, followed by dehydration at 400 degrees C and 2 x 10(-6) Torr for 2 days, followed by exposure to 300 Torr of zeolitically dry ethylene gas for 2 h at 21 degrees C. The structure was determined in this atmosphere and was refined using all data to the final error indices (based upon the 534 reflections for which F(o) > 4sigma(F(o))) R(1) = 0.062 and wR(2) = 0.135. In this structure, per unit cell, 14 Ag(+) ions were found at the octahedral site I (Ag-O = 2.611(9) A), and 32 partially reduced Ag(+) ions fill two different site I' positions deep in the sodalite cavities (Ag-O = 2.601(13) and 2.618(12) A). The sodalite cavities host two different cationic silver clusters. In about 47% of sodalite units, eight silver atoms form interpenetrating tetrahedra, Ag(8)(n+) (n = 4 is suggested), with T(d)() symmetry. The other 53% of the sodalite units host cyclo-Ag(4)(m+) (m = 2 is suggested) cations with near S(4) symmetry. These clusters are very similar to those in vacuum-dehydrated Ag(92)-X. Thirty-two Ag(+) ions fill the single 6-rings, 15 at site II' (Ag-O = 2.492(10) A), and 17 at site II (Ag-O = 2.460(9) A). The latter 17 lie in supercages where each forms a lateral pi-complex with an ethylene molecule. In turn, each C(2)H(4) molecule forms two cis electrostatic hydrogen bonds to framework oxygens. The remaining 14 Ag+ ions occupy three different II' sites. Vacuum dehydration had caused substantial decomposition: per unit cell, 30 of the 92 Ag(+) ions were reduced and 15

  8. Evidences of +896 A/G TLR4 Polymorphism as an Indicative of Prevalence of Complications in T2DM Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Boemi, Massimo; Olivieri, Fabiola; Ceriello, Antonio; Genovese, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio; Spazzafumo, Liana; Fabietti, Paolo; Candore, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    T2DM is today considered as world-wide health problem, with complications responsible of an enhanced mortality and morbidity. Thus, new strategies for its prevention and therapy are necessary. For this reason, the research interest has focused its attention on TLR4 and its polymorphisms, particularly the rs4986790. However, no conclusive findings have been reported until now about the role of this polymorphism in development of T2DM and its complications, even if a recent meta-analysis showed its T2DM association in Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate the weight of rs4986790 polymorphism in the risk of the major T2DM complications, including 367 T2DM patients complicated for the 55.6%. Patients with A/A and A/G TLR4 genotypes showed significant differences in complication's prevalence. In particular, AG carriers had higher risk prevalence for neuropathy (P = 0.026), lower limb arteriopathy (P = 0.013), and the major cardiovascular pathologies (P = 0.017). Their cumulative risk was significant (P = 0.01), with a threefold risk to develop neuropathy, lower limb arteriopathy, and major cardiovascular events in AG cases compared to AA cases. The adjusted OR for the confounding variables was 3.788 (95% CI: 1.642–8.741). Thus, the rs4986790 polymorphism may be an indicative of prevalence of complications in T2DM patients. PMID:24803744

  9. Use of Protein AG in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening for Antibodies against Parapoxvirus in Wild Animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shinya; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Katsuya; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:10225841

  10. AgPO2F2 and Ag9(PO2F2)14: the first Ag(i) and Ag(i)/Ag(ii) difluorophosphates with complex crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Kurzydłowski, Dominik; Grochala, Wojciech

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of AgF2 with P2O3F4 yields a mixed valence Ag(I)/Ag(II) difluorophosphate salt with AgAg(PO2F2)14 stoichiometry - the first Ag(ii)-PO2F2 system known. This highly moisture sensitive brown solid is thermally stable up to 120 °C, which points at further feasible extension of the chemistry of Ag(ii)-PO2F2 systems. The crystal structure shows a very complex bonding pattern, comprising of polymeric Ag(PO2F2)14(4-) anions and two types of Ag(I) cations. One particular Ag(II) site present in the crystal structure of Ag9(PO2F2)14 is the first known example of square pyramidal penta-coordinated Ag(ii) in an oxo-ligand environment. Ag(i)PO2F2 - the product of the thermal decomposition of Ag9(PO2F2)14 - has also been characterized by thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. It has a complicated crystal structure as well, which consists of infinite 1D [Ag(I)O4/2] chains which are linked to more complex 3D structures via OPO bridges. The PO2F2(-) anions bind to cations in both compounds as bidentate oxo-ligands. The terminal F atoms tend to point inside the van der Waals cavities in the crystal structure of both compounds. All important structural details of both title compounds were corroborated by DFT calculations.

  11. Ag on Si(111) from basic science to application

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    In our work we revisit Ag and Au adsorbates on Si(111)-7x7, as well as experiment with a ternary system of Pentacene, Ag and Si(111). Of particular interest to us is the Si(111)-(√3x√3)R30°}–Ag (Ag-Si-√3 hereafter). In this thesis I systematically explore effects of Ag deposition on the Ag-Si-√3 at different temperatures, film thicknesses and deposition fluxes. The generated insight of the Ag system on the Si(111) is then applied to generate novel methods of nanostructuring and nanowire growth. I then extend our expertise to the Au system on the Ag-Si(111) to gain insight into Au-Si eutectic silicide formation. Finally we explore behavior and growth modes of an organic molecule on the Ag-Si interface.

  12. Study of a (10)B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector as an alternative to (3)He-based detectors in Homeland Security.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-García, Karen A; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Gallego, Eduardo; Lorente-Fillol, Alfredo; Méndez-Villafañe, Roberto; Gonzalez, Juan A; Ibañez-Fernandez, Sviatoslav

    2016-11-01

    The response of a scintillation neutron detector of ZnS(Ag) with (10)B was calculated, using the MCNPX Monte Carlo Code. The detector consists of four panels of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and five thin layers of ~0.017cm thick (10)B+ZnS(Ag) in contact with the PMMA. The response was calculated for the bare detector and with different thicknesses of High Density Polyethylene, HDPE, moderator for 29 monoenergetic sources as well as (241)AmBe and (252)Cf neutrons sources. In these calculations the reaction rate (10)B(n, α)(7)Li and the neutron fluence in the sensitive area of the detector (10)B+ZnS(Ag) was estimated. Measurements were made at the Neutron Measurements Laboratory, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, LMN-UPM, to quantify the detections in counts per second in response to a (252)Cf neutron source separated 200cm. The MCNPX computations were compared with measurements to estimate the efficiency of ZnS(Ag) for detecting the α that is created in the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li reaction. After validating new models with different geometries it will be possible to improve the detector response trying to achieve a sensitivity of 2.5cps-ng(252)Cf comparable with the response requirements for (3)He detectors installed in the Radiation Portal Monitors, RPMs. This type of detector can be considered an alternative to the (3)He detectors for detection of Special Nuclear Material, SNM.

  13. Re-investigation on reduced graphene oxide/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalyst: An insight into the double-edged sword role of RGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenguang; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Haiyan; Qian, Yannan; Guo, Zuchen

    2017-02-01

    Coupling graphene or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with semiconductor photocatalysts has previously been proven to be an effective way for enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability of the photocatalysts. Herein, the Ag2CO3/reduced graphene oxide composite was successfully prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. The physical and chemical properties of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse-reflection spectra. The photocatalytic activity and cycling stability of the photocatalysts were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the RGO indeed improves the photocatalytic activity of Ag2CO3/RGO, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and enhanced dye adsorption as well as the light harvesting by RGO. Nevertheless, it played a negative role to the photocatalytic cycling stability due to the strong aggregation of Ag2CO3 particles brought by the RGO sheets. This work may provide a re-examination of the role of RGO in enhancing the photocatalytic performances of the photocatalysts.

  14. Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite-Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Manea, Florica; Pop, Aniela; Radovan, Ciprian; Malchev, Plamen; Bebeselea, Adriana; Burtica, Georgeta; Picken, Stephen; Schoonman, Joop

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy) was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. This modified electrode exhibited moderate electrocatalytic effect towards urea oxidation, allowing its determination in aqueous solution. The linear dependence of the current versus urea concentration was reached using square-wave voltammetry in the concentrations range of urea between 0.2 to 1.4 mM, with a relatively low limit of detection of 0.05 mM. A moderate enhancement of electroanalytical sensitivity for the determination of urea at EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy electrode was reached by applying a chemical preconcentration step prior to voltammetric/amperometric quantification. PMID:27873841

  15. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  16. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-26

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated (•)OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  17. Template synthesis of Ag/AgCl microrods and their efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Preparation ofAg/AgCl microrods by reaction of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} microrods with NaCl solution. • Generation of metallic Ag is induced by the ambient light in the synthesis process. • Ag/AgCl shows excellent visible light-driven photodegradation of organic dyes. - Abstract: Ag/AgCl microrods, aggregated by nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 2 μm, were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction at 80 °C between Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} template and NaCl solution. The existence of metallic Ag species was confirmed by XRD, DRS and XPS measurements. Ag/AgCl microrods showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The degradation rate constants of rhodamine B and methylene blue are 0.176 and 0.114 min{sup −1}, respectively. The cycling photodegradation experiments suggest that Ag/AgCl microds could be employed as stable plasmonic photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

  18. BiPO4 photocatalyst employing synergistic action of Ag/Ag3PO4 nanostructure and graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, N.; Rahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst has been fabricated by simple hydrothermal and impregnation reaction. In BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), this network renders numerous pathways for rapid mass transport, strong adsorption and multireflection of incident light; meanwhile, the interface between BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and RGO increases the active sites and electron transfer rate. BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on RGO noticeably exhibited high photocatalytic activity than that of BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and P25 under visible light irradiation for cationic dye (Rhodamine B), anionic dye (methyl orange) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as a neutral pollutant, which are usually difficult to be degraded over the other catalysts. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 for all pollutants could be mainly ascribed to the reinforced charge transfer from BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 to RGO, which suppresses the recombination of electron/hole pairs. Besides that, this photocatalyst can be used repetitively with a high photocatalytic activity and no apparent loss of activity occurs. The results reveal that the RGO nanosheets work as a photocatalyst promoter during the photocatalytic reaction, leading to an improved photocatalytic activity.

  19. Ag/N-doped reduced graphene oxide incorporated with molecularly imprinted polymer: An advanced electrochemical sensing platform for salbutamol determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengqin; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Haibo; Qian, Dong; He, Lingzhi

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the metallic silver and non-metallic nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-N-RGO) was first synthesized by a simple and cost-effective strategy, and then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed in situ at the surface of the prepared composite via electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of salbutamol as the template molecule. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the bifunctional graphene-based composite shows improved catalytic performance than that of pristine graphene doped with one-component or none. The MIP sensor based on Ag-N-RGO owns high porous surface structure, resulting in the increased current response and enhanced recognition capacity than that of non-imprinted sensor. The outstanding performance of the developed sensor derives from the combined advantages of Ag-N-RGO with effective catalytic property and MIP with excellent selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical response of the developed sensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of salbutamol in the range of 0.03-20.00µmolL(-1) with a low detection limit of 7 nmol L(-1). The designed sensor has exhibited the multiple advantages such as low cost, simple manufacture, convenient use, excellent selectivity and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed method has been extended for the determinations of salbutamol in human urine and pork samples, and the satisfactory recoveries between 98.9-105.3% are achieved.

  20. Humic acid degradation by the synthesized flower-like Ag/ZnO nanostructure as an efficient photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Morovati, Pouran; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized flower-like Ag/ZnO was synthesized by a simple method using zinc acetate and silver acetate under hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized powder. Nano flower-like Ag/ZnO was used as a photocatalyst for degradation of humic acid in aqueous solution. The disappearance of HA was analyzed by measuring the absorbance of sample at special wavelength (254 nm). The effects of various parameters such as amount of photocatalyst, pH, initial humic acid concentration and irradiation time on degradation rate were systematically investigated. Photodegradation efficiency was small when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of Ag/ZnO and it was also negligible in the absence of light. Approximately 70% of humic acid (50 mg/L) has been eliminated after 40 minutes in the presences of catalyst (catalyst dose o.6 g/L and pH =7) and UVA irradiation. While, 100% of humic acid has been eliminated with solar irradiation.

  1. Frequent CXCR4 tropism of HIV-1 subtype A and CRF02_AG during late-stage disease - indication of an evolving epidemic in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is one of the fastest evolving pathogens, and is distinguished by geographic and genetic variants that have been classified into different subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Early in infection the primary coreceptor is CCR5, but during disease course CXCR4-using HIV-1 populations may emerge. This has been correlated with accelerated disease progression in HIV-1 subtype B. Basic knowledge of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism is important due to the recent introduction of coreceptor antagonists in antiretroviral therapy, and subtype-specific differences regarding how frequently HIV-1 CXCR4-using populations appear in late-stage disease need to be further investigated. To study how frequently CXCR4-using populations appear in late-stage disease among HIV-1 subtype A and CRF02_AG, we evaluated the accuracy of a recombinant virus phenotypic assay for these subtypes, and used it to determine the HIV-1 coreceptor tropism of plasma samples collected during late-stage disease in Guinea-Bissau. We also performed a genotypic analysis and investigated subtype-specific differences in the appearance of CXCR4 tropism late in disease. Results We found that the recombinant virus phenotypic assay accurately predicted HIV-1 coreceptor tropism of subtype A and CRF02_AG. Over the study period (1997-2007), we found an increasing and generally high frequency of CXCR4 tropism (86%) in CRF02_AG. By sequence analysis of the V3 region of our samples we developed a novel genotypic rule for predicting CXCR4 tropism in CRF02_AG, based on the combined criteria of the total number of charged amino acids and net charge. This rule had higher sensitivity than previously described genotypic rules and may be useful for development of future genotypic tools for this CRF. Finally, we conducted a literature analysis, combining data of 498 individuals in late-stage disease, and found high amounts of CXCR4 tropism for all major HIV-1 subtypes (60-77%), except for subtype C (15

  2. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  3. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  4. Fabrication of Ag/CPs composite material, an effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic performance of coordination polymers under visible irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxin; Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2013-10-07

    To enhance the photocatalytic property of coordination polymers (CPs) in the visible light region, Ag loaded coordination polymer composite materials (Ag/CPs) were synthesized successfully through a photoreduction reaction of Ag(+) on the surface of CPs. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to investigate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the results illustrated Ag/CPs display higher quantum yields than CPs. This can be attributed to the strong interactions between Ag nanorods and coordination polymers, which lead to electron-hole pair separation between Ag nanorods and CPs. The degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated to study the photocatalytic activities. Ag/CPs exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the UV and visible light region, while CPs can only decompose RhB under the irradiation of UV light. Furthermore, Ag/CPs showed outstanding stability during degradation of RhB.

  5. The Drenchwater deposit, Alaska: An example of a natural low pH environment resulting from weathering of an undisturbed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drenchwater shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposit and the immediate vicinity, on the northern flank of the Brooks Range in north-central Alaska, is an ideal example of a naturally low pH system. The two drainages, Drenchwater and False Wager Creeks, which bound the deposit, differ in their acidity and metal contents. Moderately acidic waters with elevated concentrations of metals (pH ??? 4.3, Zn ??? 1400 ??g/L) in the Drenchwater Creek drainage basin are attributed to weathering of an exposed base-metal-rich massive sulfide occurrence. Stream sediment and water chemistry data collected from False Wager Creek suggest that an unexposed base-metal sulfide occurrence may account for the lower pH (2.7-3.1) and very metal-rich waters (up to 2600 ??g/L Zn, ??? 260 ??g/L Cu and ???89 ??g/L Tl) collected at least 2 km upstream of known mineralized exposures. These more acidic conditions produce jarosite, schwertmannite and Fe-hydroxides commonly associated with acid-mine drainage. The high metal concentrations in some water samples from both streams naturally exceed Alaska state regulatory limits for freshwater aquatic life, affirming the importance of establishing base-line conditions in the event of human land development. The studies at the Drenchwater deposit demonstrate that poor water quality can be generated through entirely natural weathering of base-metal occurrences, and, possibly unmineralized black shale.

  6. AgS2O6CF3: the first trifluoromethylsulfonylsulfate(VI).

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Derzsi, Mariana; Grochala, Wojciech

    2013-08-07

    We describe the synthetic route towards a novel class of salts, trifluoromethylsulfonylsulfates, as exemplified by the silver(I) derivative (AgS2O6CF3). Formation proceeds via direct reaction between a triflate precursor, AgSO3CF3, and SO3. The title compound crystallizes in the P2(1)/c unit cell with a = 5.15746(14) Å, b = 25.8563(9) Å, c = 5.53970(14) Å and β = 101.1749(19)°. The structure is layered with the puckered [AgS2O6] 2D sheets; the terminal CF3 groups are separated by the van der Waals gap, as seen also for related metal triflates. The compound is very fragile thermally and it decomposes endothermally to AgSO3CF3 with concomitant evolution of SO3 even at 65 °C or upon grinding in an agate mortar; thus it may serve as a solid store of--otherwise volatile and corrosive--SO3. The IR and Raman spectra of AgS2O6CF3 have been tentatively assigned based on similarities to those of related Ag2S2O7 and AgSO3CF3 and phonon calculations. Synthesis and properties of KS2O6CF3 are also briefly described.

  7. On the measurement of /sup 107/Ag//sup 109/Ag ratios in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Fortuna, G.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of stable Ag isotopes in meteorites at the ppB level was attempted in an AMS experiment using the Munich MP tandem accelerator in conjunction with a time-of-flight detection system. The sensitivity of detecting Ag at this level was established by observing a counting rate of 17 ions of /sup 107/Ag per sec from a Au sample, which had been spiked with the radioisotope /sup 105/Ag (T/sub 1/2/ = 41 d) at a concentration of 1.0 ppB. A blank Ta sample gave no /sup 105/Ag counts in 13 min, which corresponds to a detection limit of 7.5 x 10/sup -5/ ppB. Although this sensitivity was clearly sufficient to perform /sup 107/Ag and /sup 109/Ag measurements in the desired concentration range, experiments with these isotopes were hampered by a currently irreducable background of stable Ag in the ppM range, possibly originating from the ion source itself. Indications of extraordinarily high Ag concentrations, far above this background, were observed in some of the investigated meteorites, but conclusions on their actual existence must await a better understanding of the origin of the general Ag background. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  9. Validation of an air-liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. R.; Ameer, S. S.; Ludvigsson, L.; Ali, N.; Alhamdow, A.; Messing, M. E.; Pagels, J.; Gudmundsson, A.; Bohgard, M.; Sanfins, E.; Kåredal, M.; Broberg, K.; Rissler, J.

    2016-04-01

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air-liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50-150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air-liquid interface of 0.4-10.7, 0.9-46.6, and 0.1-1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

  10. Regional setting and characteristics of the Neoproterozoic Wadi Hamama Zn-Cu-Ag-Au prospect: evidence for an intra-oceanic island arc-hosted volcanogenic hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rahman, Yasser; Surour, Adel A.; El-Manawi, Abdel Hamid W.; El-Dougdoug, Abdel-Monem A.; Omar, Sayed

    2015-04-01

    The Wadi Hamama area is a volcanogenic Zn-Cu-Au-Ag prospect. It is hosted by a Neoproterozoic bimodal-mafic sequence, which comprises basalt, dacite and rhyolite along with volcaniclastic rocks. The rocks have a low-K tholeiitic affinity and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, which indicated their formation in an intra-oceanic island arc tectonic setting. The area was intruded by a tonalite-trondhjemite body, which has an intra-oceanic island arc affinity and later by diorite, which has a cordilleran-margin geochemical affinity. These rock units were intruded by post-tectonic granite dykes, which have a within-plate geochemical signature. There is a quartz-carbonate horizon extending along the contact between the basalt and the volcaniclastic rocks, mainly banded and lapilli tuffs. This horizon is of exhalative origin and is underlain by a mushroom-shaped alteration zone extending from the horizon down to the massive basalt. The footwall alteration is characterized by a silica-rich core surrounded by a thick chlorite sheath. Both the quartz-carbonate horizon and the footwall-altered rocks enclose historical trenches and pits. Sulfide-rich core samples are enriched in Zn, relative to Cu, and in Ag, which indicates the low-temperature nature of the hydrothermal system. The prospect was affected by supergene processes, which led to the widespread occurrence of secondary copper minerals and gold enrichment relative to the leached base metals, especially Zn. The prospect formed through a limited rifting of an intra-oceanic island arc which resulted in the formation of a small-scale volcanogenic Zn-Cu-Ag-Au prospect.

  11. Strongly visible-light responsive plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles for reduction of CO2 to methanol.

    PubMed

    An, Changhua; Wang, Jizhuang; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Meiyu; Ming, Xijuan; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Qinhui

    2012-09-21

    Plasmonic shaped AgX:Ag (X = Cl, Br) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a facile and versatile glycerol-mediated solution route. The as-prepared AgX:Ag nanoparticles exhibit regular shapes, i.e., cube-tetrapod-like AgCl:Ag nanoparticles and AgBr:Ag nanoplates. Compared with the pristine AgX, AgX:Ag nanocomposites display stronger absorption in the visible region due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The calculation of bandgaps and band positions indicates the as-achieved AgX:Ag nanoparticles can be used as a class of potential photocatalyst for the reduction of CO(2). For example, reduction of CO(2) under visible light irradiation with the assistance of the anisotropic AgX:Ag nanoparticles yields as much as 100 μmol methanol in the products. Furthermore, the AgX:Ag nanoparticles can maintain its structure and activity after 3 runs of reactions. Therefore, the present route opens an avenue to acquire plasmonic photocatalysts for conversion of CO(2) into useful organic compounds.

  12. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  13. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  14. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  15. Electronic properties of highly-active Ag3AsO4 photocatalyst and its band gap modulation: an insight from hybrid-density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Reunchan, Pakpoom; Boonchun, Adisak; Umezawa, Naoto

    2016-08-17

    The electronic structures of highly active Ag-based oxide photocatalysts Ag3AsO4 and Ag3PO4 are studied by hybrid-density functional calculations. It is revealed that Ag3AsO4 and Ag3PO4 are indirect band gap semiconductors. The Hartree-Fock mixing parameters are fitted for experimental band gaps of Ag3AsO4 (1.88 eV) and Ag3PO4 (2.43 eV). The smaller electron effective mass and the lower valence band edge of Ag3AsO4 are likely to be responsible for the superior photocatalytic oxidation reaction to Ag3PO4. The comparable lattice constant and analogous crystal structure between the two materials allow the opportunities of fine-tuning the band gap of Ag3AsxP1-xO4 using a solid-solution approach. The development of Ag3AsxP1-xO4 should be promising for the discovery of novel visible-light sensitized photocatalysts.

  16. Balancing the Osteogenic and Antibacterial Properties of Titanium by Codoping of Mg and Ag: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaochao; Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Qian, Shi; Cheng, Mengqi; Peng, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yin; Jin, Guodong; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-08-19

    To simultaneously enhance the osteogenic and antibacterial properties of titanium, we introduced magnesium (Mg), silver (Ag), or both by using the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technique, producing three PIII sample groups, namely, Mg-doped titanium (Mg-PIII), Ag-doped titanium (Ag-PIII), and Mg and Ag codoped titanium (Mg/Ag-PIII). The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of Mg/Ag-PIII group was about 7-10% higher than that of Ag-PIII. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that osteogenic property of Mg/Ag PIII group was better than that of Ag-PIII or Mg-PIII. It was believed that the galvanic effects between Mg and Ag NPs played a key role in facilitating the release of Mg but reducing the release of silver, answering for the selective performances of the Mg/Ag-PIII group over bacterial and mammalian cells. This study demonstrated that the integration of multiple functional elements could be realized by the dual-source PIII technique, and in this case, the antibacterial properties and osteogenic property of titanium could be balanced.

  17. An application of Ag(III) complex chemiluminescence system for the determination of enoxacin in capsule and biological fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyun; Sun, Hanwen

    2010-01-01

    Ag(III) complex chemiluminescence (CL) system was applied for the determination of enoxacin (ENX). The CL conditions of [Ag(HIO(6))(2)](5-)-H(2)SO(4)-ENX systems without any luminescence reagent were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ENX in the range from 6.6 × 10(-5) to 3.3 × 10(-3) g/L. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) was 2.0 × 10(-5) g/L. The recovery of ENX from the spiked pharmaceutical preparations was in the range of 82.9-108% with a relative standard deviation of 1.9-3.0%. For spiked serum and urine samples the recovery of ENX was in the range of 83.7-110% with a relative standard deviation of 1.1-2.8%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of the drug in capsule, serum and urine samples.

  18. An in situ study on the coalescence of monolayer-protected Au-Ag nanoparticle deposits upon heating

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The structural evolution of thiolate-protected nanoparticles of gold, silver, and their alloys with various Au/Ag ratios (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) upon heating was investigated by means of in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. The relationships between the coalescence and composition of nanoparticles, as well as the surfactant reactions, were clarified. Experimental results show that there existed a critical temperature ranging from 120°C to 164°C, above which the tiny broad X-ray diffraction peaks became sharp and strong due to particle coalescence. The coalescence temperatures for alloy nanoparticle deposits were clearly lower than those for pure metals, which can be ascribed to the rivalry between the thermodynamic effect due to alloying and the interactions between surface-assembled layers and the surface atoms of the nanoparticles. The strong affinity of thiolates to Ag and thus complex interactions give rise to a greater energy barrier for the coalescence of nanoparticles into the bulk and subsequent high coalescence temperature. The influences of particle coalescence on the optical and electrical properties of the nanoparticle deposits were also explored. PMID:25246861

  19. Ag85A/ESAT-6 chimeric DNA vaccine induces an adverse response in tuberculosis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Bai, Xuejuang; Zhang, Junxian; Song, Jingying; Yang, Yourong; Yu, Qi; Li, Ning; Wu, Xueqiong

    2016-08-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) antigens encoded by the 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (esat-6) and antigen 85A (ag85a) genes are known to exert protective effects against tuberculosis in animal models. In addition, these antigens represent vaccine components that were tested in early human clinical trials. In the present study, a chimeric DNA vaccine was constructed that contained two copies of the esat‑6 gene inserted into the ag85a gene from M. tb. BALB/c mice were treated with this chimeric vaccine following infection with either M. tb H37Rv or a clinical multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis isolate. Treatment of both groups of mice with the chimeric vaccine resulted in accelerated mortality. These findings are in contrast with previous results, which indicated that DNA vaccines expressing the individual antigens were either beneficial or at least not harmful. The results of the present study suggested that the ESAT-6 antigen is not suitable for inclusion in therapeutic vaccines.

  20. Fluorescent DNA-bound Ag nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Patrick; Velazquez, Lourdes; Weirich, Kim; Fygenson, Deborah

    2009-03-01

    Few-atom fluorescent Ag nanoclusters self-assemble on short, synthetic DNA strands, and exhibit sequence and structure dependent fluorescence ranging from the blue to the near infrared. Here we report UV excitation as a ubiquitous feature of these emitters. Each emitter thus has two excitation peaks: a visible peak which is cluster-dependent, and a UV peak which has the same wavelength for all DNA-bound Ag clusters. This UV peak corresponds to resonant absorbance by the DNA bases, and produces the same emission spectra as visible excitation, suggesting energy transfer from the DNA bases to the Ag cluster. We make use of this UV excitation to image the emitters in unstained polyacrylamide gels, and show that electrophoresis can be used to create a pure solution of green DNA:Ag11 clusters from an inhomogeneous red solution of DNA:Ag>12 clusters.

  1. Direct electrospinning of Ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Olesen, Mikkel Buster; Wang, Chenxuan; Havelund, Rasmus; Li, Qiang; Xie, Erqing; Yang, Rong; Bøggild, Peter; Wang, Chen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2011-12-01

    Core-sheath silver nanowire/polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNW/PVP) nanocables have been fabricated via an efficient single-spinneret electrospinning method. The core-sheath structure is revealed by combining several characterization methods. A possible formation mechanism of the AgNW/PVP nanocable involving a strong stretching during the electrospinning process is proposed. Further, electrical measurements were performed on AgNW/PVP nanocables as well as bare AgNWs, which indicated the nanocables became insulating due to the isolation of highly conductive AgNWs by insulating PVP sheath. Therefore, the described fabrication method holds potential for the fabrication of low-cost metal/polymer composite materials for nanoelectronic applications in general.

  2. Immunization of babies born to HBsAg positive mothers: An audit on the delivery and completeness of follow up in Norfolk and Suffolk, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Keeble, Stuart; Quested, Jane; Barker, Deborah; Varadarajan, Abina; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B infection has increased in the UK over the last decade. Routine antenatal screening of pregnant mothers (based on HBsAg) provides an effective means to identify 'at risk' babies. Follow up of babies born to infected mothers involves 4 doses of vaccination and/or a single dose of HBIG at birth. In this study we report the outcome of follow up of babies born to infected mothers over a 5 y period. One hundred sixty-three babies born to HBsAg positive mothers were followed up to ascertain the completeness for immunization and serological testing. Vaccination completion was 99.4% (162 of babies) at birth (1st dose), 95.6% (152 babies) for the second dose (at 1st month), 94.3 % (148 babies) for the 3rd dose (at 2nd month) and 83.4% (106 babies) for the 4th dose (at 12 months). Additionally, at 12 months 29.9% (38) of babies had their blood tested serologically to ascertain infection status; all babies receiving antigen testing were HBsAg negative. The overall vaccination coverage was good, although there is scope to improve the coverage of 4th dose. However, the proportion of children who were serologically tested for surface antigen at 12 months was considerably lower and there is a greater need to test babies concurrently at the time of giving the 4(th) dose. The proposed dried blood spot testing which will be rolled out from September 2014 should address this issue.

  3. Results on search for a QGP with a TPC magnetic spectrometer at AGS and plans for an approx 4. pi. TPC magnetic spectrometer at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J. City Univ. of New York, NY )

    1991-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a search for a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) with a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer at AGS by the BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice (E-810) Collaboration is discussed. At AGS energies the expected increase in baryon density is near maximum. If a QGP is formed even rarely this approach provides a sensitive method for its detection. We have found some interesting phenomena including strangeness enhancement, multi-{Lambda} and K{sub s}{sup 0} events and an increased slope for {pi}{sup {minus}} (corresponding to a reduced temperature) in the usual temperature plot for p{sub {perpendicular}} < 0.2 GeV/c. We plan to increase the statistics with the 14.5 GeV/c {times} A Si ions on targets from light to heavy and then to continue the program with incident Au ions. In Part 2 we discuss the BNL/CCNY/Notre Dame/Rice proposal for an {approx} 4{pi} TPC Magnetic Spectrometer for RHIC which we believe will be a sensitive probe for hadronic QGP signals, and also capable of observing departures from QCD should they occur. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Impact of an Elevated Temperature Environment on Sn-Ag-Cu Interconnect Board Level High-G Mechanical Shock Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Baty, Greg; Bieler, Thomas R.; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-12-01

    The mechanical stability of Sn-Ag-Cu interconnects with low and high silver content against mechanical shock at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. With a heating element-embedded printed circuit board design, a test temperature from room temperature to 80°C was established. High impact shock tests were applied to isothermally pre-conditioned ball-grid array interconnects. Under cyclic shock testing, degradation and improved shock performances were identified associated with test temperature variation and non-solder mask defined and solder-mask defined pad design configuration differences. Different crack propagation paths were observed, induced by the effect of the elevated temperature test conditions and isothermal aging pre-conditions.

  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROPOSAL TO STUDY HEAVY-ION COOLING IN THE AGS DUE TO BEAM GAS OR THE INTRABEAM SCATTERING.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC, D.; AHERNS, L.; ROSER, T.; MACKAY, W.; BRENNAN, J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; PARZEN, G.; BEEBE-WANG, J.

    2006-06-23

    Low emittance of not-fully-stripped gold (Z=79) Au{sup +77} Helium-like ion beams from the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) injector to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) could be attributed to the cooling phenomenon due to inelastic intrabeam scattering [1,2] or due to electron de-excitations from collisions with the residual gas [3]. The low emittance gold beams have always been observed at injection in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There have been previous attempts to attribute the low emittance to a cooling due to the exchange of energy between ions during the inelastic intrabeam scattering. The Fano-Lichten theory [4] of electron promotion might be applied during inelastic collisions between helium like gold ions in the AGS. The two K-shell electrons in gold Au{sup +77} could get promoted if the ions reach the critical distance of the closest approach during intra-beam scattering or collisions with the residual gas. During collisions if the ion energy is large enough, a quasi-molecule could be formed, and electron excitation could occur. During de-excitations of electrons, photons are emitted and a loss of total bunch energy could occur. This would lead to smaller beam size. We propose to inject gold ions with two missing electrons into RHIC, at injection energy, and study the beam behavior with bunched and de-bunched beam, varying the RF voltage and the beam intensity. If the ''cooling'' is observed additional X-ray detectors could be installed to observe emitted photons.

  6. 3D [Ag-Mg] polyanionic frameworks in the La 4Ag 10Mg 3 and La 4Ag 10.3Mg 12 new ternary compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solokha, Pavlo; De Negri, Serena; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard; Saccone, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The crystal structures of two new ternary phases, La 4Ag 10Mg 3 and La 4Ag 10.3Mg 12, were refined from X-ray single crystal diffraction data. La 4Ag 10Mg 3 crystallizes in the Ca 4Au 10In 3 structure type, an ordered variant of the binary Zr 7Ni 10 compound: orthorhombic, Cmce, oS68, a=14.173(5), b=10.266(3), c=10.354(3) Å, Z=4, w R2=0.0826, 676 F2 values, 50 variables. La 4Ag 10.3Mg 12 represents a new structure type: orthorhombic, Cmmm, oS116-10.32, a=9.6130(3), b=24.9663(8), c=9.6333(2) Å, Z=4, w R2=0.0403, 1185 F2 values, 101 variables. The structural analysis of both compounds, highlighting a significant contraction of the Ag-Mg distances, suggests the existence of three-dimensional [Ag-Mg] networks hosting La atoms. LMTO calculations applied to La 4Ag 10Mg 3 indicate that the strongest bonds occur for Ag-Ag and Ag-Mg interactions, and confirm the presence of a 3D ∞[Ag 10Mg 3] δ- polyanionic framework balanced by positively charged La atoms.

  7. An atomically detailed description of metal-dielectric interfaces: The crossover from surface to bulk conducting properties of Ag-Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vaishali; Bowen, H. F.; Space, Brian

    2000-06-01

    An atomically detailed simulation method designed to be efficacious for modeling conduction properties of closed shell atoms or molecules resident at interfaces that was developed earlier is applied to a metal-dielectric interface of Ag-Xe. The effective mass of conduction electrons resident at Ag-Xe interfaces as a function of the number of layers of xenon present has been measured experimentally by the Harris group [J. D. McNeill, R. L. Lingle, Jr., R. E. Jordan, D. F. Padowitz, and C. B. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 3883 (1996)]. Here a simple yet effective theoretical model of the interface is developed and the effective mass that results is in quantitative agreement with the empirical measurements. The effective mass of a conduction electron is calculated by solving the Schrödinger-Bloch equation using Lanczos grid methods to obtain the Bloch wave vector (k) dependent energies. The metal is treated as a continuum within the effective mass approximation for the purpose of calculating the eigenenergies. To model the explicit potential energy functions, the electron-atom interaction is taken as a local pseudopotential that is fit to simultaneously reproduce the experimentally measured gas phase s-, p-, and d-wave scattering phase shifts. In simulating the interfacial environment the potential energy interaction between the electron and xenon atoms is modified to account for many-body polarization effects. This approach shows promise in modeling the conduction properties of more complex interfacial environments, including those of technological interest.

  8. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  9. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts.

  10. Agent planning in AgScala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  11. Effects of an artificial gravity countermeasure on orthostatic tolerance, blood volumes and aerobic power after short-term bed rest (BR-AG1).

    PubMed

    Linnarsson, Dag; Hughson, Richard L; Fraser, Katelyn S; Clément, Gilles; Karlsson, Lars L; Mulder, Edwin; Paloski, William H; Rittweger, Jörn; Wuyts, Floris L; Zange, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial gravity (AG) in a short-arm centrifuge has potential benefits for maintaining human performance during long-term space missions. Eleven subjects were investigated during three campaigns of 5 days head-down bed rest: 1) bed rest without countermeasures (control), 2) bed rest and 30 min of AG (AG1) daily, and 3) bed rest and six periods of 5 min AG (AG2) daily. During centrifugation, the supine subjects were exposed to AG in the head-to-feet direction with 1 G at the center of mass. Subjects participated in the three campaigns in random order. The cardiovascular effects of bed rest and countermeasures were determined from changes in tolerance to a head-up tilt test with superimposed lower body negative pressure (HUT), from changes in plasma volume (PV) and from changes in maximum aerobic power (V̇o2 peak) during upright work on a cycle ergometer. Complete data sets were obtained in eight subjects. After bed rest, HUT tolerance times were 36, 64, and 78% of pre-bed rest baseline during control, AG1 and AG2, respectively, with a significant difference between AG2 and control. PV and V̇o2 peak decreased to 85 and 95% of pre-bed rest baseline, respectively, with no differences between the treatments. It was concluded that the AG2 countermeasure should be further investigated during future long-term bed rest studies, especially as it was better tolerated than AG1. The superior effect of AG2 on orthostatic tolerance could not be related to concomitant changes in PV or aerobic power.

  12. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  13. Separation and preconcentration of Ag(I) in aqueous samples by flotation as an ion-associate using iodide and ferroin followed the determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Hashemi-Moghaddam, Hamid; Kardan-Moghaddam, Gholamreza

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for separation/preconcentration and determination of Ag(I) in aqueous samples is described. The method is based on formation of an ion-associate between Ag(I)-iodide complex and ferroin, which can be floated at the interface of the aqueous/n-heptane phases. The flotation process was carried out using 500-ml aliquot of the aqueous solution and the floated layer was dissolved in 5 ml of 1 M HNO3 containing methanol (50% v/v) as the solvent. The Ag(I) content was then determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method so could be considered as an enrichment process, was achieved to a quantitative feature, when the pH of the solution was adjusted to 4 and the concentrations of iodide and ferroin were about 3.2 x 10(-4) M and 6.25 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The LOD and RSD (n = 7) were obtained 1.0 x 10(-8) M and 2.4%, respectively. It was found that a large number of cations and anions even at high considerably foreign ion/Ag(I) ratios were not interfered. The method was applied satisfactorily to recovery of Ag(I) from different aqueous samples.

  14. Electron and Phonon Dynamics in Hexagonal Pd Nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag Sandwich Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sagaguchi, Takuya; Okuhata, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Motohiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2017-02-28

    Pd and its hybrid nanostructures have attracted considerable attention over the past decade, with both catalytic and plasmonic properties. The electron and phonon properties directly govern conversion efficiencies in applications such as energy collectors and photocatalysts. We report the dynamic processes of electron-phonon coupling and coherent acoustic phonon vibration in hexagonal Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag sandwich nanoplates using transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron-phonon coupling constant of Pd nanosheets, GPd-nanosheet (8.7 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)) is larger than that of the bulk GPd (5.0 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)). The effective coupling constant Geff of Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates decreases with increasing Ag shell thickness, finally approaching the bulk GAg. The variation of Geff is explained in terms of reduced density of states near Fermi level of Pd nanosheets with 1.8 nm ultrathin thickness. Coherent acoustic phonon vibration in Pd nanosheets is assigned to a fundamental breathing mode, similar to the vibration of benzene. The period increases with increasing Ag shell thickness. For Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates with 20 nm thick Ag shells, the vibrational mode is ascribed to a quasi-extensional mode. The results show that the modes of the coherent acoustic phonon vibration transform with the geometric variation of Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates. Our results represent an understanding of quantum-confinement related electron dynamics and bulk-like phonon kinetics in the ultrathin Pd nanosheets and their hybrid nanostructures.

  15. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, N. K.; Calderon, S.; Carvalho, I.; Henriques, M.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-07-01

    Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag+ due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  16. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10-5 Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  17. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-16

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10(-5) Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  18. A Simple Method for the Preparation of TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@Polypyrrole Composite and Its Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tongjie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fangxiao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile method was developed to prepare a visible-light driven TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@polypyrrole (PPy) photocatalyst with Ag-AgCl nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanofibers and covered by a thin PPy shell. During the synthesis, the PPy shell and Ag-AgCl nanoparticles were prepared simultaneously onto TiO2 nanofibers, which simplified the preparation procedure. In addition, because Ag-AgCl aggregates were fabricated via partly etching the Ag nanoparticles, their size was well controlled at the nanoscale, which was beneficial for improvement of the contact surface area. Compared with reference photocatalysts, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite exhibited an enhanced photodegradation activity towards rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The superior photocatalytic property originated from synergistic effects between TiO2 nanofibers, Ag-AgCl nanoparticles and the PPy shell. Furthermore, the TiO2 /Ag-AgCl@PPy composite could be easily separated and recycled without obvious reduction in activity.

  19. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution.

  20. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wan-Sin; Lin, Keng-Yung; Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Tung, Raymond T.; Kwo, Jueinai; Hong, Minghwei

    2017-01-01

    The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(-) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  1. Formation of an indium tin oxide nanodot/Ag nanowire electrode as a current spreader for near ultraviolet AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jun-Yong; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Na, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Kang, Daesung; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanodots (NDs) were combined with Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) as a p-type electrode in near ultraviolet AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to increase light output power. The Ag NWs were 30 ± 5 nm in diameter and 25 ± 5 μm in length. The transmittance of 10 nm-thick ITO-only was 98% at 385 nm, while the values for ITO ND/Ag NW were 83%-88%. ITO ND/Ag NW films showed lower sheet resistances (32-51 Ω sq-1) than the ITO-only film (950 Ω sq-1). LEDs (chip size: 300 × 800 μm2) fabricated using the ITO NDs/Ag NW electrodes exhibited higher forward-bias voltages (3.52-3.75 V at 20 mA) than the LEDs with the 10 nm-thick ITO-only electrode (3.5 V). The LEDs with ITO ND/Ag NW electrodes yielded a 24%-62% higher light output power (at 20 mA) than those with the 10 nm-thick ITO-only electrode. Furthermore, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations were performed to investigate the extraction efficiency. Based on the emission images and FDTD simulations, the enhanced light output with the ITO ND/Ag NW electrodes is attributed to improved current spreading and better extraction efficiency.

  2. Synthesis of Bifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2-Ag Magnetic-Plasmonic Nanoparticles by an Ultrasound Assisted Chemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Dung Tien; Sai, Doanh Cong; Luu, Quynh Manh; Tran, Hong Thi; Quach, Truong Duy; Kim, Dong Hyun; Nguyen, Nam Hoang

    2017-03-01

    Bifunctional magnetic-plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs)—Fe3O4@SiO2-Ag were successfully synthesized by an ultrasound assisted chemical method. Silver ions were absorbed and then reduced by sodium borohydride on the surface of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized silica-coated magnetic NPs, then they were reduced under the influence of a 200 W ultrasonic wave for 60 min. When the amount of precursor silver ions increased, the relative intensity of diffraction peaks of silver crystals in all samples increased with the atomic ratio of silver/iron increasing from 0.208 to 0.455 and saturation magnetization (M s) decreasing from 44.68 emu/g to 34.74 emu/g. The NPs have superparamagnetic properties and strong surface plasmon absorption at 420 nm, which make these particles promising for biomedical applications.

  3. Fabrication of an anti-viral air filter with SiO₂-Ag nanoparticles and performance evaluation in a continuous airflow condition.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Woo, Kyoungja; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles surface coated with Ag nanoparticles (SA particles) were fabricated to coat a medium air filter. The pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and anti-viral ability of the filter were evaluated against aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 in a continuous air flow condition. A mathematical approach was developed to measure the anti-viral ability of the filter with various virus deposition times. Moreover, two quality factors based on the anti-viral ability of the filter, and a traditional quality factor based on filtration efficiency, were calculated. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreasing media velocity and with increasing SA particle coating level. The anti-viral efficiency also increased with increasing SA particle coating level, and decreased by with increasing virus deposition time. Consequently, SA particle coating on a filter does not have significant effects on filtration quality, and there is an optimal coating level to produce the highest anti-viral quality.

  4. An analysis of the x-ray linear dichroism spectrum for NiO thin films grown on vicinal Ag(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.Z.; Zhao, Y.; Arenholz, E.; Young, A.T.; Sinkovic, B.; Qiu, Z.Q.

    2008-05-10

    Antiferromagnetic (AFM) NiO thin films are grown epitaxially on vicinal Ag(118) substrate and investigated by x-ray linear dichroism (XLD). We find that the NiO AFM spin exhibits an in-plane spin reorientation transition from parallel to perpendicular to the step edges with increasing the NiO film thickness. In addition to the conventional L{sub 2} adsorption edge, x-ray linear dichroism (XLD) effect at the Ni L{sub 3} adsorption edge is also measured and analyzed. The result identifies a small energy shift of the L{sub 3} peak. Temperature-dependent measurement confirms that the observed XLD effect in this system at the normal incidence of the x-rays originates entirely from the NiO magnetic ordering.

  5. Selective Ag(I) binding, H2S sensing, and white-light emission from an easy-to-make porous conjugated polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Yee, Ka-Kit; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; To, Wai-Pong; Che, Chi-Ming; Xu, Zhengtao

    2014-02-19

    Separating silver (Ag(+)) from lead (Pb(2+)) is one of the many merits of the porous polymer framework reported here. The selective metal binding stems from the well-defined chelating unit of N-heterocycles, which consists of a triazine (C3N3) ring bonded to three 3,5-dimethylpyrazole moieties. Such a rigid and open triad also serves as the distinct building unit in the fully conjugated 3D polymer scaffold. Because of its strong fluorescence and porosity (e.g., BET surface area: 355 m(2)/g), and because of the various types of metal species that can be readily taken up, this versatile framework is especially fit for functionalization. For example, with AgNO3 loaded, the framework solid exhibits a brown color in response to water solutions of H2S, even at the dilution of 5.0 μM (0.17 ppm); whereas cysteine and other biologically relevant thiols do not cause notable change in color. In another example, tunable white-light emission was produced when an Ir(III) complex was doped (e.g., about 0.02% of the polymer weight) onto the framework. Mechanistically, the bound Ir(III) centers become highly emissive in the orange-red region, complementing the broad, bluish emission from the polymer host to result in the overall white-light quality: the color attributes of the emission are therefore easily tunable by the Ir(III) dopant concentration. With this exemplary study, we intend to highlight metal uptake as an effective approach to modify and enrich the properties of porous polymer frameworks and to stimulate interest in further examining metal-polymer interactions in the context of sensing, separation, catalyzes, and other applications.

  6. Sequestration of Ag(I) from aqueous solution as Ag(0) nanostructures by nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yalei; Yan, Jing; Dai, Chaomeng; Li, Yuting; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the application of nanoparticle zero valent iron (nZVI) to sequester Ag(I) as Ag(0) nanostructures from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed with nZVI exposed to aqueous Ag(I) to investigate the effects of environmental parameters, including nZVI dose, temperature and pH. High temperature facilitates Ag(I) sequestration, and the rate constants are determined to be 0.02, 0.12, and 0.31 mg L/m2 at 30, 50, and 60 °C, respectively. Ag(I) sequestration was adversely affected by adding nitric acid to the solution due to significant acid washing, decreasing the available nZVI active sites. Characterization techniques including TEM, XRD, and HR-XPS revealed that nZVI is oxidized to lepidocrocite and magnetite/maghemite and confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline silver. HR-XPS analysis indicated that Ag2O forms rapidly as an intermediate due to Ag(I) adsorption onto the FeOOH layer. The Ag(0) nanostructures that are formed are fractal, spherical, and dendritic or rod-like, respectively, in morphology by FE-TEM images at different Ag/Fe mass ratios. A general reaction model for the interaction Ag(I) with nZVI is proposed. Our results suggest that nZVI is effective for Ag(I) removal.

  7. Nanosized Fe3O4 an efficient PCR yield enhancer-Comparative study with Au, Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kambli, Priyanka; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials-assisted PCR is a promising field of nanobiotechnology that amalgamates nanomaterials into the conventional PCR system to achieve better amplification of desired product. With literature documenting the variable effects of these nanomaterials on the PCR yield and amplification; it was thought worthwhile to compare the PCR enhancing efficiency of three transition metal nanoparticles in form of stable colloidal suspensions at varying concentrations.The nanoparticles(NPs) of silver, gold and magnetite were chemically synthesized by reducing their respective salts and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. Their morphology was assessed using nanoparticle tracking system and AFM. The effect of these nanofluids on amplification of 800 bp prokaryotic DNA template with 30% GC content was studied using conventional thermal cycler. The reaction kinetics for all the three nanofluids yielded a Gaussian curve of amplification with varying concentrations. The ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.72 × 10(-2)nM and average size of 33 nm demonstrated highest amplification efficiency of 190% as compared to the citrate stabilized AgNP-25 nm (45%) and AuNP-15.19 nm (134%) using a conventional PCR system. The major reasons that allow Fe3O4 NPs outperform the other 2 transition metal NP's seem to be attributed to its heat conduction property as well as effective adsorption of PCR components onto the ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite nanofluids. The data from our study offers valuable information for the application of ferrofluids as economically, efficient and effective alternative for nanomaterial-assisted PCR yield enhancers.

  8. AgSTAR Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AgSTAR’s Partner Program builds stronger relationships with state and non-governmental stakeholders to support all phases of anaerobic digester projects: planning, deployment, and long-term success.

  9. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.

  10. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  11. An ARXPS and ERXPS study of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids: utilising a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Rebecca K; Delorme, Astrid E; Smith, Emily F; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-17

    A series of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids have been probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source. The capability of the Ag Lα' X-ray source for ionic liquid analysis is confirmed alongside the characterisation of previously undetected high energy core photoelectron emissions. Additionally, the utilisation of the Ag Lα' X-ray source as a depth profiling technique (ERXPS) to investigate the structure of the ionic liquid/vacuum interface has been demonstrated, with comparison made to angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS).

  12. The isotopic composition and concentration of Ag in iron meteorites and the origin of exotic silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Ag and the concentration of Ag and Pd in Canyon Diablo (IA), Grant (IIIB), Santa Clara, Tlacotepec and Warburton Range (IVB), Pinon and Deep Springs (anom) were analyzed. Troilite from Santa Clara and from Grant was also studied. With the exception of IA, all the meteorites were enriched in Ag-107 by about 2%-212% and the ratio of Ag-107/Ag-109 in the metal phase was found to be greater than the terrestrial value. Ag of anomalous isotopic composition was found to be common in all IVB and anomalous meteorites. A correlation of Ag-107/Ag-109 with Pd/Ag was established except for the iron meteorite of Santa Clara. The excess Ag-107 is thought to result from the decay of Pd-107. The Grant data appear to represent a Pd-107-Ag-107 isochron and indicate that the cooling rate at elevated temperatures was rapid enough to preserve the isotopic differences between metal and troilite. The data suggest that Ag in Santa Clara is made up of almost pure Ag-107 produced from Pd-107 decay and Ag-109 produced by nuclear reactions with only a small amount of 'normal' Ag. This indicates an intense energetic particle bombardment history in the early solar system which occurred after the formation of small planetary bodies.

  13. Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO: An efficient visible-light-sensitized composite with its application in photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingliang; Xu, Chunxiang; Chen, Shifu; Fu, Xianliang

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The free OH radicals generated in the VB of ZnO play the primary role in the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB in Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO system. The accumulated electrons in the CB of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be transferred to O{sub 2} adsorbed on the surface of the composite semiconductors and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reacts with electrons in succession to produce active ·OH to some extent. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites were successfully prepared. ► Effect of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} content on the catalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO is studied in detail. ► Rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. ► The active species in RhB degradation are examined by adding a series of scavengers. ► Visible light degradation mechanism of RhB over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO is systematically studied. -- Abstract: The efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites with various weight percents of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were prepared by a facile ball milling method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, DRS, SEM, EDS, XPS, and BET specific area. The ·OH radicals produced during the photocatalytic reaction was detected by the TA–PL technique. The photocatalytic property of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Significantly, the results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of the composites was much higher than that of pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and ZnO. The rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of single-phase Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The optimal percentage of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the composite is 3.0 wt.%. It is proposed that the ·OH radicals produced in the valence band of ZnO play the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of

  14. Phase-dependent corrosion of titanium-to-stainless steel joints brazed by Ag-Cu eutectic alloy filler and Ag interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. K.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-08-01

    The electrochemical corrosion properties of Ti-STS dissimilar joints brazed by a 72Ag-28Cu alloy filler and an Ag interlayer were studied in a 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. For a joint with a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/Ag-Cu eutectic/STS(base), galvanic corrosion mostly occurred in the TiAg phase with a severe material loss, indicating that the TiAg layer acted as an anode in the galvanic couple in the layered joint. The Ag-rich solid solution layer was also corroded to a certain extent, but the corrosion in this layer was dominated by the selective pitting corrosion of the eutectic Cu-rich phase. With an increase in the brazing temperature, the Cu-rich phases disappeared owing to the enhanced isothermal solidification effect, leading to an improvement of the corrosion resistance.

  15. An antimicrobial peptide with angiogenic properties, AG-30/5C, activates human mast cells through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Kazo; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Niyonsaba, François

    2016-04-01

    Apart from their direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens, antimicrobial peptides exhibit additional protective functions that have led to their being named host defense peptides (HDPs). These functions include the stimulation of the production of cytokines/chemokines, the promotion of chemotaxis and cell proliferation and the induction of angiogenesis and wound healing. AG-30/5C is a novel angiogenic HDP that in addition to its antimicrobial activity also activates fibroblasts and endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis and wound healing. Given that mast cells are found primarily in the vicinity of vessels, where they are intimately involved in wound healing, we hypothesized that AG-30/5C may activate mast cells. We demonstrated that AG-30/5C activated LAD2 human mast cells to degranulate and produce lipid mediators including leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2 and E2. Moreover, AG-30/5C increased mast cell chemotaxis and induced the production of the cytokines GM-CSF and TNF-α and various chemokines, such as IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α and MIP-1β. The chemotaxis and cytokine/chemokine production induced by AG-30/5C were suppressed by both pertussis toxin and U-73122, suggesting the involvement of the G protein and phospholipase C pathways in AG-30/5C-induced mast cell activation. Furthermore, these pathways were activated downstream of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling molecules, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effects of ERK-, JNK-, p38- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors on cytokine/chemokine production. Interestingly, AG-30/5C caused the phosphorylation of MAPKs and IκB. We suggest that the angiogenic and antimicrobial peptide AG-30/5C plays a key role in the recruitment and activation of human mast cells at inflammation and wound sites.

  16. Modulation of AgRP-neuronal function by SOCS3 as an initiating event in diet-induced hypothalamic leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Louise E; Unger, Elizabeth K; Cheung, Clement C; Xu, Allison W

    2013-02-19

    Chronic consumption of a fat-rich diet leads to attenuation of leptin signaling in hypothalamic neurons, a hallmark feature of cellular leptin resistance. To date, little is known about the temporal and spatial dysregulation of neuronal function under conditions of nutrient excess. We show that agouti-related protein (AgRP)-expressing neurons precede proopiomelanocortin neurons in developing diet-induced cellular leptin resistance. High-fat diet-induced up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) occurs in AgRP neurons before proopiomelanocortin and other hypothalamic neurons. SOCS3 expression in AgRP neurons increases after 2 d of high-fat feeding, but reduces after switching to a low-fat diet for 1 d. Consistently, transgenic overexpression of SOCS3 in AgRP neurons produces metabolic phenotypes resembling those observed after short-term high-fat feeding. We further show that AgRP neurons are the predominant cell type situated outside the blood-brain barrier in the mediobasal hypothalamus. AgRP neurons are more responsive to low levels of circulating leptin, but they are also more prone to development of leptin resistance in response to a small increase in blood leptin concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that AgRP neurons are able to sense slight changes in plasma metabolic signals, allowing them to serve as first-line responders to fluctuation of energy intake. Furthermore, modulation of SOCS3 expression in AgRP neurons may play a dynamic and physiological role in metabolic fine tuning in response to short-term changes of nutritional status.

  17. A variable Ag-Cr-Oxalate channel lattice: [M(x)Ag(0.5)(-)(x)(H(2)O)(3)]@[Ag(2.5)Cr(C(2)O(4))(3)], M = K, Cs, Ag.

    PubMed

    Dean, Philip A W; Craig, Don; Dance, Ian; Russell, Vanessa; Scudder, Marcia

    2004-01-26

    Reaction of aqueous AgNO(3) with aqueous M(3)[Cr(ox)(3)] in >or=3:1 molar ratio causes the rapid growth of large, cherry-black, light-stable crystals which are not Ag(3)[Cr(ox)(3)], but [M(0.5)(H(2)O)(3)]@[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)] (ox(2)(-) = oxalate, C(2)O(4)(2)(-); M = Na, K, Cs, Ag, or mixtures of Ag and a group 1 element). The structure of these crystals contains an invariant channeled framework, with composition [[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](-)(0.5)]( infinity ), constructed with [Cr(ox)(3)] coordination units linked by Ag atoms through centrosymmetric [Cr-O(2)C(2)O(2)-Ag](2) double bridges. The framework composition [Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](-)(0.5) occurs because one Ag is located on a 2-fold axis. Within the channels there is a well-defined and ordered set of six water molecules, strongly hydrogen bonded to each other and some of the oxalate O atoms. This invariant channel plus water structure accommodates group 1 cations, and/or Ag cations, in different locations and in variable proportions, but always coordinated by channel water and some oxalate O atoms. The general formulation of these crystals is therefore [M(x)Ag(0.5-x)(H(2)O)(3)]@[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)]. Five different crystals with this structure are reported, with compositions 1 Ag(0.5)[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3), 2 Cs(0.19)Ag(0.31)[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3), 3 K(0.28)Ag(0.22)[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3), 4 Cs(0.41)Ag(0.09)[Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3), and 5 Cs(0.43)Ag(0.07) [Ag(2.5)Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3). All crystallize in space group C2/c, with a approximately 18.4, b approximately 14.6, c approximately 12.3 A, beta approximately 113 degrees. Pure Ag(3)[Cr(ox)(3)](H(2)O)(3), which has the same crystal structure (1), was obtained from water by treating Li(3)[Cr(ox)(3)] with excess AgNO(3). Complete dehydration of all of these compounds occurs between 30 and 100 degrees C, with loss of diffraction, but rehydration by exposure to H(2)O(g) at ambient temperature leads to recovery of the original diffraction pattern. In single

  18. Insights into the adsorption and energy transfer of Ag clusters on the AgCl(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiangchao; Dai, Ying; Guo, Meng; Zhu, Yingtao; Huang, Baibiao

    2013-06-14

    It is fundamental to uncover the real adsorption properties of Ag clusters on an AgCl surface and the energy transfer mechanisms at the interface to understand the highly active photocatalytic performance and the stability of the plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@AgCl. Based on density functional theory calculations we provide valuable insights into the binding nature of Ag clusters on AgCl surface, where the binding between Ag atoms in the cluster and on the surface plays a decisive role in determining the most stable adsorption configurations. Our results demonstrate that there is energy transfer from the plasmonic metals to substrate. The hot holes excited by the decay of surface plasmon resonance on the metals can diffuse into the Cl ions in the outermost two layers of the surface producing highly oxidative Cl atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction between the plasmonic metal clusters and substrate Cl ions can also generate electron-hole pairs in the surface layers. It is deduced that the positively charged nature of adsorbed clusters acting as electron trapping centers and reduction sites plays a crucial role in keeping the stability of the Ag@AgCl system during the photocatalytic process. Finally, the validity of the cluster adsorption model for energy transfer is verified with respect to the nucleation and aggregation process of Ag atoms on the AgCl surface and a detailed description of the formation and evolution of Ag nanoparticles on an AgCl surface is provided. The present study may be helpful for understanding and designing this novel plasmonic photocatalyst and can be useful for investigating other relevant photocatalysts as well.

  19. Deguelin Potentiates Apoptotic Activity of an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (AG1478) in PIK3CA-Mutated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yuh; Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Takada, Satoshi; Fujii, Masato; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to be intrinsically resistant to inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Until now, clinical outcomes for HNSCC using EGFR inhibitors as single agents have yielded disappointing results. Here, we aimed to study whether combinatorial treatment using AG1478 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and deguelin, which is a rotenoid isolated from the African plant Mundulea sericea, could enhance the anti-tumor effects of AG1478 in HNSCC. For Ca9-22 cells with EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA wild types, AG1478 alone suppressed both phosphorylated levels of ERK and AKT and induced apoptosis. On the contrary, for HSC-4 cells with EGFR and KRAS wild types, and a PIK3CA mutant, AG1478 alone did not suppress the phosphorylated level of AKT nor induce apoptosis, while it suppressed ERK phosphorylation. Forced expression of constitutively active PIK3CA (G1633A mutation) significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of AG1478 on the PIK3CA wild-type Ca9-22 cells. When HSC-4 cells with the PIK3CA G1633A mutation were treated with a combination of AG1478 and deguelin, combination effects on apoptosis induction were observed through the inhibition of the AKT pathway. These results suggest that the combination of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with deguelin is a potential therapeutic approach to treat PIK3CA-mutated HNSCC. PMID:28134774

  20. A new HBsAg screening assay designed for sensitive detection of HBsAg subtypes and variants.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, M H; de Jong, J J; Haenen, W; Jacobs, T; Couwenberg, F; Ahlers-de Boer, G J C M; Hellings, J A

    2006-01-01

    The design of a new HBsAg screening assay, the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra is based on the use of monoclonal antibodies raised against native wild-type HBsAg and reactive with HBsAg in which the common 'a'-determinant is modified by site-directed mutagenesis of four of the cysteine moieties. The design was checked using the same cysteine variants and samples from patients known to be infected with HBsAg variants. The results found were compared with other state-of-the-art commercial screening assays. The design of the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra enabled detection of all variant HBsAg-positive samples in contrast to the other commercial assays. An additional 980 samples were tested to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra. Screening of presumed negative serum and plasma samples resulted in a specificity of 100%. This makes the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra the first screening assay with a design able to detect HBsAg variants with high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Investigation of Ag-TiO2 Interfacial Reaction of Highly Stable Ag Nanowire Transparent Conductive Film with Conformal TiO2 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Hua; Chen, Po-Hsun; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Guan-Hong; Chen, Hsueh-Shih

    2017-03-29

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to coat Ag nanowires (NWs) with a highly uniform and conformal TiO2 layer to improve the stability and sustainability of Ag NW transparent conductive films (TCFs) at high temperatures. The TiO2 layer can be directly deposited on Ag NWs with a surface polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coat that acts a bed for TiO2 seeding in the ALD process. The ALD TiO2 layer significantly enhances the thermal stability at least 100 fold when aged between 200-400 °C and also provides an extra function of violet-blue light filtration for Ag NW TCFs. Investigation into the interaction between TiO2 and Ag reveals that the conformal TiO2 shell could effectively prevent Ag from 1D-to-3D ripening. However, Ag could penetrate the conformal TiO2 shell and form nanocrystals on the TiO2 shell surface when it is aged at 400 °C. According to experimental data and thermodynamic evaluation, the Ag penetration leads to an interlayer composed of mixed Ag-Ag2O-amorphous carbon phases and TiO2-x at the Ag-TiO2 interface, which is thought to be caused by extremely high vapor pressure of Ag at the Ag-TiO2 interface at a higher temperature (e.g., 400 °C).

  2. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kettell, S.

    1997-12-09

    An overview of the Rare Kaon Decay program at the AGS is presented, with particular emphasis on the three major experiments currently running and analyzing data. A brief overview of earlier kaon decay experiments and of the AGs performance improvements is also provided. This review concludes with a discussion of proposed and developing experiments planned to run in the year 2000 and beyond (AGS-2000).

  3. Enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol-AgNO3 system by Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Sun, Huimin; Wang, Dong; Hong, Jianguo; Tao, Shanjun; Yu, Haiyin; Wang, Xiuhua; Wei, Xianwen

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of luminol with AgNO(3) can produce chemiluminescence (CL) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in alkaline solution. Based on the studies of UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and CL spectra, a CL enhancement mechanism is proposed. The CL emission spectrum of the luminol-AgNO(3)-Ag NPs system indicated that the luminophore was still 3-aminophthalate. On injection of silver nanoparticles into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalysed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol. The product luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, to produce a strong CL emission. As a result, the CL intensity was substantially increased. Moreover, the influences of 18 amino acids, e.g. cystine, tyrosine and asparagine, and 25 organic compounds, including gallic acid, tannic acid and hydroquinone, on the luminol-AgNO(3)-Ag NPs CL system were studied by a flow-injection procedure, which led to an effective method for detecting these compounds.

  4. Ag surface diffusion and out-of-bulk segregation in CrN-Ag nano-composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Incerti, L; Rota, A; Ballestrazzi, A; Gualtieri, E; Valeri, S

    2011-10-01

    CrN-Ag nanocomposite coatings are deposited on Si(100) wafers and 20MnCr5 steel disks in a mixed Ar+N2 atmosphere by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure, composition and morphology were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) cross sectional analysis. The as deposited film matrix is mainly composed by CrN phase (78%), but a relevant part (28%) is composed by Cr2N. Ag agglomerates in the CrN matrix forming elongated grains 200-400 nm wide and 50-100 nm high, which extends on the top of CrN columns. At the surface Ag aggregates into two different structures: large tetrahedral crystalline clusters, with typical dimension ranging from 200 to 500 nm, and smaller Ag nanoparticles with diameter of 15-25 nm. The annealing in N2 atmosphere up to 500 degrees C does not affect size and distribution of the Ag grains in the sub-surface region, while it induces a size increase of the bigger Ag clusters on the surface, mainly related to Ag surface diffusion and clusters coalescence. Annealing at higher temperature leads to an evident Ag out-of-bulk segregation, generating Ag depleted voids in the near-surface region, and further increasing of the Ag clusters size at the surface. Tribological tests on as deposited CrN-Ag film reveal a coefficient of friction against a steel ball reduced with respect to CrN film, probably related to the presence of Ag which acts as solid lubricant, but the coating is removed after a very short sliding distance. The poor mechanical properties of the realized Ag-based coatings are confirmed by lower hardness and Young modulus values with respect to pure CrN.

  5. Highly Active Carbon Supported Pd-Ag Nanofacets Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from HCOOH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhui; He, Ting; Liu, Xuehua; He, Weina; Cong, Hengjiang; Shen, Yangbin; Yan, Liuming; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-08-17

    Hydrogen is regarded as a future sustainable and clean energy carrier. Formic acid is a safe and sustainable hydrogen storage medium with many advantages, including high hydrogen content, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this work, a series of highly active catalysts for hydrogen production from formic acid are successfully synthesized by controllably depositing Pd onto Ag nanoplates with different Ag nanofacets, such as Ag{111}, Ag{100}, and the nanofacet on hexagonal close packing Ag crystal (Ag{hcp}). Then, the Pd-Ag nanoplate catalysts are supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black to prevent the aggregation of the catalysts. The research reveals that the high activity is attributed to the formation of Pd-Ag alloy nanofacets, such as Pd-Ag{111}, Pd-Ag{100}, and Pd-Ag{hcp}. The activity order of these Pd-decorated Ag nanofacets is Pd-Ag{hcp} > Pd-Ag{111} > Pd-Ag{100}. Particularly, the activity of Pd-Ag{hcp} is up to an extremely high value, i.e., TOF{hcp} = 19 000 ± 1630 h(-1) at 90 °C (lower limit value), which is more than 800 times higher than our previous quasi-spherical Pd-Ag alloy nanocatalyst. The initial activity of Pd-Ag{hcp} even reaches (3.13 ± 0.19) × 10(6) h(-1) at 90 °C. This research not only presents highly active catalysts for hydrogen generation but also shows that the facet on the hcp Ag crystal can act as a potentially highly active catalyst.

  6. The development of nontoxic Ag-based brazing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, P.F. )

    1994-09-01

    An experimental investigation wad conducted to produce nontoxic, Cd-free brazing alloys that possessed similar melting ranges and mechanical properties to those alloys within the Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd system. The investigation consisted of phase equilibria, Zn equivalence, thermal analysis, extrusion, wire drawing and mechanical testing of alloys based in the Ag-Cu-Zn system. Thermal analysis of these new alloys yielded liquidus temperatures in the range 680 to 775 C (1256--1427 F) and solidus temperatures in the range 625 to 675 C (1157--1247 F). These values compared favorably to the Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd alloys, which have liquidus and solidus temperatures in the ranges of 640 to 710 C (1184--1310 F) and 610 to 620 C (1130--1148 F), respectively, for Ag contents in the 20 to 50 wt-% range. Tensile tests revealed the ultimate tensile strengths of the as-cast Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn alloys to be higher than the toxic Cd-containing alloys of higher Ag content and higher than the ternary Ag-Cu-Zn alloys. For example, the alloy at 35Ag-34Cu-30Zn-1Sn exhibited an as-cast tensile strength of 47.6 kg/mm[sup 2] (67.7 ksi) compared to the alloy at 50Ag-15Cu-16Zn-19Cd with an as-cast tensile strength of 45.7 kg/mm[sup 2] (65 ksi).

  7. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Kalman, J; Smith, B D; Bury, N R; Rainbow, P S

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954±0.375 l g(-1) d(-1)) followed by As (0.807±0.129 l g(-1) d(-1)) and Zn (0.103±0.016 l g(-1) d(-1)). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2±1.3% (Ag), 31.7±1.0% (Zn) and 25.3±0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014-0.060 d(-1). By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66-99%, 50-97% and 52-98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenospheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaomin; Zhu, Jinglin; Yang, Qing; Xu, Pengpeng; Ge, Jianhua; Guo, Xuetao

    2016-03-01

    A cube-like Ag@AgCl-doped TiO2/fly ash cenosphere composite (denoted Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres) was successfully synthesized via a two-step approach. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiment showed that the rhodamine B degradation rate with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was 1.56 and 1.33 times higher than that with AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres and Ag@AgCl, respectively. The degradation ratio of rhodamine B with Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly ash cenospheres was nearly 100% within 120 min under visible light. Analysis of active species indicated that radO2- and h+ dominated the reaction, and radOH participated in the photocatalytic reactions as an active species. A mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation by the Ag@AgCl-TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres was also proposed based on the experimental results.

  9. In situ ion exchange synthesis of strongly coupled Ag@AgCl/g-C₃N₄ porous nanosheets as plasmonic photocatalyst for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangke; Huang, Yongshun; Zeng, Meiyi; Xu, Jinzhang

    2014-12-24

    A novel efficient Ag@AgCl/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized by a rational in situ ion exchange approach between exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheets with porous 2D morphology and AgNO3. The as-prepared Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation for rhodamine B degradation with a rate constant of 0.1954 min(-1), which is ∼41.6 and ∼16.8 times higher than those of the g-C3N4 (∼0.0047 min(-1)) and Ag/AgCl (∼0.0116 min(-1)), respectively. The degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, and colorless phenol further confirmed the broad spectrum photocatalytic degradation abilities of Ag@AgCl-9/g-C3N4. These results suggested that an integration of the synergetic effect of suitable size plasmonic Ag@AgCl and strong coupling effect between the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles and the exfoliated porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was superior for visible-light-responsive and fast separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic efficiency. This work may provide a novel concept for the rational design of stable and high performance g-C3N4-based plasmonic photocatalysts for unique photochemical reaction.

  10. Corrosion behavior of Ti-Ag alloys used in dentistry in lactic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of experimental Ti-Ag alloys used as dental materials. An elution test and a rest-potential measurement of alloys with 5-30 mass.% Ag were performed in a 1 % lactic acid solution. The amount of Ti ions released from the α phase of the Ti-Ag alloys decreased as the Ag concentration increased. TiAg present in the alloys dissolved preferentially, but Ti2Ag did not. The rest potentials of the Ti-Ag alloys were significantly higher than that of pure titanium. The elution test and the rest-potential measurement revealed that the Ti-Ag alloys, which formed a single α-titanium structure or contained a titanium and Ti2Ag, had excellent corrosion resistance that was comparable or superior to that of pure titanium.

  11. Effects of Zn-Containing Flux on Sn-3.5Ag Soldering with an Electroless Ni-P/Au Surface Finish: Microstructure and Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hitoshi; Baated, Alongheng; Lee, Kiju; Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Keun-Soo; Kukimoto, Youichi; Kumamoto, Seishi; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2010-12-01

    The microstructure resulting from Sn-3.5Ag soldering on an electroless Ni-P/Au pad using flux containing Zn(II) stearate was investigated. The content of zinc compound in the flux was 0 wt.% (Z-0), 20 wt.% (Z-20) or 50 wt.% (Z-50). A study of the interfacial microstructure revealed that both Z-20 and Z-50 fluxes yielded a thinner P-rich layer at the interface than did the Z-0 flux. In addition, compared with the bulky Ni-Sn intermetallics of the Z-0 joint interface, refined interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were observed when using Zn-containing fluxes, Z-20 and Z-50. Based on qualitative analyses of both Z-20 and Z-50 joint interfaces, it was presumed that their intermetallic layers would consist of Ni, Zn, and Sn. Additionally, the Ni content in the IMC layer of the Z-50 joint was lower than that of the Z-20 joint. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the initial Z-50 joint interface revealed Zn in the interfacial reaction layer, suggesting that Zn participated in the reaction between solder and the surface finish at an early stage of soldering. Consequently, the supply of Zn from the flux diminished Ni diffusion into the molten solder during heating. This effect may have caused a thin P-rich layer to form at the joint interface.

  12. Flexible CuS nanotubes-ITO film Schottky junction solar cells with enhanced light harvesting by using an Ag mirror.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Zihan; Wu, Yiliang; Lv, Peng; Nie, Biao; Luo, Linbao; Wang, Li; Hu, Jigang; Jie, Jiansheng

    2013-02-01

    Here we report the fabrication of a novel photovoltaic device based on CuS nanotubes (CuSNTs) and indium tin oxide (ITO) Schottky junctions. Large-quantity synthesis of CuSNTs was accomplished via a solution-based sacrificial template method under moderate conditions, while ITO Schottky contacts were fabricated via micro-fabrication and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Upon light illumination, CuSNTs-ITO Schottky junctions exhibited pronounced photovoltaic behavior, giving rise to a power conversion efficiency of 1.17% on a conventional SiO(2)/Si substrate. Furthermore, by utilizing PET as the substrate, transparent and flexible CuSNTs-ITO solar cells were constructed and showed performance close to their device counterparts on a rigid substrate. Notably, it was found that the flexible devices were robust against tensile strain and could stand a bending angle up to ∼95°. To enhance the light absorption of the devices, an Ag mirror layer was deposited on the rear side of the PET substrate so as to allow multiple reflection and absorption of the incident light. As a result, the flexible devices showed a substantial performance improvement, yielding an efficiency of ∼2%. Our results demonstrate that low-cost and environmentally friendly CuSNTs-ITO solar cells are promising candidates for new-generation photovoltaic devices.

  13. Synergistic photocatalytic inactivation mechanisms of bacteria by graphene sheets grafted plasmonic AgAgX (X = Cl, Br, I) composite photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dehua; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Wang, Wanjun; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2016-08-01

    By coupling graphene sheet and plasmonic photocatalysis technologies, a series of AgAgX/RGOs (X = Cl, Br, I; RGO = reduced graphene oxide) composites were prepared and found to be efficient antimicrobial agents for water disinfection upon visible light. Attributed to the efficient charge transfer by RGO sheets, the optimum AgAgBr/0.5% RGO could completely inactivate 2 × 10(7) cfu mL(-1) of Escherichia coli within 8 min, much faster than bare AgAgBr within 35 min. The synergistic antimicrobial mechanism of AgAgBr/0.5% RGO was studied by Ag(+) ions release evaluation, radical scavengers study, and radical determination. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of irradiated AgAgBr/0.5% RGO originated from the synergistic activities of its three components including Ag, AgBr and RGO, and the proposed mechanisms contained enhanced attraction by RGO followed by two pathways: primary oxidative stress caused by plasma induced reactive species like H2O2 and bactericidal effect of released Ag(+) ions. Furthermore, characterization of E. coli cells using SEM, fluorescent microscopy, and cytoplasmic substance leakage illustrated that VL irradiated AgAgBr/0.5% RGO could not only cause metabolic dysfunction but also destroy the cell envelope and biomolecular, while irradiated Ag(+) ions play a differential bactericidal action with a limited metabolic injury and no cell-membrane damage. The present work provides an efficient water disinfection technology and also opens a new idea in studying the antimicrobial mechanism of plasmonic photocatalyst.

  14. Low temperature sintering of Ag nanoparticles for flexible electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, A.; Guo, J. Y.; Alarifi, H.; Patane, G.; Zhou, Y.; Compagnini, G.; Xu, C. X.

    2010-10-01

    We achieve robust bonding of Cu wires to Cu pads on polyimide with silver nanopaste cured at 373 K. The paste is prepared by simply condensing Ag nanoparticle (NP) solution via centrifuging. The bonding is formed by solid state sintering of Ag NPs through neck growth and direct metallic bonding between clean Ag-Cu interfaces. Both experiment and Monte Carlo simulation confirm that the melting point of joint clusters increases during sintering. This creates improved bonds for use at an elevated operating temperature using Ag NPs.

  15. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs. PMID:27615743

  16. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-09-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs.

  17. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-09-12

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag(+), C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag(+), and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs.

  18. Investigation of thiourea activated polyglutaraldehyde with bound Ag(I) or Pt(II) as an alternative to avidin for immobilizing biotin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Miles, D R; Knotts, J W; García, A A

    1995-01-01

    Pre-polymerized glutaraldehyde covalently linked to thiourea has been synthesized as a soluble polymer for immobilizing Ag(I) and Pt(II) and it has also been used for activating a polyacrylamide gel filtration media. The modified gel filtration media (Bio-Gel P-200) has a high capacity for Ag(I) (20 mumol/ml) and Pt(II) (8 mumol/ml) and has been shown to be stable and useful even in the presence of relatively high chloride (up to 1 M NaCl) and phosphate concentrations (0.25 M). The soluble polymer can have a Ag(I) capacity of between 2-11 mmol/g. Bio-Gel P-200 modified using glutaraldehyde/thiourea and in the Ag(I) and Pt(II) form selectively binds biotinylated BSA (b-BSA) over BSA. Using the Ag(I) form of the gel at pH 4.8 (0.05 M phosphate) only b-BSA binds and 30% can be eluted using 0.15 M NaCl, while no BSA binds to the column under these conditions. For the Pt(II) form of Bio-Gel P-200 at pH 4.8, none of the applied BSA binds to the modified resin while 40% of b-BSA does bind.

  19. Rare HIV-1 Subtype J Genomes and a New H/U/CRF02_AG Recombinant Genome Suggests an Ancient Origin of HIV-1 in Angola.

    PubMed

    Bártolo, Inês; Calado, Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Leitner, Thomas; Taveira, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    Angola has an extremely diverse HIV-1 epidemic fueled in part by the frequent interchange of people with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Republic of Congo (RC). Characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Angola should help to better understand the origin of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant forms and their transmission dynamics. In this study we characterize the first near full-length HIV-1 genomic sequences from HIV-1 infected individuals from Angola. Samples were obtained in 1993 from three HIV-1 infected patients living in Cabinda, Angola. Near full-length genomic sequences were obtained from virus isolates. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree inference and analyses of potential recombination patterns were performed to evaluate the sequence classifications and origins. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses revealed that one virus was a pure subtype J, another mostly subtype J with a small uncertain region, and the final virus was classified as a H/U/CRF02_AG recombinant. Consistent with their epidemiological data, the subtype J sequences were more closely related to each other than to other J sequences previously published. Based on the env gene, taxa from Angola occur throughout the global subtype J phylogeny. HIV-1 subtypes J and H are present in Angola at low levels since at least 1993. Low transmission efficiency and/or high recombination potential may explain their limited epidemic success in Angola and worldwide. The high diversity of rare subtypes in Angola suggests that Angola was part of the early establishment of the HIV-1 pandemic.

  20. Metal Ion Binding: An Electronic Structure Study of M+(dimethyl ether)(n), M= Cu, Ag and Au, (n= 1 - 4) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, David F. ); Dixon, David A. )

    2002-01-01

    The structures and incremental binding enthalpies of cation-ligand complexes formed from a single coinage metal cation (Cu+, Ag+ and Au+) and as many as four dimethyl ether (DME) ligands are studied with second order perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)). Basis sets of up to augmented quintuple zeta quality were used in an effort to minimize basis set truncation error. The present results are compared with recent collision-induced dissociation measurements for the Cu+(DME)n complexes, as well as with related complexes in which water either replaces dimethyl ether as the ligand or alkali metal cations replace the coinage metals. Agreement between the theoretical and experimental incremental binding enthalpies (kcal/mol) is good for the two larger copper complexes: DH0(Cu+(DME)3)= 13.9 (theory) vs 13.1? 0.9 kcal/mol (expt.) and DH0(Cu+(DME)4)=11.5 (theory) vs 10.8? 2.3 (expt.). For the two smaller, more tightly bound copper complexes, the level of agreement i s somewhat poorer: DH0(Cu+(DME))= 48.4 (theory) vs 44.3? 2.7 kcal/mol (expt.) and DH0(Cu+(DME)2)= 51.3 (theory) vs 46.1? 1.8 (expt.). In general, DME binds copper, silver and gold 15% - 25% more strongly than water.

  1. Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals the Mycoviral Diversity of the Virome of an Avirulent Isolate of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IV

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomäus, Anika; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani represents an important plant pathogenic Basidiomycota species complex and the host of many different mycoviruses, as indicated by frequent detection of dsRNA elements in natural populations of the fungus. To date, eight different mycoviruses have been characterized in Rhizoctonia and some of them have been reported to modulate its virulence. DsRNA extracts of the avirulent R. solani isolate DC17 (AG2-2-IV) displayed a diverse pattern, indicating multiple infections with mycoviruses. Deep sequencing analysis of the dsRNA extract, converted to cDNA, revealed that this isolate harbors at least 17 different mycovirus species. Based on the alignment of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) domain, this viral community included putative members of the families Narnaviridae, Endornaviridae, Partitiviridae and Megabirnaviridae as well as of the order Tymovirales. Furthermore, viruses, which could not be assigned to any existing family or order, but showed similarities to so far unassigned species like Sclerotinia sclerotiorum RNA virus L, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1, Aspergillus foetidus slow virus 2 or Rhizoctonia fumigata virus 1, were identified. This is the first report of a fungal isolate infected by 17 different viral species and a valuable study case to explore the diversity of mycoviruses infecting R. solani. PMID:27814394

  2. The isotopic composition of AG in meteorites and the presence of Pd-107 in protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented on the isotopic composition of Ag and the concentrations of Pd and Ag in metal and sulfide phases in iron meteorites Gibeon, Derrick Peak, and Mundrabilla and in schereibersite in Derrick Peak. It was found that almost all iron meteorite samples with a ratio of Pd-108/Ag-109 greater than about 400 had an excess of Ag-107. The results, in conjunction with the data of Chen and Wasserburg (1983) on IIIA-IIIB meteorites, demonstrate the widespread occurrence of excess Ag-107 in diverse types of small early planetary bodies. The excess Ag-107 is believed to be produced by the decay of Pd-107.

  3. Effect of thermal annealing on the microstructures and photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate: The synergistic mechanism of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingjiang; Guan, Wenfei; Xiao, Ying; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Zheng; Zhai, Huishan; Li, Wenjuan; You, Jinmao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a simple thermal annealing route has been developed to improve the photocatalytic performance of silver orthophosphate (Ag3PO4) photocatalyst toward organic pollutants degradation under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that thermal treatment of Ag3PO4 led to an obvious lattice shift towards right and significantly narrowed band gap energies due to the formation of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag during Ag3PO4 decomposition. These structural variations notably affected the photocatalytic performance of Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. The activity of the annealed samples was found to be significantly enhanced toward the degradation of MO dye. The highest activity was observed over the sample annealed at 400 °C, which exceeded that of pristine Ag3PO4 by a factor of about 21 times. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements, we propose that the enormous enhancement in activity was mainly attributed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the synergistic effect of Ag vacancies and metallic Ag. The strong interaction between annealed particles also inhibited the dissolution of Ag+ from Ag3PO4 into aqueous solution, contributing to an improved photocatalytic stability. The strategy presented here provides an ideal platform for the design of other highly efficient and stable Ag-based photocatalysts for broad applications in the field of photocatalysis.

  4. Communication: Kinetics of chemical ordering in Ag-Au and Ag-Ni nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Fortunelli, A.; Negreiros, F.; Wales, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The energy landscape and kinetics of medium-sized Ag-Au and Ag-Ni nanoalloy particles are explored via a discrete path sampling approach, focusing on rearrangements connecting regions differing in chemical order. The highly miscible Ag27Au28 supports a large number of nearly degenerate icosahedral homotops. The transformation from reverse core-shell to core-shell involves large displacements away from the icosahedron through elementary steps corresponding to surface diffusion and vacancy formation. The immiscible Ag42Ni13 naturally forms an asymmetric core-shell structure, and about 10 eV is required to extrude the nickel core to the surface. The corresponding transformation occurs via a long and smooth sequence of surface displacements. For both systems the rearrangement kinetics exhibit Arrhenius behavior. These results are discussed in the light of experimental observations.

  5. Integrated mRNA and micro RNA profiling reveals epigenetic mechanism of differential sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Lee, Jeongsoo; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-08-17

    In our previous in vitro study of the toxicity on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we observed a dramatically higher sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs than to Ag ions, and DNA damage and apoptosis were found to be involved in that toxicity. In this study, to understand underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurket T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions, mRNA microarray and micro RNA microarray were concomitantly conducted on AgNPs and Ag ions exposed Jurkat T cells. Surprisingly only a small number of genes were differentially expressed by exposure to each of the silver (15 altered mRNA by AgNPs exposure, whereas 4 altered mRNA by Ag ions exposure, as determined 1.5-fold change as the cut-off value). miRNA microarray revealed that the expression of 63 miRNAs was altered by AgNPs exposure, whereas that of 32 miRNAs was altered by Ag ions exposure. An integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression revealed that the expression of hsa-miR-219-5p, was negatively correlated with the expression of metallothionein 1F (MT1F) and tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3), in cells exposed to AgNPs; whereas, the expression of hsa-miR-654-3p was negatively correlated with the expression of mRNA, endonuclease G-like 1 (EDGL1) in cells exposed to Ag ions. Network analysis were further conducted on mRNA-miRNA pairs, which revealed that miR-219-5p-MT1F and -TRIB3 pairs by AgNPs are being involved in various cellular processes, such as, oxidative stress, cell cycle and apoptosis, whereas, miR-654-3p and ENDOGL1 pair by Ag ions generated a much simpler network. The putative target genes of AgNPs-induced miR-504, miR-33 and miR-302 identified by Tarbase 6.0 are also found to be involved in DNA damage and apoptosis. These results collectively suggest that distinct epigenetic regulation may be an underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ion. Further identification of putative target genes of DE miRNA by AgNPs and Ag ions may provide additional clues for the

  6. Plasmon-assisted degradation of methylene blue with Ag/AgCl/montmorillonite nanocomposite under visible light.

    PubMed

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Zanjanchi, M A; Razavi, M

    2014-09-15

    Metal-semiconductor compounds, such as Ag/AgX (X=Cl, Br, I), enable visible light absorption and separation of photogenerated electron-hole through surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. However, the electron-hole generated and separated by light are vulnerable in Ag/AgX phase because of the occurrence of secondary recombined. In order to more effectively utilize the SPR photocatalytic effect, nanoparticles are located in a matrix. In this article, Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were synthesized in montmorillonite (MMT) matrix using dispersion method and light irradiation. The structure, composition and optical properties of such material were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Powder X-ray diffraction showed intercalation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles into the clay layers. The as-prepared plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited an enhanced and stable photoactivity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light. The high activity was attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) exhibited by Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgCl. The detection of reactive species by radical scavengers displays that O2- and OH- are the main reactive species for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The studies showed that 20 min illumination under visible light can complete degradation of methylene blue (MB), and indicate a high stability of photocatalytic degradation. The mechanism of separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes at the Ag/AgCl-MMT nanocomposite was discussed.

  7. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  8. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  9. Ag@AgI, core@shell structure in agarose matrix as hybrid: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Saraswathi, A; Indi, S S; Hoti, S L; Vasan, H N

    2012-06-05

    A novel in situ core@shell structure consisting of nanoparticles of Ag (Ag Nps) and AgI in agarose matrix (Ag@AgI/agarose) has been synthesized as a hybrid, in order to have an efficient antibacterial agent for repetitive usage with no toxicity. The synthesized core@shell structure is very well characterized by XRD, UV-visible, photoluminescence, and TEM. A detailed antibacterial studies including repetitive cycles are carried out on Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria in saline water, both in dark and on exposure to visible light. The hybrid could be recycled for the antibacterial activity and is nontoxic toward human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells). The water insoluble Ag@AgI in agarose matrix forms a good coating on quartz, having good mechanical strength. EPR and TEM studies are carried out on the Ag@AgI/agarose and the bacteria, respectively, to elucidate a possible mechanism for killing of the bacteria.

  10. ZnWO4 nanorods decorated with Ag/AgBr nanoparticles as highly efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst for dye AR18 photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kebin; Xue, Jie; Zhang, Yanhui; Wei, Hong; Liu, Yalan; Dong, Chengxing

    2014-11-01

    A novel Ag-AgBr/ZnWO4 nanorod heterostructure composite was prepared via a facile deposition-precipitation method with ZnWO4 nanorods as the substrate, and characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, XPS, and DRS to confirm its structure, morphology, composition, and optical property. The composite was used as a photocatalyst to destroy azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18) under visible light irradiation. The effects of catalyst composition, solution pH, catalyst loading, and initial dye concentration on photocatalytic degradation rate and efficiency were examined. It was revealed that the photocatalytic activity of Ag-AgBr/ZnWO4 nanojunction system was higher than that of the single ZnWO4 or Ag-AgBr for AR18 degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal content of Ag-AgBr in Ag-AgBr/ZnWO4 composite was 0.58:1 of Ag/W molar ratio using in the catalyst preparation. Acid pH and decreasing dye initial concentration were favorable to AR18 photodegradation, but the catalyst loading had an optimal value. The catalyst was stable and recyclable, after five successive cycles the photoactivity was fully maintained and the XRD patterns of AgBr displayed no evident change. Photoluminescence spectra revealed the enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability were closely related to the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers in Ag-AgBr/ZnWO4 nanojunction system. Superoxide radicals and holes were found to be main active species for AR18 photodegradation. Finally, the possible mechanism for AR18 degradation over Ag-AgBr/ZnWO4 nanorods under visible light irradiation was proposed as well.

  11. Layer-by-layer growth of Ag on Ag(111) induced by enhanced nucleation: A model study for surfactant-mediated growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Georg; Servaty, Roland; Teichert, Christian; Poelsema, Bene; Comsa, George

    1993-08-01

    It has been reported that the growth mode of Ag on Ag(111), which is usually multilayer (3D), changes to layer-by-layer (2D) growth if Sb is used as a surfactant. In a model study on the clean system Ag/Ag(111) (without any surfactant) we find that two-dimensional layers do grow, if the substrate is prepared with an anomalously high density of Ag nuclei. As an enhanced density of nuclei is also observed in the presence of Sb, this effect may explain the mechanism for surfactant-induced layer-by-layer growth.

  12. EMU Ag-Zn battery wet-life extension test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Wooten, Claude M.

    1992-02-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) silver/zinc (Ag/Zn) battery is an 11 cell battery of approximately 30 AH. The Ag/Zn battery is comprised of two 4-cell monoblocks and one 3-cell monoblock. A discussion of a wet-life extension test performed on the battery is given in viewgraph form.

  13. EMU Ag-Zn battery wet-life extension test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Wooten, Claude M.

    1992-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) silver/zinc (Ag/Zn) battery is an 11 cell battery of approximately 30 AH. The Ag/Zn battery is comprised of two 4-cell monoblocks and one 3-cell monoblock. A discussion of a wet-life extension test performed on the battery is given in viewgraph form.

  14. Distribution of Pd, Ag & U in the SiC Layer of an Irradiated TRISO Fuel Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas M. Lillo; Isabella J. van Rooyen

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of silver, uranium and palladium in the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of an irradiated TRISO fuel particle was studied using samples extracted from the SiC layer using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to identify the presence of the specific elements of interest at grain boundaries, triple junctions and precipitates in the interior of SiC grains. Details on sample fabrication, errors associated with measurements of elemental migration distances and the distances migrated by silver, palladium and uranium in the SiC layer of an irradiated TRISO particle from the AGR-1 program are reported.

  15. Influence of Ag thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayers prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jian; Yu, Zhinong; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Yurong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Dongpu

    2010-10-01

    The structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of zinc sulfide (ZnS)/Ag/ZnS (ZAZ) multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition on k9 glass have been investigated as a function of Ag layer thickness. The characteristics of ZAZ multilayer are significantly improved up insertion of optimal Ag thickness between ZnS layers. The results show that due to bombardment of Ar ion beam, distinct Ag islands evolve into continuous Ag films at a thin Ag thickness of about 4 nm. The thinner Ag film as a thickness of 2 nm leads to high sheet resistance and low transmittance for the interface scattering induced by the Ag islands or noncontinuous films; and when the Ag thickness is over 4 nm, the ZAZ multilayer exhibits a remarkably reduced sheet resistance between 7-80 Ω/sq for the increase in carrier concentration and mobility of Ag layer, and a high transmittance over 90% for the interference phenomena of multilayers and low absorption and surface scattering of Ag layer. The ZAZ multilayer with 14 nm Ag film has a figure of merit up to 6.32×10-2 Ω-1, an average transmittance over 92% and a sheet resistance of 7.1 Ω/sq. The results suggest that ZAZ film has better optoelectrical properties than conditional indium tin oxide single layer.

  16. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaojuan Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan; Zhu, Yunyan; He, Changfa; Liu, Minghua Lin, Chunxiang; Liu, Yifan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a deposition–precipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 °C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.

  17. Spin relaxation characteristics in Ag nanowire covered with various oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, S.; Idzuchi, H.; Kondou, K.; Fukuma, Y.; Otani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We have studied spin relaxation characteristics in a Ag nanowire covered with various oxide layers of Bi2O3, Al2O3, HfO2, MgO, or AgOx by using non-local spin valve structures. The spin-flip probability, a ratio of momentum relaxation time to spin relaxation time at 10 K, exhibits a gradual increase with an atomic number of the oxide constituent elements, Mg, Al, Ag, and Hf. Surprisingly, the Bi2O3 capping was found to increase the probability by an order of magnitude compared with other oxide layers. This finding suggests the presence of an additional spin relaxation mechanism such as Rashba effect at the Ag/Bi2O3 interface, which cannot be explained by the simple Elliott-Yafet mechanism via phonon, impurity, and surface scatterings. The Ag/Bi2O3 interface may provide functionality as a spin to charge interconversion layer.

  18. Environmentally friendly microwave ionic liquids synthesis of hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Yan; He, Jing; Sun, Shao-Long; Ma, Ming-Guo; Fu, Lian-Hua; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this article was to explore an environmentally friendly strategy to synthesis of biomass-based hybrids. Herein, microwave-assisted ionic liquids method was applied to fabricate the hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br) using cellulose and AgNO3. The ionic liquids act simultaneously as a solvent, a microwave absorber, and a reactant. Ionic liquids provided Cl(-) or Br(-) to the synthesis of AgCl or AgBr crystals; thus no additional reactant is needed. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The cellulose-Ag/AgCl hybrid and cellulose-Ag/AgBr hybrid were also obtained by using cellulose-AgCl and cellulose-AgBr hybrids as precursors. This environmentally friendly microwave-assisted ionic liquids method is beneficial to the hybrids with high dispersion.

  19. An empirical investigation on thermal characteristics and pressure drop of Ag-oil nanofluid in concentric annular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasian Arani, A. A.; Aberoumand, H.; Aberoumand, S.; Jafari Moghaddam, A.; Dastanian, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an experimental study on Silver-oil nanofluid was carried out in order to present the laminar convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. Silver-oil nanofluid prepared by Electrical Explosion of Wire technique with no nanoparticles agglomeration during nanofluid preparation process and experiments. The average sizes of particles were 20 nm. Nanofluids with various particle Volume fractions of 0.011, 0.044 and 0.171 vol% were employed. The nanofluid flowing between the tubes is heated by an electrical heating coil wrapped around it. The effects of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, tube diameter ratio and nanofluid particle concentration on heat transfer coefficient are studied. Results show that, heat transfer coefficient increased by using nanofluid instead of pure oil. Maximum enhancement of heat transfer coefficient occurs in 0.171 vol%. In addition the results showed that, there are slight increases in pressure drop of nanofluid by increasing the nanoparticle concentration of nanofluid in compared to pure oil.

  20. Advances of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-04-01

    Silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles have shown great potential in variety applications due to their excellent electrical and thermal properties resulting high demand in the market. Decreasing in size to nanometer scale has shown distinct improvement in these inherent properties due to larger surface-to-volume ratio. Ag and Cu nanoparticles are also shown higher surface reactivity, and therefore being used to improve interfacial and catalytic process. Their melting points have also dramatically decreased compared with bulk and thus can be processed at relatively low temperature. Besides, regularly alloying Ag into Cu to create Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles could be used to improve fast oxidizing property of Cu nanoparticles. There are varieties methods have been reported on the synthesis of Ag, Cu, and Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles. This review aims to cover chemical reduction means for synthesis of those nanoparticles. Advances of this technique utilizing different reagents namely metal salt precursors, reducing agents, and stabilizers, as well as their effects on respective nanoparticles have been systematically reviewed. Other parameters such as pH and temperature that have been considered as an important factor influencing the quality of those nanoparticles have also been reviewed thoroughly.

  1. Understanding nanostructures in thermoelectric materials: an electron microscopy study of AgPb{sub 18}SbSe{sub 20} crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lioutas, C. B.; Frangis, N.; Todorov, I.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization and understanding of the presence of nanostructuring in bulk thermoelectric materials requires real space atomic level information. We report electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of crystals of the system AgPb{sub 18}SbSe{sub 20} (=18PbSe + AgSbSe{sub 2}) which reveal that this system is nanostructured rather than a solid solution. Nanocrystals of varying sizes are found, endotaxially grown in the matrix of PbSe (phase A), and consist of two phases, a cubic one (phase B) and a tetragonal one (phase C). Well-defined coherent interfaces between the phases in the same nanocrystals are observed. On the basis of the results of combined electron crystallography techniques, we propose reasonable structural models for the phases B and C. There are significant differences in the nanostructuring chemistry between AgPb{sub 18}SbSe{sub 20} and the telluride analog AgPb{sub 18}SbTe{sub 20} (LAST-18).

  2. Enhanced adhesion and performance of the source/drain electrode using a single-layered Ag(Cu) film for an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. J.; Lee, S.; Park, J. B.; Yang, H. J.; Ko, Y. K.; Lee, J. G.; Cho, B. S.; Jeong, C. O.; Chung, K. H.

    2003-10-01

    The feasibility of using a Ag(Cu) alloy film as a source/drain electrode for thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid-crystal displays has been investigated. The annealing of a Ag(Cu)/Si structure, for 30 min at 200 °C, produced a uniform Cu3Si layer at the Ag(Cu)-Si interface, as a result of the reaction of the segregated Cu with Si. This lowered the resistivity from 5.3 to 3.2 μΩ cm, which also led to improved adhesion properties. A hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT was fabricated using a single layer of Ag (19 at. % Cu) alloy film as the source/drain metal. The subthreshold slope, mobility, and threshold voltage obtained from the fabricated a-Si:H TFT were 0.78 V/dec, 0.79 cm2/V s, and 2 V, respectively, revealing a reduction in the process steps, with excellent performance.

  3. Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  4. Growth response of an estuarine diatom (Melosira nummuloides (Dillw. )Ag. ) to UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.E.; Worrest, R.C.; Van Dyke, H.

    1980-03-01

    An increase in the transmission of solar radiation in the UV-B region (specifically, 290 to 320 nm) is expected to occur as a result of anthropogenic degradation of stratospheric ozone. The potential impact of increased levels of UV-B radiation upon the biosphere is of ecological concern. In a previous study a community of estuarine organisms received a daily exposure to a simulated solar spectrum enhanced in UV-B radiation for a period of six weeks. A dominant species of diatom growing at the surface of these communities were isolated and identified to be Melosira nummuloides. Short chains of this diatom were irradiated for a four-hour period on each of three consecutive days. Fluorescent sunlamps filtered by a 290 mm cut-off filter (0.13 to 0.50 mm cellulose acetate) or a 315 nm cut-off filter (0.13 mm Mylar S) provided a range of fluence which closely approximated natural fluence levels. A least squares regression analysis of the number of cell divisions on the biologically weighted fluence indicated a significant depression in the growth of this scies by radiation in the 290 to 320 nm waveband.

  5. Electrical Characteristics of an Ag/n-InP Schottky Diode Based on Temperature-Dependent Current-Voltage and Capacitance-Voltage Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülnahar, Murat

    2015-09-01

    The rectifying junction properties of an Ag/n-InP Schottky diode are investigated in a wide temperature range from 10 K to 300 K (-263 °C to 27 °C). The electronic structure of the junction is analyzed by the techniques of current-voltage I- V and capacitance-voltage C- V measurement as a function of temperature. The electrical parameters are characterized with the standard thermionic emission theory. The main electrical characteristics including the values of apparent barrier height and ideality factor n are found to be 0.414 eV and 1.008 at 300 K (27 °C), respectively, even though the value of barrier height at 300 K (27 °C) from C- V data is 0.417 eV. The , n, and Richardson plot demonstrate strong temperature dependency; that is, the decreases, n increases, and the Richardson plot deviates with decreasing temperature. Such behaviors are attributed to Schottky barrier anomalies, which are explained by assuming the existence of a Gaussian distribution of nanometer-sized patches with low barrier height at the interface. The accurate theoretical models such as Tung's lateral inhomogeneity and multi-Gaussian distribution to comment the barrier inhomogeneity on the electron transport across the interface are applied, and the comparisons between these approaches for the present experimental results are carried out. According to the multi-Gaussian distribution approach, the double-Gaussian nature of Ag/n-InP/In is commented by the values of the weighting coefficients, standard deviations, and mean barrier height calculated for each distribution. The total effective area of the patches is calculated for high and low temperatures, and as a result, it is found that the low barrier regions influence significantly the electron transport at the interface of the junction. The discrepancy between I- V and C- V barrier heights is discussed based on a Gaussian approach. From the linear relationship between and n, the homogeneous barrier height is noted to be 0.418 eV. The

  6. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H

    2009-09-01

    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  7. The role of reduction extent of graphene oxide in the photocatalytic performance of Ag/AgX (X = Cl, Br)/rGO composites and the pseudo-second-order kinetics reaction nature of the Ag/AgBr system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weiyin; Ran, Chenxin; Wang, Minqiang; Li, Le; Sun, Zhongwang; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-21

    Although reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based photocatalyst composites have been intensively developed during the past few years, the influence of reduction extent of rGO on the photocatalytic performance of the rGO-based composite has virtually not been investigated due to some technical limitations, such as the poor water dispersibility of rGO and low reduction selectivity of the hydrothermal method, which make it difficult to control the reduction extent of rGO in these composites. Herein, we used a facile room-temperature method to synthesize Ag/AgX (X = Cl, Br)/rGO photocatalyst composites as a model to study the effect of reduction extent of rGO on the photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst. It was found that the photocatalytic activities of both Ag/AgCl/PrGO and Ag/AgBr/PrGO systems had an optimized threshold of the reduction extent of photoreduced GO (PrGO). More importantly, due to the different conductive band values of AgCl and AgBr, the optimized thresholds in the two systems were at different PrGO reduction extents, based on which we proposed that the favorable energy band matching between AgX and PrGO in the two systems played a crucial role in obtaining high photocatalysis performance. Besides, the photocatalytic reaction of the Ag/AgBr based system was confirmed to be a pseudo-second-order kinetics reaction rather than pseudo-first-order kinetics reaction. The new insights presented in this work provided useful information on the design and development of a more sophisticated photocatalyst, and can also be applied to many other applications.

  8. The structural conversion from α-AgVO3 to β-AgVO3: Ag nanoparticle decorated nanowires with application as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    McNulty, David; Ramasse, Quentin; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-09-15

    The majority of electrode materials in batteries and related electrochemical energy storage devices are fashioned into slurries via the addition of a conductive additive and a binder. However, aggregation of smaller diameter nanoparticles in current generation electrode compositions can result in non-homogeneous active materials. Inconsistent slurry formulation may lead to inconsistent electrical conductivity throughout the material, local variations in electrochemical response, and the overall cell performance. Here we demonstrate the hydrothermal preparation of Ag nanoparticle (NP) decorated α-AgVO3 nanowires (NWs) and their conversion to tunnel structured β-AgVO3 NWs by annealing to form a uniform blend of intercalation materials that are well connected electrically. The synthesis of nanostructures with chemically bound conductive nanoparticles is an elegant means to overcome the intrinsic issues associated with electrode slurry production, as wire-to-wire conductive pathways are formed within the overall electrode active mass of NWs. The conversion from α-AgVO3 to β-AgVO3 is explained in detail through a comprehensive structural characterization. Meticulous EELS analysis of β-AgVO3 NWs offers insight into the true β-AgVO3 structure and how the annealing process facilitates a higher surface coverage of Ag NPs directly from ionic Ag content within the α-AgVO3 NWs. Variations in vanadium oxidation state across the surface of the nanowires indicate that the β-AgVO3 NWs have a core-shell oxidation state structure, and that the vanadium oxidation state under the Ag NP confirms a chemically bound NP from reduction of diffused ionic silver from the α-AgVO3 NWs core material. Electrochemical comparison of α-AgVO3 and β-AgVO3 NWs confirms that β-AgVO3 offers improved electrochemical performance. An ex situ structural characterization of β-AgVO3 NWs after the first galvanostatic discharge and charge offers new insight into the Li(+) reaction mechanism for β-Ag

  9. Siberian Snake solenoid for the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) have demonstrated that Siberian Snakes'' can be used to preserve the polarization of an accelerated polarized beam in a circular accelerator. Retrofitting full snakes into accelerators such as the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven is almost impossible due to space limitations, but a partial snake that can correct depolarization due to imperfection resonances with 1/20 to 1/30 of a full strength snake seems to present a viable option. We describe such a device for the AGS and give the design criteria in terms of simplicity of accelerator operation and level of achievable polarization. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hun-Bok; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Soon-Oh; Park, Seong-Sook; Lee, Pyeong-Koo

    2005-08-01

    Transport and sediment-water partitioning of trace metals (Cr, Co, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd) in acid mine drainage were studied in two creeks in the Kwangyang Au-Ag mine area, southern part of Korea. Chemical analysis of stream waters and the weak acid (0.1 N HCl) extraction, strong acid (HF-HNO3-HClO4) extraction, and sequential extraction of stream sediments were performed. Heavy metal pollution of sediments was higher in Chonam-ri creek than in Sagok-ri creek, because there is a larger source of base metal sulfides in the ores and waste dump upstream of Chonam-ri creek. The sediment-water distribution coefficients ( K d) for metals in both creeks were dependent on the water pH and decreased in the order Pb ≈ Al > Cu > Mn > Zn > Co > Ni ≈ Cd. K d values for Al, Cu and Zn were very sensitive to changes in pH. The results of sequential extraction indicated that among non-residual fractions, Fe-Mn oxides are most important for retaining trace metals in the sediments. Therefore, the precipitation of Fe(-Mn) oxides due to pH increase in downstream sites plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved trace metals in both creeks. For Al, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn, the metal concentrations determined by 0.1 N HCl extraction (Korean Standard Method for Soil Pollution) were almost identical to the cumulative concentrations determined for the first three weakly-bound fractions (exchangeable + bound to carbonates + bound to Fe-Mn oxides) in the sequential extraction procedure. This suggests that 0.1 N HCl extraction can be effectively used to assess the environmentally available and/or bioavailable forms of trace metals in natural stream sediments.

  11. The axisymmetric stellar wind of AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Hillier, D. John; Harries, Tim J.; Howarth, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical linear spectropolarimetry of the Luminous Blue Variable AG Carinae obtained after a recent visual brightness increase. The absence of He II lambda 4686 emission, together with the weakening of the He I spectrum and the appearance of Fe lines in the region around 5300 A, confirm that AG Car has started a new excursion across the HR diagram. The H alpha line profile exhibits very extended line wings that are polarized differently in both amount and position angle from either the continuum or the line core. The polarization changes across H alpha, together with variable continuum polarization, indicate the presence of intrinsic polarization. Coexistence of the line-wing polarization with extended flux-line wings evidences that both are formed by electron scattering in a dense wind. The position angle rotates across the line profiles, in a way that presently available models suggest is due to rotation and expansion of the scattering material. AG Car displays very large variations of its linear polarization with time, Delta P approximately 1.2%, indicating significant variations in envelope opacity. We find that the polarization varies along a preferred position angle of approximately 145 deg (with a scatter of +/- 10 deg) which we interpret as a symmetry axis of the stellar wind (with an ambiguity of 90 deg). This position angle is co-aligned with the major axis of the AG Car ring nebula and perpendicular to the AG Car jet. Our observations thus suggest that the axisymmetric geometry seen in the resolved circumstellar environment at various distances already exists within a few stellar radii of AG Car. From the H alpha polarization profile we deduce an interstellar polarization of Q = 0.31%, U = -1.15% at H alpha. The inferred interstellar polarization implies that the intrinsic polarization is not always of the same sign. This indicates either significant temporal changes in the envelope geometry, or it may arise from effects of multiple scattering

  12. Mechanochemically synthesized Ag-based nanohybrids with unprecedented low toxicity in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Arancon, Rick A D; Balu, Alina M; Romero, Antonio A; Ojeda, Manuel; Gomez, Mercedes; Blanco, Jordi; Domingo, Jose L; Luque, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    A simple and innovative mechanochemical approach was employed to synthesize Ag-polysaccharide nanohybrid materials that were proved to exhibit remarkable surface properties and structures for biomedical applications. The synthesized Ag nanomaterials possessed an unprecedented low cytotoxicity against human cell lines A549 and SH-SY5Y as compared to similarly reported Ag nanomaterials due to the stability and low release of Ag(+) and high biocompatibility of the nanohybrids.

  13. Silver nanoparticle-initiated chemiluminescence reaction of luminol-AgNO3 and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Li, Baoxin

    2011-07-01

    Ag(+) has been regarded as an inert chemiluminescent oxidant. In this work, it was found that in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), AgNO(3) could react with luminol to produce strong chemiluminescence (CL). The AgNPs with smaller size could initiate stronger CL emission. To investigate the CL mechanism of the AgNPs-luminol-AgNO(3) system, the UV-visible spectra and the CL spectrum of the CL system were obtained. The CL reaction mechanism involving catalysis was proposed. Compared with the reported nanoparticles-luminol-H(2)O(2) CL system, the AgNPs-luminol-AgNO(3) CL system has the advantages of low background and good stability. Moreover, the new CL system was used in immunoassay for IgG.

  14. Transparent Conductive AGZO/Ag/AGZO Multilayers on PET Substrate by Roll-to-Roll Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Park, Kwangwon; Kim, Jongsu

    2016-02-01

    Indium-free Al and Ga-codoped ZnO (AGZO) multilayer films with nanoscale Ag interlayer were deposited by dual target roll-to-roll RF for AGZO and DC sputtering systems for Ag at room temperature for a large scale. The thicknesses of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer were optimized by changing the roll speed: 0.15/1.1/0.15 m/min for AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayers, respectively. The optimum thicknesses of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer are 9.21, 8.32 and 8.04 nm, respectively. Optimized AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer films showed an excellent transparency (84% at 550 nm) and a low sheet resistance (9.2 omega/sq.) on PET substrates for opto-electronic applications. The effects of nanoscale Ag interlayer on optical and electrical properties of AGZO/Ag/AGZO multilayer films were discussed.

  15. Thermal Diffusion Dynamic Behavior of Two-Dimensional Ag-SMALL Clusters on Ag(1 1 1) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirur-Rehman; Hayat, Sardar Sikandar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the thermal diffusion behavior of small two-dimensional Ag-islands on Ag(1 1 1) surface has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach is based on semi-empirical potentials. The key microscopic processes responsible for the diffusion of Ag1-5 adislands on Ag(1 1 1) surface are identified. The hopping and zigzag concerted motion along with rotation are observed for Ag one-atom to three-atom islands while single-atom and multi-atom processes are revealed for Ag four-atom and five-atom islands, during the diffusion on Ag(1 1 1) surface. The same increasing/decreasing trend in the diffusion coefficient and effective energy barrier is observed in both the self learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) and MD calculations, for the temperature range of 300-700 K. An increase in the value of effective energy barrier is noticed with corresponding increase in the number of atoms in Ag-adislands. A reasonable linear fit is observed for the diffusion coefficient for studied temperatures (300, 500 and 700 K). For the observed diffusion mechanisms, our findings are in good agreement with ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for Al/Al(1 1 1) while the energy barrier values are in same range as the experimental values for Cu/Ag(1 1 1) and the theoretical values using ab initio DFT supplemented with embedded-atom method for Ag/Ag(1 1 1).

  16. Quantification of HBsAg: basic virology for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-21

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is produced and secreted through a complex mechanism that is still not fully understood. In clinical fields, HBsAg has long served as a qualitative diagnostic marker for hepatitis B virus infection. Notably, advances have been made in the development of quantitative HBsAg assays, which have allowed viral replication monitoring, and there is an opportunity to make maximal use of quantitative HBsAg to elucidate its role in clinical fields. Yet, it needs to be underscored that a further understanding of HBsAg, not only from clinical point of view but also from a virologic point of view, would enable us to deepen our insights, so that we could more widely expand and apply its utility. It is also important to be familiar with HBsAg variants and their clinical consequences in terms of immune escape mutants, issues resulting from overlap with corresponding mutation in the P gene, and detection problems for the HBsAg variants. In this article, we review current concepts and issues on the quantification of HBsAg titers with respect to their biologic nature, method principles, and clinically relevant topics.

  17. HBsAg sT123N mutation induces stronger antibody responses to HBsAg and HBcAg and accelerates in vivo HBsAg clearance.

    PubMed

    Li, Songxia; Zhao, Kaitao; Liu, Shuhui; Wu, Chunchen; Yao, Yongxuan; Cao, Liang; Hu, Xue; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Pei, Rongjuan; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen

    2015-12-02

    Immune escape mutants with mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) major hydrophilic region (MHR) often emerge in association with diagnostic failure or breakthrough of HBV infection in patients with anti-HBs antibodies. Some mutants harboring substitutions to Asn in HBsAg MHR may have an additional potential N-glycosylation site. We have previously showed that sT123N substitution could generate additional N-glycosylated forms of HBsAg. In the present study, 1.3-fold-overlength HBV genomes containing the sT123N substitution were digested from the pHBV1.3-sT123N construct and subcloned into the pAAV vector to generate pAAV1.3-sT123N for hydrodynamic injection (HI) in mice. Viral expression and replication were phenotypically characterized by transient transfection. The results demonstrated that sT123N substitution impaired virion secretion, resulting in intracellular retention of HBcAg. Using the HBV HI mouse model, we found that mice mounted significantly stronger antibody responses to HBsAg and HBcAg, which accelerated HBsAg clearance. Thus, additional N-glycosylation generated by amino acid substitutions in HBsAg MHR may significantly modulate specific host immune responses and influence HBV infection in vivo. Our results help further the understanding of the role of immune escape mutants with N-linked glycosylation in the biology of HBV infection.

  18. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  19. One-pot synthesis of M (M = Ag, Au)@SiO2 yolk-shell structures via an organosilane-assisted method: preparation, formation mechanism and application in heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of yolk-shell catalysts consisting of a single M (M = Ag, Au) nanoparticle encapsulated within a hollow mesoporous organosilica shell via an organosilane-assisted strategy. The advantages of our method lie in its good controllability of the void space as well as the thickness of the mesoporous shell. The M@CTAB/SiO2 synthesized through a modified Stöber method can transform to yolk-shell structures after adding (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS)/TEOS or (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES)/TEOS into the synthetic medium. We give unambiguous evidence that the middle CTAB/SiO2 layer transforms into a less dense APTMS-rich organic-inorganic layer which was selectively removed in alkaline aqueous solution, while the amino-functionalized hybrid shells remain intact. Moreover, we discuss the role of alkylamino groups in the shell in the transformation from Ag@SiO2 nanorattles to hollow structures when impregnating the as-synthesized Ag@SiO2 nanorattles in HAuCl4 aqueous solution. The nanorattles also exhibit high catalytic activity for the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol.

  20. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  1. Accuracy Assessment for AG500, Electromagnetic Articulograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Mefferd, Antje

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the AG500 (Carstens Medizinelectronik, Lenglern, Germany), an electromagnetic device developed recently to register articulatory movements in three dimensions. This technology seems to have unprecedented capabilities to provide rich information about time-varying…

  2. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  3. Manipulation of the crystal structures and the consequent FMR behaviors in GaAs/Ag/Fe system with an ultrathin Fe seeding layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. C.; Teng, Y. H.; Tsai, C. S.; Yao, Y. D.; Liou, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The crystal structures, magnetic properties, and the behaviors of ferromagnetic resonance of the GaAs(001)/Fe/Ag/Fe multilayers with different thicknesses of the Fe seeding layer are investigated. For the first time, a transformation from polycrystal into nearly bcc (001) single-crystal structure is observed in the top Fe layer while the thickness of the Fe seeding layer increases. The frequency of ferromagnetic resonance in Fe/Ag/Fe multilayers can be tuned by varying the strength of the external magnetic field and the thickness of the Fe seeding layer. Also it can be well fitted by the resonance equation. The correlation between crystal structures and ferromagnetic resonance manifests itself.

  4. A reliable amplified fluorescence-enhanced chemosensor (Eu-MIL-61) for the directional detection of Ag(+) in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nana; Yan, Bing

    2017-01-17

    A robust gallium carboxylate Ga(OH)(btec)·0.5H2O (MIL-61) was synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions and selected as the parent MOF to prepare Eu-MIL-61 by post-synthetic modification due to the uncoordinated carbonyl group of the ligand (pyromellitic acid (H4btec)). The firm framework, permanent porosity, and non-coordinated sites make MIL-61 a good scaffold for immobilizing and sensitizing Eu(3+). The products showed excellent luminescence and, more significantly, Eu-MIL-61 showed excellent selectivity with photoluminescence enhancement, fast response time, and low detection limit for Ag(+) ions in the aqueous solutions. In addition, the frameworks were not susceptible to the acid-base property of solutions, which can be further applied to monitor the concentration of Ag(+) in several daily water samples.

  5. MO degradation by Ag-Ag2O/g-C3N4 composites under visible-light irradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yan, Jia; Ji, Haiyan; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Yuanguo; Huang, Liying; Zhang, Qi; Song, Yanhua; Xu, Hui; Li, Huaming

    2016-01-01

    The paper demonstrated the synthesis of Ag-Ag2O/g-C3N4 nanoparticles via a simple liquid phase synthesis path and a facile calcination method. The synthesized Ag-Ag2O/g-C3N4 composites were well characterized by various analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, the UV-Vis diffuse-reflectance spectra and transient photocurrent. From the structure and surface characterization, it indicated that Ag-Ag2O/g-C3N4 composites were formed by an effective covering of g-C3N4 with Ag-Ag2O. The results revealed that the 50 wt% nanoparticle had a great effection on the degradation of the methyl orange (MO), which was almost 7.5 times as high as that of g-C3N4. Based on the experimental results, the possible photocatalytic mechanism with photogenerated holes as the main active species was presented.

  6. Large scale synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from waste biomass and their use as an efficient and selective photoluminescence on-off-on probe for Ag(+) ions.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Biswal, Mandakini; Mhamane, Dattakumar; Gokhale, Rohan; Patil, Shankar; Guin, Debanjan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-10-21

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized from bio-waste and are further modified to produce amine-terminated GQDs (Am-GQDs) which have higher dispersibility and photoluminescence intensity than those of GQDs. A strong fluorescence quenching of Am-GQDs (switch-off) is observed for a number of metal ions, but only for the Ag(+) ions is the original fluorescence regenerated (switch-on) upon addition of L-cysteine.

  7. Thermoelectric Properties of Ag-Doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 Compounds: Dual Electronic Nature of Ag-Related Lattice Defects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Pei; Liao, Chien-Neng; Huang, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Hung-Chang

    2015-08-03

    Effects of Ag doping and thermal annealing temperature on thermoelectric transport properties of Bi2(Se,Te)3 compounds are investigated. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of carrier concentration, Hall mobility, and lattice parameter, we identified two Ag-related interstitial (Agi) and substitutional (AgBi) defects that modulate in different ways the thermoelectric properties of Ag-doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 compounds. When Ag content is less than 0.5 wt %, Agi plays an important role in stabilizing crystal structure and suppressing the formation of donor-like Te vacancy (VTe) defects, leading to the decrease in carrier concentration with increasing Ag content. For the heavily doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 compounds (>0.5 wt % Ag), the increasing concentration of AgBi is held responsible for the increase of electron concentration because formation of AgBi defects is accompanied by annihilation of hole carriers. The analysis of Seebeck coefficients and temperature-dependent electrical properties suggests that electrons in Ag-doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 compounds are subject to a mixed mode of impurity scattering and lattice scattering. A 10% enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit at room temperature was achieved for 1 wt % Ag-doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 as compared to pristine Bi2(Se,Te)3.

  8. Ag2Mo3O10 Nanorods Decorated with Ag2S Nanoparticles: Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity, Photostability, and Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjie; Liu, Fenglin; Yan, Xiaodong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qian; Wan, Juan; Tian, Lihong; Xia, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-12-14

    Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2 S nanoparticles have been synthesized by an anion-exchange route. With thiourea as the sulfur source, sulfur ions replace [Mo3O10](2-) units of active sites on the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods, forming Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2S nanoparticles. This induces enhanced absorption in the visible-light region. Ag2 S nanoparticles decorate the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods uniformly with a suitable amount of thiourea. The Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure enhances the photocatalytic activity on the degradations of Rhodamine B and glyphosate under visible light. This enhancement is attributed to the improved absorption of visible light and effective separation of charge carriers in the nanoheterostructure. Meanwhile, the Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure displays good photocatalytic stability based on cyclic photocatalytic experiments.

  9. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag/AgI/BiOI heteronanostructures supported on rectorite via a cation-exchange method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yunfang; Fang, Jianzhang; Lu, Shaoyou; Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan; Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Ximiao; Fang, Zhanqiang

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared by twice cation-exchange process. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite photocatalyst possessed SPR and adsorption capacity. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite exhibited highly photocatalytic activity. • Trapped holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} were formed active species in the photocatalytic system. - Abstract: In this work, a new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared via a cation exchange process. The photocatalyst had been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen sorption (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, was enhanced significantly by loading Ag/AgI/BiOI nanoparticles onto rectorite. The photogenerated holes and superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were both formed as active species for the photocatalytic reactions under visible light irradiation. The existence of metallic Ag particles, which possess the surface plasmon resonance effect, acted as an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction.

  10. An Environmentally Friendly Method for Testing Photocatalytic Inactivation of Cyanobacterial Propagation on a Hybrid Ag-TiO2 Photocatalyst under Solar Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Yu; Huang, Winn-Jung; Lu, Ben-Ren; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chen, Yeah; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Chang, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria were inactivated under sunlight using mixed phase silver (Ag) and deposited titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated on the surface of diatomite (DM) as a hybrid photocatalyst (Ag-TiO2/DM). The endpoints of dose-response experiments were chlorophyll a, photosynthetic efficiency, and flow cytometry measurements. In vitro experiments revealed that axenic cultures of planktonic cyanobacteria lost their photosynthetic activity following photocatalyzed exposure to sunlight for more than 24 h. Nearly 92% of Microcystis aeruginosa cells lost their photosynthetic activity, and their cell morphology was severely damaged within 24 h of the reaction. Preliminary carbon-14 (14CO3−2) results suggest that the complete inactivation of cyanobacteria arises from damage to cell wall components (peroxidation). A small concomitant increase in cell wall disorder and a consequent decrease in cell wall functional groups increase the cell wall fluidity prior to cell lysis. A high dosage of Ag-TiO2/DM during photocatalysis increased the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in the Microcystis aeruginosa suspension by up to approximately 260%. However, photocatalytic treatment had a small effect on the disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor, as revealed by only a slight increase in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). PMID:26690465

  11. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in thionyl chloride electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnick, F. M.; Cieslak, W. R.

    1985-07-01

    Thionyl chloride is the active cathode and electrolyte solvent in Li/SOCl2 primary battery systems. To evaluate charge-transfer reactions in this solvent system, a reference electrode is required. This report describes the fabrication and characterization of Ag/AgCl microreference electrodes that can be used in SOCl2 battery electrolytes.

  12. Nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying; Lin, Yen-Wen; Wu, Tzong-Ming

    2011-08-01

    Femtosecond laser was employed to fabricate nanostructured Ag surface for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The prepared nanostructured Ag surface was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure, also termed as ripples, on the Ag surface. The AFM images indicate that the surface roughness of the produced nanostructured Ag substrate is larger than the untreated Ag substrate. The XRD and XPS of the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser show a face centered cubic phase of metallic Ag and no impurities of Ag oxide species. The application of the produced nanostructured Ag surface in SERS was investigated by using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a reference chemical. The SERS intensity of R6G in aqueous solution at the prepared nanostructured Ag surface is 15 times greater than that of an untreated Ag substrate. The Raman intensities vary linearly with the concentrations of R6G in the range of 10(-8)-10(-4)M. The present methodology demonstrates that the nanostructured Ag surface fabricated by femtosecond laser is potential for qualification and quantification of low concentration molecules.

  13. A novel synthesis route of Ag2S nanotubes by sulfidizing silver nanowires in ambient atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaofeng; Zou, Huamin; Zhou, Li

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a 'two-step' strategy of synthesizing nanoparticles-assembled Ag,S nanotubes with a diameter of less than 100 nm is developed. At first, the silver nanowires with uniform length and diameter were synthesized by polyol reduction method using PVP as a capping agent. Then, the resulting silver nanowires were exposed to the ambient atmosphere of laboratory, gradually sulfidized by sulfur-containing molecules in air, and eventually transformed into nanoparticles-assembled Ag2S nanotubes. The morphologic changes during the sulfidation process from Ag nanowires to Ag2S nanotubes were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is revealed that Ag2S nanoparticles are initially formed on the surface of Ag nanowire by sulfidation, and subsequently linked together into Ag,S nanotube. Quantitative analyses of energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that the as-synthesized products are monoclinic alpha-Ag2S nanotubes. In addition, there is strong evidence that the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) plays an important role as a soft template in the formation of Ag2S nanotubes. A new absorption peak at 573 nm appears in the optical absorption spectra when the Ag2S nanotubes are formed.

  14. 3D [Ag-Mg] polyanionic frameworks in the La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} and La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12} new ternary compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Solokha, Pavlo; De Negri, Serena; Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Saccone, Adriana

    2010-12-15

    The crystal structures of two new ternary phases, La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} and La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12}, were refined from X-ray single crystal diffraction data. La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} crystallizes in the Ca{sub 4}Au{sub 10}In{sub 3} structure type, an ordered variant of the binary Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10} compound: orthorhombic, Cmce, oS68, a=14.173(5), b=10.266(3), c=10.354(3) A, Z=4, wR{sub 2}=0.0826, 676 F{sup 2} values, 50 variables. La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10.3}Mg{sub 12} represents a new structure type: orthorhombic, Cmmm, oS116-10.32, a=9.6130(3), b=24.9663(8), c=9.6333(2) A, Z=4, wR{sub 2}=0.0403, 1185 F{sup 2} values, 101 variables. The structural analysis of both compounds, highlighting a significant contraction of the Ag-Mg distances, suggests the existence of three-dimensional [Ag-Mg] networks hosting La atoms. LMTO calculations applied to La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} indicate that the strongest bonds occur for Ag-Ag and Ag-Mg interactions, and confirm the presence of a 3D{sub {infinity}}[Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3}]{sup {delta}}{sup -} polyanionic framework balanced by positively charged La atoms. -- Graphical abstract: An independent fragment of the 3D [Ag-Mg] framework in La{sub 4}Ag{sub 10}Mg{sub 3} together with an ELF section (1/2 0 0 basal plane). Display Omitted

  15. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  16. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  17. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of sulfur oxidative underpotential deposition on Ag(100) and Ag(110).

    PubMed

    Lastraioli, E; Loglio, F; Cavallini, M; Simeone, F C; Innocenti, M; Carlà, F; Foresti, M L

    2010-11-16

    Underpotential (UPD) deposition of sulfur from Na(2)S solution in 0.1 M NaOH was studied on Ag(100) and Ag(110) using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The cyclic voltammogram on Ag(100) presents two broad peaks, whereas three partial overlapping peaks and a sharper one are observed on Ag(110). STM measurements carried out during the whole UPD process show that progressively more compact structures are formed as the applied potential is scanned toward more positive potentials. More precisely, p(2×2), c(2×6), and c(2×2) were found on Ag(100) at E = -1.25, -1.0, and -0.9 V, respectively. Less definite conclusions can be drawn for the structures of S overlayers on Ag(110). However, the experimental findings are consistent with an incomplete p(2×1) at potentials preceding the sharp peak, and with a c(2×2) structure at E = -0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl, KCl(sat). The coverage values calculated on the basis of the hypothesized structures have been compared with the values obtained from chronocoulometric measurements at the most positive potentials investigated. Thus, the experimental coverage θ = 0.5 coincides with the coverage calculated for the c(2×2) structure found on Ag(110) at E = -0.9 V by STM, whereas the experimental coverage θ = 0.42 suggests that a mixture of structures c(2×6) and c(2×2) is formed on Ag(100).

  18. Formation of surface oxides and Ag2O thin films with atomic oxygen on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouin, Jonathan; Farber, Rachael G.; Heslop, Stacy L.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2015-11-01

    The nature of the oxygen species adsorbed to silver surfaces is a key component of the heterogeneously catalyzed epoxidation of ethylene and partial oxidation of methanol over silver catalysts. We report the formation of two different silver-oxygen species depending on the flux and energy of incident gas-phase oxygen atoms on an Ag(111) surface. A combination of surface science techniques was used to characterize the oxidized surfaces. Atomic oxygen was generated with an Ir filament; lower temperatures created surface oxides previously reported. When O was deposited with a higher filament temperature, the surface became highly corrugated, little subsurface oxygen was observed, and thin layers of Ag2O were likely formed. These results show that the energy and flux of oxygen are important parameters in the chemical identity and abundance of oxygen on silver surfaces and suggest that formation of the Ag2O thin film hinders formation of subsurface oxygen.

  19. Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongliao; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Liang, Changhao

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag2MoO4 nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO42- displaced by Br-. The ternary Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag2MoO4. The pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp of Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min-1, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag2MoO4, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  20. Electrochemical incineration of superchlorinated organic waste by using Ag(II) as oxidizing agent and formation kinetics of Ag(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bringmann, J.; Ebert, K.; Galla, U.; Leffrang, U.; Schmieder, H.

    1995-12-31

    Rates of pure superchlorinated organic substances and an industrial transformer oil using Ag(II) and Co(III) as oxidizing agent have been determined. Ag(II) and Co(III) were generated in a divided electrochemical reactor containing Ag(I) or Co(II) in aqueous 7M HNO{sub 3} or 3.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Best degradation results were obtained using Ag(II) in 7M HNO{sub 3}. AgCl precipitated during superchlorinated hydrocarbon destruction with Ag(II) is redissolved. This chloride is oxidized by an excess of Ag(II) to chlorate and finally to perchlorate. An investigation on the formation kinetics of Ag(II), Co(III), and Ce(IV) by means of a rotating disk electrode led to a quantitative determination of limiting current densities. As Ag(II) ions in aqueous media do not only oxidize organic substances, but also water, reaction rate constants of water oxidation by Ag(II) were determined at various temperatures.

  1. Inheritance of Ag-stainability of the nucleolus organizer regions in domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Henderson, L M; Bruère, A N

    1980-01-01

    One of the nucleolus organizer regions of sheep is located on chromosome 25, which forms one arm of a Robertsonian translocation chromosome (t3). By mating sheep heterozygous and homozygous for the t3 chromosome, and with various Ag-staining frequencies and deposit sizes, the heritability of the Ag-stainability could be determined. The inheritance of Ag-stainability was studied in 54 sheep in five pedigree groups. It was shown that the Ag-staining of a NOR is a heritable property. Matings of animals heterozygous for Ag-stainability provided an estimate of recombination frequency of the short arm of t3.

  2. On the structure of the thiolated Au6Ag7 cluster.

    PubMed

    Tlahuice-Flores, Alfredo

    2014-09-14

    The structure of the recently synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid-protected Au6Ag7(SR)10 cluster has been elucidated by a DFT approach, following an isoelectronic substitution of seven Au atoms by Ag atoms on the [Au13(SR)10](+) cluster. After a systematic search for the lowest-energy isomers, it is demonstrated that its structure comprises one octahedral-like Ag6 core covered by two monoatomic dimer motifs and one Au2Ag1(SR)4 staple-like motif. This result confirms that Ag atoms prefer the inner (core) positions while Au atoms are located on surface staple-like motifs.

  3. Ag-Fe2O3 nanocomposites with enhanced catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiben; Chen, Yingjie; Dong, Lifeng

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nanostructures can be multifunctional and even possess enhanced properties. Ag-Fe2O3 nanocomposites and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated and applied to catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Compared with Ag NPs, Ag-Fe2O3 nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced catalytic activities. Furthermore, due to their magnetic properties, Ag-Fe2O3 nanocomposites could be easily separated from the reaction mixture and recycled through an external magnetic field. These findings will help us design hybrid nanostructures with catalytic activity and explore other potential applications of magnetic nanocomposites.

  4. Enhanced Noble Gas Adsorption in Ag@MOF-74Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-01-14

    Various amounts of Ag nanoparticles were successfully deposited in porous MOF-74Ni (or Ni/DOBDC) with an auto-reduction method. An optimized silver-loaded MOF-74Ni was shown to have an improved Xe adsorption capacity (15% more) at STP compared to the MOF without silver nanoparticles. The silver-loaded sample also has a higher Xe/Kr selectivity. These results are explained by the stronger interactions between polarizable Xe molecules and the well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles.

  5. Prognostic potential of AgNORs in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Murgod, Sanjay; Channabasaviah, Girish Hemadal; Shivamurthy, Dyamenahalli Malleshappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Krishnappa, Savita Jangal

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The role of prognosis cannot be stressed enough, especially when it comes to potentially malignant lesions. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), which is simple and cost-effective has been used in diagnostic and prognostic pathologies. This study seeks to identify the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), to correlate the AgNOR count with the histologic grade of OSMF, and to evaluate the prognostic potential of AgNOR. Materials and Methods: The sample size consisted of archival paraffin blocks of 35 cases of varying grades of OSMF and 10 cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Normal mucosa samples served as controls for the study. AgNOR staining in accordance with the method of Smith and Crocker was performed and Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed an increase in AgNOR counts with corresponding grades of OSMF, the count being least in normal mucosa and also an increase in AgNOR count with corresponding decrease in differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: AgNOR staining is a rapid and inexpensive procedure representing cellular proliferation that can be used to assess the nature of the lesion and therefore, the prognosis. PMID:27114958

  6. SERS activity studies of Ag/Au bimetallic films prepared by galvanic replacement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaonan; Fang, Jinghuai; Jin, Yonglong

    2012-10-01

    Ag films on Si substrates were fabricated by immersion plating, which served as sacrificial materials for preparation of Ag/Au bimetallic films by galvanic replacement method. SEM images displayed that the sacrificial Ag films presenting island morphology experienced interesting structural evolution process during galvanic replacement reaction, and nano-scaled holes were formed in the resultant bimetallic films. SERS measurements using crystal violet as an analyte showed that SERS intensities of bimetallic films were enhanced significantly compared with that of pure Ag films and related mechanisms were discussed. Immersion plating experiment carried out on Ag films on PEN substrates fabricated by photoinduced reduction method further confirmed that galvanic replacement is an easy method to fabricate Ag/Au bimetallic and a potential approach to improve the SERS performance of Ag films.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic behavior of Ag doped TiO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensouici, F.; Souier, T.; Dakhel, A. A.; Iratni, A.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, structure, microstructure, optical properties and photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) have been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Ag doped TiO2 nanostructures thin films which were prepared by a simple sol-gel route. Thermal analysis demonstrated that Ag content decreased the temperature of anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the prepared nanostructures crystallize within anatase-type structure and that the dopant Ag ions were not fully incorporated within TiO2 host lattice, meanwhile both the refractive index and optical band gap were affected by Ag concentration. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B under UV-C radiation by using pure and Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures showed that Ag played an important role in a significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and that the optimum content of Ag ions was found to be 0.5% molar ratio.

  8. Direct observation of Ag filament growth and unconventional SET-RESET operation in GeTe amorphous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Yusuke; Kida, Shimon; Nakaoka, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    We report on the direct observation of Ag filament growth and a peculiar resistance switching in amorphous GeTe films with a lateral electrode geometry. The Ag filament growth was monitored by in-situ optical microscopy. The resistance switching was studied in three electrode pairs, Ag-Ag, Pt-Ag, and Pt-Ag/Pt (Ag electrode covered with Pt). In all the three electrode pairs, similar dendritic Ag filaments were clearly observed growing along both directions from one electrode to the other, according to the applied bias polarity. However, the SET and RESET processes are quite different. The Ag-Ag pair produces a unipolar clockwise switching. The Pt-Ag pair shows a bipolar counter-clockwise switching, as predicted in the basic electrochemical metallization theory, but the observed switching polarity is exactly opposite to the basic theory prediction. The Pt-Ag/Pt pair produces a unipolar counter-clockwise switching. The peculiar SET/RESET processes are explained on the basis of strong Ag diffusion into GeTe matrix resulting in an asymmetric effective electrode pair. The findings suggest that the SET/RESET processes are controlled by the amount of Ag and the electrode geometry.

  9. An X-ray Radiography Study of the Effect of Thermal Cycling on Damage Evolution in Large-Area Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K.; Walker, Larry; Leslie, Scott G.

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems utilizing wide-band-gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential maximum operating temperatures of about 200°C. However, there is a need to understand the thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such high-temperature operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large-area Sn-3.5Ag solder joints between silicon dies and direct bonded copper substrates with Au/Ni-P metallization subject to thermal cycling between 200°C and 5°C are presented in this paper. Interface structure evolution and damage accumulation were followed using high-resolution X-ray radiography, cross-sectional optical and scanning electron microscopies, and X-ray microanalysis in these joints for up to 3000 thermal cycles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the stresses introduced by the thermal cycling result in cracking and delamination at the copper-intermetallic compound interface. X-ray microanalysis showed that stresses due to thermal cycling resulted in physical cracking and breakdown of the Ni-P barrier layer, facilitating Cu-Sn interdiffusion. This interdiffusion resulted in the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds underneath the Ni-P layer, subsequently leading to delamination between the Ni-rich layer and Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds.

  10. An organocatalytic Mannich/denitration reaction for the asymmetric synthesis of 3-ethylacetate-substitued 3-amino-2-oxindoles: formal synthesis of AG-041R.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Shu, Tao; Jia, Jiaqi; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-03-02

    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic addition of ethyl nitroacetate to isatin-derived N-Boc ketimines (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl), followed by the removal of the nitro group, is described. The scalable reaction sequence leads to the title compounds as important intermediates of pyrroloindoline alkaloids and related drugs in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The synthesis of the hexahydrofurano[2,3-b]indole skeleton, the spirocarbamate oxindole unit, and the formal synthesis of AG-041R have been carried out to demonstrate the synthetic utility of this protocol.

  11. Mechanical and thermal behaviors of nitrogen-doped Zr-Cu-Al-Ag-Ta--An alternative class of thin film metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pao-Sheng; Chen, Hsien-Wei; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Shian-Ching Jang, Jason

    2012-10-01

    Super-plasticity and nano-scale surface roughness make thin film metallic glass (TFMG) a candidate for master mold of micro/nano imprint technique. Meanwhile, better mechanical properties of TFMG undoubtedly expand the life time of master mold. In this study, nitrogen is doped into Zr-based TFMG to exhibit the hardness higher than 10 GPa. Different from elements used to be doped into metallic glass, the role of nitrogen atoms plays in metallic glass is distinct and vital owing to its strong electronegativity. From the correlation of thermal and mechanical behavior, the role and effect of nitrogen in Ta-Zr-Cu-Al-Ag TFMG is discussed and proposed.

  12. Work Function Reduction by BaO: Growth of Crystalline Barium Oxide on Ag(001) and Ag(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Droubay, Timothy C.; Kong, Lingmei; Chambers, Scott A.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin films of barium oxide were grown on Ag(001) and Ag(111) using the evaporation of Ba metal in an O2 atmosphere by molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy reveals that films consisting of predominantly BaO or BaO2 result in Ag(001) work function reductions of 1.74 eV and 0.64 eV, respectively. On the Ag(001) surface, Ba oxide growth is initiated by two-dimensional nucleation of epitaxial BaO, followed by a transition to three-dimensional dual-phase nucleation of epitaxial BaO and BaO2. Three-dimensional islands of primarily BaO2(111) nucleate epitaxially on the Ag(111) substrate leaving large patches of Ag uncovered. We find no indication of chemical reaction or charge transfer between the films and the Ag substrates. These data suggest that the origin of the observed work function reduction is largely due to a combination of BaO surface relaxation and an electrostatic compressive effect.

  13. Novel visible-light AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids photocatalysts with surface plasma resonance effects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunfang Li, Xiuli; Wang, Yawen; Fan, Caimei

    2013-06-01

    Three kinds of AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids were synthesised via an anion-exchange precipitation method and characterised by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and UV–vis. The results showed that AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than single Ag₃PO₄ or AgBr under visible light (λ>420 nm), and ·OH and h⁺ were the major active species during the degradation process. Considering interstitial ions Agᵢ⁺ on lattice gap of AgBr are easy to become sliver particle, we deduced the possible photocatalytic mechanism could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the appropriate valence band position of Ag₃PO₄ and AgBr, surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag⁰, reactive radical species Br⁰, and the Ag vacancy on the surface of catalysts. - Graphical abstract: The optical absorption and structural morphology of the as-prepared AgBr@Ag₃PO₄ photocatalyst using an anion-exchange precipitation method are conductive to the photocatalytic degradation of organics in water. Highlights: • Novel AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids are synthesised by a facile method. •AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids show excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light. • Interstitial ions are in favour of the formation of Ag particle. • Surface plasmon resonance effect plays a key factor for light absorption. • The photocatalytic mechanism for AgBr/Ag₃PO₄ hybrids is studied.

  14. Enzyme immobilization on Ag nanoparticles/polyaniline nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, Frank N; Iost, Rodrigo M; Travain, Silmar A; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2009-06-15

    We show a simple strategy to obtain an efficient enzymatic bioelectrochemical device, in which urease was immobilized on electroactive nanostructured membranes (ENMs) made with polyaniline and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) stabilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PAni/PVA-AgNP). Fabrication of the modified electrodes comprised the chemical deposition of polyaniline followed by drop-coating of PVA-AgNP and urease, resulting in a final ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP/urease electrode configuration. For comparison, the electrochemical performance of ITO/PAni/urease electrodes (without Ag nanoparticles) was also studied. The performance of the modified electrodes toward urea hydrolysis was investigated via amperometric measurements, revealing a fast increase in cathodic current with a well-defined peak upon addition of urea to the electrolytic solution. The cathodic currents for the ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP/urease electrodes were significantly higher than for the ITO/PAni/urease electrodes. The friendly environment provided by the ITO/PAni/PVA-AgNP electrode to the immobilized enzyme promoted efficient catalytic conversion of urea into ammonium and bicarbonate ions. Using the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation, a K(M)(app) of 2.7 mmol L(-1) was obtained, indicating that the electrode architecture employed may be advantageous for fabrication of enzymatic devices with improved biocatalytic properties.

  15. THE AGS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTUM.

    SciTech Connect

    HOCK,J.RUSSO,T.GLEN,J.BROWN,K.

    2003-05-12

    The previous slow beam extraction electro static septum in the AGS was designed in 1981. Research documented at the Fermi Laboratory was used as the base line for this design. The septum consisted of a ground plane of .002 inch diameter wire tungsten-rhenium alloy (75%W 25%Re) with a hollow welded titanium cathode assembly. The vacuum chamber is stationary and the septum is moved with a pair of high vacuum linear feed throughs. After years of beam time, the frequency of failures increased. The vacuum system design was poor by today's standards and resulted in long pump down times after repairs. The failures ranged from broken septum wires to a twisted cathode. In addition to the failures, the mechanical drive system had too much backlash, making the operating position difficult to repeat. The new septum needed to address all of these issues in order to become a more reliable septum.

  16. Different Mechanisms May Exist for HBsAg Synthesis and Secretion During Various Phases of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunsong; Cai, Qun; Xie, Qinxiu; Zhang, Yafei; Meng, Xiangling; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and secretion of hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) in the hepatocytes of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients at different phases of infection; as such, the association of intrahepatic HBsAg expression with virological markers and the histological characteristics were analyzed. Material/Methods 302 chronic HBV infection patients who had not received antiviral therapy were stratified by HBeAg status. The proportion of HBsAg-positive cells was used as an indicator for HBsAg expression level. Results In HBeAg-positive patients, there was a significant correlation between serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels (r=0.569, p<0.001). Intrahepatic HBsAg expression and serum HBsAg level in HBeAg-positive patients were higher than those in HBeAg-negative patients (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). A significant correlation between serum HBsAg level and intrahepatic HBsAg expression was found in HBeAg-negative patients (r=0.377, p<0.001), but not in HBeAg-positive patients (r=0.051, p=0.557). Very interestingly, the correlation between serum HBsAg level and HBsAg expression in hepatocytes gradually increased along with disease progression through the immune-tolerant, immune-clearance, inactive, and recovery phases of HBV infection (r=−0.184, 0.068, 0.492, and 0.575; and p=0,238, 0,722, 0.012, and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Different mechanisms may be involved in HBsAg synthesis and secretion in different phases of chronic HBV infection. PMID:28321112

  17. A bio-inspired strategy for the interfacial assembly of graphene oxide with in situ generated Ag/AgCl: designing sustainable hybrid photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Thuniki Naveen; Begum, Gousia; Rana, Rohit Kumar

    2017-03-15

    Herein, we report a polyamine-mediated assembly to integrate graphene oxide (GO) sheets with Ag/AgCl to fabricate a hybrid nanocomposite (GO-Ag/AgCl) at nearly neutral pH and ambient temperature. Inspired by the role of polyamines in the excellent integration of components to generate hierarchical nanostructures in biominerals such as diatoms, we showed that our strategy enabled the fabrication of GO-semiconductor composites with a well-integrated structure. The polyamines not only facilitated the in situ generation of Ag/AgCl, but also simultaneously allowed their interaction with GO suitable for visible light active photocatalysis, as revealed by the detailed characterization of the synthesized materials. Consequently, the GO-Ag/AgCl exhibited nearly 5 times higher photocatalytic activity and better photostability than Ag/AgCl under visible light irradiation. The nanocomposite reached its highest activity at the graphene content of 4.16 wt%. Thus, the assembly process represented an effective way to design hybrid composites. Moreover, as a sustainable photocatalyst, it facilitates effective separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at the interface, thereby improving activity and stability.

  18. An Investigation of Microstructure and Microhardness of Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag Solders as Functions of Alloy Composition and Cooling Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sun-Kyoung; Kang, Sung K.; Shih, Da-Yuan; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2009-02-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of Sn- xAg and Sn- xCu solders were investigated as functions of alloy composition and cooling rate. The Ag compositions examined varied from 0.5 wt.% to 3.5 wt.%, while Cu varied from 0.5 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%. Three cooling rates were employed during solidification: 0.02°C/s (furnace cooling), about 10°C/s (air cooling), and 100°C/s or higher (rapid solidification). Sn grain size and orientation were observed by cross-polarization light microscopy and electron-backscattering diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The microhardness was measured to correlate the mechanical properties with alloy compositions and cooling rates. From this study, it was found that both alloy composition and cooling rate can significantly affect the Sn grain size and hardness in Sn-rich solders. The critical factors that affect the microstructure-property relationships of Sn-rich solders are discussed, including grain size, crystal orientation, dendrite cells, twin boundaries, and intermetallic compounds (IMC).

  19. Two-photon interference and coherent control of single InAs quantum dot emissions in an Ag-embedded structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Kumano, H.; Nakajima, H.; Odashima, S.; Asano, T.; Suemune, I.; Kuroda, T.

    2014-07-28

    We have recently reported the successful fabrication of bright single-photon sources based on Ag-embedded nanocone structures that incorporate InAs quantum dots. The source had a photon collection efficiency as high as 24.6%. Here, we show the results of various types of photonic characterizations of the Ag-embedded nanocone structures that confirm their versatility as regards a broad range of quantum optical applications. We measure the first-order autocorrelation function to evaluate the coherence time of emitted photons, and the second-order correlation function, which reveals the strong suppression of multiple photon generation. The high indistinguishability of emitted photons is shown by the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference. With quasi-resonant excitation, coherent population flopping is demonstrated through Rabi oscillations. Extremely high single-photon purity with a g{sup (2)}(0) value of 0.008 is achieved with π-pulse quasi-resonant excitation.

  20. [Epidemiological characteristics of HBeAg reversion in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg seroconversion in Jiangsu province, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L G; Tian, H; Jiang, J; Song, C; Zou, Y; Xu, J F; Liu, H J; Peng, H; Hu, Z B; Zhu, F C; Shen, H B; Zhai, X J

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To understand characteristics and influencing factors of reversion of HBeAg in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg sero-conversion, and provide epidemiological evidence for the regular management of chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a cohort study was conducted among the chronic hepatitis B patients with sero-conversion of HBeAg in Jiangsu province. Association between participants' demographics, ALT, HBV DNA and incidence of HBeAg reversion was analyzed by Cox regression model. HBV DNA changing trend between patients with HBeAg reversion and patients with persistent HBeAg sero-conversion was compared by repeated measure data variance analysis. Results: In 2012, there were 5 068 HBeAg seroconverted chronic hepatitis B patients aged (51.9 ± 12.8) years enrolled. By 2014, HBeAg had reversed in 121 cases with the rate of 1.3/100 person-years. The probability of HBeAg reversion decreased with the age of the patients. By Cox regression analysis, HBV DNA level was an important influencing factor for the progress of HBeAg reversion. The patients with HBV DNA≥200 000 IU/ml had a higher HBeAg reversion rate DNA (3.8/100 person-years) than those with HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml (1.1 person-years) (HR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.91-6.20, P=0.000). Compared with the persistent HBeAg sero-conversion group, HBV DNA and ALT showed a more dramatic increase in the HBeAg reversion group (P=0.000). Conclusions: There was a certain HBeAg reversion rate in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg sero-conversion. Younger chronic CHB patients with HBeAg sero-conversion and those with higher HBV DNA lever had higher HBeAg reversion rate. Following up and management of chronic CHB patients with HBeAg sero-conversion is important and helpful for the control of hepatitis B.

  1. Clinical features of HBsAg seroclearance in hepatitis B virus carriers in South Korea: A retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Seong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the characteristic features of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance among Korean hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. METHODS Carriers with HBsAg seroclearance were selected by analyzing longitudinal data collected from 2003 to 2015. The period of time from enrollment to the negative conversion of HBsAg (HBsAg-NC) was compared by stratifying various factors, including age, sex, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, sequential changes in the signal-to-cutoff ratio of HBsAg (HBsAg-SCR), as measured by qualitative HBsAg assay, and chronic liver disease on ultrasonography (US-CLD). Quantification of HBV DNA and HBsAg (HBsAg-QNT) in the serum was performed by commercial assay. RESULTS Among the 1919 carriers, 90 (4.7%) exhibited HBsAg-NC at 6.2 ± 3.6 years after registration, with no differences observed among the different age groups. Among these carriers, the percentages of those with asymptomatic liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at registration were 31% and 7.8%, respectively. The frequency of HBsAg-NC significantly differed according to the HBV DNA titer and US-CLD. HBeAg influenced HBsAg-NC in the 40-50 and 50-60 year age groups. HBsAg-SCR < 1000 was correlated with an HBsAg-QNT < 200 IU/mL. A gradual decrease in the HBsAg-SCR to < 1000 predicted HBsAg-NC. Six patients developed HCC after registration, including two before and four after HBsAg-NC. The rate at which the patients developed new HCC after HBsAg seroclearance was 4.8%. LC with excessive drinking and vertical infection were found to be risk factors for HCC in the HBsAg-NC group. CONCLUSION HCC surveillance should be continued after HBsAg seroclearance. An HBsAg-SCR < 1000 and its decrease in sequential testing are worth noting as predictive markers of HBsAg loss. PMID:27956808

  2. Diffusion and solid state reactions in Fe/Ag/Pt and FePt/Ag thin-film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katona, G. L.; Safonova, N. Y.; Ganss, F.; Mitin, D.; Vladymyrskyi, I. A.; Sidorenko, S. I.; Makogon, Iu N.; Beddies, G.; Albrecht, M.; Beke, D. L.

    2015-05-01

    Depth profiles of tri-layered Fe(15 nm)/Ag(10 nm)/Pt(15 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/Si(1 0 0) and bi-layered Fe50Pt50(15 nm)/Ag(7.5 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/Si(1 0 0) thin films after different heat treatments were investigated by secondary neutral mass spectrometry. Isotherm annealing of the tri-layered samples was carried out between 245 and 390 °C up to several hours, while isochrone thermal annealing was performed between 600 and 900 °C for 30 s. Composition profiles, obtained after isotherm heat treatment, show that initially there was a strong intermixing between Ag and Pt, resulting most likely in the formation of an AgxPt1-x reaction layer. Furthermore, the intermixing process was much faster in the Ag layer accompanied by the segregation of Ag to the substrate/Pt interface. Later on the Pt, which diffused through the Ag layer, started to penetrate into the Fe grain boundaries. This process led to the formation of the FePt reaction product. At the same time as the Pt diffused into the Fe layer, reducing the amount of Pt in the AgxPt1-x layer, the Ag appeared to ‘move’ towards the substrate. Finally, an almost fully homogeneous FePt alloy layer formed with some FePt present in the grain boundaries of the remaining Ag. This behavior was compared to both types of samples subjected to isochrone thermal annealing. High temperature treatments resulted in similar results and eventually in the formation of a homogeneous L10 ordered FePt alloy with randomly distributed Ag in the grain boundaries and at the free surface.

  3. Visible light driven Ag/Ag3PO4/AC photocatalyst with highly enhanced photodegradation of tetracycline antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqin; Ye, Zhefei; Liu, Chun; Li, Jinze; Zhou, Mingjun; Guan, Qingfeng; Lv, Peng; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng

    2015-10-01

    Ag/Ag3PO4/active carbon (AC) composite photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the simple deposition and photoinduced methods. The structures, morphology and photocatalytic properties of as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag/Ag3PO4/AC composite photocatalysts exhibited a conspicuously improved photocatalytic performance for tetracycline (TC) degradation. The optimal conditions of loaded dosage and photoinduced time were investigated, and the results showed that the photoinduced time played an important role in prepared processes, and also that for the loaded dosage of Ag3PO4. The DRS analysis showed that the composite photocatalysts exhibited strong absorption ability in the visible light range. The radicals trap experiments demonstrated that there were multiple active species during the degrading process of TC. The possible mechanism of improved photocatalytic activity of Ag-Ag3PO4/AC composite was also proposed.

  4. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3 with CTAB Counterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husein, Maen M.; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H.

    2007-10-01

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO3 added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag+ ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO3 added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO3 favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants.

  5. One-step synthesis of Ag/AgCl/GO composite: A photocatalyst of extraordinary photoactivity and stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Deng, Jiatao; Niu, Tongjun; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Pei; Jin, Yong; Jiao, Zhifeng; Sun, Xiaosong

    2017-05-01

    Recently, the photocatalytic applications of silver chloride have been paid closed attention for the excellent ability to photodegrade organic pollutants. Comparing with other catalysts, the silver chloride presents outstanding photocatalytic activity. However, it also suffers from the poor photocatalytic stability. This very paper is focusing on the one-step wet chemical process of preparing Ag/AgCl/GO photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity and stability. The detailed characterizations were particularly carried out in order to investigate the photo-catalytic activity and stability. Meanwhile the morphology, chemical composition as well as crystalline structure were investigated. It is found that the as-prepared Ag/AgCl/GO composite exhibited an ultrahigh photocatalytic activity and stability in the process of photodegrading RhB. The unique catalytic activity has been discussed based on the SPR effect in Ag nanoparticles on AgCl surface and the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, the primary benefit of the stability owes a great deal to GO which can capture the photo-generated electrons in case they reduce Ag(+) ion or recombine the excited holes.

  6. Highly quasi-monodisperse ag nanoparticles on titania nanotubes by impregnative aqueous ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Antonio, J A; Cortes-Jácome, M A; Angeles-Chavez, C; López-Salinas, E; Quintana, P

    2009-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles were homogenously dispersed on titania nanotubes (NT), which were prepared by alkali hydrothermal methodology and dried at 373 K. Ag(+) incorporation was done by impregnative ion exchange of aqueous silver nitrate onto NT. First, Ag(+) ions incorporate into the layers of nanotube walls, and then, upon heat treatment under N(2) at 573 and 673 K, they migrate and change into Ag(2)O and Ag(0) nanoparticles, respectively. In both cases, Ag nanoparticles are highly dispersed, decorating the nanotubes in a polka-dot pattern. The Ag particle size distribution is very narrow, being ca. 4 +/- 2 nm without any observable agglomeration. The reduction of Ag(2)O into Ag(0) octahedral nanoparticles occurs spontaneously and topotactically when annealing, without the aid of any reducing agent. The population of Ag(0) nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. An electron charge transfer from NT support to Ag(0) nanoparticles, because of a strong interaction, is responsible for considerable visible light absorption in Ag(0) nanoparticles supported on NT.

  7. Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanwen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Xue, Haizhou; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    The diffusive release of fission products, such as Ag, from TRISO particles at high temperatures has raised concerns regarding safe and economic operation of advanced nuclear reactors. Understanding the mechanisms of Ag diffusion is thus of crucial importance for effective retention of fission products. Two mechanisms, i.e., grain boundary diffusion and vapor or surface diffusion through macroscopic structures such as nano-pores or nano-cracks, remain in debate. In the present work, an integrated computational and experimental study of the near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in silicon carbide (SiC) has been carried out. The ab initio calculations show that Ag prefers to adsorb on the SiC surface rather than in the bulk, and the mobility of Ag on the surface is high. The energy barrier for Ag desorption from the surface is calculated to be 0.85-1.68 eV, and Ag migration into bulk SiC through equilibrium diffusion process is not favorable. Experimentally, Ag ions are implanted into SiC to produce Ag profiles buried in the bulk and peaked at the surface. High-temperature annealing leads to Ag release from the surface region instead of diffusion into the interior of SiC. It is suggested that surface diffusion through mechanical structural imperfection, such as vapor transport through cracks in SiC coatings, may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from the SiC in the nuclear reactor.

  8. Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, Yanwen; Snead, Lance L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xue, Haizhou; Weber, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffusive release of fission products, such as Ag, from TRISO particles at high temperatures has raised concerns regarding safe and economic operation of advanced nuclear reactors. Understanding the mechanisms of Ag diffusion is thus of crucial importance for effective retention of fission products. Two mechanisms, i.e., grain boundary diffusion and vapor or surface diffusion through macroscopic structures such as nano-pores or nano-cracks, remain in debate. In the present work, an integrated computational and experimental study of the nearsurface and bulk behavior of Ag in silicon carbide (SiC) has been carried out. The ab initio calculations show that Ag prefers to adsorb on the SiC surface rather than in the bulk, and the mobility of Ag on the surface is high. The energy barrier for Ag desorption from the surface is calculated to be 0.85~1.68 eV, and Ag migration into bulk SiC through equilibrium diffusion process is not favorable. Experimentally, Ag ions are implanted into SiC to produce Ag profiles buried in the bulk and peaked at the surface. High-temperature annealing leads to Ag release from the surface region instead of diffusion into the interior of SiC. It is suggested that surface diffusion through mechanical structural imperfection, such as vapor transport through cracks in 2 SiC coatings, may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from the SiC in the nuclear reactor.

  9. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  10. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances of Ag3PO4 surface-modified with small amounts of TiO2 and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Desong; Li, Lei; Luo, Qingzhi; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan; Yin, Rong; Zhao, Mangmang

    2014-12-01

    A novel approach has been developed to prepare an efficient visible-light photocatalyst using Ag3PO4 and TiO2 sol as precursors. First, Ag3PO4 particles were dipped into TiO2 sol for 5 min and were filtered quickly. Second, Ag3PO4 particles adsorbing a small amount of TiO2 sol were aged for 24 h to form TiO2 gel on their surface. Finally, Ag3PO4 particles covered by TiO2 gel were calcined at 450 °C for 2 h to obtain the surface-modified Ag3PO4 sample. The surface-modified Ag3PO4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The visible-light photocatalytic performances of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange or phenol solution. The results showed that the surface-modified Ag3PO4 exhibited much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability than pure Ag3PO4. As the amount of TiO2 gel on the Ag3PO4 surface increased, the visible-light photocatalytic activity increased first and then decreased. The surface-modification of Ag3PO4 obviously decreased its solubility in water environment due to the protection of TiO2 and Ag nanocrystals on the surface. The visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 has been discussed.

  11. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 +49A/G polymorphisms contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes in children: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Du, Wei; Jia, Yutao; Zhang, Xiaobai; Ma, Guorui

    2017-02-07

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a heritable disease associated with multiple genetic variants. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the correlation between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4) +49A/G polymorphisms and the risk of T1D in children. The random effects model was used to estimate the related odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to determine whether the currently available evidence was sufficient and conclusive. Our results indicated that CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms significantly increased the risk of childhood T1D in an allelic model (G vs. A: OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.19-1.48; I2=44.0% and P=0.001for heterogeneity) and a codominant model (GG vs. AA: OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.37-2.24; I2=57.5% and P=0.001for heterogeneity; GA vs. AA: OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.09-1.46; I2=40.4% and P=0.036for heterogeneity). Subgroup analysis results indicated that the ORs were higher in the Asian population (ORallelic model=1.60, ORGG vs. AA=2.46 and ORGA vs. AA=1.58) than the Caucasian population (ORallelic model==1.24, ORGG vs. AA=1.55 and ORGA vs. AA=1.19). The TSA results indicated that the evidence of the effect was sufficient. In conclusion, CTLA4 +49A/G polymorphisms increased the risk of T1D in children, and CTLA4 +49A/G can be considered to be a genetic marker for T1D in children.

  12. Designing an ultra-sensitive aptasensor based on an AgNPs/thiol-GQD nanocomposite for TNT detection at femtomolar levels using the electrochemical oxidation of Rutin as a redox probe.

    PubMed

    Shahdost-Fard, Faezeh; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, for the first time a highly sensitive and low-cost electrochemical aptasensor was fabricated based on a silver nanoparticles/thiol functionalized graphene quantum dot (AgNPs/thiol-GQD) nanocomposite for the measurement of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluen (TNT) as a nitroaromatic explosive. For the first time Rutin (RU) as a biological molecule with inherent properties was used as the redox probe in the development of the TNT aptasensor was used. The system was based on a TNT-binding aptamer which is covalently attached onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with the nanocomposite for the formation of a sensing layer and improving the performance of the aptasensor. Using the proposed nanocomposite provides a specific platform with increased surface area which is capable of loading more Aptamer (Ap) molecules as a receptor element of TNT on the electrode surface. So, TNT molecules is in an upward position to be measured and the obtained results indicate that the aptasensor exhibits two wide linear ranges and an unprecedented LOD compared with previously reported analytical methods for TNT detection. Applicability of the developed aptasensor to easily detect TNT in real samples was evaluated. It seems that the proposed strategy can be expanded to other nanoparticles and is expected to have promising implications in the design of electrochemical sensors or biosensors for the detection of various targets.

  13. A Cost-Utility and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Oral Antiviral Medications in Patients With HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B in Iran: An Economic Microsimulation Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Khosro; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Farhad; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Keshvari, Maryam; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis B infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Iran, no studies have employed economic evaluations of the medications used to treat Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment options for this disease in Iran is unknown. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the cost utility and cost-effectiveness of medication strategies tailored to local conditions in patients with HB e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB infection in Iran. Methods An economic evaluation of the cost utility of the following five oral medication strategies was conducted: adefovir (ADV), lamivudine (LAM), ADV + LAM, entecavir (ETV), and tenofovir (TDF). A Markov microsimulation model was used to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes over the course of the patient’s lifetime and based on a societal perspective. Medical and nonmedical direct costs and indirect costs were included in the study and life-years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were determined as measures of effectiveness. The results are presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY or LYG. The model consisted of nine stages of the disease. The transition probabilities for the movement between the different stages were based on clinical evidence and international expert opinion. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was used to measure the effects of uncertainty in the model parameters. Results The results revealed that the TDF treatment strategy was more effective and less costly than the other options. In addition, TDF had the highest QALY and LYG in the HBeAg-negative CHB patients, with 13.58 and 21.26 (discounted) in all comparisons. The PSA proved the robustness of the model results. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that TDF was the most cost-effective treatment in 59% - 78% of the simulations of HBeAg-negative patients, with WTP thresholds

  14. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  15. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-06-01

    Presented is an overview of the program for acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS and their injection into the RHIC collider. The problem of depolarizing resonances in strong focusing circulator accelerators is discussed. The intrinsic resonances are jumped over by the fast tune jump, and a partial Siberian Snake is used to compensate for over forty imperfection resonances in the AGS. Two sets of full Siberian Snake and spin rotators will be employed in RHIC.

  16. Coverage induced structural transformations of tetracene on Ag(110).

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Kazushiro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-03-14

    Self-assembly of tetracene on an anisotropic surface of Ag(110) has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. We observe multistage structural transformations of the self-assembled tetracene on Ag(110) as a function of molecular coverages, which are accompanied by the changes in molecular orientations. They are analyzed by a balance between multiple molecule-molecule and anisotropic substrate-molecule interactions.

  17. Ag-Pd-Si (009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Pd-Si (009)' with the content:

  18. Monitoring Si growth on Ag(111) with scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that silicene structure involves silver atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Prévot, G.; Bernard, R.; Cruguel, H.; Borensztein, Y.

    2014-11-24

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), the elaboration of the so-called silicene layer on Ag(111) is monitored in real time during Si evaporation at different temperatures. It is shown that the growth of silicene is accompanied by the release of about 65% of the surface Ag atoms from the Si covered areas. We observe that Si islands develop on the Ag terraces and Si strips at the Ag step edges, progressively forming ordered (4×4), (√(13)×√(13)) R13.9°, and dotted phases. Meanwhile, displaced Ag atoms group to develop additional bare Ag terraces growing round the Si islands from the pristine Ag step edges. This indicates a strong interaction between Si and Ag atoms, with an important modification of the Ag substrate beneath the surface layer. This observation is in contradiction with the picture of a silicene layer weakly interacting with the unreconstructed Ag substrate, and strongly indicates that the structure of silicene on Ag(111) corresponds either to a Si-Ag surface alloy or to a Si plane covered with Ag atoms.

  19. The role of the local chemical environment of Ag on the resistive switching mechanism of conductive bridging random access memories.

    PubMed

    Souchier, E; D'Acapito, F; Noé, P; Blaise, P; Bernard, M; Jousseaume, V

    2015-10-07

    Conductive bridging random access memories (CBRAMs) are one of the most promising emerging technologies for the next generation of non-volatile memory. However, the lack of understanding of the switching mechanism at the nanoscale level prevents successful transfer to industry. In this paper, Ag/GeSx/W CBRAM devices are analyzed using depth selective X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy before and after switching. The study of the local environment around Ag atoms in such devices reveals that Ag is in two very distinct environments with short Ag-S bonds due to Ag dissolved in the GeSx matrix, and longer Ag-Ag bonds related to an Ag metallic phase. These experiments allow the conclusion that the switching process involves the formation of metallic Ag nano-filaments initiated at the Ag electrode. All these experimental features are well supported by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that Ag favorably bonds to S atoms, and permit the proposal of a model at the microscopic level that can explain the instability of the conductive state in these Ag-GeSx CBRAM devices. Finally, the principle of the nondestructive method described here can be extended to other types of resistive memory concepts.

  20. NOR sites detected by Ag-dAPI staining of an unusual autosome chromosome of Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) colocalize with C-banded heterochromatic region.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Vanessa Pinatto; Borges, Alex Rodrigues; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    The study of chromosomes in insects is a good tool in mitotic process analysis, zoographic localization and evolution investigation. Among them, the Sciaridae offers a karyotype with a small number of chromosomes, where the heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer region, NOR, are easily analyzed in metaphase chromosomes obtained from cerebral ganglia squashes. In this work, the heterochromatic regions on Bradysia hygida mitotic chromosomes, revealed by C-banding, were identified as centromeric blocks on A and C chromosomes and as dark interstitial region in B and X chromosomes. By Ag-DAPI staining, active nucleolus organizer region, NOR, was revealed associated to the constitutive heterochromatin in the end of the C autosome chromosome. The C-band regions and the unusual ribosomal site localization are discussed.

  1. Morphological and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Zn–Ag nanoparticle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Punith Kumar, M.K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm were chemically synthesized and used to fabricate Zn–Ag composite coatings. The Zn–Ag composite coatings were generated by electrodeposition method using a simple sulfate plating bath dispersed with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and texture co-efficient calculations revealed that Ag nanoparticles appreciably influenced the morphology, micro-structure and texture of the deposit. It was also noticed that agglomerates of Ag nanoparticles, in the case of high bath load conditions, produced defects and dislocations on the deposit surface. Ag nanoparticles altered the corrosion resistance property of Zn–Ag composite coatings as observed from Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance analysis and an immersion test. Reduction in corrosion rate with increased charge transfer resistance was observed for Zn–Ag composite coatings when compared to a pure Zn coating. However, the particle concentration in the plating bath and their agglomeration state directly influenced the surface morphology and the subsequent corrosion behavior of the deposits. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm • Fabrication of Zn/nano Ag composite coating on mild steel • Composite coatings showed better corrosion resistance. • Optimization of particle concentration is necessary.

  2. Long-term transformation and fate of manufactured ag nanoparticles in a simulated large scale freshwater emergent wetland.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Gregory V; Espinasse, Benjamin P; Badireddy, Appala Raju; Richardson, Curtis J; Reinsch, Brian C; Bryant, Lee D; Bone, Audrey J; Deonarine, Amrika; Chae, Soryong; Therezien, Mathieu; Colman, Benjamin P; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Bernhardt, Emily S; Matson, Cole W; Wiesner, Mark R

    2012-07-03

    Transformations and long-term fate of engineered nanomaterials must be measured in realistic complex natural systems to accurately assess the risks that they may pose. Here, we determine the long-term behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in freshwater mesocosms simulating an emergent wetland environment. AgNPs were either applied to the water column or to the terrestrial soils. The distribution of silver among water, solids, and biota, and Ag speciation in soils and sediment was determined 18 months after dosing. Most (70 wt %) of the added Ag resided in the soils and sediments, and largely remained in the compartment in which they were dosed. However, some movement between soil and sediment was observed. Movement of AgNPs from terrestrial soils to sediments was more facile than from sediments to soils, suggesting that erosion and runoff is a potential pathway for AgNPs to enter waterways. The AgNPs in terrestrial soils were transformed to Ag(2)S (~52%), whereas AgNPs in the subaquatic sediment were present as Ag(2)S (55%) and Ag-sulfhydryl compounds (27%). Despite significant sulfidation of the AgNPs, a fraction of the added Ag resided in the terrestrial plant biomass (~3 wt % for the terrestrially dosed mesocosm), and relatively high body burdens of Ag (0.5-3.3 μg Ag/g wet weight) were found in mosquito fish and chironomids in both mesocosms. Thus, Ag from the NPs remained bioavailable even after partial sulfidation and when water column total Ag concentrations are low (<0.002 mg/L).

  3. Defects responsible for abnormal n-type conductivity in Ag-excess doped PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Byungki Lee, Jae Ki; Lee, Ji Eun; Joo, Sung-Jae; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Hee-Woong; Park, Su-Dong; Oh, Min-Wook

    2015-07-07

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the role of Ag defects in PbTe thermoelectric materials. Ag-defects can be either donor, acceptor, or isovalent neutral defect. When Ag is heavily doped in PbTe, the neutral (Ag-Ag) dimer defect at Pb-site is formed and the environment changes to the Pb-rich/Te-poor condition. Under Pb-rich condition, the ionized Ag-interstitial defect (Ag{sub I}{sup +}) becomes the major donor. The formation energy of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is smaller than other native and Ag-related defects. Also it is found that Ag{sub I}{sup +} is an effective dopant. There is no additional impurity state near the band gap and the conduction band minimum. The charge state of Ag{sub I}{sup +} defect is maintained even when the Fermi level is located above the conduction band minimum. The diffusion constant of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is calculated based on the temperature dependent Fermi level, formation energy, and migration energy. When T > 550 K, the diffusion length of Ag within a few minutes is comparable to the grain size of the polycrystalline PbTe, implying that Ag is dissolved into PbTe and this donor defect is distributed over the whole lattice in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe. The predicted solubility of Ag{sub I}{sup +} well explains the increased electron carrier concentration and electrical conductivity reported in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe at T = 450–750 K [Pei et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 291 (2011)]. In addition, we suggest that this abnormal doping behavior is also found for Au-doped PbTe.

  4. Investigating the properties of infrared PCFs based on AgCl-AgBr, AgBr-TlI, AgCl-AgBr-AgI(TlI) crystals theoretically and experimentally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakov, A. S.; Zhukova, L. V.; Vrublevsky, D. S.; Korsakova, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For operating at the CO2 laser wavelength (10.6 μm), we manufactured single- and double-layered infrared (IR) fibers, as well as those with an enlarged mode field diameter, obtained via extrusion from Ag(Cl) x Br1 - x (0 < x < 1), Ag1 - x Tl x Br1 - x I x (0 < x ≤ 0.08), Ag1 - x Tl x Cl y I z Br1 - y - z (0.003 ≤ x ≤ 0.040; 0.066 ≤ y ≤ 0.246; 0.004 ≤ z ≤ 0.048) crystals. We calculated their fundamental characteristics at 10.6 μm and conducted computer simulation of their structure and mode field beforehand. Optical and mechanical characteristics of IR crystals and fibers, such as transmission range, refractive indices, and durability, were also determined, with the dependence of varying monadic thallium iodide content on them being shown as well. In particular, we demonstrated that the increase of thallium iodide content in the initial silver chloride bromide widens the transparency range to 40 μm and improves the rupture strength up to 200 MPa, which is due to the decrease in average fiber grain size up to 95 nm—nanocrystalline size. Using a CCD camera for the far field investigation at 10.6 μm, we showed the single mode of the fibers obtained.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods.

    PubMed

    Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K G; Unni, C; Nissamudeen, K M

    2008-09-01

    The formation mechanism and morphology of Au-Ag bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles depend on the composition. Ag coated Au colloidal nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Ag through chemical reduction on performed Au colloid. The composition of the Au100-x-Agx particles was varied from x=0 to 50. The obtained colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Au80-Ag20 colloid consists of alloy nanorods with dimension of 25nm x 100nm. The activity of these nanorods in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was checked by using sodium salicylate as an adsorbate probe. Intense SERS bands are observed indicating its usefulness as a SERS substrate in near infrared (NIR) laser excitation.

  6. Ag2S/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts for efficient Pt-free hydrogen production. The co-catalyst function of Ag/Ag2S formed by simultaneous photodeposition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Deli; Chen, Linlin; Xie, Jimin; Chen, Min

    2014-03-28

    Without Pt as cocatalyst, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) or even its composite is normally rather low (<1 μmol h(-1)). Exploring Pt-free cocatalysts to substitute precious Pt is of great importance in the photocatalytic field. In the present work, Ag2S-modified g-C3N4 (Ag2S/g-C3N4) composite photocatalysts were prepared via a simple precipitation method. The results demonstrated that the photocatalytic H2-production activity of g-C3N4 can be remarkably increased by the combination of Ag2S. The optimal Ag2S loading was found to be 5 wt%, giving a H2 production of 10 μmol h(-1), around 100 times that of pure g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be mainly attributed to the effective charge transfer between g-C3N4 and Ag/Ag2S, of which the latter is formed by simultaneous photodeposition in the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction and acts as an efficient co-catalyst for the g-C3N4. This work showed the possibility for utilization of Ag2S or Ag/Ag2S as a substitute for Pt in the photocatalytic production of H2 using g-C3N4.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Ag heterogeneous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, ShaoHua; Guo, PengFeng

    2015-11-01

    Ag-deposited TiO2 and Ag (Ag-TiO2/Ag) films coated on glass substrates were prepared using a simple sol-gel and dip-coating method. The Ag chemical state was investigated through X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that the Ag mainly exists in metallic state in the Ag-TiO2 film. Ag-TiO2/Ag exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than individual Ag-TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to high surface plasmon resonance effects and separation rates of photoinduced electron-hole pairs of Ag nanoparticles. Results were verified by photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  8. Ellipsometric study of Al2O3/Ag/Si and SiO2/Ag/quartz ashed in an oxygen plasma. [protective coatings to prevent degradation of materials in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The growth of silver oxide (proposed as a potentially useful protective coating for space environment) on a silver mirror coated with an Al2O3 or a SiO2 protective layer was investigated using the monolayer-sensitive variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. The samples were exposed to a pure oxygen plasma in a plasma asher, and the silver oxide growth was monitored as a function of the exposure time. It was found that atomic oxygen in the asher penetrated through the SiO2 or Al2O3 coatings to convert the silver underneath to silver oxide, and that the quantity of the silver oxide formed was proportional to the ashing time. The band gap of silver oxide was determined to be 1.3 eV. A schematic diagram of the variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometer is included.

  9. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  10. Antimicrobial effect of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, O.; Stoyanova, D.; Ivanova, I.; Todorova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on bacterial growth of Gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli is studied. The nanostructured thin films are deposited on glass substrates without intentional heating through r.f. magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere of Al2O3 and Ag targets or through sequential sputtering of Al2O3 and Ag targets, respectively. The individual Ag thin films (thickness 8 nm) have a weak bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli expressed as an extended adaptive phase of the bacteria up to 5 hours from the beginning of the experiment, but the final effect is only 10 times lower bacterial density than in the control. The individual Al2O3 film (20 nm) has no antibacterial effect against two strains E. coli - industrial and pathogenic. The Al2O3/Ag bilayer films (Al2O3 20 nm/Ag 8 nm) have strong bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas putida and demonstrate an effective time of disinfection for 2 hours. The individual films Al2O3 and Ag have not pronounced antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas putida. A synergistic effect of Al2O3/Ag bilayer films in formation of oxidative species on the surface in contact with the bacterial suspension could be a reason for their antimicrobial effect on E. coli and P. putida.

  11. Spots on AG Virginis - Paradigm or panacea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. A.; Rainger, P. P.; Hilditch, R. W.

    1990-12-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of conatact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. This study shows the necessity of a more thorough investigation of this system using Doppler-imaging techniques and simultaneous infrared and optical photometry.

  12. AgI-MOR Loading Effect on the Durability of the Sandia Low Temperature Sintering GCM Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Brady, Patrick Vane.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Garino, Terry J.

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we study the durability of the Sandia Bi-Si oxide Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste form when formulated with different weight percent levels of AgI-MOR. The post-iodine exposure AgI-MOR material was provided to SNL by ORNL. Durability results for the GCM fabricated with 22 and 25% AgI-MOR indicate releases of Ag and I at the same low rates as 15% AgI-MOR GCM, and by the same mechanism. Iodine and Ag release is controlled by the low solubility of an amorphous, hydrated silver iodide, not by the surface-controlled dissolution of I2- loaded Ag-Mordenite. Based on this data, we postulate that much higher loading levels of AgIMOR are probable in this GCM waste form, and limits will govern by retention of mechanical integrity of the GCM versus the solubility of silver iodide.

  13. Ultrasound aided photochemical synthesis of Ag loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays to enhance photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Li, Jing; Wang, Chenglin; Li, Sifang; Lai, Yuekun; Chen, Hongbo; Lin, Changjian

    2009-11-15

    This work presents a novel approach for preparing TiO(2) nanotube array photocatalyst loaded with highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles through an ultrasound aided photochemical route. The Ag content loaded on the array was controlled by changing the concentration of AgNO(3) solution. The Ag-TiO(2) nanotube arrays were characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS and UV-vis absorption. The effects of Ag content on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) property and photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) nanotube array electrode were studied. The results showed that Ag loading significantly enhanced the photocurrent and photocatalytic degradation rate of TiO(2) nanotube array under UV-light irradiation. The photocurrent and photocatalytic degradation rate of Ag-TiO(2) nanotube array prepared in 0.006 M AgNO(3) solution were about 1.2 and 3.7 times as that of pure TiO(2) nanotube array, respectively.

  14. AgII doped MIL-101 and its adsorption of iodine with high speed in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ping; Qi, Bingbing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Lei; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jinfeng; Chen, Shouwen; Yang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the adsorption speed of iodine from water, MIL-101 with extra-large specific surface area (3054 m2/g) was chosen as a base material, and then, Ag was doped into MIL-101 to enhance its adsorption capacity through an incipient-wetness impregnation method. With the characterization of SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, IR, and BET techniques, the resulting Ag was identified to be stay in the framework of MIL-101 stably in the form of AgII (generally, AgII cation is not stable). However, after the adsorption of I- anions, AgII stay in the cages of MIL-101 in the form of AgI/AgI3. It is important to note that, all adsorbents show high adsorption speed of iodine in solution. The equilibrium adsorption time of the adsorbents were acquired by only a few minutes, which can be attributed to its large BET surface area. An interesting note is that, when the doping amount of Ag is less than 9%, the iodine anions adsorption capacity of Ag@MIL-101 is greater than its theoretical adsorption capacity. It shows that both physical adsorption and chemical adsorption are existed in the adsorption process. This study hopefully leads to a new and highly efficient Ag-based adsorbent for iodide adsorb from solutions.

  15. Antibacterial burst-release from minimal Ag-containing plasma polymer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lischer, Stefanie; Körner, Enrico; Balazs, Dawn J.; Shen, Dakang; Wick, Peter; Grieder, Kathrin; Haas, Dieter; Heuberger, Manfred; Hegemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials releasing silver (Ag) are of interest because of their ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains. In order to investigate the potential of nanometre-thick Ag polymer (Ag/amino-hydrocarbon) nanocomposite plasma coatings, we studied a comprehensive range of factors such as the plasma deposition process and Ag cation release as well as the antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. The nanocomposite coatings released most bound Ag within the first day of immersion in water yielding an antibacterial burst. The release kinetics correlated with the inhibitory effects on the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus and on animal cells that were in contact with these coatings. We identified a unique range of Ag content that provided an effective antibacterial peak release, followed by cytocompatible conditions soon thereafter. The control of the in situ growth conditions for Ag nanoparticles in the polymer matrix offers the possibility to produce customized coatings that initially release sufficient quantities of Ag ions to produce a strong adjacent antibacterial effect, and at the same time exhibit a rapidly decaying Ag content to provide surface cytocompatibility within hours/days. This approach seems to be favourable with respect to implant surfaces and possible Ag-resistance/tolerance built-up. PMID:21247951

  16. Nanocomposite Ag-LSM solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    Advances in infiltration technology have enabled the creation of innovative electrode architectures that are key to highly effective SOFC anodes and cathodes. In this work, an Ag-infiltrated electrode has been created using a pre-sintered porous scandia-stabilized zirconia (SSZ) electrode backbone. The well-sintered SSZ provides a highly connected ion-conducting pathway throughout the electrode, while the nanometer thickness of the Ag particle layer minimizes the oxygen transport resistance that otherwise limits reaction rates in typical Ag composite electrodes. The new Ag composite electrode had minimal activation polarization by 750 °C. The infiltration technology has allowed for incorporation of additional nanoscale electrocatalysts. Here, an Ag-LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganate) composite was produced, that takes advantage of each component catalyst and demonstrates a further enhanced effectiveness of the cathode Ag metal catalyst, producing relatively stable cell power densities of 316 mW cm -2 at 0.7 V (and 467 mW cm -2 peak power at ∼0.4 V) for over 500 h.

  17. Dislocation interactions with characteristic interfaces in AgCu eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftink, Benjamin P.

    In the AgCu eutectic alloy, the observation of deformation twinning in Cu proposed to be induced by direct transmission of deformation twinning partial dislocations in Ag highlights the question of how interfaces in bi-phase materials respond to deformation. AgCu eutectic alloy was produced by both directional solidification and cast water-quenching. Control over processing variables enabled the synthesis of Ag/Cu eutectic with three predominant interface types: ones with a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with {111} Ag||{111}Cu interface habit planes, twin orientation relationship with {111}Ag||{111}Cu interface habit planes, and twin orientation relationship with near {313}Ag||{ 112}Cu interface habit planes. How dislocations interacted with each of the interfaces was determined using in situ and ex situ TEM straining experiments. It was determined that how strain transfers across Ag/Cu interfaces is consistent with criteria of strain transfer across grain boundaries in single phase materials. Specifically, the magnitude of the Burgers vector of the residual dislocation, |bres |, left in the interface should be small. This criterion was determining enough to drive Cu to twin under conditions where otherwise it would not. When transmission of a dislocation would result in a high |bres|, which is common for most slip systems encountering an incoherent twin interface, the interfaces were observed to block the dislocations. It was found that the increased effectiveness of the incoherent twin interfaces to block dislocations compared to the cube-on-cube interfaces resulted in an increased in the yield strength of the material. Interfaces with the cube-on-cube orientation relationship and mutual {111} interface plane between Ag and Cu results in transfer of twinning defects from Ag into Cu. This was found at length scales in the tens of nano-meters to the micron range. Twinning in both phases was observed after both split-Hopkinson pressure bar ex situ straining

  18. Egg White Templated Synthesis of Ag and Au@Ag Alloy Microspheres for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiansong; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the green synthesis of Ag and Au@Ag microspheres by using the aqueous extracts of the egg white as well as their application as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection. Both microspheres are prepared via the green synthesis method (room temperature, in aqueous solution and a benign reducer). The as-prepared urchin-like Ag microspheres have an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 10-40 nm. Meanwhile, the Au@Ag architectures prepared by galvanic replacement keep nearly similar size, which is also composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 10-40 nm. These products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The study on SERS activities is also carried out for both microspheres. It is found that Au@Ag microspheres possess much higher SERS activity than Ag microspheres. Our work may shed light on the design and synthesis of self-assembled 3D micro/nano-architectures for the use of SERS, catalysis, biosensors, nanomedicine, etc.

  19. Effects of flexibility on AGS performance. [Annular suspension pointing system Gimbal System aboard Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, H. L.; Cunningham, D. C.; Worley, H. E.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has had under development the Annular Suspension Pointing System Gimbal System (AGS) since early 1979. The AGS is an Orbiter cargo bay mounted subarcsecond 3 axis inertial pointer that can accommodate a wide range of payloads which require more stringent pointing than the Orbiter can provide. This paper will describe the AGS, state performance requirements and the control law configuration. Then an approach to investigating the flexible body effects on control system design will be discussed.

  20. Anopheles gambiae Cadherin AgCad1 Binds the Cry4Ba Toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and a Fragment of AgCad1 Synergizes Toxicity†

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Adang, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A midgut cadherin AgCad1 cDNA was cloned from Anopheles gambiae larvae and analyzed for its possible role as a receptor for the Cry4Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis strain israelensis. The AgCad1 cadherin encodes a putative 1735-residue protein organized into an extracellular region of 11 cadherin repeats (CR) and a membrane-proximal extracellular domain (MPED). AgCad1 mRNA was detected in midgut of larvae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The AgCad1 protein was localized, by immunochemistry of sectioned larvae, predominately to the microvilli in posterior midgut. The localization of Cry4Ba binding was determined by the same technique, and toxin bound microvilli in posterior midgut. The AgCad1 protein was present in brush border membrane fractions prepared from larvae, and Cry4Ba toxin bound the same-sized protein on blots of those fractions. The AgCad1 protein was expressed transiently in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells. 125I-Cry4Ba toxin bound AgCad1 from S2 cells in a competitive manner. Cry4Ba bound to beads extracted 200 kDa AgCad1 and a 29 kDa fragment of AgCad1 from S2 cells. A peptide containing the AgCad1 region proximal to the cell (CR11-MPED) was expressed in Escherichia coli. Although Cry4Ba showed limited binding to CR11-MPED, the peptide synergized the toxicity of Cry4Ba to larvae. AgCad1 in the larval brush border is a binding protein for Cry4Ba toxin. On the basis of binding results and CR11-MPED synergism of Cry4Ba toxicity, AgCad1 is probably a Cry4Ba receptor. PMID:18407662

  1. A new photothermal therapeutic agent: core-free nanostructured Au x Ag1-x dendrites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Chih-Chia; Hwu, Jih-Ru; Su, Wu-Chou; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Au(x)Ag(1-x) nanostructures with dendrite morphology and a hollow interior were synthesized by using a replacement reaction between Ag dendrites and an aqueous solution of HAuCl(4). The Ag nanostructured dendrites were generated by the reaction of AgNO(3) with ascorbic acid in a methanol/water system. The dendrites resemble a coral shape and are built up of many stems with an asymmetric arrangement. Each stem is approximately 400 nm in length and 65 nm in diameter. The bimetallic composition of Au(x)Ag(1-x) can be tuned by the addition of different amounts of HAuCl(4) to the Ag dendritic solution. The hollowing process resulted in tubular structures with a wall thickness of 10.5 nm in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites. The UV/Vis spectra indicate that the strongest NIR absorption among the resulting hollow Au(x)Ag(1-x) dendrites was in Au(0.3)Ag(0.7). The MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Ag dendrites, hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites, and Au nanorods. It was found that hollow Au(0.06)Ag(0.94) and Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites exhibited good biocompatibility, while both Ag dendrites and Au nanorods showed dose-dependent toxicity. Because of absorption in the NIR region, hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites were used as photothermal absorbers for destroying A549 lung cancer cells. Their photothermal performance was compared to that of Au nanorod photothermal therapeutic agents. As a result, the particle concentration and laser power required for efficient cancer cell damage were significantly reduced for hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) dendrites relative to those used for Au nanorods. The hollow Au(0.3)Ag(0.7) nanostructured dendrites show potential in photothermolysis for killing cancer cells.

  2. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, N. F.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Various weight loadings of Ag (1-10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag0, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  3. Stabilization and immune response of HBsAg encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres using HSA as a stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjuan; He, Jintian; Wu, Guanghao; Xiong, Fangfang; Du, Huijuan; Wang, Gaizhen

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres containing hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stabilizer. Lyophilization and emulsification of HBsAg solution with dichloromethane caused a considerable loss of HBsAg antigenicity. Thus, the effects of HSA and trehalose on HBsAg recovery during lyophilization and emulsification were investigated. Adding HSA to HBsAg solutions significantly improved antigen recovery to >90% during lyophilization and emulsification. The effects of co-encapsulated HSA on the characteristics of the PLGA microspheres and stability of HBsAg released from the microspheres were also investigated. The in vitro release test showed that HBsAg was released from the PLGA microspheres continuously over seventy days. A large amount of released HBsAg was inactive without co-encapsulation of HSA. On the contrary, with HSA co-encapsulation, the released HBsAg retained approximately 90% of its antigenicity. The single injection of the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres in rats resulted in higher anti-HBsAg IgG and Th1 cytokine levels than the single injection of the HBsAg-loaded microspheres or two injections of the conventional aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine. Based on these findings, the HBsAg-HSA-loaded PLGA microspheres could be an effective carrier for HBsAg and form a promising depot system.

  4. Facile synthesis of porous Ag3PO4 nanotubes for enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jun; Sun, Lin; Fan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou; Hu, Xiaoyun; Tang, Chunni; Yin, Yunchao

    2015-11-01

    Porous Ag3PO4 nanotubes (PNTs) were synthesized via a surface anion exchange reaction from the pregrown Ag2CO3 nanorods (NRs) templates in the aqueous solution. The rationally release rate of H+ and PO43- from Na2HPO4 are proved to be the key factors for the formation of Ag3PO4 PNTs. SEM analysis indicated that Ag3PO4 PNTs have a nearly homogeneous size with about 350 nm diameter, 2.1 μm length and 74 nm wall thickness. Nanoholes with diameters in range of 40-200 nm were existed on the side wall of the tubular structure. Compared with irregular Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4 PNTs exhibit an apparently enhancement of visible-light absorption and a significant decrease of PL intensities, indicating a better light absorption and a lower charge recombination rate. The photocatalytic performance studies for the degradation of RhB indicate that Ag3PO4 PNTs not only exhibit the highest adsorption ability towards dye molecules, but also possess superior photocatalytic activity than that of Ag2CO3 NRs and irregular Ag3PO4. The origin of the higher photocatalytic activity is primarily ascribed to the peculiar porous tubular nanostructure. h+ and •O2- are investigated to be the major reactive species for the Ag3PO4 PNTs photocatalytic system.

  5. Reversible vertical manipulation of Ag atoms on Si(111)-(74 ×7) at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Fangfei; Wang, Kedong; Pan, Shuan; Liu, Jiepeng; Zhang, Xieqiu; Yang, Jinlong; Xiao, Xudong; Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong, China Team; Hefei National LaboratoryPhysical Sciences At Microscales, University of Science; Technolog Team

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated a technique to conduct reproducible and reversible vertical manipulation of Ag atoms on the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface at room temperature using a scanning tunneling microscope tip. The direction of the transfer of Ag atoms between the sample surface and the tip is simply controlled by the polarity of the bias voltage. Using the 7 × 7 unit cell as a nanometer size template, complex Ag nano-clusters could be assembled or disassembled by adding or removing Ag atoms in an atom-by-atom manner. With controlled number of Ag atoms filled in a half unit cell, we can construct Ag clusters with up to 25 Ag atoms. The precise control of the number of Ag atoms in the Ag clusters can provide critical information for understanding their physical and chemical properties, and form a fundamental base for the relevant studies of the Ag/Si(111)-(7 × 7) system and for fabricating nano-devices.

  6. Cellular Energy Allocation to Assess the Impact of Nanomaterials on Soil Invertebrates (Enchytraeids): The Effect of Cu and Ag.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Susana I L; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2015-06-16

    The effects of several copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanomaterials were assessed using the cellular energy allocation (CEA), a methodology used to evaluate the energetic status and which relates with organisms' overall condition and response to toxic stress. Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochatea), was exposed to the reproduction effect concentrations EC20/50 of several Cu and Ag materials (CuNO3, Cu-Field, Cu-Nwires and Cu-NPs; AgNO3, Ag NM300K, Ag-NPs Non-coated and Ag-NPs PVP-coated) for 7 days (0-3-7d). The parameters measured were the total energy reserves available (protein, carbohydrate and lipid budgets) and the energy consumption (Ec) integrated to obtain the CEA. Results showed that these parameters allowed a clear discrimination between Cu and Ag, but less clearly within each of the various materials. For Cu there was an increase in Ec and protein budget, while for Ag a decrease was observed. The results corroborate known mechanisms, e.g., with Cu causing an increase in metabolic rate whereas Ag induces mitochondrial damage. The various Cu forms seem to activate different mechanisms with size and shape (e.g., Cu-NPs versus Cu-Nwires), causing clearly different effects. For Ag, results are in line with a slower oxidation rate of Ag-NMs in comparison with Ag-salt and hence delayed effects.

  7. On-the-fly green generation and dispersion of AgI nanoparticles for cloud seeding nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiuli; Zhou, Wenbo; Wang, Xizheng; Wu, Tao; Delisio, Jeffery B.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on an on-the-fly green synthesis/dispersion of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles from the combustion of AgIO3/carbon black (CB)/nitrocellulose (NC) composites, which could be used as a candidate for a cloud-seeding pyrotechnic. Films were formed by direct electrospray deposition of a mixture of synthesized silver iodate with CB and NC. The decomposition pathways of AgIO3/CB and AgIO3/CB/NC were evaluated by temperature jump time of flight mass spectrometry (T-jump TOFMS) and XRD, showing that AgI particles and CO2 are released from the reaction between AgIO3 and CB without other toxic residuals. The flame propagation velocity of AgIO3/CB/NC films increases with the increasing of particle mass loading of AgIO3 and CB and peaks at 40 wt%, which is much higher than that of an AgI/AP/NC film. The mean diameter of the resultant AgI nanoparticles is from 51 to 97 nm. The mass loading of AgIO3 and CB was found to play a major role in size control of the AgI nanoparticles.

  8. Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Coexistence of HBsAg and Anti-HBs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Le; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Pan, Jinshun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) comprises an atypical serological profile in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, in total 94 patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs and 94 age- and sex-matched patients with positive HBsAg were characterized by quantitatively measuring HBsAg and HBV DNA, sequencing large S genes, and observing clinical features. Compared with common hepatitis B patients, the patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs had lower HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. These two groups had similar rate of pre-S deletion mutations. However, in patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs, more amino acid substitutions in the a determinant of S gene were observed in HBV genotype C, but not in genotype B. Fourteen patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs were followed up for an average of 15.5 months. There were no significant changes in the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBV DNA and ALT over the follow-up period. Compared with the baseline sequences, amino acid substitutions in the MHR of HBsAg occurred in 14.3% (2/14) patients. In conclusion, coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs may be associated with higher frequency of mutations in the a determinant of HBV genotype C.

  9. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  10. Development of a supramolecular ensemble of an AIEE active hexaphenylbenzene derivative and Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs: an efficient photocatalytic system for C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Radhika; Kumar, Manoj; Bhalla, Vandana

    2016-08-09

    A supramolecular ensemble having Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles stabilized by aggregates of a hexaphenylbenzene derivative has been developed which exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency in reactions involving preparation of imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives via C-H activation.

  11. Plasmonic Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on the Ag-CsPbBr3 System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Bing; Wang, Weigao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-02-08

    The enhanced luminescence through semiconductor-metal interactions suggests the great potential of device performance improvement via properly tailored plasmonic nanostructures. Surface plasmon enhanced electroluminescence in an all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) is fabricated by decorating the hole transport layer with the synthesized Ag nanorods. An increase of 42% and 43.3% in the luminance and efficiency is demonstrated for devices incorporated with Ag nanorods. The device with Ag introduction indicates identical optoelectronic properties to the controlled device without Ag nanostructures. The increased spontaneous emission rate caused by the Ag-induced plasmonic near-field effect is responsible for the performance enhancement. Therefore, the plasmonic Ag-CsPbBr3 nanostructure studied here provides a novel strategy on the road to the future development of perovskite LEDs.

  12. The isotopic composition and concentration of AG in iron meteorites and the origin of exotic silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Ag and the concentration of Ag and Pd have been determined in Canyon Diablo (IA), Grant (IIIB), Hoba, Santa Clara, Tlacotepec and Warburton Range (IVB), Piñon and Deep Springs (anom.). Troilite from Grant and Santa Clara have also been analyzed. All of these meteorites, with the exception of Canyon Diablo, give 107Ag/109Ag in the metal phase that is greater than the terrestrial value with the enrichments of 107Ag ranging from ≡2% to 212%. These data show that Ag of anomalous isotopic composition is common to all IVB and anomalous meteorites. The results on Grant suggest that the anomalies may be widespread including more common meteorite groups. There is a general correlation of 107Ag/109Ag with Pd/Ag except for the data from FeS of Santa Clara. The data suggest that Ag in Santa Clara and possibly other IVB meteorites is made up of almost pure 107Ag produced from 107Pd decay and 109Ag produced by nuclear reactions with only a small amount of "normal" Ag. This indicates an intense energetic particle bombardment history in the early solar system (≡1020 p/m2) which occurred after the formation of small planetary bodies. The authors infer that a T-Tauri activity by the early sun contributed to some late stage "nucleosynthesis" and the heating of a dust cloud. In addition, implications on the early thermal evolution of iron meteorites are presented based on 107Pd decay and models of the cooling history.

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of porous TiO₂-Ag antibacterial coatings for human fetal osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Necula, B S; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Zaat, S A J; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2012-11-01

    Implant-associated infections (IAIs) may be prevented by providing antibacterial properties to the implant surface prior to implantation. Using a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique, we produced porous TiO₂ coatings bearing various concentrations of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (designated as 0 Ag, 0.3 Ag and 3.0 Ag) on a Ti-6Al-7Nb biomedical alloy. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of these coatings using a human osteoblastic cell line (SV-HFO) and evaluates their bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The release of Ag and the total amount of Ag in the coatings were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique (GF-AAS) and flame-AAS, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the AlamarBlue assay coupled with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of seeded cells and by fluorescence microscopy examination of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclei after 48 h of incubation. Antibacterial activity was assessed quantitatively using a direct contact assay. AlamarBlue viability assay, SEM and fluorescence microscopy observation of the SV-HFO cells showed no toxicity for 0 Ag and 0.3 Ag specimens, after 2, 5 and 7 days of culture, while 3.0 Ag surfaces appeared to be extremely cytotoxic. All Ag-bearing surfaces had good antibacterial activity, whereas Ag-free coatings showed an increase in bacterial numbers. Our results show that the 0.3 Ag coatings offer conditions for optimum cell growth next to antibacterial properties, which makes them extremely useful for the development of new antibacterial dental and orthopedic implants.

  14. Characterization of radiative recombination in Ag(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. F.; Liu, J.; Liu, G. F.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the radiative recombination processes in Ag(InGa)Se2 thin films grown by a three-stage method was carried out by photoluminescence. The temperature and excitation dependence of the photoluminescence spectra was used to identify the recombination types and determine the ionization energy of the defects in the films. Significant differences were observed between the spectra of the Ag-rich and Ag-poor samples. The Ag-rich films were dominated by two emission peaks of donor acceptor pairs (DAPs). The DAP at lower energy level is attributed to recombination of donor level 13.8 meV (Agi) with acceptor level 70.3 meV (AgIn), while the one at high energy level is assigned to recombination of donor level 18.5 meV (Agi) with acceptor level 108.9 (AgSe). When Ag/III atomic ratio was near 2.00, a phonon related-structure began to appear, which is attributed to the phonon replica of the high energy level DAP. In the case of Ag-poor AIGS samples, the dominant broad asymmetric peaks of AIGS films with different Ag/III atomic ratios were related to potential fluctuation at low temperature, and the compensation level decreased with increasing Ag/III atomic ratio. The emission line was assigned to recombination of donor level 12.7 meV (Agi) with acceptor level 175 meV ( AgGa 2). When the excitation power and temperature were increased, new free-bound and DAP emission lines began to appear. The free-bound was assigned to the transition from the conduction band to an acceptor level of 80 meV (AgIn). The DAP was assigned to recombination of donor level 20 meV (VSe) with acceptor level 145 meV (AgGa).

  15. An unusual double T5(2) water tape trapped in silver(I) coordination polymer hosts: influence of the solvent on the assembly of Ag(I)-4,4'-bipyridine chains with trans-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and their luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xi-He; Zhao, Ya-Feng; Li, Hao-Hong; Wu, Shu-Ting; Huang, Chang-Cang

    2012-11-07

    In this paper, four silver(I) compounds, namely, {[Ag(4)(bipy)(4)(chda)]·2NO(3)·10H(2)O}(n) (1), {[Ag(2)(bipy)(2)(chda)]·14H(2)O}(n) (2), {[Ag(2)(bipy)(2)(chda)]·3EG·2H(2)O}(n) (3) and {[Ag(2)(bipy)(2)(chda)]·H(2)chda}(n) (4) (where bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, H(2)chda = trans-cyclohexane-dicarboxylate and EG = ethylene glycol), have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In all of these compounds, the Ag(I) centers are linked by bipy ligands to form 1D Ag(I)-bipy chain structures. The chda(2-) anions of compound 1 adopt a μ(4)-coordination mode to connect the Ag(I)-bipy chains, forming a H-beam-like chain. In 2, the chda(2-) anions adopt a μ(2)-coordination mode to connect the Ag(I)-bipy chains resulting in two distinct 2D brick wall-like layers. These layers are further stacked in an ···ABAB··· fashion through interlayer π···π stacking interactions giving rise to a 3D framework consisting of quasi-rectangular channels, in which an unusual double T5(2) water tape is trapped. For 3 and 4, the chda(2-) anions show a similar μ(4)-coordination mode to that of 1 and connect the Ag(I)-bipy chains to form 2D grid layers with identical compositions and connective topologies. The experimental studies show that the final structures are greatly influenced by the molar ratio of the components and the solvents, which can be rationally interpreted by the existence of various supramolecular interactions between the host and guest molecules within these compounds through a systematic structural comparison. Additionally, the thermal stability and luminescent properties of these compounds were also studied.

  16. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  17. Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Han; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Meicheng; Huang, Jinjer; Li, Yingfeng; Trevor, Mwenya

    2014-01-01

    Large-area Ag nanowires are ordered by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on a wettable solid surface. Compared with other nanowires orientation methods, radial shaped oriented Ag nanowires in a large ring region are obtained in an extremely short time. Furthermore, the radial shaped oriented Ag nanowires are transferred and aligned into one direction. Based on the hydrodynamics, the coactions among the microfluid, gravity effect and the adhesion of substrate on the orientation of the Ag nanowires are clearly revealed. This spreading method opens an efficient way for extreme economic, efficient and “green” way for commercial producing ordered nanowire arrays. PMID:25339118

  18. New insights in understanding plasma-catalysis reaction pathways: study of the catalytic ozonation of an acetaldehyde saturated Ag/TiO2/SiO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauce, Sonia; Vega-González, Arlette; Jia, Zixian; Touchard, Sylvain; Hassouni, Khaled; Kanaev, Andrei; Duten, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    This paper is a preliminary study intended to straighten out the role of reactive oxygen species in the activation mechanisms occurring in a plasma driven catalysis process for acetaldehyde decomposition. For this purpose, the interaction between the surface, the pollutant and one of the main oxidative species generated by non-thermal plasma, namely ozone, was studied. Acetaldehyde catalytic ozonation over a nanostructured Ag/TiO2/SiO2 catalyst is carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and followed by diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). For this, the catalyst is firstly saturated with acetaldehyde. At the end of the saturation, acetaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, its condensation product, are identified as the major adsorbed species. In a second step, the surface ozonation is carried out and three additional intermediates are identified, namely, acetone, formic acid and acetic acid. Gaseous CO, CO2, methyl formate and methyl acetate are detected at the DRIFTS outlet, evidencing the partial mineralization of the adsorbed species. A global reaction scheme is proposed for explaining the formation of those adsorbed intermediates and gaseous products. This proposed heterogeneous ozone induced chemistry has to be taken into account when associating non-thermal plasma in air to a catalyst. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  19. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  20. Real-Time Monitoring Surface Chemistry-Dependent In Vivo Behaviors of Protein Nanocages via Encapsulating an NIR-II Ag2S Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yejun; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xian-En; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-12-22

    Protein nanocages (PNCs) have been recognized as a promising platform for nanomedicine innovation. Real-time in vivo tracking of PNCs can provide critically important information for the development of PNC-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general strategy for monitoring the behaviors of PNCs in vivo by encapsulating a Ag2S quantum dot (QD) with fluorescence in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) inside the PNC, using simian virus 40 (SV40) PNC (PNCSV40) as a model. Benefiting from the high spatiotemporal resolution and deep tissue penetration of NIR-II fluorescence imaging, the dynamic distribution of the PNCSV40 in living mice was tracked in real time with high fidelity, and adopting the PEGylation strategy, surface chemistry-dependent in vivo behaviors of PNCSV40 were clearly revealed. This study represents the first evidence of real-time tracking of the intrinsic behaviors of PNCs in vivo without interference in PNC-host interactions by encapsulating nanoprobes inside. The as-described imaging strategy will facilitate the study of interactions between exogenously introduced PNCs and host body and prompt the development of future protein-based drugs, sensors, and high-efficacy targeted delivery systems.

  1. Studies on electrochemical recovery of silver from simulated waste water from Ag(II)/Ag(I) based mediated electrochemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara Pillai, K; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Il-Shik

    2008-11-01

    In the Ag(II)/Ag(I) based mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process, the spent waste from the electrochemical cell, which is integrated with the scrubber columns, contains high concentrations of precious silver as dissolved ions in both the anolyte and the catholyte. This work presents an electrochemical developmental study for the recovery of silver from simulated waste water from Ag(II)/Ag(I) based MEO process. Galvanostatic method of silver deposition on Ti cathode in an undivided cell was used, and the silver recovery rate kinetics of silver deposition was followed. Various experimental parameters, which have a direct bearing on the metal recovery efficiency, were optimized. These included studies with the nitric acid concentration (0.75-6M), the solution stirring rate (0-1400 rpm), the inter-electrode distance between the anode and the cathode (2-8 cm), the applied current density (29.4-88.2 mA cm(-2)), and the initial Ag(I) ion concentration (0.01-0.2M). The silver recovered by the present electrodeposition method was re-dissolved in 6M nitric acid and subjected to electrooxidation of Ag(I) to Ag(II) to ascertain its activity towards Ag(II) electrogeneration from Ag(I), which is a key factor for the efficient working of MEO process. Our studies showed that the silver metal recovered by the present electrochemical deposition method could be reused repeatedly for MEO process with no loss in its electrochemical activity. Some work on silver deposition from sulfuric acid solution of different concentrations was also done because of its promising features as the catholyte in the Ag(II) generating electrochemical cell used in MEO process, which include: (i) complete elimination of poisonous NO(x) gas liberation in the cathode compartment, (ii) reduced Ag(+) ion migration across Nafion membrane from anolyte to catholyte thereby diminished catholyte contamination, and (iii) lower cell voltage and hence lesser power consumption.

  2. A theoretical proposal for the synthesis of carbapenems from 4-(2-propynyl)azetidinones promoted by [W(CO)5] as an alternative to the Ag+-assisted process.

    PubMed

    Campomanes, Pablo; Menéndez, M Isabel; Sordo, Tomás L

    2006-10-16

    The synthesis of carbapenems from 4-(2-propynyl)azetidinones assisted by both Ag+ and [W(CO)5] was theoretically investigated by using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)-LANL2DZ level, taking into account the effect of solvent by the PB-SCRF model implemented in Jaguar. According to our results, the silver-assisted cyclization is a concerted process for which the low yield experimentally observed could mainly stem from the alkaline hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring. This process is very efficiently catalyzed by Ag+, making it competitive with the formation of the carbapenem. The cycloisomerization of 4-(2-propynyl)azetidinone promoted by [W(CO)5] is proposed as an alternative synthetic strategy to obtain the carbapenem. The endo cycloisomerization is by far the most favorable one. When the process is assisted by [(thf)W(CO)5], although the main product is the carbapenem, the formation of a carbene complex represents a certain competition. The presence of a Me3N molecule from the very start of the reaction causes an important catalytic effect considerably reducing the energy barriers corresponding to the H atom transfers and rendering a very efficient process. Moreover, this catalytic action determines the evolution of the system through only one mechanistic route which produces the carbapenem, hindering the formation of the carbene. Therefore, the cycloisomerization of 4-(2-propynyl)azetidinone promoted by [(Me3N)W(CO)5] constitutes an interesting alternative to the silver-assisted cyclization.

  3. Plasmon resonance energy transfer and hot electron injection induced high photocurrent density in liquid junction Ag@Ag2S sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Fujuan; Wang, Hongju; Cao, Kun; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2016-10-18

    An in situ technique was developed to deposit Ag@Ag2S core-shell quantum dots on a SnO2 mesoporous film for solar energy conversion. When adopted as a photoanode, an impressive high photocurrent density of ∼25.6 mA cm(-2) was demonstrated in a cell configuration using polysulfide S(2-)/Sn(2-) as an electrolyte and Cu2S/brass as a counter electrode, which leads to a power conversion efficiency of ∼0.784% for this environmentally benign device. Optical measurements showed that Ag nanoparticles could be employed as plasmon resonance centers to enhance the harvesting efficiency of incident light at the visible and near-infrared range. Moreover, photoluminescence spectra demonstrated fast charge transfer at Ag@Ag2S/SnO2 interfaces, which facilitates direct hot electron injection from sensitizers to the SnO2 matrix and finally gives rise to the high photocurrent density.

  4. Analysis of the symbiotic star AG Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, C. D.; Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    High and low dispersion IUE data are analyzed in conjunction with coincident ground based spectrophotometric scans and supplementary infrared photometry of the symbiotic object AG Pegasi. The IUE observations yield an improved value of E(B-V) = 0.12. The two stellar components are easily recognized in the spectra. The cool component may be an M1.7 III star and the hot component appears to have T (sub eff) of approximately 30000 K. The emission lines observed in the ultraviolet indicate two or three distince emitting regions. Nebular component ultraviolet intercombination lines suggest an electron density of several times 10 billion/cu cm.

  5. Radiolytic production of Ag-containing nanocomposite colloids in presence of lithium ions.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jung; Choi, Kwang-Soon

    2012-07-01

    This research is motivated to prepare homogeneous and less aggregated nanostructured composites for potential scintillators. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG)-protected approximately 5 nm and approximately 29 nm sized Ag nanoparticles and Ag-Zn nanocomposites were relatively prepared by electron-beam irradiation on Ag+ and Zn2+ solutions with the aids of stabilizers and 6Li+ at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. Especially the 6Li+, which was used for a neutron absorption purpose, played a part the Ag-Zn nanocolloids to less aggregate in the aqueous phase by making partial complexes with stabilizers containing Ag-Zn. To be a potential scintillator, the Ag-Zn nanocomposites have to show an optical response to radiation. Therefore, optical luminescence, which resembles the concept of detecting light without the requirement of a neutron absorbent (convertor) for a neutron scitillator, of the nanocomposites was tested.

  6. Sulfur-doped graphene-supported Ag nanoparticles for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Yu; Wang, Weiping; Zhang, Xiao; Peng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Heteroatom doping is an effective way to modulate the physicochemical properties of graphene and its hybrid materials. In this work, sulfur-doped graphene (SG) was used for the first time as a supporting material for loading Ag nanoparticles, and the resulting Ag/SG hybrid with a high S-doping level (2.8 at.%) and a uniform Ag NP decoration was successfully prepared by a microwave-assisted method. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the Ag/SG exhibited a better electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 reduction than undoped Ag/reduced graphene oxide, which highlighted the important role of S-doping that could not only improve the charge transfer, but also introduce more defects as active sites. The nonenzymatic sensor based on Ag/SG displayed good sensing performances for highly sensitive, selective, and stable detection of H2O2, demonstrating that SG is indeed a promising catalyst-supporting material for electrochemical sensing.

  7. Fabrication of Ag nanowire and Al-doped ZnO hybrid transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sslimsearom; Park, Yong Seo; Choi, Hyung Wook; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Among the materials used as transparent electrodes, silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attracted attention because of their high transmittance and excellent conductivity. However, AgNWs have shortcomings, including their poor adhesion, oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, and unstable characteristics at high temperature. To overcome these shortcomings, multi-layer thin films with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)/AgNW/AZO structure were fabricated using facing targets sputtering. The samples heated to 350 °C exhibited stable electrical characteristics. In addition, the adhesion to the substrate was improved compared with AgNWs layer. The AZO/AgNW/AZO thin films with multilayer structure overcame the shortcomings of AgNWs, and we propose their use as transparent electrodes with excellent properties for optoelectronic applications.

  8. Self-healing of cracks in Ag joining layer for die-attachment in power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuantong; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Jiu, Jinting; Zhang, Hao; Sugahara, Tohru; Iwashige, Tomohito; Sugiura, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Sintered silver (Ag) joining has attracted significant interest in power devices modules for its ability to form stable joints with a porous interconnection layer. A function for the self-healing of cracks in sintered porous Ag interlayers at high temperatures is discovered and reported here. A crack which was prepared on a Ag joining layer was closed after heating at 200 °C in air. The tensile strength of pre-cracked Ag joining layer specimens recovers to the value of non-cracked specimens after heating treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to probe the self-healing mechanism. TEM images and electron diffraction patterns show that a large quantity of Ag nanoparticles formed at the gap with the size less than 10 nm, which bridges the crack in the self-healing process. This discovery provides additional motivation for the application of Ag as an interconnection material for power devices at high temperature.

  9. Controlled formation of ag nanoparticles by means of long-chain sodium polyacrylates in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Huber, Klaus; Witte, Thomas; Hollmann, Jutta; Keuker-Baumann, Susanne

    2007-02-07

    A new tool is presented to control formation of Ag nanoparticles. Small amounts of silver ions were added to dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA). Four NaPA samples covering a molar mass regime of 97 kD < or = Mw < or = 650 kD have been used. With amounts of added Ag(+) as low as 1-2% of the COO(-) groups of the polyanionic chains, significant changes could already be induced in the NaPA coils with 650 kD. If the NaPA concentration was kept below 0.1 g/L, the coils with 650 kD exhibited a significant coil shrinking in stable solutions. At larger NaPA concentrations, addition of Ag+ initiates an aggregation of the polyacrylate coils toward compact structures. Coil shrinking and aggregation was revealed by means of time-resolved static light scattering. If exposed to UV-radiation, small Ag particles formed within the shrunken anionic polyacrylate coils. The Ag nanoparticles were identified by means of an enhanced light scattering and a characteristic plasmon absorption band around 410 nm. No such Ag particle formation could be observed even at 5 times larger concentrations of Ag(+) and NaPA if the two smallest polyacrylate samples have been used under otherwise equal conditions. This molar mass sensitive response of NaPA to Ag(+)-addition suggests an interesting phenomenon: if the coil size of the NaPa chains, which act as Ag(+) collectors, is large enough, local Ag(+) concentration in these coil-shaped Ag(+) containers exceeds a critical value, and irradiation with UV generates Ag nanoparticles.

  10. AG Draconis - a symbiotic mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, R.; Hric, L.; Smelcer, L.

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic system AG Draconis regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one (~550 d) is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one (~355 d) could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts are repeated with periods from 359 - 375 d.

  11. Regulation of Chemokine Signal Integration by Activator of G-Protein Signaling 4 (AGS4)

    PubMed Central

    Robichaux, William G.; Branham-O’Connor, Melissa; Hwang, Il-Young; Vural, Ali; Kehrl, Johne H.

    2017-01-01

    Activator of G-protein signaling 4 (AGS4)/G-protein signaling modulator 3 (Gpsm3) contains three G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs, each of which can bind Gαi-GDP free of Gβγ. We previously demonstrated that the AGS4-Gαi interaction is regulated by seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7-TMR), which may reflect direct coupling of the GPR-Gαi module to the receptor analogous to canonical Gαβγ heterotrimer. We have demonstrated that the AGS4-Gαi complex is regulated by chemokine receptors in an agonist-dependent manner that is receptor-proximal. As an initial approach to investigate the functional role(s) of this regulated interaction in vivo, we analyzed leukocytes, in which AGS4/Gpsm3 is predominantly expressed, from AGS4/Gpsm3-null mice. Loss of AGS4/Gpsm3 resulted in mild but significant neutropenia and leukocytosis. Dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, and neutrophils from AGS4/Gpsm3-null mice also exhibited significant defects in chemoattractant-directed chemotaxis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. An in vivo peritonitis model revealed a dramatic reduction in the ability of AGS4/Gpsm3-null neutrophils to migrate to primary sites of inflammation. Taken together, these data suggest that AGS4/Gpsm3 is required for proper chemokine signal processing in leukocytes and provide further evidence for the importance of the GPR-Gαi module in the regulation of leukocyte function. PMID:28062526

  12. Nano-Ag-loaded hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Bailin; Wang, Yingbo; Zhou, Xianli; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Watari, Fumio; Ding, Yonghui; Leng, Yang

    2011-04-06

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates have attracted much attention owing to the combination of good mechanical properties of Ti and superior biocompatibility of HA. Incorporating silver (Ag) into HA coatings is an effective method to impart the coatings with antibacterial properties. However, the uniform distribution of Ag is still a challenge and Ag particles in the coatings are easy to agglomerate, which in turn affects the applications of the coatings. In this study, we employed pulsed electrochemical deposition to co-deposit HA and Ag simultaneously, which realized the uniform distribution of Ag particles in the coatings. This method was based on the use of a well-designed electrolyte containing Ag ions, calcium ions and l-cysteine, in which cysteine acted as the coordination agent to stabilize Ag ions. The antibacterial and cell culture tests were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of HA/Ag composite coatings, respectively. The results indicated the as-prepared coatings had good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. However, an appropriate silver content should be chosen to balance the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Heat treatments promoted the adhesive strength and enhanced the biocompatibility without sacrificing the antibacterial properties of the HA/Ag coatings. In summary, this study provided an alternative method to prepare bioactive surfaces with bactericidal ability for biomedical devices.

  13. Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

    1987-01-01

    With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

  14. Coordination Chemistry of Diiodine and Implications for the Oxidation Capacity of the Synergistic Ag(+) /X2 (X=Cl, Br, I) System.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic Ag(+) /X2 system (X=Cl, Br, I) is a very strong, but ill-defined oxidant-more powerful than X2 or Ag(+) alone. Intermediates for its action may include [Agm (X2 )n ](m+) complexes. Here, we report on an unexpectedly variable coordination chemistry of diiodine towards this direction: (A)Ag-I2 -Ag(A), [Ag2 (I2 )4 ](2+) (A(-) )2 and [Ag2 (I2 )6 ](2+) (A(-) )2 ⋅(I2 )x≈0.65 form by reaction of Ag(A) (A=Al(OR(F) )4 ; R(F) =C(CF3 )3 ) with diiodine (single crystal/powder XRD, Raman spectra and quantum-mechanical calculations). The molecular (A)Ag-I2 -Ag(A) is ideally set up to act as a 2 e(-) oxidant with stoichiometric formation of 2 AgI and 2 A(-) . Preliminary reactivity tests proved this (A)Ag-I2 -Ag(A) starting material to oxidize n-C5 H12 , C3 H8 , CH2 Cl2 , P4 or S8 at room temperature. A rough estimate of its electron affinity places it amongst very strong oxidizers like MF6 (M=4d metals). This suggests that (A)Ag-I2 -Ag(A) will serve as an easily in bulk accessible, well-defined, and very potent oxidant with multiple applications.

  15. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouabdellah, M.; Beaudoin, G.; Leach, D.L.; Grandia, F.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit Th mean values ranging from 104??C to 198??C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1??C to -12.8??C, corresponding to salinities of ???15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75??C to 150??C. The ??18O and ??D fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low ??13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5??? to -7.7??? indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated ??34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5??? to 24.3???) are most likely from reduction of SO42- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  16. From Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} to Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7}: Investigations on an anion-deficient to ideal pyrochlore solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Laurita, Geneva; Vielma, Jason; Winter, Florian; Berthelot, Romain; Largeteau, Alain; Pöttgen, Rainer; Schneider, G.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2014-02-15

    A complete solid solution between the anion-deficient pyrochlore Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and the ideal pyrochlore Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized through the standard solid state ceramic method. Each composition has been characterized by various different techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and {sup 121}Sb Mössbauer spectroscopy. Computational methods based on density functional theory complement this investigation. Photocatalytic activity has been studied, and transport properties have been measured on pellets densified by spark plasma sintering. The analysis of the data collected from these various techniques enables a comprehensive characterization of the complete solid solution and revealed an anomalous behavior in the Cd-rich end of the solid solution, which has been proposed to arise from a possible radical O{sup −} species in small concentrations. - Graphical abstract: A complete solid solution between the anion-deficient pyrochlore Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and the ideal pyrochlore Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized and investigated through various techniques including X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, and {sup 121}Sb-Mössbauer spectroscopy. Optical and electrical measurements have been performed, and computational methods have been applied to determine the density of states. Photocatalytic activity was monitored by the degradation of Methylene Blue, and upon cadmium substitution, the degradation amount decreased, which is attributed primarily to the changing optical and electrical properties of the solid solution. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A complete solid solution between Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized. • XRD reveals a relatively constant lattice parameter as the series progresses. • Optical and electrical properties have been measured for the solid solution.

  17. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdellah, Mohammed; Beaudoin, Georges; Leach, David L.; Grandia, Fidel; Cardellach, Esteve

    2009-08-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit T h mean values ranging from 104°C to 198°C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1°C to -12.8°C, corresponding to salinities of ˜15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75°C to 150°C. The δ18O and δD fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low δ13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5‰ to -7.7‰ indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated δ34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5‰ to 24.3‰) are most likely from reduction of SO4 2- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  18. Microstructure and intrinsic stress evolution during epitaxial film growth of an Ag0.93Al0.07 solid solution on Si(111); excessive planar faulting due to quantum confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flötotto, D.; Wang, Z. M.; Markel, I. J.; Kurz, S. J. B.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    The correlation of microstructural development and the kinetics of film growth has been investigated during the epitaxial film growth of an ultrathin binary Ag0.93Al0.07 solid solution on a Si(111)-7×7 surface at 300 K by the combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and real-time in-situ stress measurements. Up to a film thickness of 6 ± 2 nm, epitaxial Ag0.93Al0.07 film growth is characterized by the strikingly extensive formation of planar faults parallel to the film/substrate interface, while at larger thickness the film grows practically defect-free. As revealed by real-time in-situ stress measurements, the extensive formation of planar faults at the very initial stage of growth is not driven by the reduction of the system's elastic strain energy but is rather caused by a striking thickness-dependence of the stacking-fault energy owing to a quantum size effect of the ultrathin metal alloy film, resulting in a frequent succession of fcc and hcp stackings of close-packed layers during the initial stage of film growth. The extensive development of planar faults at the initial stage of film growth (<6 ± 2 nm) is associated with the occurrence of a high density of kinks and corners at thereby atomically rough surface ledges, which strongly enhances the downward transport of adatoms from higher to lower terraces (interlayer mass transport) by a reduction of the effective diffusion barrier at the edge of surface steps and by increasing the driving force for adatoms to attach to the surface ledges. As a result, the epitaxial Ag0.93Al0.07 film initially grows in a 2D layer-by-layer type of growth and thus establishes atomically smooth film surfaces. For the practically planar-fault-free growth at thicknesses beyond 6 ± 2 nm, interlayer mass transport becomes distinctively limited, thereby inducing a transition from 2D to 3D type of film growth.

  19. Modified embedded-atom potential for B2-MgAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Interatomic potentials for pure Ag and Mg-Ag alloy have been developed in the framework of the second nearest-neighbors modified embedded-atom method (MEAM). The validity and the transferability of the Ag potential were obtained by calculating physical, mechanical, thermal, and dislocation related properties. Since the {1 1 1}-generalized stacking fault energy curves obtained from first-principle calculations was used to develop the Ag potential, the critical resolved shear stress to move screw dislocations in Ag single crystal is in good agreement with the experimental data. By combining the ability of the potential to predict the surface energies with its accuracy in describing dislocation properties, the potential is thought to be a predictive model for analyzing the fracture properties of Ag. In addition, the performance of the potential was tested under dynamics conditions by predicting the melting temperature, where a good agreement with experimental value was found. The Ag-MEAM potential was then coupled to an existing Mg-MEAM potential to describe the properties of the binary system MgAg. While the heat of formation, the elastic constants, and the (1 1 0) γ-surface of the MgAg compound in the B2 phase were used to parameterize the potential, heat of formation for MgAg alloys with different stoichiometry, thermal properties of the B2-MgAg compound, as well as dislocation related properties in B2-MgAg compound were tested to validate the transferability of the potential. The heat of formation of Mg5Ag2, MgAg, and MgAg3, the elastic constants and the thermal properties of B2-MgAg obtained with the proposed potential align with first-principles and experimental data. In addition, the core structure of both <0 0 1> and <1 1 1> dislocations in {1 1 0} are in agreement with theoretical predictions, and the magnitudes of the critical resolved shear stress obtained at 0 K for both slip systems partially validate the slip behavior of B2-MgAg

  20. Trapping phosphate anions inside the [Ag{sub 4}I]{sup 3+} framework: Structure, bonding, and properties of Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4})

    SciTech Connect

    Oleneva, Olga S.; Kirsanova, Maria A.; Shestimerova, Tatiana A.; Abramchuk, Nikolay S.; Davliatshin, Dmitry I.; Bykov, Mikhail A.; Dikarev, Evgeny V.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.

    2008-01-15

    Orange-red Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/m (No. 11), with the unit cell dimensions a=9.0874(6) A, b=6.8809(5) A, c=11.1260(7) A, {beta}=109.450(1){sup o}, and Z=4. The crystal structure is fully ordered; it comprises the silver-iodine three-dimensional positively charged framework hosting the tetrahedral PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} guest anions. The framework features high coordination numbers for iodine and manifold Ag-Ag bonds ranging from 3.01 to 3.46 A. The Ag-Ag interaction is bonding, it involves silver 4d and 5s orbitals lying, together with the orbitals of iodine, just below the Fermi level. Though the orbitals of silver and iodine define the conducting properties of the title compound, the interaction between the framework and the guest anions is also important and is responsive to the number of the silver atoms surrounding the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} tetrahedra. Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) melts incongruently at 591 K and produces a mixture of the silver phosphate and an amorphous phase upon cooling. Pure Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) is a poor conductor with a room temperature conductivity of 3x10{sup -6} S m{sup -1}. The discrepancies between the properties observed here and those reported previously in the literature are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Regular [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra fill large voids in the Ag-I framework to form a host-guest compound, Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}). It has a perfectly ordered crystal structure, atypical for this kind of compounds, rendering the study of the manifold Ag-Ag bonds and the host-guest interaction. However, this ordering leads to low ionic conductivity.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 in water using Ag-Ag2O-Zno nanostuctures anchored on graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umukoro, Eseoghene H.; Peleyeju, Moses G.; Ngila, Jane C.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution due to industrial effluents from industries which utilize dyes in the manufacturing of their products has serious implications on aquatic lives and the general environment. Thus, there is need for the removal of dyes from wastewater before being discharged into the environment. In this study, a nanocomposite consisting of silver, silver oxide (Ag2O), zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized, characterized and photocatalytically applied in the degradation (and possibly mineralization) of organic pollutants in water treatment process. The Ag-Ag2O-ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C. It was functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and further anchored on carboxylated graphene oxide via the formation of an amide bond to give the Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The applicability of Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite as a photocatalyst was investigated in the photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 dye under visible light irradiation in synthetic wastewater containing the dye. The results indicated that Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite has a higher photocatalytic activity (90% removal) compared to Ag-Ag2O-ZnO (85% removal) and ZnO (75% removal) respectively and thus lends itself to application in water treatment, where the removal of organics is very important.

  2. Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, Claudia; Nagare, Baban; Welti, André; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    AgI is one of the best-investigated ice-nucleating substances. It has relevance for the atmosphere since it is used for glaciogenic cloud seeding. Theoretical and experimental studies over the last 60 years provide a complex picture of silver iodide as an ice-nucleating agent with conflicting and inconsistent results. This review compares experimental ice nucleation studies in order to analyze the factors that influence the ice nucleation ability of AgI. The following picture emerges from this analysis: the ice nucleation ability of AgI seems to be enhanced when the AgI particle is on the surface of a droplet, which is indeed the position that a particle takes when it can freely move in a droplet. The ice nucleation by particles with surfaces exposed to air depends on water adsorption. AgI surfaces seem to be most efficient at nucleating ice when they are exposed to relative humidity at or even above water saturation. For AgI particles that are completely immersed in water, the freezing temperature increases with increasing AgI surface area. Higher threshold freezing temperatures seem to correlate with improved lattice matches as can be seen for AgI-AgCl solid solutions and 3AgI·NH4I·6H2O, which have slightly better lattice matches with ice than AgI and also higher threshold freezing temperatures. However, the effect of a good lattice match is annihilated when the surfaces have charges. Also, the ice nucleation ability seems to decrease during dissolution of AgI particles. This introduces an additional history and time dependence for ice nucleation in cloud chambers with short residence times.

  3. Synthesis and properties of Ag-doped ZnO films with room temperature ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Chang, Ze-Jiang; Liu, Jing-Jin; Ren, Ya-Xuan; Sun, Hui-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    A series of Ag-doped ZnO films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. XRD and SEM results showed that the doping amount of Ag had a great influence on the films' morphology and ferromagnetism, and their magnetism can be improved by doping an appropriate amount of Ag. The theoretical analysis suggested that the magnetism resulted mainly from the film grain boundary surfaces. Further research revealed that these films had strong timeliness. Such a result indicated that the room temperature ferromagnetism of Ag-doped ZnO films did not stem from the cation vacancies but from the oxygen vacancies on the boundary surfaces.

  4. Thin Ag films. Influence of substrate and postdeposition treatment on morphology and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, S.E.; Rowlen, K.L. )

    1994-01-15

    In an effort to understand the experimental parameters that influence thin metal film morphology and optical characteristics, thin Ag films are examined with a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The morphology of 5 nm of Ag vapor deposited onto glass, derivatized glass, Formvar-coated glass, and mica is explored. The substrate is found to have a large effect on both Ag film surface morphology and optical properties. In addition, micrographs of a Ag film before and after exposure to solvent suggest solvent-induced morphological changes. 32 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Dendritic macromolecules supported Ag nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Javad; Zarnegar, Zohre; Sadeghi, Masoud; Enayati-Najafabadi, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    Polymer supported Ag nanoparticles, generated in situ by silver nitrate (AgNO3) reduction under reaction conditions, catalyzed the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol with high efficiency in water at room temperature in the presence of an excess amount of NaBH4. Amphiphilic linear-dendritic copolymers containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(ε-caprolactone) arms were able to load the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 8-10 nm were found to show a comparable catalytic activity towards formation of the aromatic amine as single product with short reaction time.

  6. Biosynthesis of quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticle by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a bioreducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Use of microorganism as a novel and eco-friendly strategy to production of nanomaterials is an important aspect of modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that silver (Ag+) ions when exposed to P. aeruginosa biomass are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of Ag-NPs. Quasi-spherical shape and nearly well distribution and FCC crystal structure of Ag-NPs were confirmed by XRD pattern, STM and TEM micrographs. UV-Vis spectra show a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at ~ 435 nm.

  7. Improved thermal conductivity of Ag decorated carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbod, Mansoor; Ahangarpour, Ameneh

    2016-12-01

    The effect of Ag decoration of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity enhancement of Ag decorated MWCNTs water based nanofluids has been investigated. The pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were decorated with Ag nanoparticles by mass ratios of 1%, 2% and 4% and used to prepare water based nanofluids with 0.1 vol.%. An enhancement of 1-20.4 percent in thermal conductivity was observed. It was found that the decoration of functionalized MWCNTs can increase the thermal conductivity about 0.16-8.02 percent compared to the undecorated ones. The maximum enhancement of 20.4% was measured for the sample containing 4 wt.% Ag at 40 °C.

  8. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2011-04-15

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  9. Effects of Ag Nanoparticles on Growth and Fat Body Proteins in Silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Abdlli, Nouara; Wang, Niannian; Lü, Peng; Nie, Zhichao; Dong, Xin; Lu, Shuang; Chen, Keping

    2017-03-30

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), a widely used non-antibiotic, antibacterial material, have shown toxic and other potentially harmful effects in mammals. However, the deleterious effects of AgNPs on insects are still unknown. Here, we studied the effects of AgNPs on the model invertebrate organism Bombyx mori. After feeding silkworm larvae different concentrations of AgNPs, we evaluated the changes of B. mori body weights, survival rates, and proteomic differences. The results showed that low concentrations (<400 mg/L) of AgNPs promoted the growth and cocoon weights of B. mori. Although high concentrations (≥800 mg/L) of AgNPs also improved B. mori growth, they resulted in silkworm death. An analysis of fat body proteomic differences revealed 13 significant differences in fat body protein spots, nine of which exhibited significantly downregulated expression, while four showed significantly upregulated expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that at an AgNP concentration of 1600 mg/L, the expression levels of seven proteins were similar to the transcription levels of their corresponding genes. Our results suggest that AgNPs lowered the resistance to oxidative stress, affected cell apoptosis, and induced cell necrosis by regulating related protein metabolism and metabolic pathways in B. mori.

  10. Study on synthesis of ultrafine Cu-Ag core-shell powders with high electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu-hsien; Yang, Chih-hao; Chen, Kuan-ting; Popuri, Srinivasa R.; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Tang, Bo-Shin

    2012-12-01

    Cu-Ag composite powders with high electrical conductivity were synthesized by electroless plating of silver sulfate, copper powders with eco-friendly sodium citrate as reducing agent, dispersant and chelating agent in an aqueous system. The influences of sodium citrate/Ag ratio on Ag coatings of Cu powders were investigated. Ag was formed a dense coating on the surface of Cu powders at a molar ratio of sodium citrate/Ag = 0.07/1. SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu powders. SEM-EDX also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag shells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that without Cu or Ag atoms in the surface were oxidized. The resistivity measurements of Cu-Ag paste shows that they have closer resistivity as the pure silver paste's after 250 °C for 30 min heat-treatment (2.55 × 10-4 Ω cm) and 350 °C for 30 min heat-treatment (1.425 × 10-4 Ω cm).

  11. Loading effect of Ag/AgO on the photocatalytic performance of ZnO rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsuddin, Aida Fitri; Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini Abd; Pung, Swee-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of ZnO rods in degradation of Rhodamine B dye under UV light was improved by 7.3% via deposition of Ag/AgO using 1.0 × 10-3 g mL-1 of silver nitrate solution. However, its photodegradation efficiency decreased with the increase in silver nitrate concentration which was used to prepare the Ag/AgO-ZnO rods. This result suggests that the loading of Ag/AgO on the surface of ZnO rods affected the photocatalytic performance differently. The scavenger study indicates that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of Rhodamine B dye by Ag-/AgO-deposited ZnO rods were holes, followed by superoxide anion free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals and electrons. Based on these findings, a refined photodegradation mechanism of Rhodamine B by Ag/AgO-ZnO rods is proposed.

  12. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  13. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jun; Zhang Dongming; Zhao Jie

    2011-09-15

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu-Ag) core-shell powders. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of fabricating Cu-Ag particles with good dispersibility using {beta}-CDs as a protective agent was studied because of its special structure. Highlights: > Green supramolecular {beta}-CD used as a protective agent and ascorbic acid(Vc) as a reducing agent to fabricate Cu-Ag powders. > Particles are monodisperse and the diameter is close to nanoscale(100-150 nm). > Resistance of Cu particles to oxidation was higher. > Formation mechanism explained.

  14. Critical island size for Ag thin film growth on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Adam L.; Smith, Roger; Kenny, Steven D.

    2017-02-01

    Island growth of Ag on ZnO is investigated with the development of a new technique to approximate critical island sizes. Ag is shown to attach in one of three highly symmetric sites on the ZnO surface or initial monolayers of grown Ag. Due to this, a lattice based adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo (LatAKMC) method is used to investigate initial growth phases. As island formation is commonly reported in the literature, the critical island sizes of Ag islands on a perfect polar ZnO surface and a first monolayer of grown Ag on the ZnO surface are considered. A mean rate approach is used to calculate the average time for an Ag ad-atom to drop off an island and this is then compared to deposition rates on the same island. Results suggest that Ag on ZnO (0 0 0 1 bar) will exhibit Stranski-Krastanov (layer plus island) growth.

  15. Managing the Grey Literature of a Discipline through Collaboration: AgEcon Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julia; Letnes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    AgEcon Search, http://www.agecon.lib.umn.edu, is an important and ground-breaking example of an alternative method of delivering current research results to many potential users. AgEcon Search, through a distributed model, collects and disseminates the grey literature of the fields of agricultural and resource economics. The development of this…

  16. Solution structure of an oncogenic DNA duplex, the K-ras gene and the sequence containing a central C.A or A.G mismatch as a function of pH: nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Boulard, Y; Cognet, J A; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Le Bret, M; Carbonnaux, C; Fazakerley, G V

    1995-02-10

    The DNA duplex 5' d(GCCACCAGCTC)-d(GAGCTGGTGGC) corresponds to the sequence 29 to 39 of the K-ras gene, which contains a hot spot for mutations. This has been studied by one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, energy minimization and molecular dynamics. The results show that it adopts a globally B-DNA type structure. We have introduced, at the central base-pair, the mismatches C.A and A.G. The mismatch position is that of the first base of the Gly12 codon, the hot spot. For the C.A mismatch we observe a structural change as a function of pH with an apparent pKa of 7.2. At low pH, the mismatch pair adopts a structure close to a classic wobble conformation with the cytidine residue displaced into the major groove. It is stabilised by two hydrogen bonds in which the adenosine residue is protonated and the cytidine residue has a significant C3'-endo population. At high pH, the mispair structure is in equilibrium between wobble and reverse wobble conformations. Similar studies are reported on the A.G mismatch, which also undergoes a transition as a function of pH. 31P spectra have been recorded on all systems and as a function of pH. No evidence for BII phosphodiester backbone conformations was found. The NMR results are well corroborated by molecular dynamics calculations performed with or without distance constraints. The dynamics at the mismatch sites have been examined. Although the overall structures are close to B-DNA, helical parameters fluctuate differently at these sites. Different hydrogen bonding alternatives in dynamic equilibrium that can involve three-centred hydrogen bonds are observed.

  17. Spin relaxation characteristics in Ag nanowire covered with various oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, S.; Idzuchi, H.; Otani, Y.; Kondou, K.; Fukuma, Y.

    2015-09-21

    We have studied spin relaxation characteristics in a Ag nanowire covered with various oxide layers of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, MgO, or AgO{sub x} by using non-local spin valve structures. The spin-flip probability, a ratio of momentum relaxation time to spin relaxation time at 10 K, exhibits a gradual increase with an atomic number of the oxide constituent elements, Mg, Al, Ag, and Hf. Surprisingly, the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} capping was found to increase the probability by an order of magnitude compared with other oxide layers. This finding suggests the presence of an additional spin relaxation mechanism such as Rashba effect at the Ag/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, which cannot be explained by the simple Elliott-Yafet mechanism via phonon, impurity, and surface scatterings. The Ag/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface may provide functionality as a spin to charge interconversion layer.

  18. Activation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in bulk amorphous AgI: estimation from extrapolation of the AgI composition dependence in AgI Ag2O P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaya, M.; Hatate, A.; Oguni, M.

    2003-06-01

    AgI-based fast-ion conducting glasses with very high AgI compositions from the (AgI)x(AgPO3)1-x, (AgI)x(Ag2PO3.5)1-x, and (AgI)x(Ag3PO4)1-x systems were prepared successfully by using a rapid-press quenching and a twin-roller quenching method. The ac dielectric measurements showed common relaxation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in the glasses independently of the species of the glass network formers of AgPO3, Ag2PO3.5, and Ag3PO4, and the activation energies, Δɛa, for Ag+-ion conduction were observed to converge upon the same magnitude of ~26 kJ mol-1 at the AgI composition limit of x = 1. This indicates the formation of amorphous AgI regions in the glasses, and the value of Δɛa = 26 +/- 1 kJ mol-1 estimated at x = 1 was concluded to correspond to that for bulk amorphous AgI which has never been obtained experimentally.

  19. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  20. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  1. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  2. Approaches for Controlled Ag(+) Ion Release: Influence of Surface Topography, Roughness, and Bactericide Content.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukova, I V; Sheveyko, A N; Shvindina, N V; Denisenko, E A; Ignatov, S G; Shtansky, D V

    2017-02-01

    Silver is the most famous bactericidal element known from ancient times. Its antibacterial and antifungal effects are typically associated with the Ag ionization and concentration of Ag(+) ions in a bacterial culture. Herein we thoroughly studied the influence of surface topography and roughness on the rate of Ag(+) ion release. We considered two types of biocompatible and bioactive TiCaPCON-Ag films with 1 and 2 at. % of Ag and nine types of Ti surfaces with an average roughness varying in the range from 5.4 × 10(-2) to 12.6 μm and different topographic features obtained through polishing, sandblasting, laser treatment, and pulsed electrospark deposition. It is demonstrated that the Ag(+) ion release rates do not depend on the Ag content in the films as the main parameter, and it is other factors, such as the state of Ag agglomeration, surface topography and roughness, as well as kinetics of surface oxidation, that play a critical role. The obtained results clearly show a synergistic effect of the Ag content in the film and surface topography and roughness on Ag(+) ion release. By changing the surface topographical features at a constant content of bactericidal element, we showed that the Ag(+) ion release can be either accelerated by 2.5 times or almost completely suppressed. Despite low Ag(+) ion concentration in physiological solution (<40 ppb), samples with specially fabricated surface reliefs (flakes or holes) showed a pronounced antibacterial effect already after 3 h of immersion in E. coli bacterial culture. Thus, our results open up new possibilities for the production of cost-effective, scalable, and biologically safe implants with pronounced antibacterial characteristics for future applications in the orthopedic field.

  3. Organic pollutant photodecomposition by Ag/KNbO3 nanocomposites: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ping; Lei, Wanying; ...

    2016-01-12

    In this study, Ag nanoparticles supported on well-defined perovskite orthorhombic KNbO3 nanowires are synthesized via facile photoreduction and systematically characterized by XRD, Raman, DRUV–vis, XPS, PL, TEM, HRTEM, and HAADF-STEM. The photoreactivity of Ag/KNbO3 nanocomposites as a function of Ag contents (0.4–2.8 wt %) is assessed toward aqueous rhodamine B degradation under UV- and visible-light, respectively. It is found that the UV-induced photoreactivity initially increases and then decreases with increasing Ag contents. At an optimal Ag content (ca. 1.7 wt %), the greatest photoreactivity is achieved under UV light, with the photocatalytic reaction rate of 1.7 wt % Ag/KNbO3 exceedingmore » that of pristine KNbO3 by a factor of ca. 13. In contrast, visible light-induced photoreactivity monotonically increases with increasing Ag contents in the range of 0.4–2.8 wt %. On the basis of the detected active species and intermediate products in the photocatalytic processes, conjugated structure cleavage and N-deethylation are revealed to be the respective predominant pathway under UV and visible-light illumination. To gain an insight into the observed photoreactivity, the electronic properties of Ag/KNbO3 have been investigated using spin-polarized DFT calculations. Herein, Ag extended adlayers (1–4 ML) on the slab models of KNbO3 (101) are employed to mimic large supported Ag nanoparticles. A Bader analysis of the electron density shows a small net charge transfer (ca. 0.1 e) from KNbO3 to Ag. The electron localization function of Ag/KNbO3 (101) illustrates that Ag adlayers with thickness larger than 2 ML are essentially metallic, and weak polarization occurs at the interface. In addition, the metallic Ag adlayers generate a continuum of Ag bandgap states, which play a key role in determining different Ag content-dependent behavior between UV and visible-light illumination.« less

  4. Discrete Silver(I)-Palladium(II)-Oxo Nanoclusters, {Ag4 Pd13 } and {Ag5 Pd15 }, and the Role of Metal-Metal Bonding Induced by Cation Confinement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Xiang, Yixian; Lin, Zhengguo; Lang, Zhongling; Jiménez-Lozano, Pablo; Carbó, Jorge J; Poblet, Josep M; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen; Kortz, Ulrich

    2016-12-19

    We introduce the class of discrete silver(I)-palladium(II)-oxo nanoclusters with the preparation of {Ag4 Pd13 } and {Ag5 Pd15 }. Both polyanions represent the first examples of noble metal-capped polyoxo-noble-metalates in a fully inorganic assembly, featuring an unprecedented host-guest mode containing hetero- and homometallic Ag-Pd and Ag-Ag bonding interactions. Comprehensive theoretical calculations suggest that the Ag-Pd metallic bonds originate partially from surface confinement of Ag(I) guest ions onto the anionic polyoxopalladate host that is induced by strong electrostatic forces. This work opens the field of fully inorganic silver-palladium-oxo nanoclusters, which can be considered as discrete mixed noble metal precursors for the formation of monodisperse core-shell nanoparticles, with high relevance for catalysis.

  5. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  6. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  7. In Situ Photocatalytic Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles (nAg) by Crumpled Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes for Filtration and Disinfection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Di; Cho, Minjung; Lee, Seung Soo; Zhang, Fuzhong; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) materials have demonstrated considerable potential in next-generation water treatment membrane-based technologies, which include antimicrobial applications. GO antimicrobial properties can be further enhanced by preloading or chemically generating surface-associated nanoscale silver particles (nAg). However, for these systems, enhanced antimicrobial functionality decreases over time as a function of Ag mass loss via dissolution (as Ag(+)). In this work, we demonstrate facile photocatalytic in situ synthesis of nAg particles by crumpled GO-TiO2 (GOTI) nanocomposites as an approach to (re)generate, and thus maintain, enhanced antimicrobial activity over extended operation times. The described photocatalytic formation process is highly efficient and relatively fast, producing nAg particles over a size range of 40 to 120 nm and with active (111) planes. Additionally, we show in situ surface-based photocatalyzed synthesis of nAg particles at the surface of GOTI nanocomposite membrane assemblies, allowing for simultaneous filtration and disinfection. With ca. 3 log inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the described membrane assemblies with in situ formed nAg demonstrate enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the GOTI membrane surface or the support membrane alone. Under typical conditions, the working and operational time (Ag dissolution time) is calculated to be over 2 orders of magnitude higher than the loading (synthesis) time (e.g., 123 h versus 0.5 h, respectively). Taken together, results highlight the described material-based process as a potentially novel antifouling membrane technology.

  8. X-ray diffraction study of thermal parameters of Pd, Pd-Ag and Pd-Ag-Cu alloys as hydrogen purification membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Subhasis; Jat, Ram Avtar; Mukerjee, S. K.; Parida, S. C.

    2016-03-01

    High temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for pure palladium and palladium-rich alloys of compositions Pd0.77Ag0.23 and Pd0.77Ag0.10Cu0.13 in the temperature range of 298-1023 K at an interval of 50 K. The lattice parameters, coefficient of thermal expansion and X-ray Debye temperature of these materials were calculated as a function of temperature from the XRD data. The lattice parameter of Pd0.77Ag0.23 alloy was found to be higher than that of palladium, whereas the lattice parameter of Pd0.77Ag0.10Cu0.13 was found to be lower than that of palladium in the temperature range of investigation. Further, the lattice parameters of both the palladium alloys show negative deviation from Vegard's law and the deviation was found to increase with increase in temperature. The average value of coefficient of linear thermal expansion was found to follow the trend: αT (Pd)>αT (Pd0.77Ag0.23)>αT (Pd0.77Ag0.10Cu0.13). The X-ray Debye temperatures of Pd0.77Ag0.23 and Pd0.77Ag0.10Cu0.13 alloys were calculated and found to be 225±10 and 165±10 K, respectively.

  9. Effect of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles on SERS spectral variance of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Shaode; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-02-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively utilized in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for bacterial identification. However, Ag NPs are toxic to bacteria. Whether such toxicity can affect SERS features of bacteria and interfere with bacterial identification is still unknown and needed to explore. Here, by carrying out a comparative study on non-toxic Au NPs with that on toxic Ag NPs, we investigated the influence of nanoparticle concentration and incubation time on bacterial SERS spectral variance, both of which were demonstrated to be closely related to the toxicity of Ag NPs. Sensitive spectral alterations were observed on Ag NPs with increase of NPs concentration or incubation time, accompanied with an obvious decrease in number of viable bacteria. In contrast, SERS spectra and viable bacterial number on Au NPs were rather constant under the same conditions. A further analysis on spectral changes demonstrated that it was cell response (i.e. metabolic activity or death) to the toxicity of Ag NPs causing spectral variance. However, biochemical responses to the toxicity of Ag were very different in different bacteria, indicating the complex toxic mechanism of Ag NPs. Ag NPs are toxic to a great variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa etc., therefore, this work will be helpful in guiding the future application of SERS technique in various complex biological systems.

  10. Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Nan; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient photocatalyst of visible-light-driven Ag nanoparticles loaded on porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by the reduction of Ag ions on porous g-C3N4. The obtained Ag/porous g-C3N4 composite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results demonstrated that a homogeneous distribution of Ag NPs of 10 nm was attached onto the surface of the porous g-C3N4. The prepared Ag/porous g-C3N4 samples were applied for catalyzing the degradation of phenol in water under visible light irradiation. Porous g-C3N4 demonstrated an excellent support for the formation and dispersion of small uniform Ag NPs. When the weight percentage of Ag reaches 5%, the nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activities compared to bulk g-C3N4, porous g-C3N4, and 2% Ag/porous g-C3N4 hybrids. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is due to the synergic effect between Ag and porous g-C3N4, which suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  11. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples.

  12. Synchrotron Study of Ag-Doped Mg2Si: Correlation Between Properties and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytuliak, Anastasiia; Godlewska, Elzbieta; Mars, Krzysztof; Berthebaud, David

    2014-10-01

    The crystal structure of Ag-doped Mg2Si was investigated using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction analysis, including in situ synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction patterns, recorded during a thermal cycle from room temperature up to 600°C. Rietveld refinement of diffraction patterns indicated that Ag doping results in partial substitution at Si sites. During heating, the Mg2Si lattice parameters exhibited a shift in the temperature dependence at 300°C to 350°C, which was attributed to Ag precipitation out of Mg2Si1- x Ag x solid solution. In turn, an increase of the Ag present in the Mg2Si lattice after 350°C could be linked to thermally activated diffusion of Ag from β-AgMg phase. The Ag-dopant migration may explain previously outlined instabilities in the thermopower of Ag-doped Mg2Si, e.g., the drop of the Seebeck coefficient value after heating to 150°C to 200°C and its subsequent increase after 350°C to 450°C.

  13. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-01

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  14. Crystal Structure of AgBi2I7 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zewen; Meng, Weiwei; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-10-06

    Synthesis of cubic-phase AgBi2I7 iodobismuthate thin films and fabrication of air-stable Pb-free solar cells using the AgBi2I7 absorber have recently been reported. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and nominal composition, it was suggested that the synthesized films have a cubic ThZr2H7 crystal structure with AgBi2I7 stoichiometry. Through careful examination of the proposed structure and computational evaluation of the phase stability and bandgap, we find that the reported "AgBi2I7" films cannot be forming with the ThZr2H7-type structure, but rather more likely adopt an Ag-deficient AgBiI4 type. Both the experimental X-ray diffraction pattern and bandgap can be better explained by the AgBiI4 structure. Additionally, the proposed AgBiI4 structure, with octahedral bismuth coordination, removes unphysically short Bi-I bonding within the [BiI8] hexahedra of the ThZr2I7 model. Our results provide critical insights for assessing the photovoltaic properties of AgBi2I7 iodobismuthate materials.

  15. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples. PMID:28134263

  16. Preparation and Sintering Properties of Ag27Cu2Sn Nanopaste as Die Attach Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Zhen; Kong, Lingchao

    2016-10-01

    Ag27Cu2Sn nanopaste has been prepared by mixing Ag, Cu, and Sn nanoparticles with an organic solvent system. Sintering and mechanical properties of this nanopaste were characterized and investigated. Effects of sintering temperature and time on the sintered microstructure of the nanopaste and shear strength of Cu/Ag27Cu2Sn/Cu structure were analyzed. The results showed that the organic shells coated on the outside of metal nanoparticles could effectively prevent metal nanoparticles from being oxidized below 480°C. When the paste was sintered at 480°C without pressure, few voids or large particles formed within the sintered layer and distributions of Ag, Cu, and Sn were quite uniform. This sintering temperature was much lower than the eutectic temperature (779°C) of Ag-Cu bulk material. Moreover, mutual solid solubilities of Ag and Cu were increased remarkably, which may be caused by high surface activity of Ag and Cu nanoparticles and the important role of the Sn addition. Shear strength of samples with Cu/Ag27Cu2Sn/Cu structure could reach 21 MPa, which could compare with that of Ag nanopaste or conductive adhesives.

  17. An investigation of the micro-variations of highly luminous OBA stars (Alpha CYG variables). VI - The characteristics of the S DOR type stars R71 and AG CAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genderen, A. M.; The, P. S.; Augusteijn, T.; Engelsman, E. C.; van der Grift, E. W.; Prein, J. J.; Remijn, R. L.; Steeman, F. W. M.; van Weeren, N.

    1988-09-01

    The microvariations of R71 and AG Car when both were at minimum brightness (1986-1987) were investigated based upon VBLUW photometry. For R71, a characteristic time scale of 14.3 d is found, and it is shown that the amplitude, mean brightness, and colors stayed constant. A characteristic time scale of 13.8 d is found for AG Car, and it is suggested that the V-B and (B-V)j color indices of AG Car need to be corrected for the contribution of emission lines in the blue part of the spectrum. New reddenings obtained for the two stars are higher than those used previously.

  18. Contrasting antibody responses to intrasubtype superinfection with CRF02_AG.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Colleen R; Mayr, Luzia; Nanfack, Aubin J; Banin, Andrew N; Tuen, Michael; Pan, Ruimin; Jiang, Xunqing; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig A; Sykora, Lydia; Porcella, Stephen F; Redd, Andrew D; Quinn, Thomas C; Nyambi, Phillipe N; Dürr, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    HIV superinfection describes the sequential infection of an individual with two or more unrelated HIV strains. Intersubtype superinfection has been shown to cause a broader and more potent heterologous neutralizing antibody response when compared to singly infected controls, yet the effects of intrasubtype superinfection remain controversial. Longitudinal samples were analyzed phylogenetically for pol and env regions using Next-Generation Sequencing and envelope cloning. The impact of CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection was assessed for heterologous neutralization and antibody binding responses. We compared two cases of CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection that revealed complete replacement of the initial virus by superinfecting CRF02_AG variants with signs of recombination. NYU6564, who became superinfected at an early time point, exhibited greater changes in antibody binding profiles and generated a more potent neutralizing antibody response post-superinfection compared to NYU6501. In contrast, superinfection occurred at a later time point in NYU6501 with strains harboring significantly longer V1V2 regions with no observable changes in neutralization patterns. Here we show that CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection can induce a cross-subtype neutralizing antibody response, and our data suggest timing and/or superinfecting viral envelope characteristics as contributing factors. These results highlight differential outcomes in intrasubtype superinfection and provide the first insight into cases with CRF02_AG, the fourth most prevalent HIV-1 strain worldwide.

  19. Complexation and phase evolution at dimethylformamide-Ag(111) interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Wentao; Leung, Kevin; Shao, Qian; ...

    2016-09-15

    The interaction of solvent molecules with metallic surfaces impacts many interfacial chemical processes. We investigate the chemical and structure evolution that follows adsorption of the polar solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) on Ag(111). An Ag(DMF)2 coordination complex forms spontaneously by DMF etching of Ag(111), yielding mixed films of the complexes and DMF. Utilizing ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM), in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) computations, we map monolayer phases from the 2-D gas regime, consisting of a binary mixture of DMF and Ag(DMF)2, through the saturation monolayer limit, in which these two chemical species phasemore » separate into ordered islands. Structural models for the near-square DMF phase and the chain-like Ag(DMF)2 phase are presented and supported by DFT computation. Interface evolution is summarized in a surface pressure-composition phase diagram, which allows structure prediction over arbitrary experimental conditions. In conclusion, this work reveals new surface coordination chemistry for an important electrolyte-electrode system, and illustrates how surface pressure can be used to tune monolayer phases.« less

  20. Complexation and phase evolution at dimethylformamide-Ag(111) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wentao; Leung, Kevin; Shao, Qian; Gaskell, Karen J.; Reutt-Robey, Janice E.

    2016-09-15

    The interaction of solvent molecules with metallic surfaces impacts many interfacial chemical processes. We investigate the chemical and structure evolution that follows adsorption of the polar solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) on Ag(111). An Ag(DMF)2 coordination complex forms spontaneously by DMF etching of Ag(111), yielding mixed films of the complexes and DMF. Utilizing ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM), in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) computations, we map monolayer phases from the 2-D gas regime, consisting of a binary mixture of DMF and Ag(DMF)2, through the saturation monolayer limit, in which these two chemical species phase separate into ordered islands. Structural models for the near-square DMF phase and the chain-like Ag(DMF)2 phase are presented and supported by DFT computation. Interface evolution is summarized in a surface pressure-composition phase diagram, which allows structure prediction over arbitrary experimental conditions. In conclusion, this work reveals new surface coordination chemistry for an important electrolyte-electrode system, and illustrates how surface pressure can be used to tune monolayer phases.

  1. Contrasting antibody responses to intrasubtype superinfection with CRF02_AG

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Colleen R.; Mayr, Luzia; Nanfack, Aubin J.; Banin, Andrew N.; Tuen, Michael; Pan, Ruimin; Jiang, Xunqing; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig A.; Sykora, Lydia; Porcella, Stephen F.; Redd, Andrew D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Dürr, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    HIV superinfection describes the sequential infection of an individual with two or more unrelated HIV strains. Intersubtype superinfection has been shown to cause a broader and more potent heterologous neutralizing antibody response when compared to singly infected controls, yet the effects of intrasubtype superinfection remain controversial. Longitudinal samples were analyzed phylogenetically for pol and env regions using Next-Generation Sequencing and envelope cloning. The impact of CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection was assessed for heterologous neutralization and antibody binding responses. We compared two cases of CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection that revealed complete replacement of the initial virus by superinfecting CRF02_AG variants with signs of recombination. NYU6564, who became superinfected at an early time point, exhibited greater changes in antibody binding profiles and generated a more potent neutralizing antibody response post-superinfection compared to NYU6501. In contrast, superinfection occurred at a later time point in NYU6501 with strains harboring significantly longer V1V2 regions with no observable changes in neutralization patterns. Here we show that CRF02_AG intrasubtype superinfection can induce a cross-subtype neutralizing antibody response, and our data suggest timing and/or superinfecting viral envelope characteristics as contributing factors. These results highlight differential outcomes in intrasubtype superinfection and provide the first insight into cases with CRF02_AG, the fourth most prevalent HIV-1 strain worldwide. PMID:28288209

  2. Room temperature syntheses of AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} and PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} salts, Ag{sup +}AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}, Ag{sup 2+}PtF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}, and Ag{sup 2+}PdF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}, and an estimate for E (MF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}) [M = Pt, Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Graudejus, O.; Elder, S.H.; Lucier, G.M.; Shen, C.; Bartlett, N. |

    1999-05-17

    Solutions of AuF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} or PtF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} salts, prepared from the metals at {approximately}20 C, in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF), made basic with alkali fluorides, are further oxidized by photodissociated F{sub 2} (visible or near-UV light) to give AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} or PtF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} salts, including O{sub 2}{sup +}AuF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} (with O{sub 2} in the F{sub 2}). Similar photochemical oxidation of PdF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} salts does not occur. This new synthetic approach has provided LiAuF{sub 6} and LiPtF{sub 6} for the first time, each of which has the LiSbF{sub 6} type (R{bar 3}) structure with (hexagonal cell). New cubic modifications (probable space group Ia3) have been found for AgMF{sub 6}. The preference for Ag{sup 2+}Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} over Ag{sup +}Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup {minus}} is attributed to a second electron affinity of Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}, E(Pt(Pd)F{sub 6}{sup {minus}}) > 60 kcal/mol.

  3. Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures as catalysts for polymerization of alkylsilanes to superhydrophobic silanol/siloxane composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Li, Xueyuan; Duan, Xuelan; Li, Guangjie; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2014-12-15

    Halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures have been prepared through a very simple electroless plating method. Robust Ag nanocrystals can be reproducibly fabricated by soaking halloysite nanotubes in ethanolic solutions of AgNO3 and butylamine. By simply adjusting the molar ratio of AgNO3 and butylamine, Ag nanoparticles with tunable size and quantity on halloysite nanotube are achieved. It reveals that the Ag nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotube supported Ag nanoparticles heteroarchitectures can serve as active catalysts for the polymerization of an alkylsilane C18H37SiH3 with water to form silanol/siloxane composite microspheres and exhibit interesting superhydrophobicity ascribed to the micro/nanobinary structure.

  4. Reversible modulated mid-infrared absorption of Ag/TiO{sub 2} by photoinduced interfacial charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S. C. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn; Li, L.; Pan, S. S.; Luo, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. X.; Li, G. H. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn

    2014-10-06

    An enhanced mid-infrared absorption in Ag nanoparticles-decorated TiO{sub 2} microflowers was reported. It was found that the mid-infrared absorption of the Ag/TiO{sub 2} complex depends strongly on the content and size of Ag nanoparticles, the higher the Ag nanoparticles content, the stronger the infrared absorption. The average reflectivity in the entire mid-infrared region of the microflowers drops from 57.6% to 10.5% after Ag nanoparticles decoration. Reversible modulated mid-infrared absorption properties were found in the Ag/TiO{sub 2} complexes upon alternative illumination of visible and UV light due to the photoinduced interfacial electron transfer between TiO{sub 2} semiconductor and Ag nanoparticles.

  5. Evaluation of LIAISON® XL system for HBsAg, and anti-HCV and anti-HIV/Ag p24.

    PubMed

    De Paschale, Massimo; Manco, Maria Teresa; Belvisi, Luisa; Cagnin, Debora; Cerulli, Teresa; Paganini, Alessia; Arpino, Olivia; Cianflone, Annalisa; Agrappi, Carlo; Mirri, Paola; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained using the new LIAISON® XL chemiluminescence system to search for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2/p24 Ag with those obtained using the VITROS system currently adopted by the Microbiology Unit of the Hospital of Legnano. Routine samples of patients who were referred by practitioners for the determination of HBsAg (1,000 samples) and/or anti-HCV (1,002 samples) and/or anti-HIV1-2 (995 samples) were simultaneously analyzed using both systems. The concordant positive and discordant samples were re-examined for confirmation by means of an HBsAg neutralization assay, anti-HCV immunoblot, or anti-HIV1-2 Western blot; HBV-DNA, or HCV-RNA or HIV-RNA was also sought in the discordant samples. Samples of patients known to be positive were tested (100 HBsAg positive, 100 anti-HCV positive, and 100 HIV 1-2 positive) as well throughout treatment, with viremia levels becoming undetectable after treatment. The HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2 concordance between the two systems in routine series was respectively 99.8%, 98.5% and 99.7%, and 100% for all markers in samples known positive. The various molecular biology and confirmatory tests of the discordant samples were all negative (except for one anti-HCV positive sample). Measure of Cohen's kappa coefficient for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV gave K values of respectively 0.992, 0.946, and 0.980. In conclusion, the performance of the LIAISON® XL system in the routine laboratory determination for all three markers was comparable with that of the VITROS system. J. Med. Virol. 89:489-496, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling of the AGS using Zgoubi - Status

    SciTech Connect

    Meot F.; Ahrens, L.; Dutheil, Y.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tsoupas, N.

    2012-05-20

    This paper summarizes the progress achieved so far, and discusses various outcomes, regarding the development of a model of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the RHIC collider. The model, based on stepwise ray-tracing methods, includes beam and polarization dynamics. This is an on-going work, and a follow-on of code developments and particle and spin dynamics simulations that have been subject to earlier publications at IPAC and PAC [1, 2, 3]. A companion paper [4] gives additional informations, regarding the use of the measured magnetic field maps of the AGS main magnets.

  7. Optical absorption spectra and structures of Ag{6/+} and Ag{8/+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayeghi, A.; Götz, D. A.; Johnston, R. L.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-06-01

    This work presents optical photodissociation spectra of the Ag{6/+} and the Ag{8/+} clusters in the photon energy range ħω = 1.9-4.4 eV. Experimental spectra are interpreted by means of range separated TDDFT using the LC- ωPBEh and HSE06 functionals, where putative global minimum structures are obtained by the new pool-based Birmingham Cluster Genetic Algorithm, coupled with density functional theory. Structural assignment is facilitated by additionally taking data from previous ion mobility experiments into account. Both functionals reproduce the measured spectra very well, whereas HSE06 shows an almost quantitative agreement, questioning the importance of Hartree-Fock exchange in the long-range part of the range separated functional.

  8. Influence of size, shape and core–shell interface on surface plasmon resonance in Ag and Ag@MgO nanoparticle films deposited on Si/SiOx

    PubMed Central

    Pinotti, Daniele; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Paolicelli, Guido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Valeri, Sergio; Pasquali, Luca; Bergamini, Luca; Corni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ag and Ag@MgO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of d = 3–10 nm were obtained by physical synthesis methods and deposited on Si with its native ultrathin oxide layer SiOx (Si/SiOx). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of bare Ag NPs revealed the presence of small NP aggregates caused by diffusion on the surface and agglomeration. Atomic resolution TEM gave evidence of the presence of crystalline multidomains in the NPs, which were due to aggregation and multitwinning occurring during NP growth in the nanocluster source. Co-deposition of Ag NPs and Mg atoms in an oxygen atmosphere gave rise to formation of a MgO shell matrix surrounding the Ag NPs. The behaviour of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation in surface differential reflectivity (SDR) spectra with p-polarised light was investigated for bare Ag and Ag@MgO NPs. It was shown that the presence of MgO around the Ag NPs caused a red shift of the plasmon excitation, and served to preserve its existence after prolonged (five months) exposure to air, realizing the possibility of technological applications in plasmonic devices. The Ag NP and Ag@MgO NP film features in the SDR spectra could be reproduced by classical electrodynamics simulations by treating the NP-containing layer as an effective Maxwell Garnett medium. The simulations gave results in agreement with the experiments when accounting for the experimentally observed aggregation. PMID:25821680

  9. Determining the Concentration Dependent Transformations of Ag Nanoparticles in Complex Media: Using SP-ICP-MS and Au@Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Tracers.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Ruth C; Stephan, Chady; Lead, Jamie

    2017-03-01

    The fate, behavior, and impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in toxicological and environmental media are driven by complex processes which are difficult to quantify. A key limitation is the ability to perform measurements at low and environmentally relevant concentrations, since concentration may be a key factor determining fate and effects. Here, we use single particle inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (SP-ICP-MS) to measure directly NP diameter and particle number concentration of suspensions containing gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) NPs in EPA moderately hard water (MHW) and MHW containing 2.5 mg L(-1) Suwannee River fulvic acid. The Au core of the Au@Ag NPs acts as an internal standard, and aids in the analysis of the complex Ag transformations. The high sensitivity of SP-ICP-MS, along with the Au@Ag NPs, enabled us to track the NP transformations in the range 0.01 and 50 μg L(-1), without further sample preparation. On the basis of the analysis of both Au and Ag parameters (size, size distribution, and particle number), concentration was shown to be a key factor in NP behavior. At higher concentration, NPs were in an aggregation-dominated regime, while at the lower and environmentally representative concentrations, dissolution of Ag was dominant and aggregation was negligible. In addition, further formation of ionic silver as Ag NPs in the form of AgS or AgCl was shown to occur. Between 1 and 10 μg L(-1), both aggregation and dissolution were important. The results suggest that, under realistic conditions, the role of NP homoaggregation may be minimal. In addition, the complexity of exposure and dose in dose-response relationships is highlighted.

  10. Use of Single-Layer g-C3N4/Ag Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jizhou; Zou, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Zhang, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C3N4 (S-g-C3N4) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a strong interaction between S-g-C3N4 and Ag NPs, which facilitates the uniform distribution of Ag NPs over the edges and surfaces of S-g-C3N4 nanosheets, and induces a charge transfer from S-g-C3N4 to the oxidizing agent through the silver surface, ultimately protecting Ag NPs from oxidation. Based on the theoretical calculations, we found that the net surface charge of the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was positive and the Ag NPs presented high dispersibility, suggesting that the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates were not likely to be oxidized, thereby ensuring the high stability of the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrate. An understanding of the stability mechanism in this system can be helpful for developing other effective SERS substrates with long-term stability. PMID:27687573

  11. Use of Single-Layer g-C3N4/Ag Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jizhou; Zou, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Zhang, Wenjing

    2016-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C3N4 (S-g-C3N4) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a strong interaction between S-g-C3N4 and Ag NPs, which facilitates the uniform distribution of Ag NPs over the edges and surfaces of S-g-C3N4 nanosheets, and induces a charge transfer from S-g-C3N4 to the oxidizing agent through the silver surface, ultimately protecting Ag NPs from oxidation. Based on the theoretical calculations, we found that the net surface charge of the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was positive and the Ag NPs presented high dispersibility, suggesting that the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates were not likely to be oxidized, thereby ensuring the high stability of the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrate. An understanding of the stability mechanism in this system can be helpful for developing other effective SERS substrates with long-term stability.

  12. Use of Single-Layer g-C3N4/Ag Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jizhou; Zou, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Zhang, Wenjing

    2016-09-30

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C3N4 (S-g-C3N4) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a strong interaction between S-g-C3N4 and Ag NPs, which facilitates the uniform distribution of Ag NPs over the edges and surfaces of S-g-C3N4 nanosheets, and induces a charge transfer from S-g-C3N4 to the oxidizing agent through the silver surface, ultimately protecting Ag NPs from oxidation. Based on the theoretical calculations, we found that the net surface charge of the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was positive and the Ag NPs presented high dispersibility, suggesting that the Ag atoms on the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates were not likely to be oxidized, thereby ensuring the high stability of the S-g-C3N4/Ag substrate. An understanding of the stability mechanism in this system can be helpful for developing other effective SERS substrates with long-term stability.

  13. ESR and TL mechanism in CaSO4 : Ag co-doped phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabekar, Bhushan; Menon, Sanjeev; Alagu Raja, E.; Sanaye, S. S.; Gundu Rao, T. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Kher, R. K.

    2006-06-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) studies have been carried out on CaSO4 : Mn, CaSO4 : Ag,Mn, CaSO4 : Ag,Nd, CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd, CaSO4 : Ag,Zr and CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Zr phosphors. It is found that TL at 360 °C in CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd is about 40 times that of CaSO4 : Ag,Mn and about 170 times that of CaSO4 : Ag,Nd. This shows that the presence of an efficient luminescent centre (Mn2+) as well as a trivalent impurity (such as Nd3+ or Y3+) is important for enhancement of TL at 360 °C in the CaSO4 : Ag,Mn,Nd phosphor system. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies show that the peak at 360 °C correlates with an Ag2+ centre formed due to γ-irradiation and observable only below -170 °C. The Ag2+ centre is characterized by an axial g-tensor with principal values g|| = 2.38 and gbottom = 2.41. ESR studies further indicate that the precursor to a centre observable at low temperature (-170 °C) appears to act as the recombination centre for the TL peak at 360 °C. The low temperature centre is characterized by the g-values g|| = 2.0023 and gbottom = 2.0038 and is assigned to the SO_{3}^{ - } radical.

  14. Rainbow radiating single-crystal Ag nanowire nanoantenna.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taejoon; Choi, Wonjun; Yoon, Ilsun; Lee, Hyoban; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Q-Han; Kim, Bongsoo

    2012-05-09

    Optical antennas interface an object with optical radiation and boost the absorption and emission of light by the objects through the antenna modes. It has been much desired to enhance both excitation and emission processes of the quantum emitters as well as to interface multiwavelength channels for many nano-optical applications. Here we report the experimental implementation of an optical antenna operating in the full visible range via surface plasmon currents induced in a defect-free single-crystalline Ag nanowire (NW). With its atomically flat surface, the long Ag NW reliably establishes multiple plasmonic resonances and produces a unique rainbow antenna radiation in the Fresnel region. Detailed antenna radiation properties, such as radiating near-field patterns and polarization states, were experimentally examined and precisely analyzed by numerical simulations and antenna theory. The multiresonant Ag NW nanoantenna will find superb applications in nano-optical spectroscopy, high-resolution nanoimaging, photovoltaics, and nonlinear signal conversion.

  15. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tai-Long; Wang, Jing-Houng; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hung, Chao-Hung; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. Methods Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified. Results A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4%) lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4%) experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml) cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.2–166.7 (P = 0.008). The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR) 1.075, 95% CI 1.020–1.132, P = 0.006) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1–12.4, P = 0.032) were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0–2.5, P = 0.031) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1–52.4, P = 0.004) were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusion A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness. PMID:27935953

  16. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  17. Desorption of oxygen from alloyed Ag/Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, Maciej; Wormeester, Herbert Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2014-06-21

    We have investigated the interaction of oxygen with the Ag/Pt(111) surface alloy by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The surface alloy was formed during the deposition of sub-monolayer amounts of silver on Pt(111) at 800 K and subsequent cooling to 300 K. The low-temperature phase of the surface alloy is composed of nanometer-sized silver rich stripes, embedded within platinum-rich domains, which were characterized with spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction. The TDS measurements show that oxygen adsorption is blocked on Ag sites: the saturation coverage of oxygen decreases with increasing Ag coverage. Also, the activation energy for desorption (E{sub des}) decreases with Ag coverage. The analysis of the desorption spectra from clean Pt(111) shows a linear decay of E{sub des} with oxygen coverage, which indicates repulsive interactions between the adsorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, adsorption on alloyed Ag/Pt(111) leads to an attractive interaction between adsorbed oxygen atoms.

  18. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Leif

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  19. Enhancing the ag precipitation by surface mechanical attrition treatment on Cu-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Lehao; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Liuyi; Gu, Hao; Fang, Youtong; Meng, Liang; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on Ag precipitation in Cu-Ag alloys was investigated. Cu-6 wt% Ag was melt, cold rolled and solution treated to be Cu-Ag solid solution, which was either aged at 250 and 350 °C for 24 h directly or SMAT-ed before aging. Ag precipitates were hard be found in the directly aged Cu-Ag sample while they were observed clearly in the SMAT-ed counterpart at 250 °C. The Ag precipitates formed in the surface layer by SMAT are much coarser than those in the un-SMAT-ed sample. It is obvious that the precipitating behavior of Ag was promoted significantly by SMAT approach. A large number of defects were generated by SMAT and they were acting as fast atomic diffusion channels that facilitated the atomic diffusion of Ag.

  20. X-ray diffraction structure of the 1,1{prime}-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf)-bridged complex [(dppf)AgCl]{sub 2}: An unexpected product from the reaction between cis-(bpy){sub 2}RuCl{sub 2} and dppf in the presence of AgBF{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K.; Bott, S.G.; Richmond, M.G.

    1995-05-01

    The reaction between cis-Ru(bpy){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(where bpy = bipyridine) and the diphosphine ligand 1,1 {prime} - bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) in the presence of AgBF{sub 4} has led to the isolation of the title compound [Ag(dppf)Cl]{sub 2}. [Ag(dppf)Cl]{sub 2} has been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, which confirms the bridging mode adopted by the ancillary dppf ligand and the centrosymmetric nature of this molecule. Dimeric [Ag(dppf)Cl]{sub 2} crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, a = 11.426(1) {angstrom}, b = 11.509(1) {angstrom}, c = 12.786(1) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 68.96(2){degrees}, {beta} = 70.66(2){degrees} = {gamma} = 71.24(2){degrees}, V = 1441(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 1, d{sub calc} = 1.608 g {center_dot} cm{sup {minus}3}; R = 0.0445, R{sub 2} = 0.0566 for 4486 observed reflections with l {ge} 3{sigma}(l).

  1. 77 FR 30371 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, and certain serial numbers (S/Ns) of IAE...

  2. 78 FR 1776 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines AG Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aero Engines AG (IAE), V2525-D5 and V2528-D5 turbofan engines, with a certain number (No.) 4 bearing... prompted by a report of an engine under-cowl fire and commanded in-flight shutdown. This proposed AD...

  3. Anatomy of Ag/Hafnia-Based Selectors with 10 10 Nonlinearity

    DOE PAGES

    Midya, Rivu; Wang, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jiaming; ...

    2017-01-30

    We developed a novel Ag/oxide-based threshold switching device with attractive features including ≈1010 nonlinearity. Furthermore, in a high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis of the nanoscale crosspoint device it is suggested that elongation of an Ag nanoparticle under voltage bias followed by spontaneous reformation of a more spherical shape after power off, is responsible for the observed threshold switching.

  4. Ag-Mn nanoparticles: Three-dimensional finite size effect of the spin glass state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Hoel, A.; Johansson, C. I.; Kiss, L. B.; Olsson, E.; Granqvist, C. G.; Nordblad, P.

    1999-12-01

    Ag-Mn nanoparticles were prepared by advanced gas evaporation. Their composition corresponded to Ag0.89Mn0.11, and the particle size distribution was log normal. The particles demonstrated an unambiguous spin glass behavior with the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility displaying a plateau at ˜25 K. The magnetic domains were limited by the size of the particles.

  5. Evenly distributed thin-film Ag coating on stainless plate by tricomponent Ag/silicate/PU with antimicrobial and biocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chen, Mark Hung-Chih; Lee, Bing-Heng; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2014-11-26

    A tricomponent nanohybrid dispersion in water comprising silver nanoparticles (AgNP), nanometer-thick silicate platelets (NSP), and water-based polyurethane (PU) was developed for surface coating on orthopedic metal plates. The previously developed AgNP-on-NSP nanohybrid was homogeneously blended into a selected waterborne PU dispersion at varied weight ratios from 1/0.1 to 1/10 (w/w). PU was used to adhere the Ag nanohybrid to the metal surface. The resultant dispersions were analyzed and found to contain AgNP 2-18 nm in diameter and characterized by using UV absorption and TEM micrograph. The subsequent coating of AgNP/NSP-PU dispersion generated a film of 1.5 μm thickness on the metal plate surface, further characterized by an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) to show the homogeneous distribution of Ag, Si, and C elements on the metal plates. The surface antimicrobial efficacy was proven for the coating composition of AgNP/NSP to PU ranging from 1/1 to 1/5 by weight ratio but irrelevant to the thickness of the coated materials. The metal plate coated with the high Ag content at 1/1 (w/w) ratio was shown to have very low cytotoxicity toward the contacted mammal fibroblasts. Overall, the optimized tricomponent Ag/silicate/PU in water dispersion from 1/2 to 1/3 (w/w) could generate a stable film on a metal surface exhibiting both antimicrobial and biocompatible properties. The facile coating technique of the AgNP/NSP in waterborne PU is proven to be viable for fabricating infection- and cytotoxicity-free medical devices.

  6. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae, the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae. PMID:27867767

  7. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Barik, Tapan K; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Rasgon, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae, the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae.

  8. METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.

    2012-05-23

    One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

  9. Shedding Light on the Photochemistry of Coinage-Metal Phosphorescent Materials: A Time-Resolved Laue Diffraction Study of an AgI-CuI Tetranuclear Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jarzembska, Katarzyna N.; Kami,; #324; ski, Radoslaw; Fournier, Bertrand; Trzop, El; #380; bieta,; Sokolow, Jesse D.; Henning, Robert; Chen, Yang; Coppens, Philip

    2014-11-14

    The triplet excited state of a new crystalline form of a tetranuclear coordination d10–d10-type complex, Ag2Cu2L4 (L = 2-diphenylphosphino-3-methylindole ligand), containing AgI and CuI metal centers has b