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Sample records for ag basel switzerland

  1. Seismic monitoring and analysis of deep geothermal projects in St Gallen and Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Kraft, Toni; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Wiemer, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    from a minimum source-station distance of 20 km down to 1 km. Based on this we could determine the component of the previously derived station specific ML corrections due to local amplification. We analysed ground-motion and detailed macroseismic reports resulting from the 2013 July 20 St Gallen ML = 3.5 ± 0.1 (Mw = 3.3-3.5 ± 0.1) `main shock' and compared it to a similar ML = 3.4 ± 0.1 event (Mw = 3.2 ± 0.1) that occurred in 2006 at another deep geothermal project in Basel, Switzerland. Differences in ground motion amplitudes between the Basel and St Gallen events and to an extent, the associated macroseismic observations, were investigated in terms of the different source terms: Mw for long-period motions and the source-corner frequency (related to the source rupture velocity and stress-drop) for short periods.

  2. Pore pressure behavior at the shut-in phase and causality of large induced seismicity at Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Y.; Dinske, C.; Asanuma, H.; Ito, T.; Häring, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    Induced seismicity with unexpectedly large magnitude often occurs after shut-in or end of stimulation, generating concerns at the end of stimulation. We investigated the physical mechanism of large-magnitude induced seismicity during shut-in following the hydraulic stimulation at Basel, Switzerland. Larger postinjection events occurred at the periphery of the seismic cloud. We estimated the pore pressure required to cause shear slip using Coulomb failure criteria from stress information, geometry of the fault planes of microseismic events, and a constant coefficient of friction. Time series analysis of pore pressure distribution indicated that pore pressure migrated to the far field even after shut-in. Redistribution of pore pressure at shut-in brought sufficient pore pressure increase to induce seismicity in the peripheral region. After shut-in, the pore pressure gradient away from the well lessened and eventually pressure became uniform. These observations suggest that the higher pore pressure, which remained in the vicinity of the injection point, shifted to the farthest field. Shut-in pressure migration caused uniform pore pressure distribution at the edge of the seismic zone. Shut-in pressure destabilized a large part of the fault located at the edge of the seismic cloud, resulting in the shear slip of a large section of the fault. Meanwhile, during stimulation, only some parts of the fault entered the critical state because of the pressure gradient. The resulting shear slip on that specific part causes moderate magnitude events at most.

  3. Moment Tensor Inversions of the M1.7+ Earthquakes in Basel. Switzerland Reveal Predominant Shear Dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilhem, A.; Walter, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate moment tensor solutions of nearly 30 magnitude (M) 1.7+ earthquakes that occurred in Basel, Switzerland during and after the simulation of the geothermal enhanced system between December 2nd and 8th 2006. In 2009, Deichmann and Ernst determined the focal mechanisms for these events using P-wave first-motions. They found clear evidence for double-couple mechanisms with no indications for substantial volumetric changes. This differs from evidences of composite type ruptures (i.e., shearing with isotropic motion) observed in other geothermal environments. Here, we use a similar approach for the computation of the moment tensor inversions to the one used by Guilhem et al. (2012) for M3 earthquakes in Geysers. We use a dataset from strong-motion stations located within 7 km from the epicenters, with data filtered between 0.5 and 3 Hz and integrated twice to displacement. The waveforms are inverted for both deviatoric and full moment tensor solutions. In addition, we perform a network sensitivity test (NSS) by computing 100 million random moment tensors for each event thus testing the sensitivity of the moment tensor solutions. Finally, because the injection of fluids in the ground can promote crack growth generating seismic events, we also compute a crack + double-couple inversion (Minson et al., 2007) for each of the studied earthquakes between December 2006 and May 2007. From this extensive search we find that the results of our different techniques converge. Moment tensor solutions are very similar to the first-motion focal mechanisms of Deichmann and Ernst (2009) and accordingly do not exhibit dominant volumetric changes except for a subset of events, which we discuss in some detail. References: Deichmann, N. and Ernst, J. (2009), Swiss J. Geosc. Guilhem, A., Dreger, D.S., Hutchings, L. J., and Johnson, L. (2012), AGU Fall meeting Minson, S. E., Dreger, D. S., Bürgmann, R., Kanamori, H., Larson, K. M. (2007), J. Geophys. Res.

  4. Double-couple and Moment Tensor Solutions of the Induced Seismicity related to the Stimulation Phase of the Enhanced Geothermal Site in Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Oye, V.; Kuehn, D. K.; Cesca, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of moment tensor (MT) inversion of 19 microseismic events with ML > 2, associated with the enhanced geothermal reservoir stimulation operation at Basel, Switzerland (starting 2 December, 2006). We use the software package 'Kiwi' from University of Hamburg, Germany, and adopt a three-step procedure to retrieve point solution parameters based on the waveform fit. The inversion is performed to displacement spectra and time series seismograms in the first and second step, respectively. After the first two steps, we obtain focal solutions of these 19 events assuming a double couple (DC) source model. Our results agree with the focal mechanisms from a previous study, based on the projections of first-motion polarities. Compared to the previous study using first-motion polarities, our solutions are achieved with the data from less than 10 stations. In the last step, MT components of each event are solved using the best DC solution as the initial model input. The isotropic components of MT solutions of some events are not negligible, which might be due to volume changes (crack open and close) caused by the fluid injection. The tempo-spatial patterns of isotropic components of MT solutions can be used for the inference of the co- and post-simulation process in the Basel site. We also plan to systematically analyze the amplitude ratio of P and S waves to verify the existence of 'tensile earthquake' during the stimulation.

  5. Switzerland.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Switzerland has been estimated at 6.5 million, with an annual population growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 9/1000 live births, and life expectancy averages 70.3 years for men and 76.2 years for women. Literacy is 100%, and school attendance is compulsory for 9 years. The population, of mixed European stock, is concentrated in the centralplain area. Switzerland is a federal state composed of 23 cantons that retain fiscal autonomy and the right to manage internal cantonal affairs. The basic unit of local government is the commune or municipality. The inability of the cantons to finance modern institutions (including education) has resulted in greater federal influence within the cantons; however, the policital situation in the country is extremely stable. Switzerland maintains one of the highest living standards in the world, and per capita income average US$14,408. The gross domestic product was US$93.7 billion in 1984. Of the work force of 3.1 million, 7% are engaged in agriculture, 39% are employed in industry and commerce, 50% work in the service sector, and 4% are employed by government. Foreign workers comprise about 17% of the labor force. Economic growth has been facilitated by a heavy influx of foreign capital, intense investment activity, high individual consumption with an accompanying increase in imports, expanding export industries, and a high demand for construction.

  6. Evidence for Holocene palaeoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach active normal fault (Switzerland): a seismic source for the 1356 earthquake in the Upper Rhine graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Delouis, Bertrand; Giardini, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    We conducted a palaeoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 1356 October 18 (Io = IX-X), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach (BR) fault scarp. The active normal fault is comprised of at least two main branches reaching the surface as evident by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the modern soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence (TL) age determinations from other trenches helped to reconstruct the Holocene event chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5-0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 yr and five events in the last 13 200 yr. The most recent event occurred in the interval AD 500-1450 (2σ) and may correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura mountains and across the Rhine valley. Taking this fault length and a 10-km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a Mw 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  7. Evidence for Holocene paleoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach Active Normal Fault (Switzerland): A Seismic Source for the 1356 Earthquake in the Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Delouis, B.; Giardini, D.

    2003-04-01

    We conducted a paleoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 18th October 1356 (Io = IX-X MKS), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach fault scarp. The active normal fault shows at least two main branches reaching the surface as attested by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data, and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the present day soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence age determinations from other trenches helped reconstruct the Holocene events chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5 - 0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 years and five events in the last 13200 years. The most recent event occurred in the interval 610 - 1475 A.D. (2sigma) and may likely correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura Mountains and across the Rhine Valley. Taking this fault length and a 10 km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a M 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  8. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail.

  9. The Basel Problem as a Telescoping Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benko, David

    2012-01-01

    The celebrated Basel Problem, that of finding the infinite sum 1 + 1/ 4 + 1/9 + 1/16 + ..., was open for 91 years. In 1735 Euler showed that the sum is pi[superscript 2]/6. Dozens of other solutions have been found. We give one that is short and elementary.

  10. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

  11. Enhanced Geothermal Systems in Urban Areas - Lessons Learned from the 2006 Basel ML3.4 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Mai, P. M.; Wiemer, S.; Deichmann, N.; Ripperger, J.; Kästli, P.; Bachmann, C. E.; Fäh, D.; Woessner, J.; Giardini, D.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a recent deep-heat mining experiment carried out in 2006/2007 in the city of Basel (Switzerland). This pilot project was designed to produce renewable geothermal energy using the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) methodology. For developing the geothermal reservoir, a deep borehole was brought down to 5 km depth. Then, in December 2006, the deep-heat-mining project entered the first critical phase when the water injections started for generating micro-fracturing of the rock. These fractures increase the permeability of the host rock, needed for efficient heat exchange between the rock and the cold water; however, these fracture are also source of micro-seismicity - small earthquakes that are continuously recorded and monitored by dedicated local seismic networks. In this stimulation phase, the seismic activity increased rapidly above the usual background seismicity, and culminated in a widely felt ML 3.4 earthquake, which caused some damage in the city of Basel. Due to the higher-than-expected seismic activity, and the reaction of the population, the media, and the politicians, the experiment was stalled only 6 days after the stimulations began. Although the injected water was allowed to escape immediately after the mainshock and pressure at the wellhead dropped rapidly, the seismic activity declined only slowly, with three ML > 3 events occurring one to two months later. Although the EGS technology has been applied and studied at various sites since the 1970s, the physical processes and parameters that control injection-induced seismicity - in terms of earthquake rate, size distribution and maximum magnitude - are still poorly understood. Consequently, the seismic hazard and risk associated with the creation and operation of EGS are difficult to estimate. The very well monitored Basel seismic sequence provides an excellent opportunity to advance the understanding of the physics of EGS. The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) is investigating the Basel

  12. Strain rate and stress field in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Giardini, Domenico; Rothacher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In this study we test whether the surface deformation and the seismic activity are in agreement in terms of seismic moment release and stress/strain orientations within the territory of Switzerland. We find that for most of the country, the stress released (~2.0 10E11 N·m/yr) is consistent with the lithosphere deformation (<5 10E-8 /yr) constrained using the Global Positioning System (GPS). South of the Alpine front, we note that surface strain rates displays few agreement with long-term (and deep) deformation of the upper mantle. In this area, we propose that shear strain is being distributed in the upper crust as a result of the clockwise rotation of the Adria plate. For three regions (Basel, Swiss Jura and Ticino), we find that seismic current activity and surface deformation not to be in agreement. In the Basel area, deep seismicity exists while surface deformation is absent. This situation contrasts to what is found in the Ticino and the Swiss Jura, where seismic activity is close to absent but surface deformation is detected (~2 10E-8 /yr). While the surface deformation and seismic activity is inconsistent for the Ticino, we find them to comply in the Valais region where MW≥6 events are historically documented. Our comparison implies that the Ticino faces the potential of damaging earthquakes every hundred to few hundred years.

  13. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  14. S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fäh, Donat; Polom, Ulrich; Roullé, Agathe

    2007-07-01

    An extensive S-wave velocity survey had been carried out in the frame of a recent seismic microzonation study of Basel and the border areas between Switzerland, France and Germany. The aim was to better constrain the seismic amplification potential of the surface layers. The survey included single station (H/V spectral ratios) and ambient vibration array measurements carried out by the Swiss team, as well as active S-wave velocity measurements performed by the German and French partners. This paper is focused on the application of the array technique, which consists in recording ambient vibrations with a number of seismological stations. Several practical aspects related to the field measurements are outlined. The signal processing aims to determine the dispersion curves of surface waves contained in the ambient vibrations. The inversion of the dispersion curve provides a 1-D S-wave velocity model for the investigated site down to a depth related to the size of the array. Since the size of arrays is theoretically not limited, arrays are known to be well adapted for investigations in deep sediment basins, such as the Upper Rhine Graben including the area of the city of Basel. In this region, 27 array measurements with varying station configurations have been carried out to determine the S-wave velocity properties of the geological layers down to a depth of 100-250 m. For eight sites, the outputs of the array measurements have been compared with the results of the other investigations using active sources, the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) and S-wave reflection seismics. Borehole information available for a few sites could be used to calibrate the geophysical measurements. By this comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of the array method and the other techniques are outlined with regard to the effectiveness of the methods and the required investigation depth. The dispersion curves measured with the arrays and the SASW technique were also combined

  15. The Basel Problem as a Rearrangement of Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benko, David; Molokach, John

    2013-01-01

    We give an elementary solution to the famous Basel Problem, originally solved by Euler in 1735. We square the well-known series for arctan(1) due to Leibniz, and use a surprising relation among the re-arranged terms of this squared series.

  16. Long-term decay and possible reactivation of induced seismicity at the Basel EGS site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Tormann, Thessa; Deichmann, Nicolas; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In December 2006, an extensive fluid injection was carried out below the city of Basel, Switzerland, to stimulate a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). After six days of gradual increase of flow rate (and thus seismicity), a strongly felt ML3.4 earthquakes led to the immediate termination of the project. The well was opened subsequently and seismicity declined rapidly. The Basel EGS project might be an unsuccessful attempt in terms of energy supply, but a chance to advance the physical understanding of EGSs. The well-monitored and well-studied induced sequence allowed many new insights in terms of reservoir creation. A special observation in the nine years of monitoring is the revive of seismic activity six years after prolonged seismic decay. This renewed activity increase might relate to a gradual pressure increase due to the ultimate shut-in (closure) of the borehole about one year before. Until now, a detailed analysis of the long-term behaviour remained unexplored since a consistent catalogue did not exist. In the current study, we took advantage of the high waveform similarity within a seismic sequence and applied a multi-trace template-matching (i.e. cross-correlation) procedure to detect seismic events about one order of magnitude below the detection threshold. We detected about 100,000 events within the six-day long stimulation alone - previously, only 13,000 microearthquakes were detected. We only scanned the recordings of the deepest borehole station (2.7km). This station is very close to the 5km-deep reservoir and has the highest signal-to-noise ratio among all (borehole-)stations. Our newly obtained catalogue spans over more than nine years and features a uniform (and low) detection threshold and a uniform magnitude determination. The improved resolution of the long-term behaviour and the later seismicity increase will help to understand involved mechanisms better. More induced or natural sequences can be investigated with our procedure.

  17. 14C-based Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols in Switzerland for 2008 - 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotter, Peter; Ciobanu, Gabriela; Zhang, Yanlin; El-Haddad, Imad; Szidat, Sönke; Wacker, Lukas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André

    2013-04-01

    . The highest values were found in alpine valleys with OCNF of max. 100% and ECNF of max. 87%. The station-to-station variation north of the Alps is low, whereas in the south a spatial trend was found with an increase of the non-fossil values towards the north showing the influence of more fossil air masses advected from the Po-valley. No real time trend over the 5 winters was found. The high ECNF and OCNF values together with a good correlation with levoglucosan show that wood burning is the major source of TC in Switzerland during winter smog episodes. This work was funded by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment, inNet Monitoring AG, Liechtenstein and the Swiss cantons Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Graubünden, Solothurn, Valais and Ticino. Ruff, M. et al (2007) Radiocarbon 49(2), 307-314 Szidat, S. et al. (2004) Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 223-224: 829-836 Szidat, S. et al. (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, D07206 Zhang, Y.L. et al. (2012), Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(22): 10841-10856

  18. [Tuberculosis in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Shang, H; Desgrandchamps, D

    1995-10-03

    In Switzerland, in 1992, 957 persons suffered from tuberculosis; 52.3% were Swiss, 47.7% foreigners. Most of the swiss TB patients were more than 65 years old, whereas the foreigners generally were young patients originating from countries with high TB-infection rates. Asylum seekers had much higher TB-case rates (131 cases per 100,000) than other foreigners (27 cases per 100,000) or Swiss (9 cases per 100,000). Special refuge reception centers have been set up in Switzerland, in charge of tuberculosis screening procedures in this high-risk group on arrival to this country. Although HIV and AIDS patients bear a much higher risk of developing tuberculosis once infected, the HIV epidemic did not lead to an increase of tuberculosis in Switzerland so far, since young Swiss are rarely infected with tuberculosis. HIV-infected, drug addicts, homeless persons and alcoholics run a higher risk of contracting tuberculosis only when congregating with a person suffering from active tuberculosis not yet diagnosed or improperly treated. In order to maintain low levels of tuberculosis in Switzerland DOT (directly observed therapy) must be implemented in all patients with uncertain compliance, especially as cultural and social backgrounds become increasingly complex.

  19. Topoclimatological survey of Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winiger, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The application of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data to subsynoptic climate analysis of Switzerland was examined. The data included the surface temperature distributions of urban heat islands and the Swiss Alps. Analog and digital data evaluation procedures are described as well as the ground truth acquisition and comparison program. The dependence of the temperature distributions on topography and surface coverage types is assessed. The results indicate that air temperature inversion zones are detectable.

  20. [First cases of besnoitiosis in cattle in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Lesser, M; Braun, U; Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B; Hilbe, M; Basso, W

    2012-11-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis has been diagnosed in neighboring countries but not in Switzerland so far. This disease occurs endemically in France and focal outbreaks have been reported in Germany and Italy. To determine if Besnoitia besnoiti is introduced into Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a systematic serological survey was performed. A total of 412 breeding cattle (from 114 farms) imported from France into Switzerland between 2005 and 2011, were serologically examined for antibodies against B. besnoiti using a commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK© Besnoitia Ab 2.0, Prionics AG, Zurich, Switzerland). Sixty-four (15.5 %) animals reacted positive in ELISA. The serologic diagnosis was confirmed by an indirect immunfluorescence test (IFAT) and a Western blot (WB) in only 2 Limousin cows imported from France on a farm in Eastern Switzerland. Subsequently, this whole herd (n = 16) was examined clinically and serologically and 2 additional Limousin cows imported from Germany also reacted positive in the three serological tests. One of these cows presented B. besnoiti tissue cysts in the scleral conjunctiva and typical skin lesions in the head region. The infection was further confirmed cytologically, histopathologically and by PCR. It can be concluded that the parasite is most likely being introduced into Switzerland through the import of infected animals.

  1. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to identify sites of largest risk of escape of genetically modified plants into the environment in Switzerland. Transport spillage of OSR seeds from railway goods cars particularly at risk hot spots such as switch yards and (un)loading points but also incidental and continuous spillage were considered. All OSR plants, including their hybridization partners which were collected at the respective monitoring sites were analyzed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. On sampling lengths each of 4.2 and 5.7 km, respectively, 461 and 1,574 plants were sampled in Ticino and the region of Basel. OSR plants were found most frequently along the routes to the oilseed facilities, and in larger amounts on risk hot spots compared to sites of random sampling. At three locations in both monitored regions, transgenic B. napus line GT73 carrying the glyphosate resistance transgenes gox and CP4 epsps were detected (Ticino, 22 plants; in the region of Basel, 159).

  2. Switzerland exploration may resume

    SciTech Connect

    Lahusen, P.H.

    1997-06-23

    Since 1912, 35 wells have been drilled for oil and gas, 19 of them in the last 38 years. Eighty percent of these 19 wells had oil and/or gas shows, but only one was placed on production. The only gas discovery, Entlebuch-1, produced about 2.6 bcf of a high quality gas in 10 years. It was abandoned in 1994. This paper discusses why exploration waned. A second look at the data suggests Switzerland has a high potential for gas production.

  3. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  4. 78 FR 9915 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Basel II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory Capital Ratios..., and (4) make certain public disclosures regarding their capital ratios, their components, and..., Minimum Regulatory Capital Ratios, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, and Prompt Corrective...

  5. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  6. Optimizing candidate selection--a vision in business limited conference. 1-2 December 1998, Basel, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Audus, K L

    1999-02-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is faced with filtering hundreds of thousands of compounds to identify successful drug candidates. Given these numbers, how does the pharmaceutical industry identify optimal therapeutic agents rapidly, efficiently, economically and successfully, with the ultimate result of the patient receiving the best drug? The conference summarized the present and future requirements for evaluating emerging technologies, integrating that technology into a filter for large and growing numbers of compounds, building and linking diverse knowledge bases, and establishing predictive foundations that will optimize and accelerate drug discovery and development. Specific conference topics focused on organizational and management approaches as well as some of the major technologies and emerging techniques for supporting drug candidate selection and optimization. It is predicted that the pharmaceutical industry will be synthesizing and screening a million or more compounds for multiple therapeutic targets in the near future. Pulling together the resources of current and emerging technology, knowledge, and multidisciplinary teamwork, so that discovery and selection of successful drug candidates from this large pool of compounds can take place rapidly, is a significant challenge. This conference focused on the organizational issues and experimental tools that can provide for a shortening of discovery time, identification of current and future selection techniques and criteria, the linking of technologies and business strategies to reduce risk, and novel processes for optimizing candidates more quickly and efficiently. The conference was directed at industrial scientists involved in all stages along the drug discovery and development interface. This conference was well-attended, with approximately 100 participants.

  7. Dynamic Compression System: An Effective Nonoperative Treatment for Pectus Carinatum: A Single Center Experience in Basel, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sesia, Sergio B; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Häcker, Frank-Martin

    2016-12-01

    Background Several nonoperative treatments are currently available for the correction of pectus carinatum (PC). Objective The objective of this study is to report our single center experience with the dynamic compression system (DCS). Materials and Methods The DCS is a rigid aluminum brace. PC is reshaped into a normal appearance through anterior-posterior pressure and lateral expansion of the chest. Patients with chondrogladiolar PC were considered suitable for the nonoperative treatment with DCS. Results In this study, 53 of 68 children (78%) with chondrogladiolar PC were assessed retrospectively: 2 children were corrected by surgery, 12/53 (23%) treated by a conventional orthesis, 11/53 (21%) remained without therapy because of minor PC, and 36/53 (68%) were treated using the DCS. Of these 36 patients, 17 (47%) are already cured with a good (7/17) to excellent (10/17) cosmetic result after a median treatment period of 9 months (range, 2.5-16 months). The mean daily time of wearing of the device for those 17 patients was 9 hours (range, 5-18). None abandoned the treatment and there were almost no complications. Conclusions Lateral expansion of the chest and the possibility to measure the applied pressure seemed to be the key to DCSs success. We propose the DCS as first choice in the treatment of chondrogladiolar PC in children.

  8. Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April - May temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1455 AD - 1950 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Oliver; Pfister, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April-July temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1454 AD - 1950 AD O. Wetter and C. Pfister Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History, Institute of History, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (oliver.wetter@hist.unibe.ch) Before agricultural harvesting machines replaced manual labour the date of the grain harvest was largely dependent on mean temperatures from spring to early summer. It thus constitutes a very valuable source of information to reconstruct these temperatures. The later the harvest began, the cooler spring and early summer must have been and vice versa. For this reconstruction a new data series of grain harvests in the tri-border region Basel (representative for north-west Switzerland, the Alsace (France) and south-west Germany) was used as a temperature proxy. The harvesting dates have been extracted from the account books of the hospital of Basel which cover the period from c.1454 AD to 1705 AD. This series could be completed with several series of grain tithe dates originating from the Swiss Midland, covering the period between 1557 and 1825 and several grain harvest dates series covering the time between 1825 and 1950. Thus a series of almost 500 years could be compiled. Since the method of harvesting remained unchanged until the 1950's when manual labour was replaced by machines, the harvest dates of the modern series, lying within the temperature measurement series, could be used for calibrating the medieval dates.

  9. Comparison of Liver Cell Models Using the Basel Phenotyping Cocktail

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Benjamin; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Maseneni, Swarna; Boess, Franziska; Roth, Adrian; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Haschke, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Currently used hepatocyte cell systems for in vitro assessment of drug metabolism include hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocyte (PHH) cultures. We investigated the suitability of the validated in vivo Basel phenotyping cocktail (caffeine [CYP1A2], efavirenz [CYP2B6], losartan [CYP2C9], omeprazole [CYP2C19], metoprolol [CYP2D6], midazolam [CYP3A4]) in vitro and characterized four hepatocyte cell systems (HepG2 cells, HepaRG cells, and primary cryopreserved human hepatocytes in 2-dimensional [2D] culture or in 3D-spheroid co-culture) regarding basal metabolism and CYP inducibility. Under non-induced conditions, all CYP activities could be determined in 3D-PHH, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in 2D-PHH and HepaRG, and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells. The highest non-induced CYP activities were observed in 3D-PHH and HepaRG cells. mRNA expression was at least four-fold higher for all CYPs in 3D-PHH compared to the other cell systems. After treatment with 20 μM rifampicin, mRNA increased 3- to 50-fold for all CYPs except CYP1A2 and 2D6 for HepaRG and 3D-PHH, 4-fold (CYP2B6) and 17-fold (CYP3A4) for 2D-PHH and four-fold (CYP3A4) for HepG2. In 3D-PHH at least a two-fold increase in CYP activity was observed for all inducible CYP isoforms while CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activity did not increase in 2D-PHH and HepaRG. CYP inducibility assessed in vivo using the same phenotyping probes was also best reflected by the 3D-PHH model. Our studies show that 3D-PHH and (with some limitations) HepaRG are suitable cell systems for assessing drug metabolism and CYP induction in vitro. HepG2 cells are less suited to assess CYP induction of the 2C and 3A family. The Basel phenotyping cocktail is suitable for the assessment of CYP activity and induction also in vitro. PMID:27917125

  10. [Telemedicine in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Denz, Martin Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Telemedicine always was at the edge in adapting newest information and communication technologies. Since medicine occurred, telemedica/ activity was undertaken with the aim to overcome a distance. Telemedicine is defined as an interaction between one or several health professionals, within the context of a medical process, but at a distance, without direct physical contact. Classical fields of telemedicine or Teleradiology, Telepathology, are mainly related to medical specialties and hospital centres,in Switzerland as well. In parallel, Swiss Telemedicine did undertake a specific evolution, by developing sophisticated telemedical consultation centres focused on primary health and with highly trained multiprofessional staff They contribute to the development of decentralized and population based integrated health and care services. In turn, this enables development of new interprofessional health professionals' roles and activities. As progression of patient-citizens' mobility and spreading out of mobile devices take place simultaneously, this opens the opportunity to overcome structural change of the Swiss healthcare system by creating new and innovative healthcare services.

  11. Jungfrau and Interlaken, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bernese Alps form the centerpiece of this late summer view of Switzerland; Jungfrau (J - 4158 m), Moench (M - 4089 m), and Eiger (E - 3970 m) are among the higher peaks of the Central Alps. North of the range is the city of Interlaken, flanked by the Thune See and Brienzer See (lakes); the long, straight-segmented valley of the Rhone lies to the south. On the southern flank of the Jungfrau massif is the Aletsch glacier, meltwaters of which feed the upper Rhone; another source is the Rhone glacier at the eastern end of the valley. One estimate holds that roughly half the ice in glaciers of the European Alps has melted since 1850 (http://www.geographical.co.uk/geographical/features/feb_2001_climate.html). U-shaped valleys carved by glaciers are clearly visible; some, such as that of the Rhone, have been modified by through-flowing rivers. The Swiss Alps are elements of a great mountain system that was constructed as Africa and Eurasia collided, starting more than 90 million years ago. Ancient basement rocks (>325 million years old) of the Bernese Alps were uplifted, folded, and forced northward between 29 and 10 million years ago. Reference: Trumpy, R., 1997, Alpine orogeny, in Moores, E. M. and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, pages 16-26. STS106-718-09 was taken in September, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 106 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland.

  13. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a unique 517-yr long documentary data-based reconstruction of spring-summer (MAMJJ) temperatures for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from 1454 to 1970. It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain (secale cereale) harvest starting dates (WGHD) that are partly based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions (hospitals, municipalities), partly on (early) phenological observations. The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The calibration and verification approach was applied using the homogenous HISTALP temperature series from 1774-1824 for calibration (r = 0.78) and from 1920-1970 for verification (r = 0.75). The latter result even suffers from the weak data base available for 1870-1950. Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates (GHD), because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports. Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. The new Basel WGHD series shows better skills in representing highly climate change sensitive variations of Swiss Alpine glaciers than available GHD series.

  14. Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier of Europe, covers more than 120 square kilometers (more than 45 square miles)in southern Switzerland. At its eastern extremity lies a glacierlake, Mdrjelensee (2,350 meters/7,711 feet above sea level). To the west rises Aletschhorn (4,195 meters/13,763 feet), which was first climbed in 1859. The Rhone River flows along the southern flank of the mountains.

    This image was acquired on July 23, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as

  15. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  16. 78 FR 78899 - Comparability Determination for Switzerland: Certain Entity-Level Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The following is the analysis and determination of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'') regarding certain parts of a request by UBS AG (``UBS'') that the Commission determine that laws and regulations applicable in Switzerland provide a sufficient basis for an affirmative finding of comparability with respect to the following regulatory obligations applicable to swap......

  17. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  18. Switzerland: Economy, Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhard, Marianne

    An overview of the economic policy, political structure, and four official languages of Switzerland is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) economic expansion without natural resources, (2) linguistic diversity, (3) Swiss-German, and (4) politics and governmental organization. (PMP)

  19. Early Child Care in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscher, Kurt K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive description of the multiple, diverse, and complex systems of child care in Switzerland today. The following topics are discussed: prevailing conceptions of the child-rearing process, the relationship between family and society, socialization, training of personnel, information dissemination, mass media and…

  20. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... incorporating aspects of the BCBS's Basel II standardized framework in the ``International Convergence of... references to credit ratings. \\5\\ See BCBS, ``International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital...'' of common equity tier 1 capital in excess of the new minimum capital requirements. \\11\\...

  1. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... buffer could be implemented if the agencies determined that credit growth in the economy became excessive... retained earnings. Owing to slow economic growth and relatively low earnings among community banking... growth and high employment. Another commenter favored application of the Basel III NPR to all...

  2. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... countercyclical capital buffer could be implemented if the agencies and the FDIC determined that credit growth in... increase capital only by accumulating retained earnings. Owing to slow economic growth and relatively low... sustained growth and high employment. Another commenter favored application of the Basel III NPR to...

  3. Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April-July temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1454 AD - 1950 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2010-09-01

    Before agricultural harvesting machines replaced manual labour the date of the grain harvest was largely dependent on mean temperatures from spring to early summer. It thus constitutes a very valuable source of information to reconstruct these temperatures. The later the harvest began, the cooler spring and early summer must have been and vice versa. For this reconstruction a new data series of grain harvests in the tri-border region Basel(representative for north-west Switzerland, the Alsace (France) and south-west Germany)was used as a temperature proxy. The harvesting dates have been extracted from the account books of the hospital of Basel which cover the period from c.1454 AD to 1705 AD. This series could be completed with several series of grain tithe dates originating from the Swiss Midland, covering the period between 1557 and 1825 and several grain harvest dates series covering the time between 1825 and 1950. Thus a series of almost 500 years could be compiled. Since the method of harvesting remained unchanged until the 1950's when manual labour was replaced by machines, the harvest dates of the modern series, lying within the temperature measurement series, could be used for calibrating the medieval dates.

  4. Stress as an idiom for resilience: health and migration among sub-Saharan Africans in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Brigit; Büchi, Silvia

    2008-12-01

    Most research on migrants examines what makes them ill. Inspired by Antonovsky's salutogenic approach, this study shifts the perspective and asks why migrants stay healthy. At the centre of interest are sub-Saharan Africans living in Switzerland who consider themselves and/or are considered by others as mastering problems affecting their health. The mixed Swiss-African research team explored meanings of health and resilience in 20 case studies in Zurich and Basel and five group discussions in Bern, Biel and Geneva. The data show that migrants with resilient trajectories have a dynamic and multi-dimensional understanding of health. Moreover, they have learnt to interpret difficulties as 'stress': a popular illness concept in Switzerland and Europe but less known in their home countries. The paper argues that resilience is closely related with the appropriation of 'stress' as an illness concept: it not only gives meaning and helps to explain diffuse symptoms of ill-health, it also offers an agenda for action and contributes to their feeling of social belonging in the host country. These findings have important implications for policy and practice in the rapidly changing field of migration and health.

  5. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634

  6. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz) ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO) in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das SOKO Curriculum umfasst aus Sicht der Studierenden 57 Unterrichtsstunden. In Vorlesungen und kleinen Gruppen kommen vom 1. bis 3. Bachelor- und im 1. Masterstudienjahr Rollenspiele, Videofeedback, Simulationspatienten und der Kontakt mit realen Patienten als didaktische Methoden zum Einsatz. Die Lernziele werden in den summativen klinisch-praktischen OSCE-Prüfungen abgeprüft.Schlussfolgerungen: In Basel konnte mit der Umstellung auf die Bologna-Struktur ein longitudinales SOKO-Curriculum implementiert werden, das kumulatives Lernen erlaubt, auf die Inhalte des sonstigen Studiums Bezug nimmt und regelmäßig in den OSCEs abgeprüft wird. Zurzeit wird ein Großteil der Lehre durch die Psychosomatik des Unispital Basels geleistet. Für die Zukunft wird entscheidend sein, nachhaltige Strukturen in der gesamten Fakultät und im gesamten Unispital zu verankern, um dauerhaft eine hohe Qualität des Unterrichts und der Prüfungen sicherzustellen.

  7. Spring-summer temperatures reconstructed for northern Switzerland and south-western Germany from winter rye harvest dates, 1454-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a unique 517 yr long documentary data - based reconstruction of spring-summer (MAMJJ) temperatures for northern Switzerland and south western Germany from 1454 to 1970. It is composed of 25 partial series of winter grain (secale cereale) harvest starting dates (WGHD) that are in one part based on harvest related bookkeeping of institutions (hospitals, municipalities), in the other part to (early) phenological observations. The resulting main Basel WGHD series was homogenised with regard to dating style, data type and altitude. The calibration and verification approach was applied using the homogenous HISTALP temperature series from 1774-1824 for calibration (r = 0,78) and from 1920-1970 for verification (r = 0.75). The latter result even suffer from the weak data basis available for 1870-1950. Temperature reconstructions based on WGHD are more influenced by spring temperatures than those based on grape harvest dates (GHD), because rye in contrast to vines already begins to grow as soon as sunlight brings the plant to above freezing. The earliest and latest harvest dates were checked for consistency with narrative documentary weather reports. Comparisons with other European documentary-based GHD and WGHD temperature reconstructions generally reveal significant correlations decreasing with the distance from Switzerland. The new Basel WGHD series shows better skills in representing highly climate change sensitive variations of Swiss Alpine glaciers than available GHD series.

  8. The record of historic earthquakes in lake sediments of Central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Becker, Arnfried; Sturm, Michael; Giardini, Domenico

    2004-12-01

    Deformation structures in lake sediments in Central Switzerland can be attributed to strong historic earthquakes. The type and spatial distribution of the deformation structures reflect the historically documented macroseismic intensities thus providing a useful calibration tool for paleoseismic investigations in prehistoric lake sediments. The Swiss historical earthquake catalogue shows four moderate to strong earthquakes with moment magnitudes of Mw=5.7 to Mw=6.9 and epicentral intensities of I0=VII to I0=IX that affected the area of Central Switzerland during the last 1000 years. These are the 1964 Alpnach, 1774 Altdorf, 1601 Unterwalden, and 1356 Basel earthquakes. In order to understand the effect of these earthquakes on lacustrine sediments, four lakes in Central Switzerland (Sarner See, Lungerer See, Baldegger See, and Seelisberg Seeli) were investigated using high-resolution seismic data and sediment cores. The sediments consist of organic- and carbonate-rich clayey to sandy silts that display fine bedding on the centimeter to millimeter scale. The sediments are dated by historic climate and environmental records, 137Cs activity, and radiocarbon ages. Deformation structures occur within distinct zones and include large-scale slumps and rockfalls, as well as small-scale features like disturbed and contorted lamination and liquefaction structures. These deformations are attributed to three of the abovementioned earthquakes. The spatial distribution of deformation structures in the different lakes clearly reflects the historical macroseismic dataset: Lake sediments are only affected if they are situated within an area that underwent groundshaking not smaller than intensity VI to VII. We estimate earthquake size by relating the epicentral distance of the farthest liquefaction structure to earthquake magnitude. This relationship is in agreement with earthquake size estimations based on the historical dataset.

  9. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  10. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  11. [Effect of linguistic competence on speech audiometry results using the Basel Sentence Test].

    PubMed

    von Werra, P; Tschopp, K; Schneider, R

    1995-02-01

    Linguistic competence, such as a mental lexicon knowledge of syntactic rules of the language and the use of semantic constraints, may impact central speech processing and play an important role in speech recognition. The influence of linguistic ability on speech understanding was investigated using the Basel Sentence Understanding Test. The subject's linguistic ability was determined based upon educational background (elementary school, high school and or university) and intelligence quotients (IQ) based on the reduced version of the Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test. Forty normally-hearing subjects listened to five test forms of the Basel Sentence Understanding Test. Each test form comprised a fraction of 15 low-predictable (LP) test items and 15 high-predictable (HP) test items based on the amount of contextual information in the phrases. No effect of educational background and IQ-value could be demonstrated on the scores of LP sentences. However, there was a small but significant influence of educational background and IQ-value on the scores of HP sentences. The implications of these findings on clinical speech audiometry are discussed.

  12. [Practical industrial medicine in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Greuter, W

    1981-07-01

    The actual state of the industrial medicine in Switzerland, which has not reached yet a satisfying level, is brought in connection with the development of the corresponding legislation as well as the traditionally rather negative attitude of the social partners towards the introduction of an efficient industrial medicine. The revised law of accident prevention might promote the completion of the necessary infrastructure. To our own behoof, we should take advantage of the experiences made in our neighbour states. The independent and competent activity of an industrial physicians is considered as the essential condition of an efficient protection of the worker to the advantage of themselves as well as the employers. The lack of postgraduate instruction and the deficient image of this specialty of medicine in our country are responsible for the difficulties in providing our industry with a considerable number of doctors of industrial medicine. The paper concludes with an information on the tasks of the Service of Occupational Medicine of the Federal Office for Industry and Labour and on examples of its work during the past years.

  13. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  14. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  15. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  16. Support Services for the Aged in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Leo L.

    Like most Western countries, Switzerland experienced an increased birth rate following World War II, followed by decades of slower growth. However, the number of those over 65 will have increased five-fold during the 20th century, and the number of those over 80 will have increased ten-fold. Thus, there is a smaller number of young people to…

  17. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka.

  18. Consensus Paper-ICIS Expert Meeting Basel 2009 treatment milestones in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Tamary, Hannah; Roganovic, Jelena; Chitlur, Meera; Nugent, Diane J

    2010-07-01

    The rarity of severe complications of this disease in children makes randomized clinical trials in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) unfeasible. Therefore, the current management recommendations for ITP are largely dependent on clinical expertise and observations. As part of its discussions during the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group Expert Meeting in Basel, the Management working group recommended that the decision to treat an ITP patient be individualized and based mainly on bleeding symptoms and not on the actual platelet count number and should be supported by bleeding scores using a validated assessment tool. The group stressed the need to develop a uniform validated bleeding score system and to explore new measures to evaluate bleeding risk in thrombocytopenic patients-the role of rituximab as a splenectomy-sparing agent in resistant disease was also discussed. Given the apparently high recurrence rate to rituximab therapy in children and the drug's possible toxicity, the group felt that until more data are available, a conservative approach may be considered, reserving rituximab for patients who failed splenectomy. More studies of the effectiveness and side effects of drugs to treat refractory patients, such as TPO mimetics, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cytotoxic agents are required, as are long-term data on post-splenectomy complications. In the patient with either acute or chronic ITP, using a more personalized approach to treatment based on bleeding symptoms rather than platelet count should result in less toxicity and empower both physicians and families to focus on quality-of-life.

  19. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  20. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-01

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of 137Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  1. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  2. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  4. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  5. Primate tarsal bones from Egerkingen, Switzerland, attributable to the middle Eocene adapiform Caenopithecus lemuroides

    PubMed Central

    Costeur, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862), but has long been represented only by fragmentary mandibular and maxillary remains. More recent discoveries of adapiform fossils in other parts of the world have revealed Caenopithecus to be a biogeographic enigma, as it is potentially more closely related to Eocene adapiforms from Africa, Asia, and North America than it is to any known European forms. More anatomical evidence is needed, however, to provide robust tests of such phylogenetic hypotheses. Here we describe and analyze the first postcranial remains that can be attributed to C. lemuroides—an astragalus and three calcanei held in the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel that were likely recovered from Egerkingen over a century ago. Qualitative and multivariate morphometric analyses of these elements suggest that C. lemuroides was even more loris-like than European adapines such as Adapis and Leptadapis, and was not simply an adapine with an aberrant dentition. The astragalus of Caenopithecus is similar to that of younger Afradapis from the late Eocene of Egypt, and parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses that include the new tarsal data strongly support the placement of Afradapis and Caenopithecus as sister taxa to the exclusion of all other known adapiforms, thus implying that dispersal between Europe and Africa occurred during the middle Eocene. The new tarsal evidence, combined with previously known craniodental fossils, allows us to reconstruct C. lemuroides as having been an arboreal and highly folivorous 1.5–2.5 kg primate that likely moved slowly and deliberately with little or no capacity for acrobatic leaping, presumably maintaining consistent powerful grasps on branches in both above-branch and inverted postures. PMID:26131376

  6. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    In recent decades, a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the change of prevalence of hay fever showed an increase in the occurrence of this disease. However, other studies carried out in the 1990s yielded contradictory results. Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to contribute to the increasing hay fever rate, including both indoor and ambient air pollution, reduced exposure to microbial stimulation and changes in diets. However, the observed increase has not convincingly been explained by any of these factors and there is limited evidence of changes in exposure to these risk factors over time. Additionally, recent studies show that no further increase in asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation in adolescents and adults has been observed during the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. As the pattern of pollen counts has changed over the years, partly due to the global warming but also as a consequence of a change in the use of land, the changing prevalence of hay fever might partly be driven by this different pollen exposure. Epidemiological data for hay fever in Switzerland are available from 1926 until 2000 (with large gaps between 1926 and 1958 and 1958 to 1986) whereas pollen data are available from 1969 until the present. This allows an investigation as to whether these data are correlated provided the same time spans are compared. It would also be feasible to correlate the pollen data with meteorological data which, however, is not the subject of our investigation. Our study focuses on analyzing time series of pollen counts and of pollen season lengths in order to identify their trends, and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between these trends and the changes in the hay fever prevalence. It is shown in this paper that the pollen exposure has been decreasing in Basel since the beginning of the 1990s whereas the rate of the hay fever prevalence in Switzerland remained approximately unchanged in this period

  7. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  8. [Ecotoxicology exemplified by an analysis of the chemical spill into the caused Rhine by Sandoz in Basel].

    PubMed

    Güttinger, H; Stumm, W

    1990-06-01

    A fire at a chemical manufacturing plant at Schweizerhalle (near Basel) in November 1986 and the subsequent release of toxic agrochemicals into the Rhine river is taken as a basis to discuss some problems and needs in ecotoxicological research. Especially serious is the lack of knowledge about chronic effects of mixtures of chemicals to individuals and whole ecosystems. There is an urgent need for generally applicable principles and concepts. A discussion of the relationship between toxic effects to fish, exposure time, and concentration provides some hints about the direction towards which research should proceed. Finally, eight theses pertaining to ecotoxicology summarize what can be learned from the analysis of a chemical spill.

  9. Socio-psychological airplane noise investigation in the districts of three Swiss airports: Zurich, Geneva and Basel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, R.; Mueller, R.; Meier, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of noise measurements and calculations are available in the form of noise maps for each of the three areas. To measure the stress due to airplane noise the Noise and Number Index (NNI) was applied. In the vicinities of the airports, 400 households were randomly selected in each of the three noise zones (of 10 NNI intervals each). A total of 3939 questionnaires could be evaluated, one quarter of which came from areas without airplane noise. Concurrently, traffic noise was measured in areas of Basel and expressed in sum total levels L sub 50 and the reaction of 944 persons was elicited by interrogation.

  10. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion

  11. Heavy precipitation events in northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Martius, Olivia

    2013-04-01

    Heavy precipitation events in the Alpine region often cause floods, rock-falls and mud slides with severe consequences for population and economy. Breaking synoptic Rossby waves located over western Europe, play a central role in triggering such heavy rain events in southern Switzerland (e.g. Massacand et al. 1998). In contrast, synoptic scale structures triggering heavy precipitation on the north side of the Swiss Alps and orographic effects have so far not been studied comprehensively. An observation based high resolution precipitation data set for Switzerland and the Alps (MeteoSwiss) is used to identify heavy precipitation events affecting the north side of the Swiss Alps for the time period 1961-2010. For these events a detailed statistical and dynamical analysis of the upper level flow is conducted using ECMWFs ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets. For the analysis north side of the Swiss Alps is divided in two investigation areas north-eastern and western Switzerland following the Swiss climate change scenarios (Bey et al. 2011). A subjective classification of upper level structures triggering heavy precipitation events in the areas of interest is presented. Four classes are defined based on the orientation and formation of the dynamical tropopause during extreme events in the northern part of Switzerland and its sub-regions. The analysis is extended by a climatology of breaking waves and cut-offs following the method of Wernli and Sprenger (2007) to examine their presence and location during extreme events. References Bey I., Croci-Maspoli M., Fuhrer J., Kull C, Appenzeller C., Knutti R. and Schär C. Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011, C2SM, MeteoSwiss, ETH, NCCR Climate, OcCC (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-006720559 Massacand A., H. Wernli, and H.C. Davies, 1998. Heavy precipitation on the Alpine South side: An upper-level precursor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1435-1438. MeteoSwiss 2011. Documentation of Meteoswiss grid-data products

  12. The Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978). Ophthalmo-gerontological research results.

    PubMed

    Brückner, R; Batschelet, E; Hugenschmidt, F

    1986-01-01

    In the prospective Basel longitudinal study on aging (1955-1978) 123 men (age at entry from 6-61 years) were investigated in 2 year (average) intervals. Complete case histories are available on 67 subjects over the entire period (19.6 +/- 0.85 years). Part I of the study was to confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus, according to which life expectancy can be estimated from the speed of development of presbyopia. Parallel to the measurement of accommodation range (after preliminary determination of refraction and visual acuity), the development of height, body weight, vital capacity, expiratory volume, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, ECG and pulse wave velocity were measured. Invasive investigations were not undertaken. Only when hypertension was combined with obesity was the diminution of accommodation range striking (Fig. 10c; however there were only 3 subjects in this risk group). Taking everything into consideration there was a concomitance between decrease of accommodation range and changes of medical parameters (Table 6). Intercurrent illness did not influence the accommodation range. Longitudinal measurements and cross-sectional comparisons (data averaged to the same point as of the same age) were carried out. The results did not always coincide. We could not confirm the hypothesis of Bernstein and of Steinhaus. In Part II the results of the objective measurements are given. Apparently growth of the skull does not stop entirely. The increase of interpupillary distance can be complete at 17 years of age, but also can continue to the 30th year. The palpebral fissure increases an average of 3 mm more horizontally between the 6th and the 20th year of life. The corneal diameter remains constant in all age classes, that is, the growth of the cornea should be complete before the 6th year of life. Early arcus senilis changes are found already in the 20-year-old. The increase in the course of time of arcus senilis is obvious

  13. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  14. The Educational System of Switzerland. Education around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenman, Paul S.

    The document discusses the highly developed, diversified, and decentralized system of education in Switzerland. Because of the political, geographic, and linguistic diversity of education in Switzerland, this brief report is limited to major characteristics and patterns of education common to most Swiss cantons. Topics of the report include school…

  15. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO{sub 2}, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  16. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  17. Future road salt use in Switzerland: an example of an effective climate service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubler, Elias M.; Fischer, Andreas M.; Schlegel, Thomas H.; Liniger, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of salt is the predominant measure taken to enhance road safety in Switzerland by clearing the roads from snow or preventing frozen surfaces during winter. The need for road salt exhibits a strong interannual variability, according to Schweizer Salinen AG - the Swiss monopolist for production and distribution of road salt. These fluctuations are to a large extent a direct consequence of the year-to-year variability in winter climate. In the course of the 21st century, Swiss climate is projected to depart significantly from present and past conditions. By the end of the century, winter temperatures over Switzerland are expected to rise by about 2-4°C relative to the mean over the period 1980-2009, while winter precipitation may either increase or decrease based on ENSEMBLES regional climate model projections under the SRES-scenario A1B. Faced with these changes, Schweizer Salinen AG asked for an estimate of the expected future road salt use for designing their long-term business strategy. The study is based on climate change projections from the CH2011 initiative and later extensions thereof as well as monthly sales data of road salt from Schweizer Salinen AG. For the period 1997-2013, a linear relationship was derived between the average number of days with snowfall and the road salt amount sold over "saltation years" defined from October 1st to September 30th in the 26 cantons (provinces) of Switzerland. The ad-hoc linear relationship was applied to the climate change projections to obtain future salt use information in three future periods for the greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2 and RCP3PD. We find that the expected future salt use is likely to be reduced by about 50% in 2045-2074 under the scenario A1B. Currently, the countrywide mean annual road salt use corresponds to about 220'000 tons. In a particularly snow-rich year, the company sells up to 400'000 tons. At the end of the century, following a pessimistic scenario such as A1B or A

  18. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.F.

    2012-07-01

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  19. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not) was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups) and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments) and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.). Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments) was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and beliefs are probably the

  20. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  1. [TCM/aciipuncture therapy and medical insurance support in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaiyu; Yuan, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Based on the expeienes in th acdemic exchanges in Switzerland and relevant data, the development of TCM/acupuncture in Switzerland, Swiss medical insurance system and the acceptance to TCM/acupuncture were introduced in the paper. The case analysis was applied to explain the reimbursement, proportion and additional conditions of Obligatory Basic Insurance and Supplementary Alternative Insurance on TCM/acupuncture; Additionally, in the paper, the certification and registration from EMR, ASCA and NVS for the TCM physician were introduced, which is required to the recognition by insurance companies. All of these provide the guarantee for the positive development of TCM/acupuncture in Switzerland.

  2. Improving Seismic Monitoring in Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We currently densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 10 stations. The new network aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of Mc = 1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs. The first station went into operation in September 2012. In this study, we present lessons learnt during the network realization. We review the proposed assessment-scheme and demonstrate potentials and limitations for seismic monitoring in such an environment. We find that the step-wise search for the optimum installation site was successful. Test measurements conducted and analyzed for the assessment-scheme are representative for the performance of the later installed stations. In one case a significantly improved installation was possible, because the test measurement revealed noise sources that could be diminished. The assessment scheme allowed to compare station from different regions, which was especially helpful in judging, whether the

  3. [Uroliths of dogs in Switzerland from 2003 to 2009].

    PubMed

    Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Reusch, C E; Gerber, B

    2015-01-01

    Information on composition of uroliths collected between 2003 and 2009 from dogs in Switzerland and epidemiologic data of affected dogs are summarised in this paper. Of 490 stones analysed 44% were composed of calcium oxalate, 330% of struvite, 80% of silica, 7% of urate, 3% of cystine, 3% were mixed stones and 1% each were calcium phosphate and xanthine stones. Compared to other dogs, Norwich Terriers, Norfolk Terriers, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Pinscher and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly increased risk to suffer from calcium oxalate stones, Dalmatians and Continental Bulldogs from urate stones and English Bulldogs from cystine stones. No breed had an increased risk of struvite or silica stones. Stones composed of silica were more prevalent in Switzerland compared to other countries and were more common in the eastern part than in the western part of Switzerland. This study shows that there are differences in occurrence and prevalence of uroliths between Switzerland and surveys of other countries.

  4. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  5. Glacial bed forms at Findelengletscher, Zermatt, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madella, Andrea; Nyffenegger, Franziska; Schlüchter, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The current glacier meltdown is increasingly unveiling the glacial bed forms produced by the most recent glacial advance of the 1980ies, such as flutes, mega-flutes and drumlins. This is a challenging opportunity to study these morphologies and the processes involved in their formation; in addition, our observation suggests a new question to be answered: why can't any of these features in units belonging to previous glacial advances be recognised? Similar forms could either have been washed away already, or never been built during LGM and since. The most beautiful and evident of the forms under investigation are the flutes and mega-flutes: elongated streamlined ridges of sediments either starting from an obstacle or just sticking out of the basal lodgement till. The way flutes have been initiated and then evolve is still partially unknown, due to their variety in shape, size and material. The glacial forefield at Findelengletscher under investigation deglaciated over the past two years, offers a well-preserved variety of such forms at all scales. Their material (basal lodgement till) is homogeneous and consistent all over the site, as well as their fabric. In addition, this silty sand shows a low plasticity index. These preliminary results support the idea that flutes build up very quickly during repeated seasonal advances in thin ice conditions with retreating trend (Coray, 2007), and that they could be equally easily and rapidly washed away. References: Coray Sandro (2007): Genesis and significance of flutes at Findelengletscher, Valais, Switzerland, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern.

  6. Mentoring in general surgery in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Kaderli, Reto M.; Klasen, Jennifer M.; Businger, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mentorship has been found as a key factor for a successful and satisfying career in academic medicine and surgery. The present study was conducted to describe the current situation of mentoring in the surgical community in Switzerland and to evaluate sex differences regarding the impact of mentoring on career success and professional satisfaction. Methods The study was designed as an anonymous national survey to all members of the Swiss Surgical Society in 2011 (820 ordinary and 49 junior members). It was a 25-item questionnaire addressing mentor–mentee relationships and their impact on the professional front. Results Of the 869 mailed surveys, 512 responses were received (response rate: 58.9%). Mentor–mentee relationships were reported by 344 respondents (68.1%) and structured mentoring programs were noted in 23 respondents (6.7%). Compared to individuals without mentors, male mentees exhibited significantly higher subjective career advancement (5.4±1.2 vs. 5.0±1.3; p=0.03) and career development (3.3±1.9 vs. 2.5±1.7; p<0.01) scores, but the differences for female mentees were not statistically significant (4.7±1.1 vs. 4.3±1.2, p=0.16; 2.5±1.6 vs. 1.9±1.4, p=0.26; respectively). The pursuit of an academic career was not influenced by the presence of a mentor–mentee relationship for female (p=0.14) or male participants (p=0.22). Conclusions Mentor–mentee relationships are important for the career advancement of male surgeons. The reason for the lack of an impact on the careers of female surgeons is difficult to ascertain. However, mentoring also provides lifelong learning and personal development. Thus, specific attention should be paid to the development of more structured mentoring programs for both sexes. PMID:25833825

  7. The history of Cesium-137 liquid emissions by Mühleberg Nuclear Power Plant (Switzerland) is recorded in Lake Biel sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardclos, Stéphanie; Faessler, Jérôme; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Lake sediments record changes happening in their upstream river catchment and regional environment which includes traces of artificial radionuclides emissions deriving from human activities. 137Cs emissions started worldwide in the early 1950's and peaked in 1963-64 due to nuclear bomb tests in the high atmosphere. A second 137Cs activity peak, due to the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe is recorded in sediment archives from central Europe. These two events (1963/64 and 1986) serve routinely as time markers for recent lake records. Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often constructed along river course for cooling purposes. Since 1972, Mühleberg NPP (central Switzerland) lies 18 km upstream Lake Biel and releases radioactive liquid emissions into the Aare river which adds to the diffuse - above mentioned - radioactive pollution, as revealed by Albrecht et al. (1995; 1998) and recently confirmed by Thevenon et al. (2013) from Lake Biel sediments. The water of Lake Biel is used as drinking water for ca. 60'000 inhabitants and its outflowing water is further used by downstream cities lying on the Aare-Rhine course such as Basel (200'000 inhab.) In this study, the 137Cs activity curve of a 90-cm-long sediment core (BIE10-8), retrieved in April 2010 from the central Lake Biel basin at ca. 50 m depth, and measured by gamma ray spectrometry using high resolution germanium detectors, confirms previous work and reveals a new peak for the year 1998-2000, as observed by Thevenon et al. (2013). This peak is most certainly due to Mühleberg NPP as shown by the good correlation with declared 137Cs liquid emissions indicating a significant increase in 1998-99. Decay corrected activity data, converted into 137Cs fluxes, point to water pollution by Mühleberg NPP in 1975-1985 as being similar to those linked to the catastrophic events in 1963-64 and 1986 (about 75%). As former study showed that Lake Biel sediments scavenge only a portion of the total radionuclide in water, i.e. 30-55% for

  8. The association of socio-economic factors with physical fitness and activity behaviours, spinal posture and retinal vessel parameters in first graders in urban Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Katharina; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bean-Eisenhut, Salome; Hanssen, Henner; Zahner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic status during childhood has been shown to be a strong predictor of adult health outcome. Therefore, we examined associations of parental educational level, household income and migrant background with physical fitness, spinal flexibility, spinal posture as well as retinal vessel diameters in children of an urban Swiss region. A total of 358 first graders of the Swiss canton Basel-Stadt (age: 7.3, SD: 0.4) were examined. Physical fitness (20 m shuttle run test, 20 m sprint, jumping sidewards and balancing backwards), spinal flexibility and spinal posture (MediMouse®, Idiag, Fehraltdorf, Switzerland) and retinal microcirculation (Static Retinal Vessel Analyzer, Imedos Systems UG, Jena, Germany) were assessed. Parental education, household income, migrant background and activity behaviour were evaluated with a questionnaire. Parental education was associated with child aerobic fitness (P = 0.03) and screen time (P < 0.001). Household income was associated with jumping sidewards (P = 0.009), balancing backwards (P = 0.03) and sports club participation (P = 0.02). Migrant background was associated with BMI (P = 0.001), body fat (P = 0.03), aerobic fitness (P = 0.007), time spent playing outdoors (P < 0.001) and screen time (P < 0.001). For spinal flexibility and retinal vessel diameter, no associations were found (0.06 < P < 0.8). Low parental education, low household income and a migrant background are associated with poor physical fitness, higher BMI and body fat percentage and low-activity behaviour.

  9. Switzerland: A Study of the Educational System of Switzerland and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Switzerland in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Karlene N.

    The educational system of Switzerland is described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. After describing primary and secondary education, attention is directed to teacher training, tertiary education, and training in the health fields. Specific considerations include:…

  10. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance.

  11. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  12. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  13. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  14. 78 FR 56740 - Grant of Individual Exemption Involving UBS AG (UBS or the Applicant); Located in Zurich...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Grant of Individual Exemption Involving UBS AG (UBS or the Applicant); Located in Zurich, Switzerland AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, U.S. Department of...

  15. Diphyllobothriasis nihonkaiense: possibly acquired in Switzerland from imported Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kawakatsu, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tsunehiro; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Uchikawa, Ryuichi; Arizono, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    A 5-year-old Japanese boy passed tapeworm strobila while he was living in Switzerland. During a short visit to Japan, he was successfully treated with a single dose of praziquantel. DNA sequences of ITS1, cox1 and nd3 genes from the tapeworm were compatible with those of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense rather than Diphyllobothrium latum, which is prevalent in Europe. The patient consumed imported salmon in Switzerland. This case highlights the globalization of D. nihonkaiense, which was once restricted to the Far East, and reflects the worldwide demand for seafood.

  16. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  17. [The history of detained Polish veterinarians in Switzerland 1940-1947].

    PubMed

    Pospischil, A; Häsler, S

    2016-01-01

    As part of the recent history of veterinary medicine in Switzerland, in Poland and in other countries biographies ofveterinarians among Polish soldiers detained to Switzerland during WWII are described. The information is derived from a number of Swiss and Ukrainian archives and personal contacts with descendants and colleagues of these veterinarians living in Switzerland and abroad.

  18. The German-Romance Language Borders in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Felicity

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on language contact phenomena at the borders of Switzerland's four language communities (German, French, Italian, and Romansch), the legal status of the four Swiss national languages, and the language policies of individual bilingual and trilingual cantons. Describes the historical movements of the language boundaries, with particular…

  19. Architectural Competition for a Secondary School in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Eric; Hacker, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the planning and development process for building a new secondary school close to a busy commercial center in Geneva, Switzerland. The use of a two-stage architectural competition to help meet the proposal's challenges is described. Geneva's need for a new school, traditional school designs, and educational trends are also discussed. (GR)

  20. Political Culture and Intergroup Relations in Plurilingual Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural image as an exemplary model of successful cohabitation and conflict management gives a misleading static impression of harmonious intercultural relations. The highly complex Swiss society faces challenges from the coalition of cultural and linguistic entities that live beside, rather than with, one…

  1. Vocational Education in Switzerland: Facts, Figures and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefeli, Kurt

    Vocational education (VE) in Switzerland is characterized by diversity and pragmatism and is shaped by the country's geography, political system, economy, and culture. Roughly two-thirds of all Swiss youth participate in some form of vocational training at the upper secondary level. Vocational certificates and higher vocational certificates can…

  2. A physics-based correction method for homogenizing historical subdaily time series from Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Breda, L.; Spadin, R.; Begert, M.; Füllemann, C.

    2010-09-01

    Homogeneous long-term climatological time series provide useful information on climate back to the preindustrial era. High temporal resolution of climate data is desirable to address trends and variability in the mean climate and in climatic extremes. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-6 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, and subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Long-term climatological records often contain inhomogeneities due to non climatic changes such as station relocations, changes in instrumentation and instrument exposure, changes in observing schedules/practices and environmental changes in the proximity of the observation site. Those disturbances can distort or hide the true climatic signal and could seriously affect the correct assessment and analysis of climate trends, variability and climatic extremes. It is therefore crucial to detect and eliminate artificial shifts and trends, to the extent possible, in the climate data prior to its application. Detailed information of the station history and instruments (metadata) can be of fundamental importance in the process of homogenization in order to support the determination of the exact time of inhomogeneities and the interpretation of statistical test results. While similar methods can be used for the detection of inhomogeneities in subdaily or monthly mean data, quite different correction methods can be chosen. The wealth of information in a high temporal resolution in combination with multivariate data series allows more physics-based correction methods. For instance, a detected radiation error in temperature can be corrected with an error model that

  3. Tobacco and alcohol tax relationships with suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Chinami, Masanobu; Suzuki, Masao; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-08-01

    Previous research has shown an empirical link between tobacco and alcohol use and suicide. If tobacco and alcohol use contribute to suicidal behaviors, then policies designed to reduce the tobacco and alcohol consumption may succeed in reducing suicides as well. To test this hypothesis, correlations for suicide rates with alcohol consumption, taxes on alcohol and tobacco in Switzerland were examined using sets of time-series data from Switzerland in 1965-1994. The tax on tobacco correlated significantly negatively with male standardized suicide rate. The tax on alcohol also correlated significantly with male standardized suicide rate in an autoregressive model. On the other hand, significant relationships with female suicide rate were not found. Policies designed to reduce tobacco consumption are consistent with a benefit of reducing suicides, particularly for men in this sample.

  4. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  5. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  6. The Megalithic civilisation in Switzerland, its society and its monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Pauline; Berti, Jérôme

    2011-06-01

    The Swiss megaliths, just like the English sites, hold an obvious interest for archaeology and astronomy. Within the sites located in Switzerland, the megaliths of Corcelles-Concise have some particular characteristics which are, in our opinion, relevant to point out. Indeed, using recent astronomical software, we have been able to attribute to this site a probable astronomical function. This lead us to wonder about the general use of this kind of location, with some insights on a cultual plan.

  7. Results of international Dobson spectrophotometer calibrations at Arosa, Switzerland, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Koenig, G. L.; Evans, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    An international comparison of Dobson ozone spectrophotometers, organized and partially funded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was held at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO) in Arosa, Switzerland, July-August 1990. Countries participating with a total of 18 Dobson instruments were Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the United Soviet Socialist Republics. The reference standard instrument for the comparison was U.S.A. Secondary Standard Dobson Spectrophotometer 65 maintained by the NOAA Climate and Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. The mean difference in ozone obtained with the Dobson instruments relative to Dobson instrument 65, calculated from ADDSGQP observations in the air mass range 1.15-3.2, was minus 1.0 plus or minus 1.2 (1 sigma) percent. The WMO Standard Brewer Spectrometer 39 also participated. In the mean, the Brewer instrument measured 0.6 plus or minus 0.2 (1 sigma) percent more ozone than did Dobson instrument 65. Results are presented, also, of ozone vertical profile measurements made with the Dobson instruments, two Brewer spectrometers, a LIDAR, a balloon ozonesonde flown from Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, and balloon ozonesondes flown from Payerne, Switzerland.

  8. HIA in Switzerland: strategies for achieving Health in All Policies.

    PubMed

    Mattig, Thomas; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Simos, Jean; Favre Kruit, Catherine; Christie, Derek P T H

    2015-08-27

    The purpose of this article is to review the status of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Switzerland and assess whether HIA can be used to implement Health in All Policies (HiAP) in this highly decentralized country. The methods include expert opinion and an extensive literature review, as well as targeted interviews with key informers in the cantons of Geneva, Jura and Ticino. HIA has been implemented successfully since the early 2000s in Switzerland. However, integration has been heterogeneous with only a few cantons taking the lead. Integration of HIA at the federal level was attempted in 2012 but failed due to resistance from a pro-business lobby. HIA in Switzerland has the potential to contribute to HiAP, but success depends on a wider dissemination of HIA and on some form of integration at the national level. In this respect, a 'bottom-up' approach based on inter-cantonal collaborations appears more promising than the 'top-down' federal level approach.

  9. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  10. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  11. Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

    2011-08-01

    Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was

  12. Tritrichomonas foetus: prevalence study in naturally mating bulls in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Ch; Bodmer, M; Doherr, M G; Janett, F; Thomann, A; Spycher, C; Iten, C; Hentrich, B; Gottstein, B; Müller, N; Frey, C F

    2014-03-01

    Switzerland is officially free from bovine Tritrichomonas foetus. While bulls used for artificial insemination (AI) are routinely examined for this pathogen, bulls engaged in natural mating, as well as aborted fetuses, are only very sporadically investigated, indicating that the disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis is low. Natural mating in cattle is becoming increasingly popular in Switzerland. Accordingly, a re-introduction/re-occurrence of T. foetus in cattle seems possible either via resurgence from a yet unknown bovine reservoir, or via importation of infected cattle. The low disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis might favor an unnoticed re-establishment of T. foetus in the Swiss cattle population. The aim of our study was thus to search for the parasite, and if found, to assess the prevalence of bovine T. foetus in Switzerland. We included (1) bulls over two years of age used in natural mating and sent to slaughter, (2) bulls used for natural service in herds with or without fertility problems and (3) aborted fetuses. Furthermore, the routinely examined bulls used for AI (4) were included in this study. In total, 1362 preputial samples from bulls and 60 abomasal fluid samples of aborted fetuses were analyzed for the presence of T. foetus by both in vitro cultivation and molecular analyses. The parasite could not be detected in any of the samples, indicating that the maximal prevalence possibly missed was about 0.3% (95% confidence). Interestingly, in preputial samples of three bulls of category 1, apathogenic Tetratrichomonas sp. was identified, documenting a proof-of-principle for the methodology used in this study.

  13. Gunshot deaths in Geneva, Switzerland: 2001 to 2010.

    PubMed

    La Harpe, Romano; Mohamed, Nadja Ben; Burkhardt, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    We have conducted a retrospective study of all gunshot deaths that occurred in Geneva, Switzerland, over a 10-year period (2001-2010). The 133 cases reviewed were classified according to the manner of death, that is, suicide (106 cases), homicide (25 cases), and accident (2 cases). Various data from police authorities and the medicolegal examinations of the bodies were studied, including the age and sex of the victims, location of the event, type of firearm used, concomitant use or nonuse of alcohol and/or other drugs, seasonality, and entry site. These various elements were compared with data found in the literature.

  14. Tuberculosis in early medieval Switzerland--osteological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christine; Fellner, Robert; Heubi, Olivier; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lesions consistent with skeletal tuberculosis were found in 13 individuals from an early medieval skeletal sample from Courroux (Switzerland). One case of Pott's disease as well as lytic lesions in vertebrae and joints, rib lesions and endocranial new bone formation were identified. Three individuals with lesions and one without were tested for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) ancient DNA (aDNA), and in two cases, evidence for MTBC aDNA was detected. Our results suggest the presence of tuberculosis in the analysed material, which is in accordance with other osteological and biomolecular research that reported a high prevalence of tuberculosis in medieval skeletons.

  15. [Abortion in sheep: epidemic Salmonella abortusovis outbreak 2005 in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    von Tavel, L; Fivian, R; Kirchhofer, M; Boujon, P; Hirsbrunner, G

    2005-10-01

    In spring 2005, the outbreak of contagious abortion caused by Salmonella Abortusovis in 6 sheep flocks in Switzerland led to considerable economic losses. The Swiss small ruminant health service (BGK) evaluated this case. The aim was to identify the source of the epidemic in order to avoid further spread of infection and to evaluate the possibility of using vaccination. Moreover, a strategy for prevention of future outbreaks was developed. This article aims to increase disease awareness of food animal practitioners for Salmonella Abortusovis abortion in sheep.

  16. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  17. Summer North Atlantic Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North Atlantic dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the period 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North Atlantic dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North Atlantic-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas

  18. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    PubMed

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-06

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  19. [European migrant crisis and reemergence of infections in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Jaton, Laure; Kritikos, Antonios; Bodenmann, Patrick; Greub, Gilbert; Merz, Laurent

    2016-04-13

    Current conflicts in some regions of the world give rise to massive immigration waves. Consequently, some infections that had nearly disappeared in Europe nowadays re-emerge. They are related to the epidemiology of the refugees' origin, but also to the epidemiology of the country crossed during migration. Hygiene conditions, often precarious during the journey, favor their transmission. Thus, cases of louse borne relapsing fever and diphtheria emerge in Europe and in Switzerland since 2074 whereas cutaneous Panton-Valen tine Staphylococcus aureus infection are more commonly observed nowadays.

  20. Contamination of silos in Switzerland by PCB residues in coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Alencastro, L.F.; Prelaz, V.; Tarradellas, J.

    1984-09-01

    From the end of 1982 to the beginning of 1983 some Swiss Cantonal Laboratories for Food Control have detected high levels of PCBs in the milk output from several dairy farms at Laufental, in the northwest of Switzerland. These investigations showed that the silo coatings and consequently the silage from these silos were at the origin of the milk contamination. Four farms which produced the most polluted milk were investigated, specifically to determine PCB migration from coating material into the concrete walls and silage. This paper presents the results of this investigation.

  1. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    A database of fatalities caused by natural hazard processes in Switzerland was compiled for the period between 1946 and 2015. Using information from the Swiss flood and landslide damage database and the Swiss destructive avalanche database, the data set was extended back in time and more hazard processes were added by conducting an in-depth search of newspaper reports. The new database now covers all natural hazards common in Switzerland, categorised into seven process types: flood, landslide, rockfall, lightning, windstorm, avalanche and other processes (e.g. ice avalanches, earthquakes). Included were all fatal accidents associated with natural hazard processes in which victims did not expose themselves to an important danger on purpose. The database contains information on 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities, which corresponds to a mean of 14.6 victims per year. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). About 50 % of all victims died in one of the 507 single-fatality events; the other half were killed in the 128 multi-fatality events. The number of natural hazard fatalities that occurred annually during our 70-year study period ranged from 2 to 112 and exhibited a distinct decrease over time. While the number of victims in the first three decades (until 1975) ranged from 191 to 269 per decade, it ranged from 47 to 109 in the four following decades. This overall decrease was mainly driven by a considerable decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. About 75 % of victims were males in all natural hazard events considered together, and this ratio was roughly maintained in all individual process categories except landslides (lower) and other processes (higher). The ratio of male to female victims was most likely to be balanced when deaths occurred at home (in or near a building), a situation

  2. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H. L. M.; Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Okkerse, W.-J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X. C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on urban streets and the other modelling the introduction of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometres on urban streets, were both compared to a scenario following “business-as-usual”: 2020-BAU. The annual average concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) were modelled separately in busy street canyons, near urban motorways and in the remainder of the urban area. It was concluded that traffic-related CO2 emissions in 2020-BAU could be expected to remain at the levels of 2010 in Basel and Rotterdam, while in Xi'an and Suzhou to increase 30-50% due to growth in the traffic volume. Traffic-related CO2 emissions may be reduced by up to 5% and 25%, respectively using the first and second scenarios. Air pollution in the Chinese cities is a factor 3 to 5 higher than in the European cities in 2010 and 2020-BAU. The impact of both CO2 reduction scenarios on air quality in 2020-BAU is limited. In Europe, due to implementation of stringent emission standards in all sectors, air quality is expected to improve at both the urban background and near busy road traffic. In China, the regional background is expected to improve for EC, stabilize for PM2.5 and PM10, and decrease for NO2. The urban background follows this regional trend, while near busy road traffic, air pollution will remain elevated due to the considerable growth in traffic volume. A major constraint for modelling air quality in China is access to the input data required and lack of measurements at ground level for validation.

  3. [Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schuwey-Hayoz, Aline; Needham, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland Patient aggression in psychiatry is a prominent problem for all concerned. In this prospective survey we registered and analysed all violent incidents of patients in a cantonal psychiatric hospital in Switzerland in order to determine the characteristics of aggression. The Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) was utilised. During the study period 815 patients were admitted to the hospital. 71 (63.4%) of the 110 violent incidents were perpetrated by male patients. The majority of aggressive incidents were perpetrated in the vicinity of the rooms of the patients and were triggered mainly by the refusal to adhere to the demands of the patient or by patients' use of toxic substances. The most frequent type of aggression was of a verbally aggressive nature and the principal target was nursing personnel who felt threatened in most of the cases. In order to terminate the aggression the most predominant measure was communication with the patient and coercive measures. This study demonstrates clearly that aggression concerns psychiatric nursing personnel and points to the recommendation to reinforce measures of security and to predictive measures to ameliorate the management of aggression.

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in childhood cancer survival in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Adam, Martin; Rueegg, Corina S; Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Egger, Matthias; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated whether childhood cancer survival in Switzerland is influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), and if disparities vary by type of cancer and definition of SES (parental education, living condition, area-based SES). Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed 5-year cumulative mortality in all patients registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed 1991-2006 below 16 years. Information on SES was extracted from the Swiss census by probabilistic record linkage. The study included 1602 children (33% with leukemia, 20% with lymphoma, 22% with central nervous system (CNS) tumors); with an overall 5-year survival of 77% (95%CI 75-79%). Higher SES, particularly parents' education, was associated with a lower 5-year cumulative mortality. Results varied by type of cancer with no association for leukemia and particularly strong effects for CNS tumor patients, where mortality hazard ratios for the different SES indicators, comparing the highest with the lowest group, ranged from 0.48 (95%CI: 0.28-0.81) to 0.71 (95%CI: 0.44-1.15). We conclude that even in Switzerland with a high quality health care system and mandatory health insurance, socioeconomic differences in childhood cancer survival persist. Factors causing these survival differences have to be further explored, to facilitate universal access to optimal treatment and finally eliminate social inequalities in childhood cancer survival.

  5. Imported human rabies in Switzerland, 2012: a diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Deubelbeiss, A N; Trachsel, Ch; Bachli, E B; Kuffer, A; Budka, H; Eniseyskiy, P; Zimmermann, H; Wallace, R M; Farley, S; Zanoni, R G

    2013-06-01

    Human rabies is rare in Western Europe. It is not easily recognized in the absence of a history of exposure. We describe the clinical course, diagnosis and follow-up of an imported human rabies case in Switzerland. The patient, a U.S. citizen, presented at an outpatient clinic in Iraq with pain in his right shoulder on July 5, 2012. On July 8 he was transferred to a hospital in the United Arab Emirates, where he exhibited progressive encephalitis with coma. On July 29, he was transferred to a hospital in Switzerland, where he died on July 31, 2012. The autopsy showed severe encephalitis. Rabies was diagnosed by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and confirmed by fluorescence antibody testing (FAT) in brain smears and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded brain sections. The viral strain was characterized by RT-PCR followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as an American bat rabies strain associated with Tadarida brasiliensis. Close contacts and exposed health care workers received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).

  6. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  7. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  8. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  9. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  10. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10(4) bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study.

  11. The current state of seismic monitoring in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Haslinger, F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Plenkers, K.; Kästli, P.; Fäh, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich (SED) operates both the national strong motion and broadband permanent seismic networks in Switzerland, as well as supporting local real-time densifications related to projects (such as geothermal explorations and major tunneling) and a mobile pool for national and international deployments related to research and aftershock studies. This submission provides an overview of the current status of network monitoring in Switzerland. A digital high gain network has been operating since 1974 and was upgraded to a continuously recording realtime modern 24 bit broadband network comprising 30 stations from 1999-2002, with station spacing averaging ~30km across the nation. Various improvements and densifications since then have raised the number of broadband sensors to 45 and added co-located strong motion sensors at 13 sites. A notable recent densification is in the NE of Switzerland, where the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have funded an additional 10 broadband stations (including 3 100-200m deep borehole short period stations) in order to reduce the earthquake detection threshold and increase location accuracy in regions that are identified as potential deep nuclear waste storage sites. A strong motion network has been maintained since 1990, comprising 70 12-16 bit triggered sensors located predominantly in free-field urban sites but also including arrays on dams. The free-field network is in the midst of an upgrade (2009-2018), with 30 new stations already installed from the eventual 100 new free-field 24-bit real-time continuous stations. A project has just begun to upgrade the Swiss broadband network, which will co-locate strong-motion sensors at existing broadband sites; assess and implement improvements of installation quality, e.g. by shallow post-hole installations rather than surface vaults; and potentially fill remaining gaps in station coverage. The seismic network has

  12. Erratic boulders in Switzerland, a geological and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Erratic boulders are stones transported over quite long distances by glaciers and that differ from the type of rock upon which they rely. They range from the size of pebbles to large boulders weighing several thousand tons. Erratic boulders are significant geosites (Reynard, 2004) for several reasons. (1) First, they are indicators of former glacier extensions by marking glaciers' path, size and volume. In Switzerland, they allowed mapping the extension of large Alpine glaciers (the Rhine and Rhone glaciers, in particular) and their retreat stages (e.g. the Monthey erratic boulders that mark an important lateglacial stage of the Rhone glacier). Crystalline erratic boulders along the Jura range (limestone mountains) were used to map the altitude reached by the Rhone glacier during the two last glaciations. Precise mapping of crystalline and limestone boulders distribution also enabled mapping local Jura glaciers' recurrences after the Rhone glacier retreat. (2) During the last decades, several erratic boulders were used for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, which allowed impressive advances in palaeoclimatic research. (3) Erratic blocks have also an ecological interest by the fact that they "have transported" specific habitats in areas far away from their origin (e.g. acid crystalline rocks and soils in limestone areas such as in the Jura). For all these reasons, several erratic boulders were classified in the inventory of Swiss geosites. Erratic boulders also have a significant cultural value (Lugon et al., 2006). (1) The Glacier Garden in Lucerne was discovered in 1872. It comprises various surfaces of "roches moutonnées", potholes and large erratic blocks that document the presence of the Reuss glacier. Considered as a natural monument it is now one of the most famous touristic attraction of Lucerne and Central Switzerland. (2) The Pierre Bergère stone, situated in Salvan (Mont-Blanc massif, South-western Switzerland), is the place where future Nobel Prize

  13. Stories of Change: The University of Zurich, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiedt, Eva Seiler

    The University of Zurich (UZH) is the largest university with the broadest range of courses in Switzerland. The number of students in the Autumn Semester 2008 was 24,788, out of which, 56% students were women. They were studying at the Faculty of Theology (246), the Faculty of Law (3,519), the Faculty of Economy (3,055), the Faculty of Medicine (2,397), the Vetsuisse-Faculty (veterinary medicine, 650), the Faculty of Arts (12,015), and the Faculty of Science (2,906). The staff consists of 463 professors, 2,559 assistants and senior scientists, and 1,696 administrative and technical staff. They work in 160 institutes, seminars, and clinics in and around the city of Zurich, most of them concentrated on three main campuses.

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia Incidence in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Spoerri, Adrian; Schmidlin, Kurt; Gumy-Pause, Fabienne; Brazzola, Pierluigi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) discrepancies exist for child and adult cancer morbidity and are a major public health concern. In this Swiss population-based matched case–control study on the etiology of childhood leukemia, we selected the cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed since 1991 and the controls randomly from census. We assigned eight controls per case from the 1990 and 2000 census and matched them by the year of birth and gender. SES information for both cases and controls was obtained from census records by probabilistic record linkage. We investigated the association of SES with childhood leukemia in Switzerland, and explored whether it varied with different definitions of socioeconomic status (parental education, living condition, area-based SES), time period, and age. In conditional logistic regression analyses of 565 leukemia cases and 4433 controls, we found no consistent evidence for an association between SES and childhood leukemia. The odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest SES category ranged from 0.95 (95% CI: 0.71–1.26; Ptrend = 0.73) for paternal education to 1.37 (1.00–1.89; Ptrend = 0.064) for maternal education. No effect modification was found for time period and age at diagnosis. Based on this population-based study, which avoided participation and reporting bias, we assume the potential association of socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia if existing to be small. This study did not find evidence that socioeconomic status, of Switzerland or comparable countries, is a relevant risk factor or strong confounder in etiological investigations on childhood leukemia. PMID:26175964

  15. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods. Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results. We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions. Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease. PMID:26269796

  16. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods.  Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results.  We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions.  Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease.

  17. Effect of oral beta-blocker on short and long-term mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure: results from the BASEL-II-ICU study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is responsible for about one-third of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and is associated with adverse outcomes. Predictors of short- and long-term outcomes in unselected ICU-patients with ARF are ill-defined. The purpose of this analysis was to determine predictors of in-hospital and one-year mortality and assess the effects of oral beta-blockers in unselected ICU patients with ARF included in the BASEL-II-ICU study. Methods The BASEL II-ICU study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial of 314 (mean age 70 (62 to 79) years) ICU patients with ARF evaluating impact of a B-type natriuretic peptide- (BNP) guided management strategy on short-term outcomes. Results In-hospital mortality was 16% (51 patients) and one-year mortality 41% (128 patients). Multivariate analysis assessed that oral beta-blockers at admission were associated with a lower risk of both in-hospital (HR 0.33 (0.14 to 0.74) P = 0.007) and one-year mortality (HR 0.29 (0.16 to 0.51) P = 0.0003). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed the lower mortality in ARF patients when admitted with oral beta-blocker and further shows that the beneficial effect of oral beta-blockers at admission holds true in the two subgroups of patients with ARF related to cardiac or non-cardiac causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis also shows that administration of oral beta-blockers before hospital discharge gives striking additional beneficial effects on one-year mortality. Conclusions Established beta-blocker therapy appears to be associated with a reduced mortality in ICU patients with acute respiratory failure. Cessation of established therapy appears to be hazardous. Initiation of therapy prior to discharge appears to confer benefit. This finding was seen regardless of the cardiac or non-cardiac etiology of respiratory failure. Trial registration clinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130559 PMID:21047406

  18. AgSTAR Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AgSTAR’s Partner Program builds stronger relationships with state and non-governmental stakeholders to support all phases of anaerobic digester projects: planning, deployment, and long-term success.

  19. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  20. Extreme Events: low and high total ozone over Arosa, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.; Peter, T.; Davison, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency distribution of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone is analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al.,1998a,b), with new tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007). A heavy-tail focused approach is used through the fitting of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the Arosa time series. Asymptotic arguments (Pickands, 1975) justify the use of the GPD for modeling exceedances over a high (or below a low) enough threshold (Coles, 2001). The analysis shows that the GPD is appropriate for modeling the frequency distribution in total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold. While previous studies focused on so termed ozone mini-holes and mini-highs (e.g. Bojkov and Balis, 2001, Koch et al., 2005), this study is the first to present a mathematical description of extreme events in low and high total ozone for a northern mid-latitudes site (Rieder et al., 2009). The results show (a) an increase in days with extreme low (ELOs) and (b) a decrease in days with extreme high total ozone (EHOs) during the last decades, (c) that the general trend in total ozone is strongly determined by these extreme events and (d) that fitting the GPD is an appropriate method for the estimation of the frequency distribution of so-called ozone mini-holes. Furthermore, this concept allows one to separate the effect of Arctic ozone depletion from that of in situ mid-latitude ozone loss. As shown by this study, ELOs and EHOs have a strong influence on mean values in total ozone and the "extremes concept" could be further used also for validation of Chemistry-Climate-Models (CCMs) within the scientific community. References: Bojkov, R. D., and Balis, D.S.: Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1975-2000, Ann. Geophys., 19, 797-807, 2001. Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of

  1. Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to observe weak seismic events (M<2) in areas close to potential nuclear-waste repositories or nuclear power plants, in order to analyze the underlying seismo-tectonic processes and estimate their seismic hazard. We are therefore densifying the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We

  2. A prediction model for assessing residential radon concentration in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Dimitri D; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Kuehni, Claudia E; Röösli, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Indoor radon is regularly measured in Switzerland. However, a nationwide model to predict residential radon levels has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to assess indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. The model was based on 44,631 measurements from the nationwide Swiss radon database collected between 1994 and 2004. Of these, 80% randomly selected measurements were used for model development and the remaining 20% for an independent model validation. A multivariable log-linear regression model was fitted and relevant predictors selected according to evidence from the literature, the adjusted R², the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The prediction model was evaluated by calculating Spearman rank correlation between measured and predicted values. Additionally, the predicted values were categorised into three categories (50th, 50th-90th and 90th percentile) and compared with measured categories using a weighted Kappa statistic. The most relevant predictors for indoor radon levels were tectonic units and year of construction of the building, followed by soil texture, degree of urbanisation, floor of the building where the measurement was taken and housing type (P-values <0.001 for all). Mean predicted radon values (geometric mean) were 66 Bq/m³ (interquartile range 40-111 Bq/m³) in the lowest exposure category, 126 Bq/m³ (69-215 Bq/m³) in the medium category, and 219 Bq/m³ (108-427 Bq/m³) in the highest category. Spearman correlation between predictions and measurements was 0.45 (95%-CI: 0.44; 0.46) for the development dataset and 0.44 (95%-CI: 0.42; 0.46) for the validation dataset. Kappa coefficients were 0.31 for the development and 0.30 for the validation dataset, respectively. The model explained 20% overall variability (adjusted R²). In conclusion, this residential radon prediction model, based on a large number of measurements, was demonstrated to be robust

  3. Characterization of CO2 reservoir rock in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Madonna, Claudio; Zappone, Alba

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are one of the key drivers regarding global climate change (IPCC, 2007). Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is one valuable technology to mitigate current climate change with an immediate impact. The IPCC special report on CCS predicted a potential capture range of 4.7 to 37.5 Gt of CO2 by 2050. Among several countries, Switzerland has started to investigate its potential for CO2 storage (Chevalier et al., 2010) and is currently performing research on the characterization of the most promising reservoir/seal rocks for CO2 sequestration. For Switzerland, the most feasible option is to store CO2 in saline aquifers, sealed by impermeable formations. One aquifer of regional scale in the Swiss Molasse Basin is a carbonate sequence consisting of reworked shallow marine limestones and accumulations of shell fragments. The upper part of the formation presents the most promising permeability values and storage properties. The storage potential has been estimated of 706 Mt of CO2, based on the specific ranking scheme proposed by Chevalier et al. 2010. In this study, key parameters such as porosity, permeability and acoustic velocities in compressional and shear mode have been measured in laboratory at pressures and temperatures simulating in situ conditions. Reservoir rock samples have been investigated. Permeability has been estimated before and after CO2 injection in supercritical state. The simulation of typical reservoir conditions allows us to go one step further towards a significant evaluation of the reservoir's true capacities for CO2 sequestration. It seems of major importance to notice that the permeability crucially depends on confining pressure, temperature and pore pressure conditions of the sample. Especially at in situ conditions with CO2 being at supercritical state, a substantial loss in permeability have to be taken into consideration when it comes to the calculation of potential injection rates. The

  4. BVD eradication in Switzerland--a new approach.

    PubMed

    Presi, P; Heim, D

    2010-04-21

    Diverse concepts for BVD eradication or control have been applied in several countries with varying success. Results of previous studies conducted in Switzerland have shown that the prevalence of antibody-positive animals is high and that BVDV is widespread in the country causing serious economic losses. A new approach to eradicate BVD in the cattle population in Switzerland was chosen. It consists in testing the whole Swiss cattle population for virus detection in a short period of time, without initial antibody screening. Identified persistently infected (PI) animals have to be slaughtered, and new herd infections should be avoided by movement restrictions. Ear-notches are collected using special tags for labeling the animals, and are analyzed using ELISA or rtRT-PCR methods. Confirmatory tests if needed are performed on blood samples using rtRT-PCR. The eradication program is divided into four phases: (1) Pre-pasturing phase: all young bovines going to transhumance in summer have to be negative tested before. (2) Initial phase: all non-tested bovines have to be tested. Movement restrictions are effective at the same time. (3) Calves phase: all newborn calves have to be tested. (4) Surveillance phase: several strategies will be compared using a modeling approach. After the pre-pasture phase already 595,230 animals (37% of the livestock) have been tested within four months. A prevalence of 1.1% of PIs was observed. The average age of infected animals is 403 days compared to 794 days for non-infected animals, with the oldest PI-animal being over 11 years old. On average PI-animals are slaughtered within 18 days after the last positive result. The pre-pasture phase has shown that sampling and testing a high number of animals in a short time is challenging but possible. The next phase will deal with double the number of animals in a similar time frame. The coordination between all partners as well as the collaboration of farmers is the key factor for ensuring the

  5. Neotectonic fault structures in the Lake Thun area (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano C.; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Merz, Kaspar; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Strong historic earthquakes (i.e. intensities I0 ≥ V) in Switzerland are well documented by the earthquake catalogue of Switzerland ECOS-09 (e.g. Frutigen, 1729 AD, Mw=5.2, I0=VI). Many of these strong events can be recognized paleoseismically by large subaquatic, earthquake-triggered mass movements that occur frequently in Swiss Lakes. Some of these represent the occasional occurrence of even stronger earthquakes (i.e. Mw ˜6.5) in the Alpine region (Strasser et al., 2013), which are expected to produce noticeable surface ruptures. However, convincing evidence for Quaternary displacements with offset surface expressions have scarcely been found (e.g., Wiemer et al., 2009). Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, this study presents potential candidates for such faults in the larger Lake Thun area at the edge of the Alps. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun is situated at the northern Alpine front, which extends orthogonally to the general strike direction of the Alpine nappe front. The northern shoreline is predominantly shaped by the front of the Subalpine Molasse, which is in strong contrast to the south western shore built by the structurally higher units of the Middle and Lower Penninic nappes. This pattern with obvious differences of both lake sides suggests a major fault along the lake axis and high tectonic activity during nappe emplacement, i.e. from Eocene times throughout the Late Miocene. The area is dominated today by a strike-slip stress regime with a slight normal faulting component (Kastrup et al., 2004). As part of a multi-disciplinary study, attempting to find potential neotectonically active fault structures in the Lake Thun area, a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted. The aim of the GPR survey was to link observations from a multichannel reflection seismic survey and a multibeam bathymetric survey carried out in Lake Thun with findings in a nearby gravel quarry revealing suspicious deformation features such as rotated gravel

  6. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  7. Imported diphyllobothriasis in Switzerland: molecular evidence of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824).

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; de Marval, Floriane; Gottstein, Bruno; Peduzzi, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time in Switzerland a clinical case because of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, identified by molecular methods. We discuss the potential for this imported species to infect local intermediate hosts and thus to achieve autochthonous cyclic transmission.

  8. Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)

  9. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  10. Hailstorms over Switzerland: Verification of Crowd-sourced Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noti, Pascal-Andreas; Martynov, Andrey; Hering, Alessandro; Martius, Olivia

    2016-04-01

    The reports of smartphone users, witnessing hailstorms, can be used as source of independent, ground-based observation data on ground-reaching hailstorms with high temporal and spatial resolution. The presented work focuses on the verification of crowd-sourced data collected over Switzerland with the help of a smartphone application recently developed by MeteoSwiss. The precise location, time of hail precipitation and the hailstone size are included in the crowd-sourced data, assessed on the basis of the weather radar data of MeteoSwiss. Two radar-based hail detection algorithms, POH (Probability of Hail) and MESHS (Maximum Expected Severe Hail Size), in use at MeteoSwiss are confronted with the crowd-sourced data. The available data and investigation time period last from June to August 2015. Filter criteria have been applied in order to remove false reports from the crowd-sourced data. Neighborhood methods have been introduced to reduce the uncertainties which result from spatial and temporal biases. The crowd-sourced and radar data are converted into binary sequences according to previously set thresholds, allowing for using a categorical verification. Verification scores (e.g. hit rate) are then calculated from a 2x2 contingency table. The hail reporting activity and patterns corresponding to "hail" and "no hail" reports, sent from smartphones, have been analyzed. The relationship between the reported hailstone sizes and both radar-based hail detection algorithms have been investigated.

  11. Use, Storage, and Disposal of Electronic Equipment in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Thiébaud, Esther; Hilty, Lorenz M; Schluep, Mathias; Faulstich, Martin

    2017-03-28

    Electronic devices contain important resources, including precious and critical raw materials. For an efficient management of these resources, it is important to know where the devices are located, how long they are used and when and how they are disposed of. In this article, we explore the past and current quantities of electronic devices in the in-use stock and storage stock in Switzerland and quantify the flows between the use, storage and disposal phase with dynamic material flow analysis (MFA). Devices included are mobile phones, desktop and laptop computers, monitors, cathode ray tube and flat panel display televisions, DVD players, and headphones. The system for the dynamic MFA was developed as a cascade model dividing the use phase in first, second and further use, with each of these steps consisting of an in-use stock and a storage stock for devices. Using a customized software tool, we apply Monte Carlo simulation to systematically consider data uncertainty. The results highlight the importance of the storage stock, which accounts for 25% (in terms of mass) or 40% (in terms of pieces) of the total stock of electronic devices in 2014. Reuse and storage significantly influence the total lifetime of devices and lead to wide and positively skewed lifetime distributions.

  12. Association between education and quality of diabetes care in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Patients and methods Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Results Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: β=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2–0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: β=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9–6.4]). Conclusion Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities. PMID:25759596

  13. Cloud observations in Switzerland using hemispherical sky cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacker, Stefan; Gröbner, Julian; Zysset, Christoph; Diener, Laurin; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Stöckli, Reto; Nyeki, Stephan; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of total cloud cover and cloud type classification results from a sky camera network comprising four stations in Switzerland. In a comprehensive intercomparison study, records of total cloud cover from the sky camera, long-wave radiation observations, Meteosat, ceilometer, and visual observations were compared. Total cloud cover from the sky camera was in 65-85% of cases within ±1 okta with respect to the other methods. The sky camera overestimates cloudiness with respect to the other automatic techniques on average by up to 1.1 ± 2.8 oktas but underestimates it by 0.8 ± 1.9 oktas compared to the human observer. However, the bias depends on the cloudiness and therefore needs to be considered when records from various observational techniques are being homogenized. Cloud type classification was conducted using the k-Nearest Neighbor classifier in combination with a set of color and textural features. In addition, a radiative feature was introduced which improved the discrimination by up to 10%. The performance of the algorithm mainly depends on the atmospheric conditions, site-specific characteristics, the randomness of the selected images, and possible visual misclassifications: The mean success rate was 80-90% when the image only contained a single cloud class but dropped to 50-70% if the test images were completely randomly selected and multiple cloud classes occurred in the images.

  14. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  15. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer.

  16. Social capacities for drought risk management in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, S.; Seidl, I.

    2013-12-01

    This paper analyses the social capacities for drought risk management from the perspective of national and regional water users and policy- and decision-makers in Switzerland. The analysis follows five dimensions of social capacities as prerequisites for drought risk management. Regarding information and knowledge (1), basic data is available, however not assembled for an integrated drought information system. As for technology and infrastructure (2), limited proactive capacities are available with the exception of a few of the drought-prone regions; in emergency response to drought however, provisional capacities are put together. Regarding organisation and management (3) most regions have enough personnel and effective cooperation in the case of acute and sporadic drought; long-term strategies though are largely missing. Economic resources (4) are sufficient if droughts remain rare. Finally, institutions and policies (5) are not sufficient for proactive drought risk management, but have been suitable in the drought of 2003. Starting points for building social capacities are first, to draw on the extensive experiences with the management of other natural hazards, second to build an integrated drought information system, including social and economic impacts, and third to improve the institutional framework through consistent regulations and coordination for proactive drought risk management.

  17. Ammonia emission after slurry application to grassland in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häni, Christoph; Sintermann, Jörg; Kupper, Thomas; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) after field application of livestock slurry contributes between 30% and 50% of agricultural NH3 emissions from European countries. The objectives of this study were to re-evaluate NH3 emissions following application of cattle and pig slurry to grassland in Switzerland and to investigate the effectiveness of abatement techniques. In 17 field experiments, NH3 emissions were determined with a micrometeorological approach, relating the emission to the measured concentration by means of atmospheric dispersion modelling. The cattle slurry applied exhibited an average dry matter content of 3.3% (range between 1.0% and 6.7% dry matter). The emission after application of cattle slurry spread with a splash plate (referred to as reference technique) ranged from 10% to 47% of applied Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (% of TAN) and averaged to 25% of TAN. This range of losses is lower by approx. a factor of two compared to measurements from earlier Swiss experiments. Applications with trailing hose and trailing shoe systems yielded an average reduction of 51% and 53%, respectively, relative to the reference technique. A regression analysis showed that the dry matter content of the slurry and the air temperature are important drivers for NH3 emission.

  18. Hazardous Glaciers In Switzerland: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.; Funk, M.; Wegmann, M.

    Because of the recent increase in both occupation and economical activities in high mountain areas, a systematic overview of potential hazard zones of glaciers is needed to avoid the constuction of settlements and infrastructures in endangered areas in fu- ture. Historical informations about glacier disasters show that catastrophic events can happen repeatedly for the same causes and with the same dramatic consequences. Past catastrophic events are not only useful to identify potentially dangerous glaciers, but represent an indication of the kind of glacier hazards to expect for any given glacier. An inventory containing all known events having caused damages in the past has been compiled for Switzerland. Three different types of glacier hazards are distinguished , e.g. ice avalanches, glacier floods and glacier length changes.Hazardous glaciers have been identified in the alpine cantons of Bern, Grison, Uri, Vaud and Valais so far. The inventory data were analysed in terms of periodicity of different types of events as well as of damage occured.

  19. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    PubMed

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland.

  20. Heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Du, Hong; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wen, Tao; Xu, An-Wu

    2013-03-01

    A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high efficiencies of the photocatalytic activity and the improved stability. With the assistance of Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag heterostructures, only 8 min and 12 min are taken to completely decompose MO and MB molecules under visible-light irradiation, respectively. Furthermore, the photodegradation rate does not show an obvious decrease during ten successive cycles, indicating that our heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts are extremely stable under visible-light irradiation.A heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalyst was prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Ag3PO4 micro-cubes and Br- in aqueous solution followed by photoreduction. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation (λ >= 400 nm). Compared to AgBr/Ag, Ag3PO4/AgBr heterocrystals and pure Ag3PO4 crystals, the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag plasmonic photocatalysts exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability. This enhanced photocatalytic activity suggests that the synergetic effects of the heterostructured Ag3PO4/AgBr/Ag and the strong SPR of Ag NPs on the surface result in the high

  1. Characterization of Atmospheric Ions at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Junninen, Heikki; Tröstl, Jasmin; Molteni, Ugo; Herrmann, Erik; Sipilä, Mikko; Dommen, Josef; Kulmala, Markku; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Understanding ion composition in the atmosphere is of high interest since ions control the electrical properties of the atmospheric medium, participate in ion-catalysed and ion-molecule reactions and contribute to physico-chemical interactions, including ion-induced nucleation (Arnold, 2008). In the last decade, the interest in atmospheric ions has increased because of the potential impact of the ion-aerosol-cloud interaction on climate (Hirsikko et al., 2011). Therefore, several laboratory and field measurements have been performed trying to understand the precise role of ions in new particle formation. The free troposphere represents an interesting region with no immediate contribution from biogenic or anthropogenic sources, low pollution and low temperatures, where new particle formation can make an important contribution to the total particle number concentration. Thus, the characterization of ions in this region of the atmosphere is an important step to understand new particle nucleation. In August 2013 we started measurements at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m asl; 46.55°N, 7.98°E) in the Swiss Alps to investigate the composition of atmospheric ions in the lower free troposphere for around 9 months. The instrument employed was an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFWERK AG, Thun Switzerland) for ion characterization in positive and negative mode (alternately). We will present an overview of the major positively and negatively charged inorganic, organic and halogenated ions. We will also present back trajectories calculated with two different models: HYSPLIT for air transport and dispersion, and FLEXPART for surface residence time, along with correlations with the abundance of specific ions. As measurements were conducted continuously over a long period we were able to compare ion compositions under different conditions of solar radiation, presence or absence of clouds and wind direction/ air mass origin and to evaluate

  2. Assessement of user needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger-Knutti, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to assess and inform about future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems and to deduce appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are reliable and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). New climate model simulations, an improved scientific understanding and new statistical downscaling tools make an update of these scenarios necessary. An important component toward the new national scenarios "CH2018" are the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user-tailored and hence find a wide applicability. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS). To get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need, a comprehensive market research was undertaken. The survey targeted the most climate-relevant sectors, and considered representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, as well as a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users. Additionally, two workshops were organized to gather the needs in dissemination of climate scenarios. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the user needs according to the level of usage: "intensive users" are mainly researchers who handle large climate scenario data for further use in subsequent impact studies; "extensive users" are usually from administrations or consulting companies and perform simple calculations for specific questions or use provided graphics and tables; "facilitators" are usually from media, NGOs or schools and process and disseminate scenario information for a specific target group. The less intensive the usage of climate

  3. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  4. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Borel, N; Thoma, R; Spaeni, P; Weilenmann, R; Teankum, K; Brugnera, E; Zimmermann, D R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the first case of bovine chlamydial abortion was reported in canton Graubunden, Switzerland. In this region, Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus is endemic in small ruminants. Hence, we aimed to investigate the incidence of chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden. During breeding seasons of 2003-2004, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta specimens (n = 235) from late-term abortions in cattle were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry with a Chlamydiaceae-specific monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid [rRNA] PCR, intergenic spacer [IGS-S] PCR), followed by PCR product sequencing. In 149 of 235 cases (63.4%), histopathologic lesions such as purulent and/or necrotizing placentitis were observed. Chlamydial antigen was clearly demonstrated in immunohistochemistry in only 1 of 235 cases (0.4%). Cp. abortus or Cp. psittaci was found in 12 of 235 (5.1%) and 10 of 235 cases (4.2%) by 16 S rRNA PCR and IGS-S PCR, respectively. However, we detected, by 16 S rRNA PCR, 43 of 235 cases (18.3%) to be positive for chlamydia-like organisms. In contrast to the situation in small ruminants in the canton Graubunden, bovine abortion from Cp. abortus seems not to play an important role. Nevertheless, zoonotic potential should be taken into account when handling abortion material from cattle. The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation.

  5. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  6. Accumulation of cadmium and uranium in arable soils in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, Moritz; Ulrich, Andrea; Rehmus, Agnes; Keller, Armin

    2017-02-01

    Mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers contain contaminants that are potentially hazardous to humans and the environment. Frequent mineral P fertilizer applications can cause heavy metals to accumulate and reach undesirable concentrations in agricultural soils. There is particular concern about Cadmium (Cd) and Uranium (U) accumulation because these metals are toxic and can endanger soil fertility, leach into groundwater, and be taken up by crops. We determined total Cd and U concentrations in more than 400 topsoil and subsoil samples obtained from 216 agricultural sites across Switzerland. We also investigated temporal changes in Cd and U concentrations since 1985 in soil at six selected Swiss national soil monitoring network sites. The mean U concentrations were 16% higher in arable topsoil than in grassland topsoil. The Cd concentrations in arable and grassland soils did not differ, which we attribute to soil management practices and Cd sources other than mineral P fertilizers masking Cd inputs from mineral P fertilizers. The mean Cd and U concentrations were 58% and 9% higher, respectively, in arable topsoil than in arable subsoil, indicating that significant Cd and U inputs to arable soils occurred in the past. Geochemical mass balances confirmed this, indicating an accumulation of 52% for Cd and 6% for U. Only minor temporal changes were found in the Cd concentrations in topsoil from the six soil-monitoring sites, but U concentrations in topsoil from three sites had significantly increased since 1985. Sewage sludge and atmospheric deposition were previously important sources of Cd to agricultural soils, but today mineral P fertilizers are the dominant sources of Cd and U. Future Cd and U inputs to agricultural soils may be reduced by using optimized management practices, establishing U threshold values for mineral P fertilizers and soils, effectively enforcing threshold values, and developing and using clean recycled P fertilizers.

  7. Transcultural adaptation and initial validation of Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Basel assessment of adherence to immunosuppressive medications scale (BAASIS) in kidney transplants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transplant recipients are expected to adhere to a lifelong immunosuppressant therapeutic regimen. However, nonadherence to treatment is an underestimated problem for which no properly validated measurement tool is available for Portuguese-speaking patients. We aimed to initially validate the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS®) to accurately estimate immunosuppressant nonadherence in Brazilian transplant patients. Methods The BAASIS® (English version) was transculturally adapted and its psychometric properties were assessed. The transcultural adaptation was performed using the Guillemin protocol. Psychometric testing included reliability (intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, agreement, Kappa coefficient, and the Cronbach’s alpha) and validity (content, criterion, and construct validities). Results The final version of the transculturally adapted BAASIS® was pretested, and no difficulties in understanding its content were found. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility variances (0.007 and 0.003, respectively), the Cronbach’s alpha (0.7), Kappa coefficient (0.88) and the agreement (95.2%) suggest accuracy, preciseness and reliability. For construct validity, exploratory factorial analysis demonstrated unidimensionality of the first three questions (r = 0.76, r = 0.80, and r = 0.68). For criterion validity, the adapted BAASIS® was correlated with another self-report instrument, the Measure of Adherence to Treatment, and showed good congruence (r = 0.65). Conclusions The BAASIS® has adequate psychometric properties and may be employed in advance to measure adherence to posttransplant immunosuppressant treatments. This instrument will be the first one validated to use in this specific transplant population and in the Portuguese language. PMID:23692889

  8. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  9. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  10. Multiarchive paleoseismic record of late Pleistocene and Holocene strong earthquakes in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Ferry, M.; Monecke, K.; Schnellmann, M.; Giardini, D.

    2005-05-01

    A multiarchive approach has been applied to the investigation of the late Pleistocene and Holocene record of strong earthquakes in Switzerland. The geological archives used for this study include active faults, lake deposits, slope instabilities, and caves. In the Basle area, eight trenches were opened across the Basle-Reinach fault, nearby rockfall deposits were systematically investigated, sediment cores were taken from two lakes, and nine caves were studied. In Central Switzerland, five lakes were investigated by means of high-resolution seismic lines and sediment cores. Furthermore, three caves were studied in Central Switzerland. Altogether, the investigations are based on more than 350 km of high-resolution reflection seismic lines, 450 m of core samples, 260 m of trenches, and 245 radiocarbon age determinations. The measured co-seismic displacements along the Basle-Reinach fault supply independent information for the magnitude of the AD 1356 Basle earthquake exclusively based on geological evidence. Deformation features related to three well-documented strong historic earthquake shocks were identified. Deformation features of the AD 1774 Altdorf and AD 1601 Unterwalden earthquakes can be used to calibrate paleoseismic evidence in Central Switzerland. Altogether, traces of 13 earthquakes could be found in the two study areas, all of them with magnitudes Mw ˜ 6 or greater. For the first time, the earthquake catalogue for Switzerland can be extended back beyond historic records, into the late Pleistocene, spanning 15,000 years.

  11. Soil organic phosphorus characterisation on a glacial chronosequence (Damma, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus A.; Requejo, María I.; Bünemann, Else K.

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic phosphorus (P) may play a significant role in ecosystem P dynamics, yet, little is known about the development of different organic P classes over time. According to the commonly accepted model, relative proportions of organic P are expected to increase quickly after the commencement of soil development, subsequently remaining relatively stable over time. We tested this hypothesis on a young soil chronosequence in the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland), where we examined the development of different organic P classes over time. In detail, we hypothesized that organic P compounds resistant against broadly active phosphatase-enzymes would increase with soil age. Soil samples (0-5 cm) were taken on 21 sites with 6 to 136 years of soil development. Using enzyme addition assays to soil extracts (0.25 M NaOH / 0.05 M EDTA), four organic P classes were detected: a) Monoester-like P (organic P hydrolysed by an acid phosphatase), b) DNA-like P (organic P hydrolysed by a nuclease in combination with an acid phosphatase, minus monoester-like P), c) Inositol Phosphate-like P (organic P hydrolysed by a phytase, minus monoester like P) and d) Enzyme stable P (difference between total extracted organic P and the three enzyme labile P classes a, b and c). NaOH-EDTA extractable inorganic and organic P increased with soil age from 4.2 and 5.2 mg kg-1 at the youngest sites to 23.9 and 64.5 mg kg-1 at the oldest sites, respectively. On all sites, more organic than inorganic P was extracted. We observed a strong linear relationship between organic and inorganic P along the chronosequence. Between 60 and 100% of extractable organic P was hydrolysed by the added enzymes, without a clear trend with respect to soil age. On most sites, Inositol phosphate-like P was the most prominent organic P class (1.8-24.3 mg kg-1). However, on some sites higher amounts of monoester-like P were detected (0.4-23.4 mg kg-1). DNA-like P ranged from nil to 12.9 mg kg-1. Thus, we observed a

  12. Impact of increasing temperature on snowfall in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquet, G.; Marty, C.; Rebetez, M.

    2012-04-01

    The exact impact of changing temperatures on snow amounts is extremely important for mountainous regions, not only for hydrological aspects but also for winter tourism and the leisure industry in winter ski resorts. However, the impact of increasing temperatures on snowfall amounts is difficult to measure because of the large natural variability of precipitation. In addition, the impact of increasing temperatures varies, depending on region and altitude. Moreover, the impact of the observed increasing trend in temperature on snowfall and snow cover has usually been investigated on a seasonal basis only. On a monthly basis, the relationship between this increase in temperature and snowfall is still largely unknown. Of particular concern are the autumn and spring months and variations with altitude. In order to isolate the impact of changing temperatures on snowfall from the impact of changes in the frequency and intensity of total precipitation, we analyzed the proportion of snowfall days compared to precipitation days for each month from November to April in Switzerland. Our analyses concern 52 meteorological stations located between 200 and 2700 m asl over a 48 year time span. Our results show clear decreasing trends in snowfall days relative to precipitation days for all months (November to April) during the study period 1961-2008. Moreover, the present conditions in December, January and February correspond to those measured in the 1960's in November and March. During the whole snow season, the snowfall ratios have been transferred in elevation by at least 300 m from 1961 to 2008. This means that with an expected temperature increase during the coming decades at least similar to the temperature rise of recent decades, we can assume an additional similar altitudinal transfer of the snowfall days relative to precipitation days ratios. The current situation in November and March could thus become the future situation in December, January and February. During the

  13. Predicting herbicide and biocide concentrations in rivers across Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemyss, Devon; Honti, Mark; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Pesticide concentrations vary strongly in space and time. Accordingly, intensive sampling is required to achieve a reliable quantification of pesticide pollution. As this requires substantial resources, loads and concentration ranges in many small and medium streams remain unknown. Here, we propose partially filling the information gap for herbicides and biocides by using a modelling approach that predicts stream concentrations without site-specific calibration simply based on generally available data like land use, discharge and nation-wide consumption data. The simple, conceptual model distinguishes herbicide losses from agricultural fields, private gardens and biocide losses from buildings (facades, roofs). The herbicide model is driven by river discharge and the applied herbicide mass; the biocide model requires precipitation and the footprint area of urban areas containing the biocide. The model approach allows for modelling concentrations across multiple catchments at the daily, or shorter, time scale and for small to medium-sized catchments (1 - 100 km2). Four high resolution sampling campaigns in the Swiss Plateau were used to calibrate the model parameters for six model compounds: atrazine, metolachlor, terbuthylazine, terbutryn, diuron and mecoprop. Five additional sampled catchments across Switzerland were used to directly compare the predicted to the measured concentrations. Analysis of the first results reveals a reasonable simulation of the concentration dynamics for specific rainfall events and across the seasons. Predicted concentration ranges are reasonable even without site-specific calibration. This indicates the transferability of the calibrated model directly to other areas. However, the results also demonstrate systematic biases in that the highest measured peaks were not attained by the model. Probable causes for these deviations are conceptual model limitations and input uncertainty (pesticide use intensity, local precipitation, etc

  14. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly.

  15. [How patient safety programmes can be successfully implemented - an example from Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Kobler, Irene; Mascherek, Anna; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, the implementation of patient safety programmes poses a major challenge. In the first part, we will demonstrate that various measures have been found to be effective in the literature but that they often do not reach the patient because their implementation proves difficult. Difficulties arise from both the complexity of the interventions themselves and from different organisational settings in individual hospitals. The second part specifically describes the implementation of patient safety improvement programmes in Switzerland and discusses measures intended to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of implementation in Switzerland. Then, the national pilot programme to improve patient safety in surgery is presented, which was launched by the federal Swiss government and has been implemented by the patient safety foundation. Procedures, challenges and highlights in implementing the programme in Switzerland on a national level are outlined. Finally, first (preliminary) results are presented and critically discussed.

  16. [Vocational training for general practitioners-comparing Switzerland with other European countries].

    PubMed

    Djalali, Sima; Frei, Anja; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2013-03-13

    As many other European countries, Switzerland is facing a shortage of young general practitioners (GPs). This review summarizes and compares the different characteristics of vocational training programs in Switzerland and other European countries concerning their duration, learning objectives and setting. Countries with a GP-centered healthcare system offer highly structured training programs tailored to the everyday work in general practice, whereas vocational training programs in countries where patients have unlimited access to specialized care are less differentiated. Today, the vocational training of Swiss GPs lacks topically focused learning objectives and seems to be rather underdeveloped when compared to foreign programs. Particularly with regard to the duration and funding of practice-based training periods spent in GP surgeries, Switzerland still has a great development potential.

  17. Adapting dating violence prevention to francophone Switzerland: a story of intra-western cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Sherry; Nix, Kaki; De Puy, Jacqueline; Monnier, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Dating violence prevention programs, which originated in the United States, are beginning to be implemented elsewhere. This article presents the first adaptation of a violence prevention program for a European culture, Francophone Switzerland. A U.S. dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates (Foshee & Langwick, 1994), was reviewed in 19 youth and 4 professional focus groups. The most fundamental program concepts--"dating" and "violence"--are not the same in Switzerland and the United States. Swiss youth were not very focused on establishing monogamous romantic relationships, and there is no ready translation for "dating." Violence has not become the focus of a social movement in Switzerland to the same extent that it has in the United States, and distinctions among terms such as "dating violence" and "domestic violence" are not well known. Psychoeducational approaches are also less common in the Swiss context. As the movement to prevent violence extends worldwide, these issues need greater consideration.

  18. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  19. Life Sciences Start-ups in Switzerland: CTI and its Support for Young Entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Sekanina, Klara

    2014-12-01

    According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013, perceived opportunities to start a business in Switzerland are high and rank above average compared to other innovation-based countries. 2013 was a record year for start-ups in Switzerland. Around 40,000 new businesses were recorded in the commercial register and the trend is set to continue. There are two main criteria that lead to success, particularly for science- or technology- based start-ups: first of all, it is the business or product idea itself, and secondly it is the entrepreneurial team. CTI is supporting innovation in a manner that responds to a need in the market identified by industry.

  20. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  1. Comparative Intergroup Relations and Social Incorporation in Two Multilingual Societies: Canada and Switzerland. Occasional Paper No. 95-03.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Carol

    A study of national identity and social integration in two multilingual societies, Canada and Switzerland, examines the relations between Quebec and anglophone Canada and between French and German Switzerland. First, the historical setting for the emergence of multilingualism is outlined for both countries, and the demography of the major language…

  2. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 98 Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the importation of animals and animal products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region...

  3. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 98 Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... importation of animals and animal products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe...

  4. Large decrease of VOC emissions of Switzerland's car fleet during the past decade: results from a highway tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Konrad; Bugmann, Stefan; Buchmann, Brigitte; Reimann, Stefan; Staehelin, Johannes

    The emissions of 14 C 4-C 8 VOC species from road traffic have been measured in a highway tunnel (Gubristtunnel) near Zurich, Switzerland in 2002. The investigated traffic situation corresponds to highway driving with an average speed of 90 km h -1 and hot engine conditions. The comparison with measurements in the same tunnel performed in 1993 indicates that the emission factors of the individual hydrocarbons decreased on average by 80% in the 9 years between both investigations. This improvement can mainly be explained by the nearly complete elimination of non-catalyst gasoline-fuelled cars from the Swiss car fleet in the past decade. The relative emission strengths of the quantified individual VOCs were similar in 1993 and 2002. The emission factors reported in this study are the lowest reported from on-road vehicle emission measurements so far, indicating the efficient technology of modern car fleets with respect to VOC emissions. The emission factors derived from the tunnel study are compared to modelled emission factors based on dynamometric test measurements on Swiss passenger cars. The employed model is the Handbuch für Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs; version 1.2 (Umweltbundesamt Berlin and INFRAS AG Bern, 1999). A good agreement between the modelled and measured emissions was found for the investigated traffic situation, indicating that the development of the VOC emissions during the last decade is well understood on the basis of the fleet composition and the dynamometric test measurements. The observed VOC emission reduction corresponds to a traffic situation, where an optimal exhaust gas catalyst performance can be expected. Factors leading to a somewhat less beneficial influence of the catalytic converter technique in other relevant driving situations are therefore additionally discussed.

  5. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  6. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  7. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  8. What Is a Doctorate? Changing Meanings and Practices in Communication Sciences in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Carole; Lepori, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the organisation of the doctorate in communication sciences in the context of the overall discussion on the changing organisation of doctoral studies in Switzerland. We focus on three tensions which appear central for the field, namely the employment status of doctoral students, the importance of academic vs.…

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain Isolated in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Bachofen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e. PMID:26067971

  10. Hospital antibiotic consumption in Switzerland: comparison of a multicultural country with Europe.

    PubMed

    Plüss-Suard, C; Pannatier, A; Kronenberg, A; Mühlemann, K; Zanetti, G

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of antibiotics in the inpatient setting of Switzerland was assessed to determine possible differences between linguistic regions, and to compare these results with European results. Data on antibiotic consumption were obtained from a sentinel network representing 54% of the national acute care hospitals, and from a private drug market monitoring company. Aggregated data were converted into defined daily doses (DDD). The total consumption density in Switzerland was close to the median consumption reported in European surveys. Between 2004 and 2008, the total consumption of systemic antibiotics rose from 46.1 to 54.0 DDD per 100 occupied bed-days in the entire hospitals, and from 101.6 to 114.3 DDD per 100 occupied bed-days in the intensive care units. Regional differences were observed for total consumption and among antibiotic classes. Hospitals in the Italian-speaking region showed a significantly higher consumption density, followed by the French- and German-speaking regions. Hospitals in the Italian-speaking region also had a higher consumption of fluoroquinolones, in line with the reported differences between Italy, Germany and France. Antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals in Switzerland is close to the European median with a relatively low consumption in intensive care units. Some of the patterns of variation in consumption levels noticed among European countries are also observed among the cultural regions of Switzerland.

  11. From Autonomy to Quality Management: NPM Impacts on School Governance in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of discourses on "New Public Management" (NPM) on compulsory schooling in Switzerland during the last two decades and traces its implementation in the Canton of Bern. The analysis suggests that while NPM reformers initially promoted increased school autonomy, the introduction of market elements and school…

  12. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  13. Analysis of E-Inclusion Projects in Russia, Austria and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaves, Bjorn; Plattfaut, Ralf; Gorbacheva, Elena; Vages, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of digital divide is widely discussed in research as well as in practice. Today, especially senior citizens are excluded from the merits of using information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper aims to study municipal projects for an inclusive information society in Russia, Austria, and Switzerland.…

  14. Can "Vocationalisation" of Education Go Too Far? The Case of Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    While countries with predominantly academic school-based upper secondary education have been "discovering" vocational education and training (VET) for some time, countries with "vocationalised" education systems such as Austria, Germany or Switzerland are critically reviewing their own situations. This paper takes up the case…

  15. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  16. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  17. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  18. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  19. Diversity and distribution of freshwater amphipod species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems.

  20. Business Students' Perception of Sales Careers: Differences between Students in Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakaya, Fahri; Quigley, Charles; Bingham, Frank; Hari, Juerg; Nasir, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This research measures perceptual differences between sales and sales careers among business students studying in the United States, Switzerland, and Turkey. Earlier studies indicate that selling and a sales career are not viewed favorably by students in the United States and several other countries. This study expands on prior studies by…

  1. Gifted Education in Switzerland: Widely Acknowledged, but Obstacles Still Exist in Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller-Oppliger, Victor

    2014-01-01

    With its strong federalism and direct democracy, as well as the high level of autonomy of its cantons, Switzerland does not have mandatory national policies and regulations on gifted education. Responsibility for the promotion of high-end learners is in the hands of the cantonal boards of education, and depends largely on their current…

  2. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  3. Experiences and Concepts Related to Gifted Education and Talent Development in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller-Oppliger, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a summary of efforts and projects related to the provision of gifted students and talent development in Swiss schools and with partners in the German speaking Central Europe. In the first part, relevant activities about teacher education in Switzerland based on a cooperative arrangement with the University of Connecticut will…

  4. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  5. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  6. Schweizer Soziolinguistik--Soziolinguistik der Schweiz (Swiss Sociolinguistics--Sociolinguistics in Switzerland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werlen, Iwar, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The 13 articles in this serial issue are as follows (with all titles translated into English); "Swiss Sociolinguistics--Sociolinguistics in Switzerland" (Iwar Werlen); "Public Space, Medias, and Identities of Language. Reference Points for an Analysis of the Swiss Imaginary Collective"; (Jean Widmer); "Anthropological and…

  7. School Governance in Switzerland: Tensions between New Roles and Old Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Stephan Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses school governance in Switzerland. It elaborates on the different actors involved, their roles and functions, and how these change as school governance in the cantons changes. Quality management is identified as a core activity at all levels and for all actors involved in school governance. In these re-structuring processes,…

  8. Health care-associated rotavirus illness in pediatric inpatients in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Karmaus, Wilfried; Ehlken, Birgit; Fruhwirth, Martin; Heininger, Ulrich; Plenge-Bonig, Anita; Forster, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    A longitudinal study of health care-associated transmission of rotaviruses (RVs) in pediatric inpatients 0-48 months old in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland showed that almost one third of all cases occurred in patients 2 months old or younger. The effectiveness of vaccination against RV from 2 months of age onward remains to be evaluated.

  9. Maintaining Switzerland's Top Innovation Capacity. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 487

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence

    2006-01-01

    Despite some weakening in the 1990s, partly due to sluggish trend growth, the Swiss innovation performance has been very strong. There are, however, areas in which policy reforms could strengthen innovation further and help Switzerland maintain its lead in the face of a changing global environment. Boosting competition, simplifying administrative…

  10. European brown hare syndrome in free-ranging European brown and mountain hares from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Frölich, K; Haerer, G; Bacciarini, L; Janovsky, M; Rudolph, M; Giacometti, M

    2001-10-01

    From 1997 to 2000, complete necropsy and histopathologic investigations were performed on 157 free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Switzerland. Organ samples of all these individuals (157 livers and 107 spleens available) were tested for European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV)-antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Furthermore, 60 additional blood samples were tested for antibodies against EBHSV by ELISA. In addition, liver samples of 87 free-ranging mountain hares (Lepus timidus) hunted in 1996 were tested for EBHSV-antigen. In two European brown hares from southern Switzerland lesions suggestive of changes induced by EBHSV were present, and high titers of EBHSV-antigen were detected in both liver and spleen samples of these animals. Based on negative staining electron microscopy investigations of liver and spleen homogenates, we observed calicivirus in one antigen-positive hare. Low EBHSV-antigen titers were found in three additional European brown hares from central and western Switzerland, but EBHS-lesions were absent. Antibodies against EBHSV were not detected in any of the sera of European brown hares, and EBHSV-antigen was not found in the samples of mountain hares. This is the first report of EBHS in European brown hares from Switzerland.

  11. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in thionyl chloride electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnick, F. M.; Cieslak, W. R.

    1985-07-01

    Thionyl chloride is the active cathode and electrolyte solvent in Li/SOCl2 primary battery systems. To evaluate charge-transfer reactions in this solvent system, a reference electrode is required. This report describes the fabrication and characterization of Ag/AgCl microreference electrodes that can be used in SOCl2 battery electrolytes.

  12. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  13. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei; Hu, Wenping; Zhou, Xueqin

    2016-11-01

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl- N, N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag+ into Ag0 by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  14. Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2013-02-15

    We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

  15. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D.; Schmied, Christian M.; Saguner, Ardan M.; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. Objective We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. Methods We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Results Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35–0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89–1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27–2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. Conclusions The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD. PMID:28350812

  16. Anthropogenic and natural methane fluxes in Switzerland synthesized within a spatially-explicit inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, R. V.; Bretscher, D.; DelSontro, T.; Diem, T.; Eugster, W.; Henneberger, R.; Hobi, S.; Hodson, E.; Imer, D.; Kreuzer, M.; Künzle, T.; Merbold, L.; Niklaus, P. A.; Rihm, B.; Schellenberger, A.; Schroth, M. H.; Schubert, C. J.; Siegrist, H.; Stieger, J.; Buchmann, N.; Brunner, D.

    2013-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution (500 m × 500 m) gridded methane (CH4) emission inventory for Switzerland, which integrates the national emission totals reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and recent CH4 flux studies conducted by research groups across Switzerland. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, we also include natural and semi-natural CH4 fluxes, i.e., emissions from lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, wild animals as well as uptake by forest soils. National CH4 emissions were disaggregated using detailed geostatistical information on source locations and their spatial extent and process- or area-specific emission factors. In Switzerland, the highest CH4 emissions in 2011 originated from the agricultural sector (150 Gg CH4 yr-1), mainly produced by ruminants and manure management, followed by emissions from waste management (15 Gg CH4 yr-1) mainly from landfills and the energy sector (12 Gg CH4 yr-1), which was dominated by emissions from natural gas distribution. Compared to the anthropogenic sources, emissions from natural and semi-natural sources were relatively small (6 Gg CH4 yr-1), making up only 3 % of the total emissions in Switzerland. CH4 fluxes from agricultural soils were estimated to be not significantly different from zero (between -1.5 and 0 Gg CH4 yr-1), while forest soils are a CH4 sink (approx. -2.8 Gg CH4 yr-1), partially offsetting other natural emissions. Estimates of uncertainties are provided for the different sources, including an estimate of spatial disaggregation errors deduced from a comparison with a global (EDGAR v4.2) and a European CH4 inventory (TNO/MACC). This new spatially-explicit emission inventory for Switzerland will provide valuable input for regional scale atmospheric modeling and inverse source estimation.

  17. Anthropogenic and natural methane fluxes in Switzerland synthesized within a spatially explicit inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, R. V.; Bretscher, D.; DelSontro, T.; Diem, T.; Eugster, W.; Henneberger, R.; Hobi, S.; Hodson, E.; Imer, D.; Kreuzer, M.; Künzle, T.; Merbold, L.; Niklaus, P. A.; Rihm, B.; Schellenberger, A.; Schroth, M. H.; Schubert, C. J.; Siegrist, H.; Stieger, J.; Buchmann, N.; Brunner, D.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first high-resolution (500 m × 500 m) gridded methane (CH4) emission inventory for Switzerland, which integrates 90 % of the national emission totals reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and recent CH4 flux studies conducted by research groups across Switzerland. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, we also include natural and semi-natural CH4 fluxes, i.e., emissions from lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, wild animals as well as uptake by forest soils. National CH4 emissions were disaggregated using detailed geostatistical information on source locations and their spatial extent and process- or area-specific emission factors. In Switzerland, the highest CH4 emissions in 2011 originated from the agricultural sector (150 Gg CH4 yr-1), mainly produced by ruminants and manure management, followed by emissions from waste management (15 Gg CH4 yr-1) mainly from landfills and the energy sector (12 Gg CH4 yr-1), which was dominated by emissions from natural gas distribution. Compared with the anthropogenic sources, emissions from natural and semi-natural sources were relatively small (6 Gg CH4 yr-1), making up only 3% of the total emissions in Switzerland. CH4 fluxes from agricultural soils were estimated to be not significantly different from zero (between -1.5 and 0 Gg CH4 yr-1), while forest soils are a CH4 sink (approx. -2.8 Gg CH4 yr-1), partially offsetting other natural emissions. Estimates of uncertainties are provided for the different sources, including an estimate of spatial disaggregation errors deduced from a comparison with a global (EDGAR v4.2) and an European (TNO/MACC) CH4 inventory. This new spatially explicit emission inventory for Switzerland will provide valuable input for regional-scale atmospheric modeling and inverse source estimation.

  18. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  19. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  20. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  1. Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongliao; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Liang, Changhao

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag2MoO4 nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO42- displaced by Br-. The ternary Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag2MoO4. The pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp of Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min-1, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag2MoO4, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  2. AgH, Ag/sub 2/, and AgO revisited: Basis set extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    An extended basis set has been developed for Ag which significantly improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental spectroscopic parameters for AgH, AgO, and Ag/sub 2/. The major improvement comes about as a result of the improved treatment of electron correlation in the Ag d shell upon the introduction of f functions. Their inclusion produces very slight differences at the SCF level, but significant reductions in r/sub e/ and increases in ..omega../sub e/ and D/sub e/ in the Mo-dash-barller--Plesset perturbation theory expansion. At the MP4(SDTQ) level, typical results are 0.02 A too long for r/sub e/, 4% too low for ..omega../sub e/, and 10 kcal too small for D/sub e/. From a pragmatic standpoint, MP2 give results very similar to this at a much reduced level of effort.

  3. THE AGS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTUM.

    SciTech Connect

    HOCK,J.RUSSO,T.GLEN,J.BROWN,K.

    2003-05-12

    The previous slow beam extraction electro static septum in the AGS was designed in 1981. Research documented at the Fermi Laboratory was used as the base line for this design. The septum consisted of a ground plane of .002 inch diameter wire tungsten-rhenium alloy (75%W 25%Re) with a hollow welded titanium cathode assembly. The vacuum chamber is stationary and the septum is moved with a pair of high vacuum linear feed throughs. After years of beam time, the frequency of failures increased. The vacuum system design was poor by today's standards and resulted in long pump down times after repairs. The failures ranged from broken septum wires to a twisted cathode. In addition to the failures, the mechanical drive system had too much backlash, making the operating position difficult to repeat. The new septum needed to address all of these issues in order to become a more reliable septum.

  4. Optimization of a Large-scale Microseismic Monitoring Network in Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Mignan, A.; Bethmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have performed a computer aided network optimization for a regional scale microseismic network in northeastern Switzerland. The goal of the optimization was to find the geometry and size of the network that assures a location precision of 0.5 km in the epicenter and 2.0 km in focal depth for earthquakes of magnitude ML>= 1.0, by taking into account 67 existing stations in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, and the expected detectability of Ml 1 earthquakes in the study area. The optimization was based on the simulated annealing approach by Hardt and Scherbaum (1993), that aims to minimize the volume of the error ellipsoid of the linearized earthquake location problem (D-criterion). We have extended their algorithm: to calculate traveltimes of seismic body waves using a finite differences raytracer and the three-dimensional velocity model of Switzerland, to calculate seismic body waves amplitudes at arbitrary stations assuming Brune source model and using scaling relations recently derived for Switzerland, and to estimate the noise level at arbitrary locations within Switzerland using a first order ambient seismic noise model based on 14 land-use classes defined by the EU-project CORINE and open GIS data. Considering 67 existing stations in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, optimizations for networks of 10 to 35 new stations were calculated with respect to 2240 synthetic earthquakes of magnitudes between ML=0.8-1.1. We incorporated the case of non-detections by considering only earthquake-station pairs with an expected signal-to-noise ratio larger than 10 for the considered body wave. Station noise levels were derived from measured ground motion for existing stations and from the first order ambient noise model for new sites. The stability of the optimization result was tested by repeated optimization runs with changing initial conditions. Due to the highly non linear nature and size of the problem, station locations in the individual solutions show small

  5. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  6. Use of engineered nanomaterials in the construction industry with specific emphasis on paints and their flows in construction and demolition waste in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Hiltbrunner, David; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    One sector where the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is supposed to offer novel or improved functionalities is the construction industry. During the renovation or demolition of buildings, ENMs contained in former construction materials will enter recycling systems or become construction waste. Currently, information about ENM flows in these processes is insufficient. The potential for the release of ENMs from this waste into the environment is unknown, as are the environmental impacts. To evaluate whether there is currently any nano-relevant construction and demolition waste (C&DW) originating from buildings, we evaluated the sources and flows of ENMs in C&DW and identified their potential exposure pathways. A survey of business representatives of Swiss companies in this sector found that ENMs are mainly used in paints and cement. The most frequently used ENMs in the Swiss housing construction industry are nano-TiO2, nano-SiO2, nano-ZnO, and nano-Ag. Using a bottom-up, semi-quantitative approach, we estimated the flows of ENMs contained in paints along the product's life cycle from buildings to recycling and landfill. The flows of ENMs are determined by their associated flows of building materials. We estimated an annual amount of ENMs used in paints of 14t of TiO2, 12t of SiO2, 5t of ZnO, and 0.2t of Ag. The majority of ENMs contained in paints in Switzerland enter recycling systems (23t/y), a smaller amount is disposed directly in landfills (7t/y), and a tiny fraction of ENM waste is incinerated (0.01t/y). Our results allow a qualitative determination of the potential release of ENMs into technical or environmental compartments, with the highest potential release expected during recycling.

  7. An economic analysis of payment for health care services: the United States and Switzerland compared.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Peter; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2009-06-01

    This article seeks to assess whether physician payment reforms in the United States and Switzerland were likely to attain their objectives. We first introduce basic contract theory, with the organizing principle being the degree of information asymmetry between the patient and the health care provider. Depending on the degree of information asymmetry, different forms of payment induce "appropriate" behavior. These theoretical results are then pitted against the RBRVS of the United States to find that a number of its aspects are not optimal. We then turn to Switzerland's Tarmed and find that it fails to conform with the prescriptions of economic contract theory as well. The article closes with a review of possible reforms that could do away with uniform fee schedules to improve the performance of the health care system.

  8. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics.

  9. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers.

  10. Requirements for Clinical Trials with Gene Therapy and Transplant Products in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Marti, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to describe and summarize the regulation of gene and cell therapy products in Switzerland and its legal basis. Product types are briefly described, as are Swiss-specific terminologies such as the term "transplant product," which means products manufactured from cells, tissues, or even whole organs. Although some parts of this chapter may show a guideline character, they are not legally binding, but represent the current thinking of Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. As so far the experience with marketing approval of gene therapy and cell therapy products in Switzerland is limited, this chapter focuses on the regulation of clinical trials conducted with these products. Quality, nonclinical, and clinical aspects are summarized separately for gene therapy products and transplant products.

  11. Acrylamide in a fried potato dish (rösti) from restaurants in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Maurus; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Suter, Gaby; Eicher, Angela; Pfefferle, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Rösti, a fried potato product, is a large contributor to acrylamide exposure locally in Switzerland. A survey of 55 dishes prepared by 51 restaurants in the city of Zurich showed that the average rösti contained 702 µg/kg acrylamide. By analysing the content of reducing sugars in the potatoes used for frying, it is shown that with simple measures, the exposure to acrylamide could easily be reduced by factor 2 or more, while even improving the culinary experience. Though rösti is a typical dish in the German-speaking areas in Switzerland, the result may be of general interest for fried potato products which are popular in large areas of Central Europe.

  12. Evidence of the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Huder, Jon B.; Weber, Rainer; Braun, Ueli; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. The number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. Nucleotide sequencing of the isolated PCR products identified these products as part of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia. In addition, these products had 100% homology with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The occurrence of this agent in I. ricinus in Switzerland presents a potential danger of transmission of granulocytic ehrlichiosis to dogs, horses, and humans. PMID:10203481

  13. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pinior, B.; Brugger, K.; Köfer, J.; Schwermer, H.; Stockreiter, S.; Loitsch, A.; Rubel, F.

    2015-01-01

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006–2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. PMID:25841165

  14. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used.

  15. Profiles of international archives: Les archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2013-05-01

    This research report provides a look behind closed doors at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva, Switzerland. It situates the potential visitor, contextualizes the Archives in its own history, and then describes what scholars can expect to find. New details about Piaget's views on Equal Rights and Equal Pay are also provided, including a look at how they affected the women who worked his factory (esp. Bärbel Inhelder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  17. [Occurrence of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) at three different altitudes in an alpine region of Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tschuor, A C; Kaufmann, C; Schaffner, F; Mathis, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate the occurrence of biting midges (Culicoides spp.), the potential vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV), in an alpine region of Switzerland (Vals/GR) at altitudes between 1300 and 2000 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.). For this purpose, insects were caught with UV-light traps once weekly from the end of June to the end of October 2008. Midges were found on all altitudes investigated, but distinct differences in the abundance at different stations were noticed. Most midges were caught at the intermediate station (about 1500 m a.s.l.) whereas the catches on the two alps (approximately 2000 m a.s.l.) varied considerably. The predominance of midges belonging to the Pulicaris complex, whose vector competence regarding bluetongue virus (BTV) is largely unknown, rose with increasing altitude. To identify potential breeding habitats, 17 soil samples of three farms were incubated in the laboratory. Different insects emerged but none of them was a Culicoides spp. and, therefore, the habitats of juvenile stages remain unknown. From our results we can conclude that most likely there are no midges-free zones in all of the agriculturally utilized areas (including the alpine summer pastures) of Switzerland. This strongly indicates that cattle, sheep, goats and camelids which are permanently or temporarily kept in regions of higher altitude in Switzerland should be vaccinated against bluetongue.

  18. [Switzerland as a "Veterinary Area": The development of federal veterinary policy, A.D. 941 - 1886.].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    The earliest recorded animal disease notification on the territory of contemporary Switzerland is found in the chronicles of the monastery of St. Gall and dates back to A.D. 941. Disease control in Switzerland began in medieval towns, with the regulation of livestock and the meat trade. Later, there were attempts to keep entire small areas such as valleys free of animal epidemics. Because livestock tended to be transported in one direction only - away from rural areas for sale in towns and for export - disease in animal-raising areas usually did not spread very far. Albrecht von Haller's epidemiological research from 1773 established the fundamentals of effective disease control. The cantons introduced extensive measures for protecting their territories on the basis of animal transport controls. With the development of the railways and the international livestock trade around 1850, the risk of animal epidemics increased considerably, leading to the need for measures on national and international levels. The first federal law on animal disease control was introduced in Switzerland in 1872, thus creating a nation-wide "veterinary area". In 1886 the law was amended to include mandatory controls of imported livestock and meat by a newly-created border veterinary service.

  19. Illegal import of bushmeat and other meat products into Switzerland on commercial passenger flights.

    PubMed

    Falk, H; Dürr, S; Hauser, R; Wood, K; Tenger, B; Lörtscher, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Illegal imports of meat can present substantial risks to public and animal health. Several European countries have reported considerable quantities of meat imported on commercial passenger flights. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity of meat illegally imported into Switzerland, with a separate estimation for bushmeat. Data were obtained by participation in intervention exercises at Swiss international airports and by analysing data on seizures during the four-year period 2008 to 2011. The study revealed that a wide array of animal species was imported into Switzerland. From the database, the average annual weight of meat seized during the period analysed was 5.5 tonnes, of which 1.4% was bushmeat. However, in a stochastic model the total annual inflow of illegal meat imports was estimated at 1,013 tonnes (95% CI 226 to 4,192) for meat and 8.6 tonnes (95% CI 0.8 to 68.8) for bushmeat. Thus, even for a small European country such as Switzerland the quantities of illegally imported meat and meat products are substantial and the consequences for public and animal health could be high. To reduce the risk, it is essential that surveillance at European airports is harmonised and that passenger information campaigns clarify the consequences of the illegal import of meat, particularly bushmeat.

  20. Self-burning - a rare suicide method in Switzerland and other industrialised nations - a review.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Reisch, T; Bartsch, Ch

    2014-12-01

    News items reporting self-immolation by Tibetans have been on the increase in recent years. After examining the corpse of a Swiss man who had committed suicide by deliberate self-burning, we wondered how often this occurs in Switzerland. The Federal Statistics Office (FSO) does not register self-burning specifically so no official national data on this form of suicide are available. However, we had access to the data from a Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) project Suicides in Switzerland between 2000 and 2010, which collected information on all (4885) cases of suicide investigated by the various institutes of forensic medicine. From this data pool we extracted 50 cases (1.02%) of suicide by self-burning, in order to determine the details and to identify the possible reasons for choosing this method. To look at our results in the light of studies from other countries, we searched the literature for studies that had also retrospectively examined suicide by self-immolation based on forensic records. Our results showed that, on the whole, personal aspects of self-burning in Switzerland do not differ from those in other industrialised nations. Some data, including religious and sociocultural background, were unfortunately missing - not only from our study but also from the similar ones. In our opinion, the most important prevention strategy is to make healthcare professionals more aware of this rare method of suicide.

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars.

  2. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  3. [Is iodination of cooking salt still necessary? Current studies on iodine supply in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Supersaxo, Z; Selz, B; Hasler, P; Wespi, H J; Abelin, T; Bürgi, H

    1991-03-09

    Salt with 3.75 mg iodide per kg was introduced in Switzerland stepwise in the individual cantons between 1922 and 1952. The iodide content was raised to 7.5 mg in 1962 and to 15 mg per kg in 1980. 92% of retail salt and 78% of all salt for human consumption (including salt used in industrial food processing) was iodized in 1989. Under this measure, prevalence of grade 1b or larger goiter dropped continuously to a present value of 1.3% in school-children and 0.3% in male army recruits. Endemic cretinism has disappeared completely. Urinary iodine has reached the desired range of 150 +/- 77 (SD) micrograms per g creatinine. The following facts prove that iodization of salt (and not other changes of food habits) have corrected the iodine deficiency in Switzerland: 1. Urinary iodine is highly correlated with urinary sodium. Backward extrapolation yields a theoretical urinary iodine of 30 micrograms per g creatinine in the absence of iodized salt, a value typical of severe deficiency. 2. Goiter prevalence declined later in those cantons which introduced iodized salt last. 3. Surrounding countries without iodized salt (France, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain) suffer from considerable iodine deficiency with areas of high goiter prevalence and even endemic cretinism. The new data underscore the absolute and continued need for iodized salt in Switzerland.

  4. [Choice of Hospital for Childbirth in Switzerland: Decision Factors and Sources of Information].

    PubMed

    Wiedenhöfer, D; Keppler, S

    2015-11-09

    The introduction of Swiss DRG in 2012 offers women in Switzerland free choice of hospital. The objective of this study was to identify decision factors affecting the choice of hospital birth in Switzerland and to rate the degree of utilization of information sources. In seven Swiss hospitals, located in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, women in childbed were interviewed in writing. When choosing a hospital, factors rated by women as important were professional competence, good medical care, good obstetric competence, good nursing care and a neat and clean atmosphere. Important sources of information are recommendations of friends, own experience gained during previous hospital stays, the specialist, family, and the hospital homepage. Information meetings for pregnant women are essential for hospitals because they encourage women's decision to use the hospital. Web presence of the hospital and a good relationship with the specialists or family doctors are important, but experience of friends, family or one's own experience with stay at the hospital play a more important role.

  5. Ag-Pd-Si (009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Pd-Si (009)' with the content:

  6. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles is 45-50 and 15-20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag2S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag2S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Ag heterogeneous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, ShaoHua; Guo, PengFeng

    2015-11-01

    Ag-deposited TiO2 and Ag (Ag-TiO2/Ag) films coated on glass substrates were prepared using a simple sol-gel and dip-coating method. The Ag chemical state was investigated through X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that the Ag mainly exists in metallic state in the Ag-TiO2 film. Ag-TiO2/Ag exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than individual Ag-TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to high surface plasmon resonance effects and separation rates of photoinduced electron-hole pairs of Ag nanoparticles. Results were verified by photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  8. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  9. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  10. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  11. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  12. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  13. The effects of economic deprivation on psychological well-being among the working population of Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Stefan; Endrass, Jerome; Schweizer, Ivo; Teng, Hsun-Mei; Rossler, Wulf; Gallo, William T

    2006-01-01

    Background The association between poverty and mental health has been widely investigated. There is, however, limited evidence of mental health implications of working poverty, despite its representing a rapidly expanding segment of impoverished populations in many developed nations. In this study, we examined whether working poverty in Switzerland, a country with substantial recent growth among the working poor, was correlated with two dependent variables of interest: psychological health and unmet mental health need. Methods This cross-sectional study used data drawn from the first 3 waves (1999–2001) of the Swiss Household Panel, a nationally representative sample of the permanent resident population of Switzerland. The study sample comprised 5453 subjects aged 20–59 years. We used Generalized Estimating Equation models to investigate the association between working poverty and psychological well-being; we applied logistic regression models to analyze the link between working poverty and unmet mental health need. Working poverty was represented by dummy variables indicating financial deficiency, restricted standard of living, or both conditions. Results After controlling other factors, restricted standard of living was significantly (p < .001) negatively correlated with psychological well-being; it was also associated with approximately 50% increased risk of unmet mental health need (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 – 2.06). Conclusion The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the potential psychological impact of material deprivation on working Swiss citizens. Such knowledge may aid in the design of community intervention programs to help reduce the individual and societal burdens of poverty in Switzerland. PMID:16952322

  14. Prevalence and Mimics of Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Survey in French-Speaking Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Habra, Oussama; Heinzer, Raphaël; Haba-Rubio, Jose; Rossetti, Andrea O.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, the diagnosis of which can be challenging. We aimed to estimate KLS prevalence in French-speaking Switzerland, and assess differences with mimicking conditions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, KLS patients were identified through a population-based approach, including at our hospital and contacting all sleep-certified facilities and neurologists in French-speaking Switzerland. Furthermore, we identified patients referred to our center for suspected KLS that received other diagnoses. Relevant clinical data of these two groups was compared. Results: We identified 7 patients with diagnosed KLS (6 since 2009), leading to a prevalence estimation of 3.19 per million (95% confidence interval: 1.55–6.59). Median age at diagnosis was 17 years (range: 12–19), 71.4% of them were men, and mean diagnosis delay after the first episode was 20.1 ± 10.9 months. We identified 9 mimic patients referred to our center; they differed from KLS patients by their higher age at disease onset (median: 15 [range: 12–16] vs. 19 [range: 16–64] years; p < 0.001), suspected KLS as referral reason (more frequent in mimics, p = 0.003), and the presence of precipitating factors (more frequent in KLS, p = 0.011). Among the mimic patients, 77% (versus 28% in KLS) had a psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions: This study suggests a relatively higher KLS prevalence than previously reported. As compared to KLS, mimic patients have higher age at symptom onset, are more often initially referred for KLS suspicion, and have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Citation: Habra O, Heinzer R, Haba-Rubio J, Rossetti AO. Prevalence and mimics of Kleine-Levin syndrome: a survey in French-speaking Switzerland. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1083–1087. PMID:27250808

  15. Paleotemperature reconstructions from speleothem fluid inclusions between 14 - 10 ka BP in Milandre cave (NW Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria; Fleitmann, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In cave environments, speleothems constitute a well preserved and precisely dated continental climate archive that record past environmental changes such as paleotemperature or moisture source, namely through oxygen and hydrogen isotopes variations. Fluid inclusions are common in speleothems and they correspond to micrometric voids that often contain fossil liquid water representing past precipitation falling above the cave nearly at the time the inclusions were sealed. To measure the δD and δ18O isotopic composition of speleothem fluid inclusions, we extracted submicrolitre amounts of water from stalagmites (old and recent) coming from Milandre cave (Switzerland) using a new online method developed at the University of Bern (Affolter et al., 2014). The released water is then flushed directly to a Picarro L1102-i or L2140-i laser based instrument that allows to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. At Milandre cave site, a two year isotope monitoring campaign has confirmed that isotopes in precipitation for northwestern Switzerland are principally controlled by air temperature (Affolter et al., 2015). Therefore, when combined with calcite δ18O, the fluid inclusion water isotopes can be used to calculate paleotemperatures. We reconstructed a cold season biased (roughly autumn - winter - spring) paleotemperature trend for the time interval covering the Allerød, the Younger Dryas cold interval and the early Holocene (13'900 - 9'900 BP). References: Affolter S., Fleitmann D., and Leuenberger M.: New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), Clim. Past, 10, 1291-1304, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1291-2014, 2014. Affolter S., Häuselmann A.D., Fleitmann D., Häuselmann P., Leuenberger M.: Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland), Quat. Sci. Rev., 127, pp. 73-89, 2015.

  16. AG Draconis - a symbiotic mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, R.; Hric, L.; Smelcer, L.

    2015-02-01

    Symbiotic system AG Draconis regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one (~550 d) is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one (~355 d) could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts are repeated with periods from 359 - 375 d.

  17. Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

    1987-01-01

    With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

  18. Incidence of bloodstream infections: a nationwide surveillance of acute care hospitals in Switzerland 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Buetti, Niccolò; Atkinson, Andrew; Marschall, Jonas; Kronenberg, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections are often associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We aimed to investigate changes in the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland between 2008 and 2014. Methods Data on bloodstream infections were obtained from the Swiss antibiotic resistance surveillance system (ANRESIS). Results The incidence of bloodstream infections increased throughout the study period, especially among elderly patients and those receiving care in emergency departments and university hospitals. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen, with Enterococci exhibiting the most prominent increase over the study period. Conclusions The described trends may impact morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with bloodstream infections. PMID:28325858

  19. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in Switzerland using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Camenisch, Glauco; Bandli, Risch; Hoop, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoir of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV; avian paramyxovirus-1) causing New-castle disease, and are often suspected to be involved in outbreaks in domesticated birds. To assess the epidemiologic status of wild birds living, or overwintering, in Switzerland, 3,049 cloacal swabs covering the period 2003-2006 were screened for NDV, using real time RT-PCR. All samples were negative. This result seems in contrast with previously performed serologic screenings of wild birds.

  20. Solar cooking in Switzerland--Use of cookers in Africa and India

    SciTech Connect

    Pulfer, J.

    1992-12-31

    This paper describes the development of activities in Switzerland, Africa and India to promote the use of solar cookers. The most successful programs are said to be in Senegal in Western Africa, and Kenya and Sudan in Eastern Africa. These activities include information dissemination and sales of ready-made products. Although some projects are for individual homes, some have been developed for hospitals, prisons, schools, boarding houses, etc. These larger units are usually systems using parabolic reflectors and fireplaces or propane as a source of fuel when there is no sunshine.

  1. [Compulsory hospitalizations, which cantonal law does apply? The situation in west Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Dupont-Willemin, Alexandre

    2014-09-17

    The Swiss cantons authorize doctors to order compulsory hospitalization for a maximal duration of four to six week. The examination of cantonal proceedings highlights new exceptions to medical confidentiality in respect of the protection authority. The Civil Code (Art. 442) specifies which cantonal laws do apply when the patient lives in another canton. In urgent cases, doctors may order a hospitalization according to their cantonal law or according to the cantonal law of the patient's residence. However, only Berne and Fribourg allow all doctors in Switzerland to hospitalize their residents. If possible the decision should be made according to the law of the canton, where the patient will be hospitalized.

  2. [A survey on intestinal parasites of livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Frey, C F; Regotz, J; Rosenberg, G; Gottstein, B; Kohler, S

    2010-12-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of intestinal parasite infections in livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs. A total of 71 guardian dogs (more than half of the total number of guardian dogs in Switzerland) and 21 herding dogs were coprologically examined, using a combined sedimentation-flotation method. In 21 (23 %) of the dogs intestinal parasites were detected, and 8 (8.7 %) of these dogs shed either sporocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (n = 6) or taeniid eggs (n = 2). The evaluation of questionnaires providing data on age, origin and deworming schemes of the dogs completed the study.

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks Collected from Migratory Birds in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Poupon, Marie-Angèle; Lommano, Elena; Humair, Pierre-François; Douet, Véronique; Rais, Olivier; Schaad, Michael; Jenni, Lukas; Gern, Lise

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of ticks infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato on birds during their migrations was studied in Switzerland. A total of 1,270 birds captured at two sites were examined for tick infestation. Ixodes ricinus was the dominant tick species. Prevalences of tick infestation were 6% and 18.2% for birds migrating northward and southward, respectively. Borrelia valaisiana was the species detected most frequently in ticks, followed by Borrelia garinii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Among birds infested by infected ticks, 23% (6/26) were infested by B. lusitaniae-infected larvae. Migratory birds appear to be reservoir hosts for B. lusitaniae. PMID:16391149

  4. Comparison of different multiple flow algorithms for topographic RUSLE factor (LS) calculation in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Pascal; Liniger, Hanspeter; Prasuhn, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a well-known challenge both from a global perspective and in Switzerland, and it is assessed and discussed in many projects (e.g. national or European erosion risk maps). Meaningful assessment of soil erosion requires models that adequately reflect surface water flows. Various studies have attempted to achieve better modelling results by including multiple flow algorithms in the topographic length and slope factor (LS-factor) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The choice of multiple flow algorithms is wide, and many of them have been implemented in programs or tools like Saga-Gis, GrassGis, ArcGIS, ArcView, Taudem, and others. This study compares six different multiple flow algorithms with the aim of identifying a suitable approach to calculating the LS factor for a new soil erosion risk map of Switzerland. The comparison of multiple flow algorithms is part of a broader project to model soil erosion for the entire agriculturally used area in Switzerland and to renew and optimize the current erosion risk map of Switzerland (ERM2). The ERM2 was calculated in 2009, using a high resolution digital elevation model (2 m) and a multiple flow algorithm in ArcView. This map has provided the basis for enforcing soil protection regulations since 2010 and has proved its worth in practice, but it has become outdated (new basic data are now available, e.g. data on land use change, a new rainfall erosivity map, a new digital elevation model, etc.) and is no longer user friendly (ArcView). In a first step towards its renewal, a new data set from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo) was used to generate the agricultural area based on the existing field block map. A field block is an area consisting of farmland, pastures, and meadows which is bounded by hydrological borders such as streets, forests, villages, surface waters, etc. In our study, we compared the six multiple flow algorithms with the LS factor calculation approach used in

  5. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2011-04-15

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  6. Loading effect of Ag/AgO on the photocatalytic performance of ZnO rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsuddin, Aida Fitri; Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini Abd; Pung, Swee-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of ZnO rods in degradation of Rhodamine B dye under UV light was improved by 7.3% via deposition of Ag/AgO using 1.0 × 10-3 g mL-1 of silver nitrate solution. However, its photodegradation efficiency decreased with the increase in silver nitrate concentration which was used to prepare the Ag/AgO-ZnO rods. This result suggests that the loading of Ag/AgO on the surface of ZnO rods affected the photocatalytic performance differently. The scavenger study indicates that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of Rhodamine B dye by Ag-/AgO-deposited ZnO rods were holes, followed by superoxide anion free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals and electrons. Based on these findings, a refined photodegradation mechanism of Rhodamine B by Ag/AgO-ZnO rods is proposed.

  7. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  8. Activation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in bulk amorphous AgI: estimation from extrapolation of the AgI composition dependence in AgI Ag2O P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaya, M.; Hatate, A.; Oguni, M.

    2003-06-01

    AgI-based fast-ion conducting glasses with very high AgI compositions from the (AgI)x(AgPO3)1-x, (AgI)x(Ag2PO3.5)1-x, and (AgI)x(Ag3PO4)1-x systems were prepared successfully by using a rapid-press quenching and a twin-roller quenching method. The ac dielectric measurements showed common relaxation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in the glasses independently of the species of the glass network formers of AgPO3, Ag2PO3.5, and Ag3PO4, and the activation energies, Δɛa, for Ag+-ion conduction were observed to converge upon the same magnitude of ~26 kJ mol-1 at the AgI composition limit of x = 1. This indicates the formation of amorphous AgI regions in the glasses, and the value of Δɛa = 26 +/- 1 kJ mol-1 estimated at x = 1 was concluded to correspond to that for bulk amorphous AgI which has never been obtained experimentally.

  9. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  10. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  11. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  12. A successful national control programme for enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D C; Miserez, R; Siegmann, S; Ochs, H; Infanger, P; Schmidt, J

    2007-12-01

    Before the start of systematic disease control, respiratory diseases in swine in Switzerland caused estimated losses of several million euros per year. In 1993, a national programme to control enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs was proposed, with the aim of reducing the incidence of clinical cases to less than 1%. Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and clinical cases of pleuropneumonia caused by any serotype of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) would be targeted, in addition to any cases with serological evidence of APP serotype 2. This control programme was initiated in 1996, region by region, and fully implemented by 2004. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory test results were used to identify the appropriate disease control measures. Partial depopulation was used to control EP on breeding and breeding-finishing farms. Total depopulation was implemented on all farms affected with APP and finishing farms affected with EP Animal trade was strictly regulated during the programme and all suspected cases of respiratory disease in pigs were made notifiable. Continued monitoring is based on clinical suspicion of infection and/or the detection of gross pathological lesions at slaughter, followed by laboratory confirmation. In 2005, the incidence of clinical cases was less than 1%. Regulations have been introduced to control the international trade in live pigs and prevent the re-introduction of respiratory diseases into Switzerland.

  13. Estimating the potential annual welfare impact of innovative drugs in use in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pavic, Matea; Pfeil, Alena M; Szucs, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Expenditures of health care systems are increasing from year to year. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the difference in costs and benefits of innovative pharmaceuticals launched 2000 onward compared to standard treatment on the national economy of Switzerland in 2010. The approach and formula described in the pilot study by Tsiachristas et al. (1), which analyzed the situation of welfare effects in the Netherlands, served as a model for our own calculations. A literature search was performed to identify cost-utility or cost-effectiveness studies of drugs launched 2000 onward compared to standard treatment. All parameters required for the calculation of welfare effects were derived from these analyses. The base-case threshold value of a quality-adjusted life year was set to CHF 100,000. Overall, 31 drugs were included in the welfare calculations. The introduction of innovative pharmaceuticals since 2000 onward to the Swiss market led to a potential welfare gain of about CHF 781 million in the year 2010. Univariate sensitivity analysis showed that results were robust. Probably because of the higher benefits of new drugs on health and quality of life compared to standard treatment, these drugs are worth the higher costs. The literature search revealed that there is a lack of information about the effects of innovative pharmaceuticals on the overall economy of Switzerland. Our study showed that potential welfare gains in 2010 by introducing innovative pharmaceuticals to the Swiss market were substantial. Considering costs and benefits of new drugs is important.

  14. Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Hubertus; Kohler, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of endoparasitic infections in South American Camelids (SAC) in Switzerland. Qualitative and quantitative coproscopic examinations were performed in 38 farms during the grazing period. Management practices with possible interference with parasitic infections were analyzed. On the farm level prevalences of endoparasitic infections were: trichostrongyles 87%; Trichuris sp. 74%; Capillaria sp. 68%; Nematodirus battus 63%; Nematodirus sp. 53%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum 34%; Moniezia sp. 8%; Fasciola hepatica 5%; protostrongylids 5%; Eimeria macusaniensis 68%. The level of helminth egg excretion was generally low. The highest values were recorded for trichostrongyles with an average of all investigated farms of 53 eggs per gram of faeces. The mean trichostrongyle egg output was approximately three-fold in SAC on farms that also kept sheep and/or goats, although this difference was not significant (P = 0.11). Clinical trichostrongylidosis was not reported from any of the farms. The low infection level with gastrointestinal nematodes is attributed to the defaecation behaviour of the SAC depositing their faeces focally on small spots on pasture. As a consequence, pasture infectivity is largely restricted to the area adjacent to the dung piles. Dicrocoeliosis is regarded as the most relevant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas in Switzerland causing severe clinical symptoms and death in untreated animals. Sixteen per cent of the owners regularily treated their herds against dicrocoeliosis using praziquantel at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight orally.

  15. [Typing and sensitivity of meningococci isolated in Switzerland 1988-1990].

    PubMed

    Rohner, P; Pepey, B; Hirschel, B; Auckenthaler, R

    1992-02-15

    Since 1906 severe infections due to Neisseria meningitidis have been reported in Switzerland. The clinical application of antimicrobial agents reduced the mortality rate due to meningococcal infections from 82% before 1939 to 22% after 1942. However, the annual incidence remained at about 1.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. During the years 1988 to 1990, 177 strains isolated in Switzerland have been typed with a dot ELISA using 15 different monoclonal antibodies. The distribution of serogroups was as follows: A (0.6%), B (70.6%), C (22.6%), and W135 (0.6%), while 5.6% could not be assigned to a serogroup. The most common associations of serogroup, serotype and subtype were: B:15:P1.16 (15.3%), B:4:P1.15 (13.6%), and C:2a:P1.2 (9.0%). The susceptibility of 174 strains was determined by an agar-dilution procedure. All strains were susceptible to cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, minocycline and spiramycin. One strain showed reduced sensitivity to penicillin (MIC = 0.25 mg/l), while another strain was resistant to rifampicin, 3% were resistant of erythromycin and 75% to sulfadiazine.

  16. Food Adulteration in Switzerland: From 'Ravioli' over 'Springbok' to 'Disco Sushi'.

    PubMed

    Hubner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The driving force behind food adulteration is monetary profit and this has remained unchanged for at least the last hundred years. Food adulterations were and still are difficult to uncover because they occur mostly in an unpredictable and unexpected way. Very often food falsifiers take advantage of modern technology in such a way that food adulterations are difficult or sometimes even impossible to detect. Targets for food adulteration were and still are highly priced food items such as spirits, meat, seafood and olive oil. Although difficult to detect, food adulterations were in the past strong driving forces for the development of adequate detection methods in the official food control laboratories and for the enforcement of the food law. A very prominent example in this context is the 'Ravioli scandal' in Switzerland in the late 1970s which showed that cheap second-class meat could be processed into products without being discovered for long time. As a consequence the official food control laboratories in Switzerland were reinforced with more laboratory equipment and technical staff. With the introduction of new detection principles such as DNA-based analytical methods new kinds of food adulteration could and can be uncovered. Analytical methods have their limits and in some cases of food fraud there are no analytical means to detect them. In such cases the examination of trade by checking of accounts is the method of choice.

  17. A Case of Possible Chagas Transmission by Blood Transfusion in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Judith; Komarek, Adriana; Gottschalk, Jochen; Brand, Birgit; Amsler, Lorenz; Jutzi, Markus; Frey, Beat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease has been reported from endemic countries in Latin America. Switzerland is a non-endemic country but high prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi was found among immigrants. Immigrants may participate in blood donation; therefore, risk-adapted anti-T. cruzi screening for blood donors was implemented in Switzerland in 2013. Methods Between January 2013 and July 2015, 1 out of 1,183 at-risk donors, tested at Blood Transfusion Service Zurich, was found anti-T. cruzi IgG-positive. Results and Conclusion Out of 54 donations given by the index donor (ID), we identified 77 blood products which were delivered to hospitals. Archived serum samples from the donations given during the prior 5 years were available for retrospective testing. All samples from ID revealed positive findings for anti-T. cruzi IgG. Donor-triggered look-back procedure identified a 70-year-old male recipient of a platelet concentrate (PC) donated by ID. The recipient succumbed of acute T. cruzi infection 2 years after transfusion of the PC. PMID:27994528

  18. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate, climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program has been established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots have been chosen according to different selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. To assess these risks, FORSUM a forest succession model for Central Europe is applied to analyze the forest succession on the LTFER plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Forest succession models can be used to evaluate climate change impacts on forest ecosystems, even though some parameters are highly uncertain or are even unknown. Detailed analysis of the 15 case studies will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forest, currently at a risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  19. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation.

  20. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  1. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Oliver; Rapold, Roland; Flatscher-Thöni, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency. Methods The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006–2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model. Results Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection. Conclusions Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy-makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care. PMID:22371691

  2. Species distribution and resistance profiles of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Ziegler, D; Johler, S

    2013-06-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of bovine intra-mammary infections. They can lead to chronic infections and were reported to significantly increase milk somatic cell counts. The goal of our study was to determine the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of CNS in bovine mastitis milk samples in Switzerland. Between March 2011 and February 2012, a total of 120 CNS were isolated from mastitis milk samples from 117 different animals at 77 farms. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequently tested for sensitivity to various antibiotic agents by disk diffusion. Antimicrobial agents were selected mainly based on their relevance to the treatment of bovine mastitis in Switzerland. MALDI-TOF MS assigned the 120 isolates to 12 different staphylococcal species - S. chromogenes (33 %), S. xylosus (28 %), S. sciuri (13 %), S. haemolyticus (9 %), S. epidermidis (4 %), S. simulans (4 %), S. warneri (3 %), S. equorum (2 %), S. hyicus (2 %), S. cohnii (1 %), S. succinus (1 %), and S. fleuretti (1 %). Resistance rates in CNS were high, with 39% of isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, 6% of isolates being resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cephalothin, and cefoxitin, and 5 % being resistant to erythromycin. In rare cases resistance to gentamicin (2 %), kanamycin (2 %), and kanamycin-cefalexin (1 %) was detected.

  3. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  4. Estimation of selenium intake in Switzerland in relation to selected food groups.

    PubMed

    Jenny-Burri, J; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2010-11-01

    The selenium concentration in foods was analysed in order to identify principal sources of this trace element in Switzerland. Selenium intake estimations based on three different approaches were carried out. From the relationship between intake and serum/plasma concentration, the selenium intake was estimated to 66 µg day(-1). The second approach based on measured food groups combined with consumption statistics; and the third approach consisted of duplicate meal samples. With the last two methods, over 75% of the serum/plasma based intake was confirmed. Swiss pasta made of North American durum wheat was the food with the highest contribution to the dietary intake, followed by meat. The strong decrease in imports of selenium-rich North American wheat of the last years was not reflected in the present intake estimations. It appears that this intake loss was compensated by a consumption increase of other foods. Compared with former intake estimations, selenium intake seems to be in Switzerland nearly constant for the last 25 years.

  5. Does a quality management system improve quality in primary care practices in Switzerland? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Hess, Sigrid; Jossen, Marianne; Huber, Felix; Rosemann, Thomas; Brodowski, Marc; Künzi, Beat; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of the quality management programme—European Practice Assessment—in primary care in Switzerland. Design Longitudinal study with three points of measurement. Setting Primary care practices in Switzerland. Participants In total, 45 of 91 primary care practices completed European Practice Assessment three times. Outcomes The interval between each assessment was around 36 months. A variance analyses for repeated measurements were performed for all 129 quality indicators from the domains: ‘infrastructure’, ‘information’, ‘finance’, and ‘quality and safety’ to examine changes over time. Results Significant improvements were found in three of four domains: ‘quality and safety’ (F=22.81, p<0.01), ‘information’ (F=27.901, p<0.01) and ‘finance’ (F=4.073, p<0.02). The 129 quality indicators showed a significant improvement within the three points of measurement (F=33.864, p<0.01). Conclusions The European Practice Assessment for primary care practices thus provides a functioning quality management programme, focusing on the sustainable improvement of structural and organisational aspects to promote high quality of primary care. The implementation of a quality management system which also includes a continuous improvement process would give added value to provide good care. PMID:25900466

  6. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  7. Host preferences in host-seeking and blood-fed mosquitoes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schönenberger, A C; Wagner, S; Tuten, H C; Schaffner, F; Torgerson, P; Furrer, S; Mathis, A; Silaghi, C

    2016-03-01

    The avian zoonotic agent for West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuroinvasive disease in horses and humans and is expanding its range in Europe. Analyses of the risk for transmission to these hosts in non-endemic areas are necessary. Host preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vectors of WNV, were determined in Switzerland using animal-baited trap (horse, chickens) experiments at a natural and a periurban site. This was undertaken on four occasions during May-September 2014. In addition, the hosts of 505 blood-fed mosquitoes collected in a zoo and in the field were determined. Mosquito data obtained in the animal bait experiments were corrected for host weight and body surface area and by Kleiber's scaling factor. Collections of 11-14 different mosquito species were achieved with these approaches. Statistically significant host preferences were identified in three species in both approaches. The other species showed opportunistic feeding behaviours to varying extents. Specifically, the invasive species Hulecoeteomyia japonica (= Aedes japonicus) was identified for the first time as feeding on avians in nature. Abundance data, spatiotemporal activity and laboratory vector competence for WNV suggested that, in addition to the main WNV vector Culex pipiens, H. japonica and Aedimorphus vexans (= Aedes vexans) are the most likely candidate bridge vectors for WNV transmission in Switzerland.

  8. Microsatellite-based characterization of the Castanea sativa cultivar heritage of southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Gobbin, Davide; Hohl, Leandro; Conza, Lisa; Jermini, Mauro; Gessler, Cesare; Conedera, Marco

    2007-12-01

    Southern Switzerland has a long tradition of chestnut cultivation as a staple food. Local inhabitants constantly selected varieties according to the ripening period, the type of use, and the adaptability to the territory. As a result, the panorama of chestnut varieties is very complex, as reflected by more than 120 different variety names in an area of 26,000 ha. Since 1994, 47 varieties have been conserved in the chestnut germplasm of southern Switzerland (CSS), including Marroni, Euro-Japanese, and French varieties. A selection of 164 individuals from the CSS was analysed by 8 SSR markers (4 of which were developed in this study). Microsatellite analysis indicated that the CSS was accurately established, as 86% of the individuals grafted were correctly labeled. The identification of 98 genotypes, 10 clonal chestnut groups, 4 synonym groups, and 12 homonym groups reflected the complex ethnogeographical structure of the chestnut distribution. The 17 Marroni individuals considered clustered in 2 differentiated genetic groups instead of only 1 as expected. The fundamental problem of the frequent cases of homonymy and synonymy is discussed, as is the need for criteria for discriminating between polyclonal varieties and distinct homonymous varieties.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, J; Huf, E; Kayser, F H

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 and 1994, 10 microbiological laboratories in Switzerland collected 351 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from invasive infections. Susceptibilities to the main representatives of the chemical classes were as follows: penicillin, 93%; chloramphenicol, 92%; erythromycin, 94%; sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, 86%; tetracycline, 92%; vancomycin, 100%. Forty-three strains showed resistance to one agent, and 35 strains showed resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents simultaneously; i.e., 22% of the strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Four strains (1%) were fully resistant to penicillin, whereas 21 strains (6%) showed reduced susceptibility. Of these 25 strains not fully susceptible to penicillin, 10 were resistant to one, 3 were resistant to two, and 8 were resistant to three additional antimicrobial agents. Of the quinolones, sparfloxacin was the most active substance, with an MIC at which 90% of the strains are inhibited of 0.5 mg/liter. The most common serotypes were types 6 (13.6% of isolates), 7 (10.5%), 19 (10.5%), 14 (9.1%), and 1 (8.5%) as well as 3 and 23 (8.0% each). Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was found mainly among serotypes 6, 14, 19, and 23. The currently available 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine covers 320 (91%) of the pneumococci isolated. Regional differences within Switzerland with regard to serotypes and antimicrobial resistance were not observed. PMID:8586693

  10. Influenza Pandemics and Tuberculosis Mortality in 1889 and 1918: Analysis of Historical Data from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Ballif, Marie; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889) and the Spanish (1918) influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality. Methods We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB) mortality attributable to influenza. Results Yearly PTB mortality rates increased during both influenza pandemics. Monthly influenza and PTB mortality rates peaked during winter and early spring. In Bern, for an increase of 100 influenza deaths (per 100,000 population) monthly PTB mortality rates increased by a factor of 1.5 (95%Cl 1.4–1.6, p<0.001) during the Russian, and 3.6 (95%Cl 0.7–18.0, p = 0.13) during the Spanish pandemic. Nationally, the factor was 2.0 (95%Cl 1.8–2.2, p<0.001) and 1.5 (95%Cl 1.1–1.9, p = 0.004), respectively. We did not observe any excess cancer or extrapulmonary TB mortality (as a negative control) during the influenza pandemics. Conclusions We demonstrate excess PTB mortality during historic influenza pandemics in Switzerland, which supports a role for influenza vaccination in PTB patients in high TB incidence countries. PMID:27706149

  11. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes from wastewater treatment plants in southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Romano, Vincenza; Pasquale, Vincenzo; Krovacek, Karel; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella; Dumontet, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A(+) B(+) CDT(+)), whereas 51% showed the profile A(+) B(+) CDT(-). Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater.

  12. Diagnosis of Whooping Cough in Switzerland: Differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Laure F.; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M.

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001−, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested. PMID:24586447

  13. Cryptosporidium spp. in drinking water. Samples from rural sites in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Füchslin, Hans Peter; Kötzsch, Stefan; Egli, Thomas

    2012-10-04

    In most rural areas and small communities in Switzerland the drinking water is supplied to the consumers after a minimum or even no treatment at all. However, it is just in these areas where drinking water from sources of agricultural activities can be contaminated by liquid manure and faeces of pasturing animals. The Swiss drinking water regulations are limited to the monitoring of E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and total plate counts only. Hence, resistant pathogens, as for example Cryptosporidium spp., remain unnoticed. During a drinking water survey, which lasted from June 2003 to December 2004, water samples were collected from 3 selected rural sites in Switzerland. The drinking water was investigated for Cryptosporidium spp., E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens and other parameters. In all samples oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected at elevated concentrations of up to 0.18 oocysts/l. Between 28% and 75% of the oocysts were found to be vital by the excystation method. Sampled oocysts collected from the three sites were subjected to genotyping and in one case the isolate was found to belong to the genotype of C. parvum. No evidence for increased incidents of diarrhoea in the past years was noted by local authorities.

  14. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  15. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  16. A prototype web-GIS application for risk analysis of natural hazards in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Gerber, Christian; Lévy, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Following changes in the system of Swiss subsidy in January 2008, the Swiss cantons and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) were forced to prioritize different natural hazard protection projects based on their cost-effectiveness, as a response to limited financial resources (Bründl et al., 2009). For this purpose, applications such as EconoMe (OFEV, 2016) and Valdorisk (DGE, 2016) were developed for risk evaluation and prioritization of mitigation projects. These tools serve as a useful decision-making instrument to the community of practitioners and responsible authorities for natural hazard risk management in Switzerland. However, there are several aspects which could be improved, in particular, the integration and visualization of spatial information interactively through a web-GIS interface for better risk planning and evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we aim to develop an interactive web-GIS application based on the risk concepts applied in Switzerland. The purpose of this tool is to provide a rapid evaluation of risk before and after protection measures, and to test the efficiency of measures by using a simplified cost-benefit analysis within the context of different protection projects. This application allows to integrate different layers which are necessary to calculate risk, in particular, hazard intensity (vector) maps for different scenarios (such as 30, 100 and 300 years of return periods based on Swiss guidelines), exposed objects (such as buildings) and vulnerability information of these objects. Based on provided information and additional parameters, risk is calculated automatically and results are visualized within the web-GIS interface of the application. The users can modify these input information and parameters to create different risk scenarios. Based on the resultant risk scenarios, the users can propose and visualize (preliminary) risk reduction measures before realizing the actual design and dimensions of such protective

  17. Characterization of spark plasma sintered Ag nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y Q; Shearwood, C; Xu, B; Yu, L G; Khor, K A

    2010-03-19

    The low temperature sintering behaviour of nanocrystalline Ag powder (with an average size of 70 nm) was characterized. Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), the Ag nanopowders can be successfully sintered at low pressure for only 5 min without external heating, and the sintering density increases and porosity decreases significantly with increase in the sintering temperature. Nanoindentation has been used to characterize the SPS sintered Ag samples. The mechanisms of the low sintering temperature behaviour of the nano-Ag powder and the nanoscale mechanical performance have been discussed. Compression tests were also used to characterize the mechanical properties of the sintered Ag sample with a maximum strain up to 15%.

  18. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Session 2 (Plenary II): May 15-17, 2013--Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  19. Synergistic effect of interfacial lattice Ag(+) and Ag(0) clusters in enhancing the photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liming; Zhang, Dandan; Ming, Lufei; Jiao, Yanchao; Chen, Feng

    2014-09-28

    An interfacial lattice Ag(+) doped on TiO2 (Ag(+)/TiO2) was prepared by eluting Ag(0) clusters from a hydrothermally prepared Ag(0)/Ag(+)/TiO2 composite. An Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) composite photocatalyst was subsequently obtained via a secondary Ag(0) clusters loading process to the Ag(+)/TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) was greatly improved compared to Ag(0)/Ag(+)/TiO2 and Ag(+)/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) testing verified that Ag(+) ions occur as an interfacial lattice Ag(+) species in the composites. The enhancement effect of the interfacial lattice Ag(+) species is exhibited by the newly-formed Ag(+)/TiO2@Ag(0) as the interfacial lattice Ag(+) is fully exposed but not overlapped with the re-loaded Ag(0) clusters. The interfacial lattice Ag(+) ions and Ag(0) clusters are both responsible for the photocatalytic performance improvement of the catalyst, in either the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange or photocurrent measurement.

  20. Enhancing the ag precipitation by surface mechanical attrition treatment on Cu-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Lehao; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Liuyi; Gu, Hao; Fang, Youtong; Meng, Liang; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on Ag precipitation in Cu-Ag alloys was investigated. Cu-6 wt% Ag was melt, cold rolled and solution treated to be Cu-Ag solid solution, which was either aged at 250 and 350 °C for 24 h directly or SMAT-ed before aging. Ag precipitates were hard be found in the directly aged Cu-Ag sample while they were observed clearly in the SMAT-ed counterpart at 250 °C. The Ag precipitates formed in the surface layer by SMAT are much coarser than those in the un-SMAT-ed sample. It is obvious that the precipitating behavior of Ag was promoted significantly by SMAT approach. A large number of defects were generated by SMAT and they were acting as fast atomic diffusion channels that facilitated the atomic diffusion of Ag.

  1. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10(5) genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from <5 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants before 2012 to >50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased

  2. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  3. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  4. Survey of bluetongue virus infection in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2006, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was detected for the first time in central Europe. Measures to control the infection in livestock were implemented in Switzerland but the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could be a maintenance host for BTV-8. Furthermore Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV), considered as a potential 25th BTV serotype, was detected in 2007 in domestic goats in Switzerland and wild ruminants were considered a potential source of infection. To assess prevalences of BTV-8 and TOV infections in wildlife, we conducted a serological and virological survey in red deer, roe deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex between 2009 and 2011. Because samples originating from wildlife carcasses are often of poor quality, we also documented the influence of hemolysis on test results, and evaluated the usefulness of confirmatory tests. Results Ten out of 1,898 animals (0.5%, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.0%) had detectable antibodies against BTV-8 and BTV-8 RNA was found in two chamois and one roe deer (0.3%, 0.1-0.8%). Seroprevalence was highest among red deer, and the majority of positive wild animals were sampled close to areas where outbreaks had been reported in livestock. Most samples were hemolytic and the range of the optical density percentage values obtained in the screening test increased with increasing hemolysis. Confirmatory tests significantly increased specificity of the testing procedure and proved to be applicable even on poor quality samples. Nearly all samples confirmed as positive had an optical density percentage value greater than 50% in the ELISA screening. Conclusions Prevalence of BTV-8 infection was low, and none of the tested animals were positive for TOV. Currently, wild ruminants are apparently not a reservoir for these viruses in Switzerland. However, we report for the first time BTV-8 RNA in Alpine chamois. This animal was found at high altitude and far from a domestic outbreak, which suggests that the virus

  5. In-Hospital Disease Burden of Sarcoidosis in Switzerland from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Pohle, Susanne; Baty, Florent; Brutsche, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with an unpredictable and sometimes fatal course while the underlying pathomechanism is still unclear. Reasons of the increasing hospitalization rate and mortality in the United States remain in dispute but incriminated are a number of distinct comorbidities and risk factors as well as the application of more aggressive therapeutic agents. Studies reflecting the recent development in central Europe are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the recent mortality and hospitalization rates as well as the underlying comorbidities of hospitalized sarcoidosis patients in Switzerland. In this longitudinal, nested case-control study, a nation-wide database provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics enclosing every hospital entry covering the years 2002-2012 (n = 15,627,573) was analyzed. There were 8,385 cases with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis representing 0.054% (8,385 / 15,627,573) of all hospitalizations in Switzerland. These cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls without the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Hospitalization and mortality rates in Switzerland remained stable over the observed time period. Comorbidity analysis revealed that sarcoidosis patients had significantly higher medication-related comorbidities compared to matched controls, probably due to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. Sarcoidosis patients were also more frequently re-hospitalized (median annual hospitalization rate 0.28 [IQR 0.15-0.65] vs. 0.19 [IQR 0.13-0.36] per year; p < 0.001), had a longer hospital stay (6 [IQR 2-13] vs. 4 [IQR 1-8] days; p < 0.001), had more comorbidities (4 [IQR 2-7] vs. 2 [IQR 1-5]; p < 0.001), and had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (2.6% [95% CI 2.3%-2.9%] vs. 1.8% [95% CI 1.5%-2.1%] (p < 0.001). A worse outcome was observed among sarcoidosis patients having co-occurrence of associated respiratory diseases. Moreover, age was an important risk factor for re-hospitalization.

  6. Serosurveillance of Schmallenberg virus in Switzerland using bulk tank milk samples.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Sandra; Vögtlin, Andrea; Thür, Barbara; Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Houmard, Matthias; Danuser, Jürg; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-10-15

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus transmitted by biting midges, can cause abortions and malformations of newborns and severe symptoms in adults of domestic and wild ruminants. Understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the virus in a certain territory is important for the control and prevention of the disease. In this study, seroprevalence of antibodies against SBV and the spatial spread of the virus was investigated in Swiss dairy cattle applying a milk serology technique on bulk milk samples. The seroprevalence in cattle herds was significantly higher in December 2012 (99.5%) compared to July 2012 (19.7%). This high between-herd seroprevalence in cattle herds was observed shortly after the first detection of viral infections. Milk samples originating from farms with seropositive animals taken in December 2012 (n=209; mean 160%) revealed significantly higher S/P% ratios than samples collected in July 2012 (n=48; mean 103.6%). This finding suggests a high within-herd seroprevalence in infected herds which makes testing of bulk tank milk samples for the identification farms with past exposures to SBV a sensitive method. It suggests also that within-herd transmission followed by seroconversion still occurred between July and December. In July 2012, positive bulk tank milk samples were mainly restricted to the western part of Switzerland whereas in December 2012, all samples except one were positive. A spatial analysis revealed a separation of regions with and without positive farms in July 2012 and no spatial clustering within the regions with positive farms. In contrast to the spatial dispersion of bluetongue virus, a virus that is also transmitted by Culicoides midges, in 2008 in Switzerland, the spread of SBV occurred from the western to the eastern part of the country. The dispersed incursion of SBV took place in the western part of Switzerland and the virus spread rapidly to the remaining territory. This spatial

  7. [Silicosis in Switzerland. A half century of observation. The physician's viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Maillard, J M; Zufferey, R; Fellmann, E

    1983-01-01

    In Switzerland, the first cases of silicosis were recorded by Zangger in 1900. Since 1930, patients with silicosis have been provided with certain services by the "Caisse Nationale Suisse d'Assurances" (i.e. Swiss National Insurance Fund), an organization enforcing the Occupational Accidents and Diseases Bill. However, it took another two years before an effectively organized struggle against silicosis was started. Eventually, by 1938, this specific pneumoconiosis was acknowledged as an occupational disease under Swiss Law. Thus, the CNSA has been concerned with this disease for half a century, and it seems relevant now to take stock of the situation. From 1930 to late 1980, 9690 cases of silicosis were accepted by the CNSA. Nearly one half (46%) of these silicotic patients were still alive on December 31, 1980; another third had died of silicosis and the rest of other affections not related The origin of cases has remained remarkably constant over the course of time. Underground working and the stone-working industry account for the majority of cases (70%), followed by smelting works (16%) and the ceramic industry (5%). The remaining 9% are due to various causes. Silicosis hazards have declined but still remain real. In late 1980, 1287 companies in Switzerland were being monitored from this standpoint. More than two-thirds (67%) belong to the stone-working industry (even though only 30% of hazard-exposed workers are employed in this sector), 10% are involved in underground work (10% of hazard-exposed workers), 10% are smelting industries (36% exposed) and 6% belong to the ceramic industry (17% exposed). Since 1950, the number of hazard-exposed people has fluctuated between relatively narrow limits (i.e. 15,000 and 20,000). Corresponding figures for previous periods are not known. Some facts indicate that silicosis is becoming less problematic: a) The annual incidence rate of silicosis in Switzerland has evolved in three distinct phases. From 1930 to 1940 the

  8. Polymorphism of LiAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, V. V.; Dmytriv, G. S.; Tarasiuk, I. I.; Chumak, I. V.; Pauly, H.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2010-02-01

    A phase transition from the cubic CsCl-type structure (Pm-3m space group) into a tetragonal UPb-type structure (I4 1/amd) is observed for the LiAg binary compound at ambient conditions. The crystal structure of the tetragonal modification of the LiAg binary compound was solved by direct methods in SHELXS on the base of structure factors which were extracted from a powder diffraction pattern and refined by SHELXL and the Rietveld method ( a = 3.9605(1), c = 8.2825(2) Å, Bragg R-factor = 4.81, Rf-factor = 4.87). Elevated temperatures and/or a small Li-excess versus the equimolar composition favour the cubic structure whereas ambient and lower temperatures and/or a small Li-deficiency stabilize the tetragonal structure. This reconstructive transition is reversible but proceeds slowly.

  9. Non-vocational, Non-formal Further Education in Highland Region in Scotland and the Canton of Valais in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes and compares nonformal education (adult education and community education) in areas of Scotland and Switzerland. Identifies (1) agencies and organizations providing nonformal education; (2) types of courses; and (3) funding mechanisms. Recommends changes in the Ecole-club Migros (ECM), a large provider of nonformal education in the…

  10. New Directions in the Treatment of Severe Developmental Disability: St. Gallen, Switzerland's Model of Guided Movement Therapy. Fellowship Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, Ida J.

    The paper describes an innovative treatment approach to severe learning disabilities in use in St. Gallen, Switzerland. The multisensory approach is based on the assumption that learning disabled children have perceptual cognitive deficits. Reality based problem-solvng events connected with tactile-kinesthetic input become the primary foci of…

  11. The Perpetrator's Strategy as a Crucial Variable: A Representative Study of Sexual Abuse of Girls and Its Sequelae in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederberger, Josef Martin

    2002-01-01

    A study asked 980 women in the German-speaking part of Switzerland questions regarding psychosomatic well-being, sexual actions, and perpetrator strategies. Results indicate the use of strategies involving affection had a stronger effect than those based on force. Love-bargaining was more influential than self-blaming and the need for affection.…

  12. Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in various species of small mammals caught in an inner-city area in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, H.; Vonstein, S.; Deplazes, P.; Stieger, C.; Frei, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to establish the leptospira carrier rate of small animals in an urban environment, small rodents and shrews were captured in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Kidney specimens of 190 animals were examined using a leptospira specific PCR assay. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in kidneys of 12.6% of the animals. PMID:11895085

  13. Educational Research within the Administration: A Booming Business in the French-Speaking Part of Switzerland (1950-1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the formation and development of educational research institutions within the educational administration using the example of four research institutions in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The analysis gives insight into the institutionalisation process of education research outside the university with special focus on…

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas graminis Strain UASWS1507, a Potential Biological Control Agent and Biofertilizer Isolated in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Crovadore, Julien; Calmin, Gautier; Chablais, Romain; Cochard, Bastien; Schulz, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain UASWS1507 of the species Pseudomonas graminis, isolated in Switzerland from an apple tree. This is the first genome registered for this species, which is considered as a potential and valuable resource of biological control agents and biofertilizers for agriculture. PMID:27795260

  15. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  16. A graph-based approach to glacier flowline extraction: An application to glaciers in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moine, Nicolas; Gsell, Pierre-Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new, graph-based approach to glacier segmentation and flowline extraction. The method, which requires a set of glacier contours and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists in finding an optimum branching that connects a set of vertices belonging to the topological skeleton of each glacier. First, the challenges associated with glacier flowline extraction are presented. Then, the three main steps of the method are described: the skeleton extraction and pruning algorithm, the definition and computation of a travel cost between all pairs of skeleton vertices, and the identification of the directed minimum spanning tree in the resulting directed graph. The method, which is mainly designed for valley glaciers, is applied to glaciers in Switzerland.

  17. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar.

  18. In invisibility and isolation: the experience of HIV-affected families in German-speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Spirig, Rebecca

    2002-12-01

    Based on critical hermeneutics, the author presents insights about caregiving experiences of HIV-affected families in Switzerland. Using a qualitative approach, she interviewed 11 families and conducted 3 group discussions with members of different families. Two main themes emerged--Caught In Between: Family Changes Forced by HIV/AIDS and No Request for Support: Family Caregiving in the Context of Invisibility. The former portrays the families' struggle with new family constellations. Members felt close to, ambivalent toward, or distant from the infected member and built subgroups representing these connections and values. The latter portrays the families' withdrawal from their environment, whereby one or two close family members almost invisibly provided caregiving without outside support. These behaviors were reinforced by the Swiss health care system, which focuses on individuals. Suggestions for interventions are introduced.

  19. Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chowell, G; Ammon, C E; Hengartner, N W; Hyman, J M

    2006-11-10

    The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the "Spanish Flu" has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to be R(1)=1.49 (95% CI: 1.45-1.53) and R(2)=3.75 (95% CI: 3.57-3.93), respectively. Our estimates indicate that containment of the next influenza pandemic could require strict interventions that include effective isolation strategies in hospitals and reductions in the susceptibility of the general population.

  20. Testing an unconventional mortality information source in the canton of Geneva Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Delley, Véronique; Jeannot, Emilien; Cohen, Joachim; Chastonay, Philippe; Wilson, Donna M

    2013-09-26

    Mortality data are often unavailable, incomplete, and difficult to access for research and other purposes. Gaps in mortality data reports, particularly those detailing place of death, deprive healthcare professionals, decision-makers, and many others of the information that is needed to plan, implement, and evaluate interventions designed for purposes such as to assist people in achieving their preferred death place or reduce hospital utilization. Alternative methods of collecting reliable and valid data on death place may be needed. Our study primarily compared mortality data from a conventional information system (Federal Statistical Office) with mortality data collected using an unconventional system (funeral homes) over a 6-year period (2005-10) for the canton of Geneva Switzerland. Only a small average difference (4.8%) in death incidence was found. Death place data comparisons were also useful. This study suggests that the unconventional data from funeral homes provides reasonably reliable, valid, timely, and useful mortality data.

  1. Immunization Status of Young People Attending a Youth Clinic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Anne; Genequand, Lydia Markham; Jeannot, Emilien; Wyler-Lazarevic, Claire-Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; Narring, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage is very variable in European countries and data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess immunization status and analyze potential variations according to sociodemographic variables in a youth clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. Immunization status was assessed retrospectively: Tetanus (number of doses or in absence of data tetanus antibodies) and measles as indicators of childhood coverage as well as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus. All new patients (N = 390) of Geneva University Hospital's youth clinic were included between January 2010 and June 2011. Vaccine coverage was low for all vaccines regardless of sex or origin. 89% of young people tested (mostly recent immigrants with no available data) had tetanus antibodies indicating adequate childhood immunization but hepatitis B and HPV coverage was low especially in recent immigrants. Systematic assessment allows better adolescent vaccine coverage and can improve safety by avoiding unnecessary dosis.

  2. Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    For a child, the likelihood of being murdered is highest during the first year of life, and many such cases are neonaticides. Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth analysis of Swiss cases, even though this country has special neonaticide legislation and four "baby hatches" have been opened to prevent such killings. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. Using data from judicial files, 11 cases were identified in 15 German-speaking cantons between 1980 and 2010. The sample included two uncommon cases of nonmaternal neonaticide. The discussion addresses possible prevention strategies.

  3. Seven years of gamma-ray spectrometry interlaboratory comparisons in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bailat, Claude; Buchillier, Thierry; Caffari, Yvan; Nedjadi, Youcef; Spring, Philippe; Estier, Sybille; Bochud, François

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, regular comparisons of gamma-ray spectrometry in Switzerland were organized to improve laboratory abilities to measure the radioactivity in the environment and food stuffs at typical routine levels. The activity concentration of the test samples and the evaluation of the associated uncertainties remained each year the main required test result. Over the years, the comparisons used certified reference solutions as well as environmental samples. The aim of this study is to research the effect of the comparisons on measurement quality. An analysis of the seven last interlaboratory comparisons revealed that the Swiss measurement capability is up to date. In addition, the results showed that the participants now have an improved evaluation of the uncertainties associated with their measurement.

  4. Extended Characterization of Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens Based on Clinical Strains from Canada and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hinić, V.; Turan, S.; Schultheiss, E.; Pacheco, A. L.; Frei, R.; Bernard, K.

    2014-01-01

    The species Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens was described in 2010 based on the features of a single strain. In this report, we describe the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics of 11 C. pyruviciproducens clinical strains isolated in Switzerland and Canada in comparison to the strain 06-17730T. Heterogeneities within the type strain were found in the 16S rRNA gene and in biochemical markers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification of this species could not be achieved since currently this bacterial species is not included in the corresponding database. Reliable identification is obtained only with sequence-based identification tools. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this species with an extended panel of antimicrobials are presented here for the first time. PMID:24951802

  5. Development of an ICF-based eligibility procedure for education in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting in January 2011, Switzerland will implement a multidimensional, context-sensitive procedure to establish eligibility in education systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the different eligibility-related practices with a special focus on children with disabilities. The paper then outlines the philosophical and conceptual framework of the eligibility procedure based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. The different components and methodology applied to organise information in the process towards establishing eligibility are also presented. Finally, some observations are made regarding transparent and just applications of the eligibility procedure, and the implementation of this new eligibility procedure. PMID:21624193

  6. Salvia divinorum: an hallucinogenic mint which might become a new recreational drug in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Giroud, C; Felber, F; Augsburger, M; Horisberger, B; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    2000-08-14

    Salvia divinorum Epling & Jativa is an hallucinogenic mint traditionally used for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. Young people from Mexican cities were reported to smoke dried leaves of S. divinorum as a marijuana substitute. Recently, two S. divinorum specimens were seized in a large-scale illicit in-door and out-door hemp plantation. Salvinorin A also called divinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene, was identified in several organic solvent extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The botanical identity of the plant was confirmed by comparing it to an authentic herbarium specimen. More plants were then discovered in Swiss horticulturists greenhouses. All these data taken together suggest that many attempts exist in Switzerland to use S. divinorum as a recreational drug. This phenomenon may be enhanced because neither the magic mint, nor its active compound are banned substances listed in the Swiss narcotic law.

  7. First light from student Pascal Keller, Eschenbach/Switzerland on 6-8 June 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Pascal Keller, a student during his exams for general qualification for university entrance, recently set up a Long Wavelength Array (LWA) antenna and a Callisto system to observe solar radio burst activity in his back yard (figure 1) in Eschenbach, Switzerland. The antenna, spectrometer and software were provided on loan by Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich. On the first observation day he observed his 1st light, a type II solar radio burst and some type III bursts. His aim is now to compare this LWA observation with others from the e-Callisto network, which is composed of different antenna types and different antenna sizes as well different locations worldwide. His first four observations on 6 and 8 June 2014 are presented in figures 2 to 5 and associated tables 1 to 4.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3,665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.

  9. [Chickenpox and shingles: one virus, two diseases and current vaccination recommendations in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Eckert, Nadine; Masserey Spicher, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Adults, pregnant women, premature babies and immunocompromised persons are at increased risk for varicella complications. Therefore the current Swiss vaccination recommendations against varicella include a general recommendation for 11 to 15 year old adolescents with a negative varicella history, as well as a specific recommendation for risk groups. The goal of both recommendations is to reduce varicella complications in persons most at risk. The vaccine is not universally recommended for all toddlers in Switzerland, while this is the case in some countries such as the United States. Pros and cons of different vaccination strategies, as well as possible short- and long-term effects on herpes zoster incidence are taken into account. In the United States, there was a marked decline in incidence and hospitalisations, but an increased herpes zoster incidence in the short term. Finally, public health aspects of herpes zoster, post-herpetic neuralgia and possible vaccination strategies are outlined.

  10. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 1: Inhalation anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were a description of the practical implementation of the painless castration under inhalational anaesthesia with an objective assessment of animal welfare, workplace safety and time exposure. 600 questionnaires were sent to farmers all over Switzerland and 100 farms were visited during castration under inhalation anaesthesia. 44 % of the visited farmers administered analgetics during anaesthesia or less than 10 minutes before castration. 14 % of the piglets were insufficiently anaesthetised (moving or vocalising) and 18 % showed stronger bleeding tendency after castration. The mortality rate was less than 0.1 %. 22 % of the swine farmers reported headache or dizziness during or after castration work. The Isoflurane level on 2 farms was above the Swiss safety limits. The time needed for castration was with 4.3 minutes clearly above the time necessary without anaesthesia. The additional financial costs and time are at the moment not adequately compensated to the farmers.

  11. Entomologic and Serologic Evidence of Zoonotic Transmission of Babesia microti, Eastern Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Peter J.; Spielman, Andrew; Goethert, Heidi; Gern, Lise; Brand, Brigit; Telford, Sam R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated human risk for infection with Babesia microti at a site in eastern Switzerland where several B. microti–infected nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks had been found. DNA from pooled nymphal ticks amplified by polymerase chain reaction was highly homologous to published B. microti sequences. More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%). In addition, we measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against B. microti antigen in nearby residents. Serum from 1.5% of the 396 human residents of the region reacted to B. microti antigen (>1:64), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IgG). These observations constitute the first report demonstrating B. microti in a human-biting vector, associated with evidence of human exposure to this agent in a European site. PMID:12095442

  12. Entomologic and serologic evidence of zoonotic transmission of Babesia microti, eastern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Krause, Peter J; Spielman, Andrew; Goethert, Heidi; Gern, Lise; Brand, Brigit; Telford, Sam R

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated human risk for infection with Babesia microti at a site in eastern Switzerland where several B. microti-infected nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks had been found. DNA from pooled nymphal ticks amplified by polymerase chain reaction was highly homologous to published B. microti sequences. More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%). In addition, we measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against B. microti antigen in nearby residents. Serum from 1.5% of the 396 human residents of the region reacted to B. microti antigen (>1:64), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IgG). These observations constitute the first report demonstrating B. microti in a human-biting vector, associated with evidence of human exposure to this agent in a European site.

  13. [8 years experience with heroin-assited treatment in Switzerland--current results and future improvements].

    PubMed

    Gschwend, P; Eschmann, S; Güttinger, F; Hosek, M; Rehm, J; Uchtenhagen, A

    2003-06-01

    In 1994, Switzerland introduced experimental heroin assisted treatment for refractory opioid addicts as last line of treatment. An evaluation research was established examining effectiveness and cost-benefit of heroin-assisted treatment for the first project phase between 1994 and 1996. The present publication intends to provide an overview for the newer results of the evaluation. In summary, the positive outcomes found at first follow-ups continued to persist regarding somatic and mental improvements, social integration including reduction of criminal behaviour, and reduction of use of illicit drugs. In future, treatment of co-morbid mental disorders, integration into the labour market and persistent consumption of cocaine in some patients still need focussed attention. Different efforts to assure quality control and development hopefully will serve towards further optimisation of heroin-assisted treatment.

  14. [Epidemiological and socio-medical problems assoicated with respiratory disorders in Switzerland (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Keller, R; Bohn, W

    1978-09-01

    Disorders of the respiratory tract account for about 13 percent of overall mortality in Switzerland, for about 50 percent of all hospital admissions and for about 7 percent of the nursing days. Cases of obstructive respiratory disease, pneumonia and carcinoma of the lung predominate. Morbidity regarding newly discovered cases of tuberculos is still 0.5 percent and 40 percent of the population are still positive reactors. BCG vaccination of newborns and of all tuberculin-negative schoolchildren is the approved prophylactic procedure. Periodic mass radiography of adults on a voluntary basis, aimed at the early diagnosis of pulmonary disorders, shows an incidence of 0.4/1 000 and of 0.3/1 000 for new cases of tuberculosis and lung cancer respectively. Cases of chronic obstructive respiratory disease who require hospitalization for above-average length and are frequently on sick leave present special sociomedical problems.

  15. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water.

  16. Using GIS data and satellite derived irradiance to optimize siting of PV installations in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Annelen; Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Bartlett, Stuart; Sossan, Fabrizio; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For a successful distribution strategy of PV installations, it does not suffice to choose the locations with highest annual total irradiance. Attention needs to be given to spatial correlation patterns of insolation to avoid large system-wide variations, which can cause extended deficits in supply or might even damage the electrical network. One alternative goal instead is to seek configurations that provide the smoothest energy production, with the most reliable and predictable supply. Our work investigates several scenarios, each pursuing a different strategy for a future renewable Switzerland without nuclear power. Based on an estimate for necessary installed capacity for solar power [Bartlett, 2015] we first use heuristics to pre-select realistic placements for PV installations. Then we apply optimization methods to find a subset of locations that provides the best possible combined electricity production. For the first part of the selection process, we use a DEM to exclude high elevation zones which would be difficult to access and which are prone to natural hazards. Then we use land surface cover information to find all zones with potential roof area, deemed suitable for installation of solar panels. The optimization employs Principal Component Analysis of satellite derived irradiance data (Surface Incoming Shortwave Radiation (SIS), based on Meteosat Second Generation sensors) to incorporate a spatial aspect into the selection process that does not simply maximize annual total production but rather provides the most robust supply, by combining regions with anti-correlated cloud cover patterns. Depending on the initial assumptions and constraints, the resulting distribution schemes for PV installations vary with respect to required surface area, annual total and lowest short-term production, and illustrate how important it is to clearly define priorities and policies for a future renewable Switzerland.

  17. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program was established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the composition, structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots were chosen according to specific selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. Transition characteristics from one mature forest community type to another is strongly modified by different environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation. During climate change, the transition depends on the rate and extent of the forcing factors, the speed of migration and the stability of the communities as they become increasingly maladapted to local climates. It is unknown whether all systems will stabilize in a new equilibrium, and, some forest species may be unable to keep pace with shifts in climatic zones. To assess these risks, FORSUM, a forest succession model for Central Europe, is applied to explain the forest succession on the Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Continuous model improvement based on an increasing number of site specific data-series for model parameterization will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forests, currently at risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  18. Mobile measurements of ammonia: Sources and spatial variations in the Wallis region and Zurich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Pieber, Simone; Wolf, Robert; Krishna Kumar, Nivedita; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has negative impacts on human health, climate, ecosystems and materials. Moreover, it is also an important precursor for the formation of secondary aerosols in the form of ammonium salts (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride). Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of the ammonia emissions come from the agricultural sector (mostly from livestock farming and fertilizing activities). Other sources such as road transport, waste deposit, energy use and supply can also contribute to the ammonia levels in the urban areas. High concentrations of ammonia are commonly measured at the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) stations in Switzerland. Mobile measurements of ammonia and other pollutants (including BC, CO2, NOx and NR-PM) were conducted in the Wallis region and in Zurich in 2013 to study the spatial distribution of ammonia in Switzerland and identify its major emission sources in these regions. A new heated inlet setup was developed to improve the response time of the ammonia measurements, so that even very local sources could be identified. For both, the Wallis region and Zurich, it was observed that the background values of ammonia have a regional origin, as other pollutants affected by regional changes show similar background trends. These regional background values varied between 5 to 10 ppb during the different days of measurements. Moreover, no big differences were observed in the background values between the city center, the surrounding areas, the highway and the rural areas. The major local source of ammonia observed during these measurements was road transport, producing increases on the NH3 levels up to 4 times the background values. Based on emission factors estimated from tunnel measurements, the traffic was estimated to contribute between 20 -30% of the measured ammonia levels on a daily average in Zurich. Other sources of ammonia that can also contribute significantly to the levels of ammonia

  19. Multimorbidity in primary care: protocol of a national cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Déruaz-Luyet, Anouk; N'Goran, A Alexandra; Tandjung, Ryan; Frey, Peter; Zeller, Andreas; Haller, Dagmar M; Rosemann, Thomas; Burnand, Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick; Senn, Nicolas; Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the ageing of the population and the general improvement of care, an increasing number of people are living with multiple chronic health conditions or ‘multimorbidity’. Multimorbidity often implies multiple medical treatments. As a consequence, the risk of adverse events and the time spent by patients for their treatments increase exponentially. In many cases, treatment guidelines traditionally defined for single conditions are not easily applicable. Primary care for individuals with multimorbidity requires complex patient-centred care and good communication between the patient and the general practitioner (GP). This often includes prioritising among the different chronic conditions. Methods and analysis The main objectives of this study are to describe the burden related to multimorbidity (disease-related burden and burden of treatment) in primary care and to identify the factors influencing it. Other objectives include evaluating patients’ perception of treatment burden and quality of life, assessing factors influencing that perception, and investigating prioritisation in the management of multimorbidity from the perspectives of GPs and patients. For this cross-sectional study, patient enrolment will take place in GP's private practices across Switzerland. A convenient sample of 100 GPs will participate; overall, 1000 patients with at least three chronic health conditions will be enrolled. Data will be collected as paper-based questionnaires for GPs and delayed telephone interview questionnaires for patients. GPs will provide demographic and practice-related data. In addition, each GP will complete a paper-based questionnaire for each patient that they enrol. Each patient will complete a telephone interview questionnaire. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of Canton Vaud, Switzerland (Protocol 315/14). The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID

  20. Shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland: results of a prospective follow-up study, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Fanconi, Manuela; Lips, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Since the incidence of shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland was not known, we conducted a nationwide prospective follow-up study for a 5-year period (from 2002 to 2007). The data were collected through the Swiss Pediatric Surveillance Unit. Inclusion criteria were the presence, in a child 6 years or documented accident/disease explaining symptoms/findings. To describe outcome, we used the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). 56 cases were reported from 13 of 26 Swiss cantons, representing 80% of the Swiss population; 49 cases met the inclusion criteria. Preponderance of male infants was high (31 male and 18 female); median age at admission was 4 months (1-58). Clinical symptoms were present in 42 infants, retinal/vitreous hemorrhages in 39 infants, and pathological brain/head imaging in 46 infants. In 13 cases, the caregivers admitted shaking the child. Outcomes (KOSCHI 1-5; n = 47 patients) were death (KOSCHI 1) 8 (17.7%), vegetative state (KOSCHI 2) 0, severe disability (KOSCHI 3) 11 (22.2%), moderate disability (KOSCHI 4) 14 (31.1%), and good recovery (KOSCHI 5) 14 (28.8%). Based on these data, the incidence of shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland is 14 per 100 000 live births, which corresponds to the incidence in other Western countries. Demographic characteristics and outcomes of Swiss patients were comparable to published studies.

  1. Design, calibration, and application of an airborne gamma spectrometer system in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, G.F.; Rybach, L.; Klingele, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    Airborne radiometric surveys are finding increasingly wider application in environmental mapping and monitoring. They are the most efficient tool to delimit surface contamination and to locate lost radioactive sources. To secure radiometric capability in survey and emergency situations, a new sensitive airborne system has been built that includes an airborne spectrometer with 256 channels and a sodium iodide detector with a total volume of 16.8 liters. A rack-mounted PC with memory cards is used for data acquisition, with a GPS satellite navigation system for positioning. The system was calibrated with point sources using a mathematical correction to take into account the effects of gamma-ray scattering in the ground and in the atmosphere. The calibration was complemented by high precision ground gamma spectrometry and laboratory measurements on rock samples. In Switzerland, two major research programs make use of the capabilities of airborne radiometric measurements. The first one concerns nuclear power-plant monitoring. The five Swiss nuclear installations (four power plants and one research facility) and the surrounding regions of each site are surveyed annually. The project goal is to monitor the dose-rate distribution and to provide a documented baseline database. The measurements show that all sites (with the exception of the Goesgen power plant) can be identified clearly on the maps. No artificial radioactivity that could not be explained by the Chernobyl release or earlier nuclear weapons tests was detected outside of the fenced sites of the nuclear installations. The second program aims at a better evaluation of the natural radiation level in Switzerland. The survey focused on the crystalline rocks of the Central Massifs of the Swiss Alps because of their relatively high natural radioactivity and lithological variability.

  2. A Swiss paradox? Higher income inequality of municipalities is associated with lower mortality in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Egger, Matthias; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    It has long been surmised that income inequality within a society negatively affects public health. However, more recent studies suggest there is no association, especially when analyzing small areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of income inequality on mortality in Switzerland using the Gini index on municipality level. The study population included all individuals >30 years at the 2000 Swiss census (N = 4,689,545) living in 2,740 municipalities with 35.5 million person-years of follow-up and 456,211 deaths over follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were adjusted for age, gender, marital status, nationality, urbanization, and language region. Results were reported as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. The mean Gini index across all municipalities was 0.377 (standard deviation 0.062, range 0.202-0.785). Larger cities, high-income municipalities and tourist areas had higher Gini indices. Higher income inequality was consistently associated with lower mortality risk, except for death from external causes. Adjusting for sex, marital status, nationality, urbanization and language region only slightly attenuated effects. In fully adjusted models, hazards of all-cause mortality by increasing Gini index quintile were HR = 0.99 (0.98-1.00), HR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99), HR = 0.95 (0.94-0.96), HR = 0.91 (0.90-0.92) compared to the lowest quintile. The relationship of income inequality with mortality in Switzerland is contradictory to what has been found in other developed high-income countries. Our results challenge current beliefs about the effect of income inequality on mortality on small area level. Further investigation is required to expose the underlying relationship between income inequality and population health.

  3. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries--even from negative studs--poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented.

  4. Patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Mascherek, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identifying patient safety priorities in mental healthcare is an emerging issue. A variety of aspects of patient safety in medical care apply for patient safety in mental care as well. However, specific aspects may be different as a consequence of special characteristics of patients, setting and treatment. The aim of the present study was to combine knowledge from the field and research and bundle existing initiatives and projects to define patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland. The present study draws on national expert panels, namely, round-table discussion and modified Delphi consensus method. Design As preparation for the modified Delphi questionnaire, two round-table discussions and one semistructured questionnaire were conducted. Preparative work was conducted between May 2015 and October 2015. The modified Delphi was conducted to gauge experts' opinion on priorities in patient safety in mental healthcare in Switzerland. In two independent rating rounds, experts made private ratings. The modified Delphi was conducted in winter 2015. Results Nine topics were defined along the treatment pathway: diagnostic errors, non-drug treatment errors, medication errors, errors related to coercive measures, errors related to aggression management against self and others, errors in treatment of suicidal patients, communication errors, errors at interfaces of care and structural errors. Conclusions Patient safety is considered as an important topic of quality in mental healthcare among experts, but it has been seriously neglected up until now. Activities in research and in practice are needed. Structural errors and diagnostics were given highest priority. From the topics identified, some are overlapping with important aspects of patient safety in medical care; however, some core aspects are unique. PMID:27496233

  5. Regional Variation of Cost of Care in the Last 12 Months of Life in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Luta, Xhyljeta; Maessen, Maud; Stuck, Andreas E.; Berlin, Claudia; Schmidlin, Kurt; Reich, Oliver; von Wyl, Viktor; Goodman, David C.; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland. Methods: We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply. Results: The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%–95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals. Conclusions: In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers. PMID:27579912

  6. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  7. Crosswell electromagnetic and magnetotelluric imaging of geothermal reservoirs - evaluation and case studies from Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, F.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are considered important contributors to any future energy mix, as they are renewable and can potentially provide a constant (i.e., baseload) and long-term energy output. However, most regions worldwide are lacking natural, convective hydrothermal resources. As a result, when relatively high subsurface temperatures exist in low-permeability rocks ("hot-dry" rocks), it has been suggested to artificially increase permeability to enable deep fluid circulation and associated advective heat transfer to a production well. One technique to enhance permeability, and thus the ability to extract geothermal heat, is hydraulic stimulation, creating (permeability) enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). In the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory in Switzerland, a meso-scale field experiment is planned, where pre-existing fault systems are hydraulically sheared. The aim of this experiment is to better understand the processes occurring during artificial reservoir creation. We present our 3D numerical modeling study evaluating the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography using magnetic dipole sources to map stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. This geophysical parameter is affected by several subsurface properties including temperature, interconnected porosity, permeability, and the presence of fluids. Electrical conductivity thus provides important information on the effectiveness of geothermal reservoir creation. Besides numerical modeling studies, we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory. Furthermore, we present preliminary results of a magnetotelluric (MT) survey conducted at a prominent heat flow anomaly in Northern Switzerland. Here, we test methods to improve data quality of MT measurements in regions that exhibit substantial electromagnetic noise. We also discuss how information on the electrical conductivity

  8. Identifying active faults in Switzerland using relocated earthquake catalogs and optimal anisotropic dynamic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, M.; Wang, Y.; Husen, S.; Woessner, J.; Kissling, E. H.; Ouillon, G.; Giardini, D.; Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes, which release tectonic stresses. Yet, identification and association of faults and earthquakes is not straightforward. On the one hand, many earthquakes occur on faults that are unknown. On the other hand, systematic biases and uncertainties in earthquake locations hamper the association of earthquakes and known faults. We tackle the problem of linking earthquakes to faults by relocating them in a non-linear probabilistic manner and by applying a three-dimensional optimal anisotropic dynamic clustering approach to the relocated events to map fault networks. Non-linear probabilistic earthquake location allows to compute probability density functions that provide the complete probabilistic solution to the earthquake hypocenter location problem, including improved information on location uncertainties. To improve absolute earthquake locations we use a newly developed combined controlled-source seismology and local earthquake tomography model, which allows the use of secondary phases, such as PmP. Dynamic clustering is a very general image processing technique that allows partitioning a set of data points. Our improved optimal anisotropic dynamic clustering technique accounts for uncertainties in earthquake locations by the use of probability density functions, as provided by non-linear probabilistic earthquake location. Hence, number and size of the reconstructed faults is controlled by earthquake location uncertainty. We apply our approach to seismicity in Switzerland to identify active faults in the region. Relocated earthquake catalogs and associated fault networks will be compared to already existing information on faults, such as geological and seismotectonic maps, to derive a more complete picture of active faulting in Switzerland.

  9. Modeling the Health and Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Bruggmann, Philip; Bihl, Florian; Blach, Sarah; Lavanchy, Daniel; Razavi, Homie; Semela, David; Negro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of liver disease in Switzerland and carries a significant cost burden. Currently, only conservative strategies are in place to mitigate the burden of hepatitis C in Switzerland. This study expands on previously described modeling efforts to explore the impact of: no treatment, and treatment to reduce HCC and mortality. Furthermore, the costs associated with untreated HCV were modeled. Methods Hepatitis C disease progression and mortality were modeled. Baseline historical assumptions were collected from the literature and expert interviews and strategies were developed to show the impact of different levels of intervention (improved drug cure rates, treatment and diagnosis) until 2030. Results Under the historical standard of care, the number of advanced stage cases was projected to increase until 2030, at which point the annual economic burden of untreated viremic infections was projected to reach €96.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: €36 – €232) million. Scenarios to reduce HCV liver-related mortality by 90% by 2030 required treatment of 4,190 ≥F2 or 3,200 ≥F3 patients annually by 2018 using antivirals with a 95% efficacy rate. Delaying the implementation of these scenarios by 2 or 5 years reduced the impact on mortality to 75% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions With today’s treatment efficacy and uptake rates, hepatitis C disease burden is expected to increase through 2030. A substantial reduction in disease burden can be achieved by means of both higher efficacy drugs and increased treatment uptake. However, these efforts cannot be undertaken without a simultaneous effort to diagnose more infections. PMID:26107467

  10. Quantification of model projection uncertainty in EURO- and MED-CORDEX over Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubler, Elias; Knutti, Reto; Schär, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The provision of climate change projections for a small country such as Switzerland is typically based on the post-processing of a multi-model ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) that are used to dynamically downscale global climate model (GCM) simulations. The model projection uncertainty associated to such an ensemble of opportunity primarily arises from the use of different dynamical cores and physical parameterizations in both the RCMs and the driving GCMs. Further contributions come from different model resolutions and boundary conditions such as soil and vegetation parameters and orography. Model projection uncertainty is known to be one of the most important uncertainty components in climate change projections. The quantification of model projection uncertainty, however, is far from trivial. First, an ensemble of opportunity (e.g. RCM-GCM chains from ENSEMBLES or CORDEX) is incomplete: very likely, only a fraction of the parameter space is covered by the relatively small amount of simulations available. Second, there are dependencies among the models that may to some extent reduce the effective sample size if they are accounted for. Dependencies arise simply from the use similar parameter values and parameterizations (and thus similar model deficiencies or biases). If the multi-model ensemble is dominated by certain GCMs and RCMs as is the case with MED- and EURO-CORDEX, simply computing empirical quantiles from unweighted models will result in estimates of model projection uncertainty that are inevitably biased towards these models. Following this argument, a detailed analysis of the model projection uncertainty in EURO- and MED-CORDEX simulations is carried out over the Swiss Alps. We analyze how the different RCM and GCM simulations and different model selection methods modulate the resulting estimates of model projection uncertainty over five regions in Switzerland. This work precedes the release of a new generation of Swiss climate change

  11. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from breeding and migratory birds in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lommano, Elena; Dvořák, Charles; Vallotton, Laurent; Jenni, Lukas; Gern, Lise

    2014-10-01

    From 2007 to 2010, 4558 migrating and breeding birds of 71 species were caught and examined for ticks in Switzerland. A total of 1205 specimens were collected; all were Ixodes ricinus ticks except one Ixodes frontalis female, which was found on a common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) for the first time in Switzerland. Each tick was analysed individually for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Altogether, 11.4% of birds (22 species) were infested by ticks and 39.8% of them (15 species) were carrying infected ticks. Bird species belonging to the genus Turdus were the most frequently infested with ticks and they were also carrying the most frequently infected ticks. Each tick-borne pathogen for which we tested was identified within the sample of bird-feeding ticks: Borrelia spp. (19.5%) and Rickettsia helvetica (10.5%) were predominantly detected whereas A. phagocytophilum (2%), Rickettsia monacensis (0.4%) and TBEV (0.2%) were only sporadically detected. Among Borrelia infections, B. garinii and B. valaisiana were largely predominant followed by B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi ss. Interestingly, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified in a few ticks (3.3%), mainly from chaffinches. Our study emphasizes the role of birds in the natural cycle of tick-borne pathogens that are of human medical and veterinary relevance in Europe. According to infection detected in larvae feeding on birds we implicate the common blackbird (Turdus merula) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) as reservoir hosts for Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum.

  12. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  13. AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system. • h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center.

  14. The cardiovascular response to the AGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Mctaggart, Wesley G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on human subjects conducted to study the cardiovascular response to various g-levels and exposure times using an artificial gravity simulator (AGS). The AGS is a short arm centrifuge consisting of a turntable, a traction system, a platform and four beds. Data collection hardware is part of the communication system. The AGS provides a steep acceleration gradient in subjects in the supine position.

  15. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Hattori, T.; Huang, H.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2007-06-01

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  16. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Hattori, T.; Lin, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  17. Transformation from Ag@Ag3PO4 to Ag@Ag2SO4 hybrid at room temperature: preparation and its visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Qingyao; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, Ag/Ag2SO4 hybrid photocatalysts were obtained via a facile redox-precipitation reaction approach by using Ag@Ag3PO4 nanocomposite as the precursor and KMnO4 as the oxidant. Multiple techniques, such as X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were applied to investigate the structures, morphologies, optical, and electronic properties of as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of organic rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. It was found that pure Ag2SO4 can partially transform into metallic Ag during the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, but the Ag/Ag2SO4 hybrids can maintain its structure stability and show enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface plasma resonance effect of the metallic Ag.

  18. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  19. Single step electrochemical synthesis of hydrophilic/hydrophobic Ag5 and Ag6 blue luminescent clusters.

    PubMed

    Santiago González, Beatriz; Blanco, M C; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2012-12-21

    Well-defined Ag(5) and Ag(6) dodecanethiol/tetrabutyl ammonium-protected clusters were prepared by a one-pot electrochemical method. Ag clusters show bright and photostable emissions. The presence of a dual capping renders the silver clusters soluble in both organic and aqueous solvents.

  20. Synthesis of Cu-Ag@Ag particles using hyperbranched polyester as template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wen-Song

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, the third-generation hyperbranched polyester was synthesized with 2, 2-dimethylol propionic acid as AB2 monomer and pentaerythrite as core molecule by using step by step polymerization process at first. Then, the Cu-Ag particles were prepared by co-reduction of silver nitrate and copper nitrate with ascorbic acid in the aqueous solution using hyperbranched polyester as template. Finally, the Cu-Ag@Ag particles were prepared by coating silver on the surface of Cu-Ag particles by reduction of silver nitrate. The synthesized hyperbranched polyester and Cu-Ag@Ag particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectra, x-ray diffraction, Laser light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM. UV-vis spectra results showed that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had a strong absorption band at around 420 nm. Laser light scattering and SEM studies confirmed that the most frequent particle sizes of Cu-Ag@Ag particles were 1.2 um. TGA results indicated that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had good thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. An Au/AgBr-Ag heterostructure plasmonic photocatalyst with enhanced catalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2017-01-17

    This study reports an easy synthesis protocol of a novel bimetallic silver halide (Au/AgBr-Ag) plasmonic heterostructure as a visible light induced photocatalyst. In this process, first CTAB capped Au NPs were coated with AgBr, and then Ag nanoparticles were formed on the surface of AgBr by photoreduction, while exposing to daylight at room temperature. The presence of Au and Ag improves the visible absorption ability of NPs and avoids charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr during photoexcitation, which in turn enhances 16 and 8.9 fold the photocatalytic efficiency of Rhodamine B dye degradation under visible light irradiation compared to that of pure AgBr and AgBr/Ag, respectively. The recycling tests of the photocatalyst show only ∼8.7% decrease in efficiency after the 5(th) cycle of reuse without changing the morphology. During the photocatalytic process, active superoxide radicals (O2˙(-)) play a major role, proved through scavenger trapping and photoluminescence experiments. The presence of two plasmonic metals (Au and Ag) in the heterostructure helps to improve visible light absorption as well as avoid charge recombination of the semiconductor AgBr to act as a better photocatalyst. Since this heteronanostructure can be easily synthesized by a one-step method, this study could provide a new approach for the development of efficient bimetallic/semiconductor halide plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible absorption and better charge separation.

  2. Highly efficient visible light plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I).

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Baibiao; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Qin, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ying; Zhan, Jie; Yu, Jiaoxian; Liu, Haixia; Lou, Zaizhu

    2010-09-03

    The new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I) was synthesized by the ion-exchange process between the silver bromide and potassium iodide, then by reducing some Ag(+) ions in the surface region of Ag(Br,I) particles to Ag(0) species. Ag nanoparticles are formed from Ag(Br,I) by the light-induced chemical reduction reaction. The Ag@Ag(Br,I) particles have irregular shapes with their sizes varying from 83 nm to 1 mum. The as-grown plasmonic photocatalyst shows strong absorption in the visible light region because of the plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. The ability of this compound to reduce Cr(VI) under visible light was compared with those of other reference photocatalyst. The plasmonic photocatalyst is shown to be highly efficient under visible light. The stability of the photocatalyst was examined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The XRD pattern and XPS spectra prove the stability of the plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@Ag(Br,I).

  3. Negligible shift of 3Ag- potential in longer-chain carotenoids as revealed by a single persistent peak of 3Ag-→1Ag- stimulated emission followed by 3Ag-←1Ag- transient-absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyong; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Upon excitation of lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin or spirilloxanthin to the 1Bu+(0) state, stimulated emission followed by transient-absorption was observed as a single peak with the 3Ag-(0) energy that had been determined by measurement of resonance-Raman excitation profiles. This observation was explained in terms of negligible shift of the 3Ag- potential, in reference to the 1Ag- potential, where only the 3Ag-(υ)→1Ag-(υ) emission and the 3Ag-(υ)←1Ag-(υ) absorption become allowed during the vibrational relaxation of υ = 2 → 1 → 0, starting from the 3Ag-(2) level generated by diabatic internal conversion from the 1Bu+(0) level, in anhydrorhodovibrin, for example.

  4. Half-life determination for 108Ag and 110Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the half-life of the short-lived silver radionuclides 108Ag and 110Ag were measured by following the activity of samples after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using both the Normalized Residuals and the Rajeval techniques, in order to reach the most exact and precise final values. To check the validity of dead-time correction, a second correction method was also employed by means of counting a long-lived 60Co radioactive source together with the samples as a livetime chronometer. The final half-live values obtained using both dead-time correction methods were in good agreement, showing that the correction was properly assessed. The results obtained are partially compatible with the literature values, but with a lower uncertainty, and allow a discussion on the last ENSDF compilations' values.

  5. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Modelling the economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Christoph; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Martius, Olivia; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Severe winter storms such as "Vivian" in February 1990 and "Lothar" in December 1999 are among the most destructive meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Disaster severity resulting from such windstorms is attributable, on the one hand, to hazardous weather conditions such as high wind gust speeds; and on the other hand to socio-economic factors such as population density, distribution of values at risk, and damage susceptibility. For present-day winter storms, the data basis is generally good to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated socio-economic impacts. In contrast, the information on historic windstorms is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. This study illustrates a promising technique to simulate the economic impacts of both historic and present winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our approach makes use of the novel Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) spanning 1871-present. The 2-degree spatial resolution of the global 20CR dataset is relatively coarse. Thus, the complex orography of Switzerland is not realistically represented, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of wind systems that are strongly influenced by the local orography, such as Föhn winds. Therefore, a dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was performed, for in total 40 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871. Based on the downscaled wind gust speeds and the climada loss model, the estimated economic losses were calculated at municipality level for current economic and social conditions. With this approach, we find an answer to the question what would be the economic losses of e.g. a hazardous Föhn storm - which occurred in northern Switzerland in February 1925 - today, i.e. under current socio-economic conditions. Encouragingly, the pattern of

  7. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  8. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils.

  9. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg0 removal in comparison to SO2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 showed the highest Hg0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag2CO3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (rad O2-) may play a key role in Hg0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  10. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  11. OMI tropospheric NO2 over Switzerland with higher resolution Alpine topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yipin; Brunner, Dominik; Boersma, Folkert; Dirksen, Ruud

    The small pixel size and daily global coverage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite make it especially suitable for air quality monitoring and modeling [1]. A comparison study is done between the monthly mean NO2 VTC distribution over Switzerland from OMI and the corresponding mean from SCIAMACHY illustrating much better spatial and temporal coverage of OMI, and its capability to resolve regional scale pollution features. However, tropospheric retrieval methods have uncertainties related to the satellite instrument and the a priori parameters, and these retrieval uncertainties are dominated by the uncertainty in the estimate of the tropospheric air mass factor [2]. In current retrieval schemes, forward model parameters, including a priori profile shapes, surface albedo, and surface pressures, are currently obtained from databases with spatial resolutions much coarser than the actual resolution of the satellite pixels. This may lead to significant retrieval errors and this problem is expected to be of increasing importance with regard to the decreasing pixel sizes of new instruments from GOME (320 x 40 km2) to SCIAMACHY(60 x 30 km2) to OMI (up to 13 x 24 km2). In a previous study [3], we investigated the impact of the complex Alpine topography on tropospheric NO2 retrievals from GOME and SCIAMACHY based on sensitivity studies with assumed a-priori NO2 profiles. It was concluded that inaccurate surface pressures can lead to large systematic errors in the vicinity of mountains, and that future retrievals need to use surface pressure fields at a resolution compatible with the satellite observations. In this study, we address the topography issue in a more quantitative way by reprocessing selected periods with accurate pixel-average surface pressures obtained by scaling the coarse pressure field of the current retrieval to the high-resolution topography data set GTOPO30. The differences between original and enhanced retrieval are analyzed for

  12. A greenhouse gas monitoring and modelling system for Switzerland: The CarboCount CH project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Dominik; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner; Seneviratne, Sonia; Davin, Edouard; Gruber, Nicolas; Leuenberger, Markus; Bey, Isabelle; Bamberger, Ines; Henne, Stephan; Liu, Yu; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Oney, Brian; Roches, Anne

    2014-05-01

    CarboCount CH is a collaborative project of six research institutes in Switzerland. It investigates human-related emissions and natural exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere of the two most important long-lived greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at the regional scale with a special focus on Switzerland. For this purpose, four new measurement sites have been established including a 210 m tall tower at Beromünster, a water reservoir tower in flat terrain at Gimmiz, and two mountain sites at Lägern (856 m a.s.l.) and Früebüel (977 m a.s.l.). All sites were equipped with high-precision instruments for continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and partially CO. The continuous CO measurements as well as bi-weekly 14CO2 samples at the tall tower site help to distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic contributions to the observed CO2 concentrations. All data are transferred to the central processing facility at Empa where the calibrated data are uploaded to a database and made remotely accessible to all partners. The network is complemented by flux measurements of the Swiss Fluxnet network and other existing sites with CO2 and/or CH4 measurements including the high altitude GAW site Jungfraujoch. The four CarboCount CH sites have been operating reliably and almost continuously for more than one year now. For data interpretation and top-down flux estimation, two separate atmospheric transport and inverse modeling systems are being developed within the project. The first one uses the new tracer transport module of the regional numerical weather prediction model COSMO together with an Ensemble Kalman filter scheme. The second framework is based on backward simulations with the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART-COSMO. Anthropogenic a priori emissions are obtained from newly developed high-resolution (500 m x 500 m) inventories of diurnally and seasonally varying CO2 and CH4 emissions in Switzerland, merged with European and global

  13. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A quarterly listing of documents issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is provided. The technical publications are arranged by type of documents. The reference AgRISTARS document number, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number is given.

  14. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  15. Historical analysis and visualization of the retreat of Findelengletscher, Switzerland, 1859-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastner, P.; Joerg, P. C.; Huss, M.; Zemp, M.

    2016-10-01

    Since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850, glaciers in Europe have strongly retreated. Thanks to early topographic surveys in Switzerland, accurate maps are available, which enable us to trace glacier changes back in time. The earliest map for all of Switzerland that is usable for a detailed analysis is the Dufour map from around 1850 with subsequent topographic maps on a 20 year interval. Despite the large public and scientific interest in glacier changes through time, this historic dataset has not yet been fully utilized for topographic change assessment or visualization of historic glacier extents. In this study, we use eleven historical topographic maps and more recent digital datasets for the region of Zermatt to analyze geometric changes (length, area and volume) of Findelengletscher as well as for creating animations of glacier evolution through time for use in public communication. All maps were georeferenced, the contour lines digitized, and digital elevation models (DEMs) created and co-registered. Additional digital data like the SRTM X-band DEM and high resolution laser scanning data were used to extend the analysis until 2010. Moreover, one independent DEM from aerial photogrammetry was used for comparison. During the period 1859-2010, Findelengletscher lost 3.5 km of its length (6.9 km in 2010), 4.42 ± 0.13 km2 of its area (15.05 ± 0.45 km2 in 2010) and 1.32 ± 0.52 km3 of its volume. The average rate of thickness loss is 0.45 ± 0.042 m yr- 1 for the 151 years period. Four periods with high thickness change from - 0.56 m ± 0.28 yr- 1 (1859-1881), - 0.40 ± 0.08 m yr- 1 (1937-1965), - 0.90 ± 0.31 m yr- 1 (1995-2000) and - 1.18 ± 0.02 m yr- 1 (2000-2005) have been identified. Small positive thickness changes were found for the periods 1890-1909 (+ 0.09 ± 0.46 m yr- 1) and 1988-1995 (+ 0.05 ± 0.24 m yr- 1). During its retreat with intermittent periods of advance, the glacier separated into three parts. The above changes are demonstrated

  16. Independent association between socioeconomic indicators and macro- and micro-nutrient intake in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic differences in diet are rarely assessed with more than one indicator. We aimed to assess differences in macro- and micro-nutrient intake in both sexes according to education, income, and occupation. Methods We used data from validated food frequency questionnaire measured dietary intake in 5087 participants (2157 women) from yearly adult population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted from 2005 to 2012 in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. We used two ANOVA models: age-adjusted and multivariable adjusted simultaneously for all three socioeconomic indicators. Results Low-education men consumed more calcium but less vitamin D than high-education men; low-income men consumed less total and animal protein (80.9±0.9 vs 84.0±0.6 g/d; 55.6±1.0 vs 59.5±0.7 g/d) and more total carbohydrates and sugars (246±2 vs 235±2 g/d; 108±2 vs 103±1 g/d) than high-income men. Occupation and diet showed no association. Low-education women consumed less vegetable protein (20.7±0.2 vs 21.6±0.2 g/d), fibre (15.7±0.3 vs 16.8±0.2 g/d), and carotene (4222±158 vs 4870±128 μg/d) than high-education women; low-income women consumed more total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 197±1 g/d) and less monounsaturated fat (27.7±0.4 vs 29.3±0.3 g/d) than high-income women. Finally, low-occupation women consumed more total energy (1792±27 vs 1714±15 kcal/d) and total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 200±1 g/d), but less saturated fat (23.0±0.3 vs 24.4±0.2 g/d), calcium (935±17 vs 997±10 mg/d) and vitamin D (2.5±0.1 vs 2.9±0.1 μg/d), than high-occupation women. Conclusion In Switzerland, the influence of socioeconomic factors on nutrient intake differs by sex; income and education, but not occupation, drive differences among men; among women, all three indicators seem to play a role. Interventions to reduce inequalities should consider the influence of education, income, and occupation in diet to be most effective. PMID:28369086

  17. Post-processing of a low-flow forecasting system in the Thur basin (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Konrad; Joerg-Hess, Stefanie; Bernhard, Luzi; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Low-flows and droughts are natural hazards with potentially severe impacts and economic loss or damage in a number of environmental and socio-economic sectors. As droughts develop slowly there is time to prepare and pre-empt some of these impacts. Real-time information and forecasting of a drought situation can therefore be an effective component of drought management. Although Switzerland has traditionally been more concerned with problems related to floods, in recent years some unprecedented low-flow situations have been experienced. Driven by the climate change debate a drought information platform has been developed to guide water resources management during situations where water resources drop below critical low-flow levels characterised by the indices duration (time between onset and offset), severity (cumulative water deficit) and magnitude (severity/duration). However to gain maximum benefit from such an information system it is essential to remove the bias from the meteorological forecast, to derive optimal estimates of the initial conditions, and to post-process the stream-flow forecasts. Quantile mapping methods for pre-processing the meteorological forecasts and improved data assimilation methods of snow measurements, which accounts for much of the seasonal stream-flow predictability for the majority of the basins in Switzerland, have been tested previously. The objective of this study is the testing of post-processing methods in order to remove bias and dispersion errors and to derive the predictive uncertainty of a calibrated low-flow forecast system. Therefore various stream-flow error correction methods with different degrees of complexity have been applied and combined with the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP) in order to minimise the differences between the observations and model predictions and to derive posterior probabilities. The complexity of the analysed error correction methods ranges from simple AR(1) models to methods including

  18. Late Glacial and Holocene Geomagnetic secular variation in Western Lake Geneva (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baster, I.; Heller, F.; Egli, R.; Rachoud-Schneider, A. M.; Wildi, W.

    2003-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments can provide excellent records of paleomagnetic secular variation which can be used as a powerful dating tool. We present the first paleosecular variation record from Lake Geneva (Switzerland) that extends back beyond 16 cal. kyr BP. Several cores up to 10 m long were collected in the delta area of the Promentouse and Asse rivers, close to the city of Nyon. Whole-core declination and horizontal intensity component of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) were first measured in two cores retrieved from an area without slumps about 1050 and 1400 m from the coast, respectively. In addition, individual samples were extracted from the longest core for further detailed analysis. These samples are characterized by one single NRM component which is stable up to 20 mT. No secondary components (low-stability) have been recognized. As demonstrated by component analysis of IRM acquisition curves, fine-grained magnetite of biogenic origin is the dominant magnetic carrier with additional small amounts of detrital hematite. The declination values obtained from these subsamples display well-defined oscillations within a range of ± 44°. Thirteen major paleosecular declination swings can be distinguished. The inclination curve varies between 30° and 70° and is characterized by a more complex structure. However, nine pronounced features can be recognized. NRM intensity and initial susceptibility correlate well with the stratigraphy showing different trends for the Holocene and the Late Glacial periods. The inclination and declination variations are in excellent agreement with the records from Lac du Joux (Creer et al., 1980) and Lake Windermere (Turner &Thompson, 1981). The paleosecular variation curve of Lake Geneva, combined with lithostratigraphic features, pollen counting analyses and C14 dating, provides a well dated high quality reference curve for central Europe. References Creer, K.M., Hogg, T.E., Readman, P.W. &Reynaud, C. (1980) Palaeomagnetic

  19. Carbon balance indicates a time limit for cultivation of organic soils in central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sonja; Ammann, Christof; Alewell, Christine; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands serve as important carbon sinks. Globally, more than 30% of the soil organic carbon is stored in organic soils, although they cover only 3% of the land surface. The agricultural use of organic soils usually requires drainage thereby transforming these soils from a net carbon sink into a net source. Currently, about 2 to 3 Gt CO2 are emitted world-wide from degrading organic soils (Joosten 2011; Parish et al. 2008) which is ca. 5% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Besides these CO2 emissions, the resulting subsidence of drained peat soils during agricultural use requires that drainage system are periodically renewed and finally to use pumping systems after progressive subsidence. In Switzerland, the Seeland region is characterised by fens which are intensively used for agriculture since 1900. The organic layer is degrading and subsequently getting shallower and the underlying mineral soil, as lake marl or loam, is approaching the surface. The questions arises for how long and under which land use practises and costs these soils can be cultivated in the near future. The study site was under crop rotation until 2009 when it was converted to extensively used grassland with the water regime still being regulated. The soil is characterised by a degraded organic horizon of 40 to 70 cm. Since December 2014 we are measuring the carbon exchange of this grassland using the Eddy-Covariance method. For 2015, the carbon balance indicates that the degraded fen is a strong carbon source, with approximately 500 g C m-2 a-1. The carbon balance is dominated by CO2 emissions and harvest. Methane emissions are negligible. With the gained emission factors different future scenarios are evaluated for the current cultivation practise of organic soils in central Switzerland. Joosten, H., 2011: Neues Geld aus alten Mooren: Über die Erzeugung von Kohlenstoffzertifikaten aus Moorwiedervernässungen. Telma Beiheft 4, 183-202. Parish, F., A. Sirin, D. Charman, H. Joosten, T

  20. AgPO2F2 and Ag9(PO2F2)14: the first Ag(i) and Ag(i)/Ag(ii) difluorophosphates with complex crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Kurzydłowski, Dominik; Grochala, Wojciech

    2015-12-07

    The reaction of AgF2 with P2O3F4 yields a mixed valence Ag(I)/Ag(II) difluorophosphate salt with AgAg(PO2F2)14 stoichiometry - the first Ag(ii)-PO2F2 system known. This highly moisture sensitive brown solid is thermally stable up to 120 °C, which points at further feasible extension of the chemistry of Ag(ii)-PO2F2 systems. The crystal structure shows a very complex bonding pattern, comprising of polymeric Ag(PO2F2)14(4-) anions and two types of Ag(I) cations. One particular Ag(II) site present in the crystal structure of Ag9(PO2F2)14 is the first known example of square pyramidal penta-coordinated Ag(ii) in an oxo-ligand environment. Ag(i)PO2F2 - the product of the thermal decomposition of Ag9(PO2F2)14 - has also been characterized by thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. It has a complicated crystal structure as well, which consists of infinite 1D [Ag(I)O4/2] chains which are linked to more complex 3D structures via OPO bridges. The PO2F2(-) anions bind to cations in both compounds as bidentate oxo-ligands. The terminal F atoms tend to point inside the van der Waals cavities in the crystal structure of both compounds. All important structural details of both title compounds were corroborated by DFT calculations.

  1. Ligand and counterion control of Ag(I) architectures: assembly of a {Ag8} ring cluster mediated by hydrophobic and Ag...Ag interactions.

    PubMed

    Fielden, John; Long, De-liang; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kögerler, Paul; Cronin, Leroy

    2007-10-29

    A strategy combining ligand design and counterion variation has been used to investigate the assembly of silver(I) complexes. As a result, dinuclear, octanuclear, and polymeric silver(I) species have been synthesized by complexation of the rigid aliphatic amino ligands cis-3,5-diamino-trans-hydroxycyclohexane (DAHC), cis-3,5-diamino-trans-methoxycyclohexane (DAMC), and cis-3,5-diamino-trans-tert-butyldimethylsilylanyloxycyclohexane (DATC) with silver(I) triflate, nitrate, and perchlorate. The compositions of these aggregates, established by X-ray crystallography and elemental analysis, are [{Ag(DAHC)}2](CF3SO3)2 (1), [{Ag(DAMC)}2](CF3SO3)2 (2), [{Ag(DAMC)}2](NO3)2 (3), [{Ag(DATC)}6{Ag(DAHC)}2](NO3)8 (4), and [{Ag(DATC}n](NO3)n (5), where the DAHC present in 4 is formed by in situ hydrolysis of the acid labile silyl ether group. The type of aggregate formed depends both upon the noncoordinating O-substituent of the ligand and the (also noncoordinating) counterion, with the normal preference of the ligand topology for forming Ag2L2 structures being broken by introduction of the bulky, lipophilic O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group. Of particular note is the octanuclear silver ring structure 4, which is isolated only when both the O-TBDMS group and the nitrate counteranion are present and is formed from four Ag2L2 dimers connected by Ag...Ag and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Diffusion rate measurement of this {Ag8} complex by 1H NMR (DOSY) indicates dissociation in CD3OD and CD3CN, showing that this supramolecular ring structure is formed upon crystallization, and establishing a qualitative limit to the strength of Ag...Ag interactions in solution. When solutions of the {Ag8} cluster in methanol are kept for several days though, a new UV-vis absorption is observed at around 430 nm, consistent with the formation of silver nanoparticles.

  2. Fluorescent DNA-bound Ag nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Patrick; Velazquez, Lourdes; Weirich, Kim; Fygenson, Deborah

    2009-03-01

    Few-atom fluorescent Ag nanoclusters self-assemble on short, synthetic DNA strands, and exhibit sequence and structure dependent fluorescence ranging from the blue to the near infrared. Here we report UV excitation as a ubiquitous feature of these emitters. Each emitter thus has two excitation peaks: a visible peak which is cluster-dependent, and a UV peak which has the same wavelength for all DNA-bound Ag clusters. This UV peak corresponds to resonant absorbance by the DNA bases, and produces the same emission spectra as visible excitation, suggesting energy transfer from the DNA bases to the Ag cluster. We make use of this UV excitation to image the emitters in unstained polyacrylamide gels, and show that electrophoresis can be used to create a pure solution of green DNA:Ag11 clusters from an inhomogeneous red solution of DNA:Ag>12 clusters.

  3. Direct electrospinning of Ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Olesen, Mikkel Buster; Wang, Chenxuan; Havelund, Rasmus; Li, Qiang; Xie, Erqing; Yang, Rong; Bøggild, Peter; Wang, Chen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2011-12-01

    Core-sheath silver nanowire/polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNW/PVP) nanocables have been fabricated via an efficient single-spinneret electrospinning method. The core-sheath structure is revealed by combining several characterization methods. A possible formation mechanism of the AgNW/PVP nanocable involving a strong stretching during the electrospinning process is proposed. Further, electrical measurements were performed on AgNW/PVP nanocables as well as bare AgNWs, which indicated the nanocables became insulating due to the isolation of highly conductive AgNWs by insulating PVP sheath. Therefore, the described fabrication method holds potential for the fabrication of low-cost metal/polymer composite materials for nanoelectronic applications in general.

  4. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys.

    PubMed

    Tie, D; Feyerabend, F; Müller, W D; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; Kainer, K U; Willumeit, R

    2013-06-16

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4) and aging (T6) heat treatment. The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH)₂ and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7), revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269), and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  5. Photo- and thermo-chemical transformation of AgCl and Ag2S in environmental matrices and its implication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Xu, Wei; Tan, Zhiqiang; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Weidong; Guo, Xiaoru; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    AgCl and Ag2S prevalently exist in the environment as minerals and/or the chlorination and sulfidation products of ionic silver and elemental silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this work, we investigated the chemical transformation of AgCl and Ag2S under simulated sunlight (in water) and incineration (in sludge and simulated municipal solid waste, SMSW). In the presence of natural organic matter, AgCl in river water was observed to be transformed into AgNPs under simulated sunlight, while photo-reduction of Ag2S could not take place under the same experimental conditions. During the course of incineration, pure Ag2S was transformed into elemental silver while AgCl remained stable; however, both Ag2S in sludge and AgCl in SMSW can be transformed to elemental silver under incineration, evident by the results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements. Incineration temperature played an important role in the transformation of Ag2S and AgCl into elemental silver. These results suggest that chemical transformations of Ag2S and AgCl into elemental silver could be a possible source of naturally occurring or unintentionally produced AgNPs, affecting the fate, transport, bioavailability and toxicity of silver. Therefore, it is necessary to include the contributions of this transformation process when assessing the risk of ionic silver/AgNPs and the utilization and management of incineration residues.

  6. Evaluation of Real-Time and Off-Line Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Yannik; Clinton, John; Cua, Georgia; Cauzzi, Carlo; Heimers, Stefan; Kästli, Philipp; Becker, Jan; Heaton, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, western Greece, Istanbul, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. In Switzerland, VS has been running in real-time on stations monitored by the Swiss Seismological Service (including stations from Austria, France, Germany, and Italy) since 2010. While originally based on the Earthworm system it has recently been ported to the SeisComp3 system. Besides taking advantage of SeisComp3's picking and phase association capabilities it greatly simplifies the potential installation of VS at networks in particular those already running SeisComp3. We present the architecture of the new SeisComp3 based version and compare its results from off-line tests with the real-time performance of VS in Switzerland over the past two years. We further show that the empirical relationships used by VS to estimate magnitudes and ground motion, originally derived from southern California data, perform well in Switzerland.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  8. Molecular Evidence of Coinfection of Ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato and the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pusterla, Nicola; Mislin, Caroline N.; Weber, Rainer; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in Switzerland and tested for the presence of coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent by real-time PCR. Of 100 ticks, 49% were positive for B. burgdorferi and 2% were positive for the HGE agent. The two HGE agent-positive ticks were also found to be positive for B. burgdorferi. PMID:10488215

  9. Formation of AgGaS2 nano-pyramids from Ag2S nanospheres through intermediate Ag2S-AgGaS2 heterostructures and AgGaS2 sensitized Mn2+ emission.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Zhou, Jiangcong; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2014-02-21

    A one-pot solution synthesis of monodisperse AgGaS2 nanocrystals with uniform pyramid-like shape is realized for the first time, in which an interesting phase and shape evolution from monodisperse Ag2S nanospheres to pure AgGaS2 nano-pyramids through an intermediate stage of Ag2S-AgGaS2 heterostructures, is revealed. Evidently, upon introducing Mn(2+) ions into the reaction system, they are incorporated into AgGaS2 nano-pyramids which act as efficient sensitization matrixes for the red emission of Mn(2+) d-d transition under blue excitation. Benefiting from their non-toxicity and facile fabrication, Mn:AgGaS2 nanocrystals may find potential applications in some fields such as blue chip excited LEDs and bio-labeling.

  10. [Monitoring of biting midges (Culicoides spp.), the potential vectors of the bluetongue virus, in the 12 climatic regions of Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Schaffner, F; Mathis, A

    2009-05-01

    Midges of the genus Culicoides are the only known biological vectors of the bluetongue disease virus (BTV). Their occurrence at altitudes below 900 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.) is monitored in Switzerland by the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office, to determine vector-free periods around winter. In this study, data about the number of midges caught at stations representing the 12 climatic regions of Switzerland are shown. The tiny midges of 1-3 mm in size were caught once per week with UV light traps and grouped under the stereomicroscope into Obsoletus complex, Pulicaris complex and other Culicoides spp. Midges were caught at all stations, albeit in very different numbers. The highest monthly average was 10,000 midges per night (Dittingen/BL); the third highest average of all 12 stations was recorded for the highest-located station (Juf/GR, 2130 m a.s.l.). At stations below 1500 m a.s.l., midges of the Obsoletus complex (98% in Dittingen), which in Central Europe are most likely considered to be responsible for the transmission of BTV, were predominant. With increasing altitude, midges of the Pulicaris complex prevailed (91% in Juf). Hence, there are no regions of the populated areas in Switzerland which are free of midges, but the vector competence regarding BTV of the various midges needs to be urgently clarified.

  11. Use of a modified Delphi panel to identify and weight criteria for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stebler, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Braam, P; Falzon, L C

    2015-09-01

    Zoonotic diseases have a significant impact on public health globally. To prevent or reduce future zoonotic outbreaks, there is a constant need to invest in research and surveillance programs while updating risk management strategies. However, given the limited resources available, disease prioritization based on the need for their control and surveillance is important. This study was performed to identify and weight disease criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland using a semi-quantitative research method based on expert opinion. Twenty-eight criteria relevant for disease control and surveillance, classified under five domains, were selected following a thorough literature review, and these were evaluated and weighted by seven experts from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office using a modified Delphi panel. The median scores assigned to each criterion were then used to rank 16 notifiable and/or emerging zoonoses in Switzerland. The experts weighted the majority of the criteria similarly, and the top three criteria were Severity of disease in humans, incidence and prevalence of the disease in humans and treatment in humans. Based on these weightings, the three highest ranked diseases were Avian Influenza, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, and Bovine Tuberculosis. Overall, this study provided a preliminary list of criteria relevant for disease prioritization in Switzerland. These were further evaluated in a companion study which involved a quantitative prioritization method and multiple stakeholders.

  12. Frequency of eprinomectin resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in canton Berne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Murri, Sarah; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Torgerson, Paul; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2014-06-16

    Eprinomectin (EPN) is a member of the avermectin class of compounds and the only anthelmintic registered for goats in Switzerland with a zero milk withdrawal period. The aim of the present study was to identify the actual efficacy of EPN in an area with a higher density of goat enterprises. Forty-three randomly chosen farms from canton Berne were investigated. At least eight goats were investigated on every farm. Conditions for inclusion in the study were the absence of anthelmintic treatment during the previous six weeks and a pooled faecal sample showing a mean faecal egg count (FEC) higher than 600 epg faeces. Pre- and 14-16 days post-treatment samples were individually collected directly from the rectum. Animals were treated with the recommended dose of EPN (1 mg/kg body weight) after taking the pre-treatment samples. Efficacy of EPN was tested with the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and faecal cultures were performed on every farm from pooled faeces samples before and after treatment. Additionally the farmers completed a questionnaire. None of the gastrointestinal nematode populations of the 43 investigated farms were susceptible to EPN at the required level. The mean egg count reduction was 40%. None of the typical risk factors, such as production type, stocking rate, animal traffic and quarantine measures showed an association with the level of eprinomectin resistance. It can be concluded with 80% certainty that the prevalence of EPN resistance on goat farms is at least 95% in canton Berne.

  13. Analysis of the hydraulic data from the MI fracture zone at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, A.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfeld, M.; Mensch, A.; Martel, S.J.

    1989-10-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to overcome some of this problem, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model the authors represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. A key component in constructing an equivalent discontinuum model from this lattice is removing some of the conductive elements such that the system is partially connected in the same manner as the fracture network. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called simulated annealing. The fracture network model is annealed by continually modifying a base model, or template such that the modified systems behave more and more like the observed system. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, the authors have developed a series of synthetic real cases. In these cases, the real system is completely known so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. The effect of the starting configuration has been studied by varying the percent of conducting elements in the initial configuration. Results have shown that the final configurations converge to about the same percentage of conducting elements. An example using Nagra field data from the Migration Experiment (MI) at Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland is also analyzed. 24 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Different Resting State EEG Features in Children from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Nsreen; Evdokimov, Sergey A.; Kropotov, Yury (Juri); Müller, Andreas M.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research field concerned with studying the influences of different cultures on brain anatomy and function. In this study, we examined whether different cultural or genetic influences might influence the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in young children (mean age 10 years) from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. Methods: Resting state EEG recordings were obtained from relatively large groups of healthy children (95 healthy Swiss children and 102 Saudi Arabian children). These EEG data were analyzed using group independent components analyses (gICA) and conventional analyses of spectral data, together with estimations of the underlying intracortical sources, using LORETA software. Results: We identified many similarities, but also some substantial differences with respect to the resting state EEG data. For Swiss children, we found stronger delta band power values in mesial frontal areas and stronger power values in three out of four frequency bands in occipital areas. For Saudi Arabian children, we uncovered stronger alpha band power over the sensorimotor cortex. The additionally measured theta/beta ratio (TBR) was similar for Swiss and Saudi Arabian children. Conclusions: The different EEG resting state features identified, are discussed in the context of different cultural experiences and possible genetic influences. In addition, we emphasize the importance of using appropriate EEG databases when comparing resting state EEG features between groups. PMID:27853430

  15. Multidisciplinary Identification of the Controversial Freedom Fighter Jörg Jenatsch, Assassinated 1639 in Chur, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, Martin; Haas, Cordula; Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Villa, Igor M; Walsh, Susan; Kayser, Manfred; Seiler, Roger; Ruehli, Frank; Janosa, Manuel; Papageorgopoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Jörg Jenatsch, a leading freedom fighter during the Thirty Year's War in Graubünden, Switzerland, was assassinated on carnival 1639. Jenatsch's controversial biography and the unclear circumstances of his death inspired the formation of various legends, novels and films. In 1959, a skeleton discovered in the cathedral of Chur with remains of wealthy baroque clothing was tentatively attributed to Jenatsch. Here, we reassess the skeleton based on a new exhumation. Our multidisciplinary analysis and the head injuries are consistent with reports of the eyewitnesses of the crime, demonstrating that Jenatsch was killed from behind with a semi-sharp implement, supposedly an axe, as well as by a blow with a broad-surfaced object. Moreover, our facial reconstruction closely matches an oil portrait of Jenatsch, and the HIrisPlex system applied to DNA-extracts from the femoral bone reveals brown eye and dark brown hair colour, which coincides well with the portrait, too. Finally, isotope analysis of the femoral bone and a molar support Jenatsch's high social status, luxury diet and a high mobility in the last decade of his life. This multidisciplinary approach thus reinforces personal identification and provides additional insight into the life of this important historic person beyond written resources.

  16. Automatic threshold and run parameter selection: a climatology for extreme hourly precipitation in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutome, S.; Liniger, M. A.; Süveges, M.

    2015-05-01

    Extreme value analyses of a large number of relatively short time series are in increasing demand in environmental sciences and design. Here, we present an automated procedure for the peaks-over-threshold (POT) approach to extreme value theory and use it to provide a climatology of extreme hourly precipitation in Switzerland. The POT approach fits the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) to independent exceedances above some high threshold. To guarantee independence, the time series is pruned: exceedances separated by less than a fixed interval called the run parameter are considered a cluster, and all but the cluster maxima are discarded. We propose the automation of an existing graphical method for joint selection of threshold and run parameter. Hourly precipitation is analyzed at 59 stations of the MeteoSwiss observational network over the period 1981-2010. The four seasons are considered separately. When necessary, a simple detrending is applied. Results suggest that unnecessarily large run parameters have adverse effects on the estimation of the GPD parameters. The proposed method yields mean cluster sizes that reflect the seasonal and geographical variation of lag dependence of hourly precipitation. The climatology, as represented by the return level maps and Alpine cross-section, mirror known aspects of the Swiss climate. Unlike for daily precipitation, summer thunderstorm tracks are visible in the seasonal frequency of events, rather than in the amplitude of rare events.

  17. Online health information seeking in the context of the medical consultation in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Abraham, Andrea; Sommerhalder, Kathrin; Schulz, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    A growing number of patients search for medical information on the Internet. Understanding how they use the Internet is important, as this might impact their health, patient-practitioner roles, and general health care provision. In this article, we illustrate the motives of online health information seeking in the context of the doctor-patient relationship in Switzerland. We conducted semistructured interviews with patients who searched for health information online before or after a medical consultation. Findings suggest that patients searched for health information online to achieve the goals of preparing for the consultation, complementing it, validating it, and/or challenging its outcome. The initial motivations for online health information seeking are identified in the needs for acknowledgment, reduction of uncertainty, and perspective. Searching health information online was also encouraged by personal and contextual factors, that is, a person's sense of self-responsibility and the opportunity to use the Internet. Based on these results, we argue that online health information seeking is less concerned with what happens during the consultation than with what happens before or after it, in the sociocultural context.

  18. Data management systems for the bovine viral diarrhoea eradication programme in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schwermer, H; Bernet, D; Presi, P; Schaller, P; Stern, M; Heim, D

    2013-12-01

    A programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea was launched in Switzerland in 2008 with the aim of eradicating the causal virus. During the first year of the programme, the entire population of 1.6 million cattle were tested for the presence of the virus; in the following three years an additional 1.8 million calves were tested. The complexity of information generated during the eradication programme, together with a tight schedule, made computerised data management a necessity. To organise, coordinate and supervise the programme, extensions were made to the computerised information system ISVet, of the Swiss Veterinary Service, which provides automated documents for both the Veterinary Service and private veterinarians. Specific data are accessible by user groups via the BVD-Web platform, ISVet and the Swiss animal movement database. The functionalities of the structure and the reports needed to control the progress of the programme are described in detail. The authors also discuss the major advantages, disadvantages and pitfalls when planning an eradication programme using a national centralised database over a distributed computer network.

  19. A half century retrospective study of homicide-suicide in Geneva--Switzerland: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Kebede; Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; Mangin, Patrice; La Harpe, Romano

    2010-02-01

    This study provides a retrospective review from the forensic files of the University Centre of Legal Medicine in Western Switzerland in Geneva, from January 1956 to December 2005. The studied homicide-suicide cases cover a period of half a century (50 years). As a rule, all police-ordered forensic examinations of violent death cases in the Canton of Geneva are conducted by the University Centre of Legal Medicine. All of the data necessary for an exhaustive retrospective study are thus readily available. During the period covered in this work, 228 homicides were perpetrated in Geneva. In 23 cases, the homicide was followed by the suicide of the aggressor. The 34 victims of these homicides (18 women, 1 man and 15 children) had either an intimate or filial relationship with the perpetrator. Most of the suicidal perpetrators were men that killed their spouses or intimate partners, with children as additional victims in some cases. Shooting was the most common means to kill, followed by stabbing. The majority of the victims and perpetrators were Swiss nationals. This retrospective study shows that in the last 50 years, homicide-suicide cases in the Canton of Geneva have been a rare and an episodic phenomena with a very variable frequency from 1 year to another.

  20. Successful implementation and results of an HPV vaccination program in Geneva Canton, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Emilien; Petignat, Patrick; Sudre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We describe a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program implemented since 2007 in Geneva Canton, Switzerland, that used school services, a public hospital, and private physicians as vaccination providers. We assessed program performance with the evolution of immunization coverage during the first four years of program implementation. We measured vaccination coverage of the target population using individual records of vaccination status collected by service providers and transmitted to the Geneva Canton Medical Office. The target population was 20,541 adolescent girls aged 11-19 years as of September 1, 2008, who resided in the canton when the program began. As of June 30, 2012, HPV vaccination coverage was 72.6% and 74.8% in targeted cohorts for three and two doses, respectively. The global coverage for three doses increased by 27 percentage points from December 2009 to June 2012. Coverage for girls aged 16-18 years at the beginning of the program reached 80% or more four years into the program. High coverage by this HPV vaccination program in Geneva was likely related to free vaccination and easy access to the vaccine using a combination of delivery services, including school health services, a public hospital, and private physicians, covering most eligible adolescent girls.

  1. Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Zurich, Switzerland--Atmospheric Concentrations and Emissions.

    PubMed

    Diefenbacher, Pascal S; Bogdal, Christian; Gerecke, Andreas C; Glüge, Juliane; Schmid, Peter; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-08-18

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are of concern due to their potential for adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, persistence, and long-range transport. Data on concentrations of SCCPs in urban areas and underlying emissions are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the levels and spatial distribution of SCCPs in air, based on two separate, spatially resolved sampling campaigns in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. SCCP concentrations in air ranged from 1.8 to 17 ng·m(-3) (spring 2011) and 1.1 to 42 ng·m(-3) (spring 2013) with medians of 4.3 and 2.7 ng·m(-3), respectively. Both data sets show that atmospheric SCCP levels in Zurich can vary substantially and may be influenced by a number of localized sources within this urban area. Additionally, continuous measurements of atmospheric concentrations performed at one representative sampling site in the city center from 2011 to 2013 showed strong seasonal variations with high SCCP concentrations in summer and lower levels in winter. A long-term dynamic multimedia environmental fate model was parametrized to simulate the seasonal trends of SCCP concentrations in air and to back-calculate urban emissions. Resulting annual SCCP emissions in the city of Zurich accounted for 218-321 kg, which indicates that large SCCP stocks are present in urban areas of industrialized countries.

  2. Studies on `precarious rocks' in the epicentral area of the AD 1356 Basle earthquake, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürch, Peter; Becker, Arnfried

    2005-11-01

    For the first time precarious rocks have been analysed in the epicentral area of the AD 1356 Basle earthquake in northern Switzerland. Several cliff sites in flat-lying, thickly bedded Upper Jurassic coral limestones in the Jura Mountains were investigated. Seven blocks are regarded as precarious with respect to earthquake strong ground motions. The age of these precarious rocks could not be determined directly as for instance by radiometric dating methods; however, based on slope degradation processes it can be concluded that the formation of these blocks predates the AD 1356 Basle earthquake. The acceleration required to topple a precarious rock from its pedestal is estimated using geometrical data for individual block sections and earthquake strong-motion records from stations on rock sites in the European Strong-Motion Database as input data for the computer program ROCKING V1.0 from the Seismological Laboratory, University of Nevada, Reno. The calculations indicate that toppling of a precarious rock largely depends on earthquake strength but also on the frequency spectrum of the signal. Although most investigated precarious rocks are surprisingly stable for ground motions similar to those expected to have occurred during the AD 1356 Basle earthquake, at least two blocks are clearly precariously balanced, with peak toppling accelerations lower than 0.3 g. Possible reasons why these blocks did not topple during the AD 1356 Basle earthquake include incomplete separation from their base, sliding of precarious rocks, their size, lower than assumed ground accelerations and/or duration of shaking.

  3. Palaeointensity determination on an early medieval kiln from Switzerland and the effect of cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadini, F.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Hedley, I. G.; Pesonen, L. J.

    The archaeomagnetic intensity reference curve for Western Europe lacks data during the period from 600 to 1000 AD. Baked clay from the walls of a pottery kiln at Reinach (Switzerland), archaeologically dated to the beginning of the 9th century AD, and having a 14C date of 1250 ± 50 BP, was investigated in order to refine the ancient geomagnetic field intensity during this period. A previous study to test the suitability of the material has shown that the magnetic properties of the baked clay from this Reinach kiln are appropriate for an archaeomagnetic study, and furthermore an archaeomagnetic directional date agrees well with the 14C date. A series of palaeointensity measurements was carried out in Sofia (Bulgaria). Here we present the results obtained from the same material, as performed in Helsinki (Finland) using different techniques. The comparison of the results shows significant differences between the two datasets. Based on the literature data, the discrepancy can be explained in terms of the different cooling rates of the samples used during the experiments in the two laboratories. Nevertheless, the results show that the geomagnetic field intensity had a high mean value of 86.85 ± 1.49 μT when the kiln was last used. This observation is consistent with recent studies from France covering the period during which the Reinach kiln functioned.

  4. Occurrence and Mass Flows of Fluorochemicals in the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    HUSET, CARIN A.; CHIAIA, AUREA C.; BAROFSKY, DOUGLAS F.; JONKERS, NIELS; KOHLER, HANS - PETER E.; ORT, CHRISTOPH; GIGER, WALTER; FIELD, JENNIFER A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorochemicals are persistent contaminants that are globally distributed in air, water, sediments, and biota. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an important role in mitigating pollutant releases from municipalities to aquatic and terrestrial environments. However, because WWTPs are point sources of fluorochemicals, it is important to understand their contribution to fluorochemical burdens in the greater context of watersheds. To this end, over a 1 week period, the mass flows of 11 fluorochemicals from seven WWTPs that discharge effluent into the Glatt River in Switzerland were measured and compared to the measured mass flows within the Glatt River. Overall, the fluorochemicals were not removed efficiently during wastewater treatment. Effluents from WWTPs and Glatt River water were dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate, which was detected in all samples, followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate. The mass flows of fluorochemicals emanating from WWTPs were found to be conserved within the 35 km Glatt River, which indicates that input from the WWTPs is additive and that removal within the Glatt River is not significant. Per capita discharges of fluorochemicals were calculated from the populations served by the WWTPs studied; the values determined also account for the fluorochemical content of Lake Greifen (Greifensee), which is a lake at the headwaters of the Glatt River that also receives treated wastewater. PMID:18800503

  5. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator.

  6. Endocrine activity of alternatives to BPA found in thermal paper in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Goldinger, Daniela M; Demierre, Anne-Laure; Zoller, Otmar; Rupp, Heinz; Reinhard, Hans; Magnin, Roxane; Becker, Thomas W; Bourqui-Pittet, Martine

    2015-04-01

    Alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) are more and more used in thermal paper receipts. To get an overview of the situation in Switzerland, 124 thermal paper receipts were collected and analyzed. Whereas BPA was detected in most samples (n=100), some alternatives, namely bisphenol S (BPS), Pergafast® 201 and D-8 have been found in 4, 11 and 9 samples respectively. As no or few data on their endocrine activity are available, these chemicals and bisphenol F (BPF) were tested in vitro using the H295R steroidogenesis assay. 17β-Estradiol production was induced by BPA and BPF, whereas free testosterone production was inhibited by BPA and BPS. Both non-bisphenol substances did not show significant effects. The binding affinity to 16 proteins and the toxicological potential (TP) were further calculated in silico using VirtualToxLab™. TP values lay between 0.269 and 0.476 and the main target was the estrogen receptor β (84.4 nM to 1.33 μM). A substitution of BPA by BPF and BPS should be thus considered with caution, since they exhibit almost a similar endocrine activity as BPA. D-8 and Pergafast® 201 could be alternatives to replace BPA, however further analyses are needed to better characterize their effects on the hormonal system.

  7. Short communication: dairy consumption among middle-aged and elderly adults in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Magali; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Schmid, Alexandra; Stoffers, Helena; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Walther, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Different studies have shown that people are aware of the benefits of dairy products, but a sizeable part of the world's population still does not consume the recommended amount of dairy produce. The aims of the present research were to determine which dairy products are consumed by the middle-aged and elderly (50-81yr old) living in Switzerland and to explore why some of this population segment are actually reducing their consumption of dairy products. On average, older Swiss adults consumed 2.6 portions of dairy products per day, which is slightly less than the recommended 3 to 4 portions a day. Additionally, about one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they have reduced their milk or dairy consumption. The main reasons given for this decision were to reduce fat or cholesterol. A reported difficulty in digesting some dairy products may be a further reason for limiting dairy intake, particularly cheese. It follows that a need for the propagation of appropriate nutritional information about dairy products to the middle-aged and elderly exists.

  8. Crash tests for forward-looking flood control in the city of Zürich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, M.; Andres, N.; Kienzler, P.; Näf-Huber, D.; Marti, C.; Oplatka, M.

    2015-06-01

    Floods in the city of Zürich (Switzerland) were already reported in the 13th century. The most severe threat are floods from the Sihl river (336 km2, including also an hydropower reservoir) with peaks exceeding 350 m3 s-1. An assessment using a rainfall-runoff model has been completed to evaluate extreme flood situations by combining 18 precipitation scenarios with different initial conditions. These scenarios identified deficits for the safety of Zürich. For the improvement of flood management several measures are possible. Crash-tests with 41 472 combinations of measures and scenarios have been evaluated. According to the results, the spillway channel option in the downstream reach of the Sihl is a promising structural measure to ensure flood relief for Zürich. Lowering the artificial reservoir lake before the event consistently increases safety also in the upstream part, but causes financial losses in terms of hydroelectricity. The combination of measures can lead to an optimal safety also in case of unfavourable initial conditions. Pending questions concern the costs, political decisions and the environmental sustainability.

  9. Selective Testing of At-Risk Blood Donors for Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp. in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Niederhauser, Christoph; Gottschalk, Jochen; Tinguely, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Population migrations and overseas recreational travel to regions at risk for tropical diseases are increasing. A major challenge in non-endemic countries is to decrease the number of blood donor deferrals due those tropical disease pathogens, without compromising the high level of blood safety. The protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp., the causative organisms of Chagas disease (CD) and malaria are becoming a major focus in the blood transfusion community. Methods: National guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross propose an algorithm for dealing with these pathogens, including a mandatory selective serological testing of donors at risk. Results 6,978 donors at risk for CD were tested. Three of them were confirmed anti-T. cruzi -positive, and in one case a transfusion-transmitted infection was highly possible. The specificity of the assay was 99.94%. For malaria 12,887 donors were at risk and 178 were confirmed positive. The specificity of the assays was 92.8%. Conclusion CD and malaria in non-endemic countries may represent a certain risk for blood transfusion. Switzerland chose a selective testing approach. The specificity of the assays is a crucial topic for this approach because it ensures a minimal loss of false-reactive donors and helps towards an easier counselling of implicated donors. PMID:27403088

  10. [SUVA (Swiss Accident Insurance Fund) and silicosis. Silicosis in Switzerland. Development of technological dust control].

    PubMed

    Bachofen, G

    1983-01-01

    In Switzerland the technical measures against quartz dust started in 1948 when wet drilling was compulsoryly introduced, initially in underground mining. The miners using the first wet drilling machines had serious problems with water, and only with the introduction of carriage drilling machines in 1963 did the method fully break through. Dust caused by blasting operations and by loading of the resultant material was limited by ventilation and sprinkling of water. In 1966 the first full-face cutting machines were used, and it was necessary to install a dust chamber behind the drill from which dust could be taken to a dust arrester. The problem of dust limitation when using boom cutters at sectional areas of more than 20 sq. meters without a pilot tunnel has not been resolved. Since 1970, dust in quarries and stone-cutter workshops has been successfully combated by the use of exhaust pumps in combination with filters. The use of quartz sand to clean metal pieces (sandblast) was forbidden in 1960. Today, materials of the same value, but quartz-free, are available. In foundries, dust production can be limited by continuous automation and installation of exhaust pumps in moulding units. For more than 30 years now the technical equipment has been available for successful prevention of quartz dust emissions. However, at some plants it is still difficult to persuade the personnel to use the protective equipment.

  11. Developing the Biomolecular Screening Facility at the EPFL into the Chemical Biology Screening Platform for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Turcatti, Gerardo

    2014-05-01

    The Biomolecular Screening Facility (BSF) is a multidisciplinary laboratory created in 2006 at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) to perform medium and high throughput screening in life sciences-related projects. The BSF was conceived and developed to meet the needs of a wide range of researchers, without privileging a particular biological discipline or therapeutic area. The facility has the necessary infrastructure, multidisciplinary expertise and flexibility to perform large screening programs using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and chemical collections in the areas of chemical biology, systems biology and drug discovery. In the framework of the National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) Chemical Biology, the BSF is hosting 'ACCESS', the Academic Chemical Screening Platform of Switzerland that provides the scientific community with chemical diversity, screening facilities and know-how in chemical genetics. In addition, the BSF started its own applied research axes that are driven by innovation in thematic areas related to preclinical drug discovery and discovery of bioactive probes.

  12. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Danuser, R; Vogt, H-R; Kaufmann, Th; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

    2009-03-01

    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined. In 5'059 sera of sheep from 382 herds, 503 sera of goats from 54 herds and 109 sera of alpacas and lamas from 53 herds, population prevalences of 16.1% (sheep), 25.4% (goats) and 4.6% (new world camelids), respectively, were found. In order to determine the source of infection, the serological reactions were further characterized by cross-neutralization against two pestiviruses representing the genotypes BVDV (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus)-1 and BDV (Border Disease Virus)-1. Based on the ratio of respective antibody titres, 56.1% of the infections in sheep were induced by a BDV-1, 12.9% by a BVDV-1 and 31.0% by an unresolved pestivirus. In goats, the corresponding proportions were 23.4%, 10.2% and 66.4%, respectively. In Alpacas and Lamas, the source of infection of 1 animal was BDV-1 and that of 4 seropositive animals remained unresolved. In view of the phylogenetic relationship between pestiviruses, the unresolved source of infection is most probably attributable to other pestivirus genotypes circulating in small ruminants and new world camelids. Due to the predominance of pestiviral genotypes other than BVDV-1, the risk of transmission of BVDV from persistently infected small ruminants and new world camelids to cattle appears to be moderate, apart from close direct contact in mixed animal husbandry, communal pasturing and grazing in the Alps.

  13. Characteristics of victims of violence admitted to a specialized medico-legal unit in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hofner, Marie-Claude; Burquier, Raphaelle; Huissoud, Thérèse; Romain, Nathalie; Graz, Bertrand; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-07-01

    To improve care and services to victims of interpersonal violence, a medico-legal consultation unit was set up at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 2006. Adult victims of violence are referred to the consultation by the emergency department. Patients are received by forensic nurses for support, forensic examination and community orientation. A descriptive study of medical reports filled for the 2006 population was conducted in 2007 with the aim to explore characteristics of this specific population and to better orient prevention. Among the 422 patients in 2006, 57% were men and 43% women, with a median age of 31 years old. Violent episodes took place in a public place for 90% of male victims and at home for 70% of female victims. The perpetrators were mostly unknown to male victims (62% of all men victims) and mostly known (usually the partner or a former partner) to female victims (90% of all women victims). For 80% of the women and 47% of the men, the violent event which brought them to the consultation, was not the first one. Because 90% of all patients under study were victimized by men., not only is it necessary to target prevention program to match the potential victims, prevention messages must also focus on potential offenders, especially on young men.

  14. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut.

  15. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Mazzi, Dominique; Bravin, Esther; Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert; Kuske, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers’ survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016) observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption. PMID:28208692

  16. Long-term population dynamics of phototrophic sulfur bacteria in the chemocline of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tonolla, Mauro; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Hahn, Dittmar

    2005-07-01

    Population analyses in water samples obtained from the chemocline of crenogenic, meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, in October for the years 1994 to 2003 were studied using in situ hybridization with specific probes. During this 10-year period, large shifts in abundance between purple and green sulfur bacteria and among different populations were obtained. Purple sulfur bacteria were the numerically most prominent phototrophic sulfur bacteria in samples obtained from 1994 to 2001, when they represented between 70 and 95% of the phototrophic sulfur bacteria. All populations of purple sulfur bacteria showed large fluctuations in time with populations belonging to the genus Lamprocystis being numerically much more important than those of the genera Chromatium and Thiocystis. Green sulfur bacteria were initially represented by Chlorobium phaeobacteroides but were replaced by Chlorobium clathratiforme by the end of the study. C. clathratiforme was the only green sulfur bacterium detected during the last 2 years of the analysis, when a shift in dominance from purple sulfur bacteria to green sulfur bacteria was observed in the chemocline. At this time, numbers of purple sulfur bacteria had decreased and those of green sulfur bacteria increased by about 1 order of magnitude and C. clathratiforme represented about 95% of the phototrophic sulfur bacteria. This major change in community structure in the chemocline was accompanied by changes in profiles of turbidity and photosynthetically available radiation, as well as for sulfide concentrations and light intensity. Overall, these findings suggest that a disruption of the chemocline in 2000 may have altered environmental niches and populations in subsequent years.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  18. Multidisciplinary Identification of the Controversial Freedom Fighter Jörg Jenatsch, Assassinated 1639 in Chur, Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Haeusler, Martin; Haas, Cordula; Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Villa, Igor M.; Walsh, Susan; Kayser, Manfred; Seiler, Roger; Ruehli, Frank; Janosa, Manuel; Papageorgopoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Jörg Jenatsch, a leading freedom fighter during the Thirty Year’s War in Graubünden, Switzerland, was assassinated on carnival 1639. Jenatsch’s controversial biography and the unclear circumstances of his death inspired the formation of various legends, novels and films. In 1959, a skeleton discovered in the cathedral of Chur with remains of wealthy baroque clothing was tentatively attributed to Jenatsch. Here, we reassess the skeleton based on a new exhumation. Our multidisciplinary analysis and the head injuries are consistent with reports of the eyewitnesses of the crime, demonstrating that Jenatsch was killed from behind with a semi-sharp implement, supposedly an axe, as well as by a blow with a broad-surfaced object. Moreover, our facial reconstruction closely matches an oil portrait of Jenatsch, and the HIrisPlex system applied to DNA-extracts from the femoral bone reveals brown eye and dark brown hair colour, which coincides well with the portrait, too. Finally, isotope analysis of the femoral bone and a molar support Jenatsch’s high social status, luxury diet and a high mobility in the last decade of his life. This multidisciplinary approach thus reinforces personal identification and provides additional insight into the life of this important historic person beyond written resources. PMID:28030571

  19. Randomized controlled clinical trial of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT III) in Switzerland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Schachinger, Hartmut; Hegar, Karin; Hermanns, Norbert; Straumann, Madeleine; Keller, Ulrich; Fehm-Wolfsdorf, Gabriele; Berger, Willi; Cox, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Although both diabetes and the efficacy of medical management are international issues, psycho-educational interventions might be culturally bound. Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT) is a psycho-educational program for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. A randomized controlled clinical trial of BGAT's long-term benefits in a non-American setting has been lacking. One hundred and eleven adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from Switzerland and Germany participated. After a 6 months baseline assessment, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 2 months of BGAT (n = 56) or a physician-guided self-help control intervention (n = 55). BGAT improved recognition of low (p = 0.008), high (p = .03), and overall blood glucose (p = 0.001), and reduced frequency of severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.04), without compromising metabolic control. BGAT reduced both the external locus of control (p < 0.02) and fear of hypoglycemia (p < 0.02). BGAT was efficacious in reducing adverse clinical events and achieving clinically desirable goals in a European, as well as American setting.

  20. Awareness of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Pregnant Women in Geneva, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Willame, Alexia; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Combescure, Christophe; Irion, Olivier; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). Methods: The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Conclusions: Most women are unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn. PMID:26633451

  1. Size-resolved trace metal characterization of aerosols emitted by four important source types in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerki, Peter R.; Gaelli, Brigitte C.; Nyffeler, Urs P.

    In central Switzerland five types of emission sources are mainly responsible for airborne trace metals: traffic, industrial plants burning heavy oil, resuspension of soil particles, residential heatings and refuse incineration plants. The particulate emissions of each of these source types except refuse incineration were sampled using Berner impactors and the mass and elemental size distributions of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na determined. Cd, Na and Zn are not characteristic for any of these source types. As and Cu, occurring in the fine particle fractions are characteristic for heavy oil combustion, Mn for soil dust and sometimes for heavy and fuel oil combustion and Pb for traffic aerosols. The mass size distributions of aerosols originating from erosion and abrasion processes show a maximum mass fraction in the coarse particle range larger than about 1 μm aerodynamic equivalent diameters (A.E.D.). Aerosols originating from combustion processes show a second maximum mass fraction in the fine particle range below about 0.5μm A.E.D. Scanning electron microscopy combined with an EDS analyzer was used for the morphological characterization of emission and ambient aerosols.

  2. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Stable isotope fractionation in speleothems as a proxy for subsurface environmental changes, Milchbach cave (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Smart, P. L.; Spötl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Recent modelling work concluded that stable isotope fractionation along speleothem growth layers is largely controlled by cave temperature and drip interval (e.g., Mühlinghaus et al. 2007, Romanov et al. 2008). The magnitude of isotope fractionation could, therefore, be used as a proxy of the subsurface depositional environment. Here, we present evidence of changing isotopic fractionation in speleothems from a periglacial karst system, which experienced drastic changes in cave ventilation and hydrology during the Holocene. Three coeval stalagmites were sampled from Milchbach cave (Switzerland) and U/Th-dated to between 2 and 8.6 ka. 2D mapping of stable isotopes reveals major changes in δ13C and δ18O along individual growth layers. These changes correlate noticeably with changes in the calcite fabric and speleothem growth rate suggesting that changes in drip rate were the predominant control, possibly related to fluctuations of the mass balance of the Upper Grindelwald Glacier. References: Mühlinghaus C., Scholz D., Mangini A., 2007. Modelling stalagmite growth and δ13C as a function of drip interval and temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71(11), 2780-2790. Romanov, D., Kaufmann, G., Dreybrodt, W., 2008. δ13C profiles along growth layers of stalagmites: Comparing theoretical and experimental results. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(2), 438-448.

  4. Environmental risk assessment for the galenical formulation of solid medicinal products at Roche Basle, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Corinne C; Dörr, Benno; Schlienger, Claude; Straubt, Jürg O

    2009-04-01

    An environmental risk assessment for losses to wastewater from galenical manufacturing at solid medicinal products at F. Hoffmann-La Roche in Basle, Switzerland, was performed based on an annual total materials balance. This balance resulted in a loss factor of 0.2% relative to the sum of all starting materials, which was later confirmed as valid by analysis for 1 specific active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The initial risk assessment for all 25 different APIs formulated resulted in no evident risk for the wastewater treatment plant, based on biodegradation no-effect data. However, based on acute ecotoxicity data, potential risk to the local receiving water, the River Rhine, was identified from 1 single API, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A refinement of the risk assessment for SMX, based on chronic ecotoxicity data, or the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), and documented sewage works degradability, or the predicted environmental concentration (PEC), led to a significant decrease of the initial PEC/PNEC ratio to well below 1. In view of this refinement, the final conclusion is that the galenical production investigated poses no significant risk to the environment.

  5. Timely Reporting and Interactive Visualization of Animal Health and Slaughterhouse Surveillance Data in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Muellner, Ulrich J.; Vial, Flavie; Wohlfender, Franziska; Hadorn, Daniela; Reist, Martin; Muellner, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The reporting of outputs from health surveillance systems should be done in a near real-time and interactive manner in order to provide decision makers with powerful means to identify, assess, and manage health hazards as early and efficiently as possible. While this is currently rarely the case in veterinary public health surveillance, reporting tools do exist for the visual exploration and interactive interrogation of health data. In this work, we used tools freely available from the Google Maps and Charts library to develop a web application reporting health-related data derived from slaughterhouse surveillance and from a newly established web-based equine surveillance system in Switzerland. Both sets of tools allowed entry-level usage without or with minimal programing skills while being flexible enough to cater for more complex scenarios for users with greater programing skills. In particular, interfaces linking statistical softwares and Google tools provide additional analytical functionality (such as algorithms for the detection of unusually high case occurrences) for inclusion in the reporting process. We show that such powerful approaches could improve timely dissemination and communication of technical information to decision makers and other stakeholders and could foster the early-warning capacity of animal health surveillance systems. PMID:26664974

  6. First anal intercourse and condom use among men who have sex with men in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balthasar, Hugues; Jeannin, André; Dubois-Arber, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the circumstances of first anal intercourse (FAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify factors associated with condom use at this event. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of MSM living in Switzerland (N = 2,200). Anonymous questionnaires were distributed using Swiss gay communication channels (newspapers, associations, websites) and gay bathhouses. We gathered data on age at FAI, age of the partner, degree of familiarity with him, place of first meeting, and sociodemographic indicators. We did not ask whether FAI was insertive, receptive, or both. Data were stratified by birth year classes (birth cohorts). The median age at FAI fell from 24.5 years among men born before 1965 to 20.0 years among those born between 1975 and 1984 (p < .001). In each birth cohort, between 20 and 30% reported a partner 10 years older or more. Of eight variables examined in multivariate analysis, two were positively associated with condom use: age of participants at FAI and low degree of familiarity between partners. Conversely, large age discrepancy between partners was negatively associated with condom use. In conclusion, our data showed that early initiation of anal intercourse and large age discrepancy were associated with risk taking: a pattern of initiation that may facilitate HIV transmission from older to younger cohorts of MSM. Since age at FAI is on the decrease, there is an urgent need to heighten awareness of prevention actions regarding sexual debut of MSM.

  7. Spectromicroscopy Mapping of Colloidal/Particulate Organic Matter in Lake Brienz, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Schäfer,T.; Chanudet, V.; Claret, F.; Filella, M.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), and {mu}-FTIR spectromicroscopy were used to map colloidal/particulate material in an ultra-oligotrophic lake, Lake Brienz, Switzerland, with a special focus on organic functionality. Within the statistical margin of error and the uncertainties arising from the representativeness of the results, the research reveals that organic material was associated with potassium-rich inorganic colloids present in surface and deep water (depths of 1 and 100 m, respectively), which indicates a vertical transfer of aggregates by sedimentation. Pure organic colloids could only be detected in surface waters. In addition, correlation map analysis of synchrotron-based {mu}-FTIR and carbon K-edge STXM spectromicroscopic data using spectra from the Luetschine and Aare Rivers as target spectra revealed spectral similarities with organic components from both tributary rivers in deeper regions (100 m) of the lake. The results prove that STXM and {mu}-FTIR can characterize colloidal and particulate organic material in low organic carbon systems.

  8. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work.

  9. Exploring the application of latent class cluster analysis for investigating pedestrian crash injury severities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Wu, Kun-Feng; Menendez, Monica

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in traffic safety analyses is the heterogeneous nature of safety data, due to the sundry factors involved in it. This heterogeneity often leads to difficulties in interpreting results and conclusions due to unrevealed relationships. Understanding the underlying relationship between injury severities and influential factors is critical for the selection of appropriate safety countermeasures. A method commonly employed to address systematic heterogeneity is to focus on any subgroup of data based on the research purpose. However, this need not ensure homogeneity in the data. In this paper, latent class cluster analysis is applied to identify homogenous subgroups for a specific crash type-pedestrian crashes. The manuscript employs data from police reported pedestrian (2009-2012) crashes in Switzerland. The analyses demonstrate that dividing pedestrian severity data into seven clusters helps in reducing the systematic heterogeneity of the data and to understand the hidden relationships between crash severity levels and socio-demographic, environmental, vehicle, temporal, traffic factors, and main reason for the crash. The pedestrian crash injury severity models were developed for the whole data and individual clusters, and were compared using receiver operating characteristics curve, for which results favored clustering. Overall, the study suggests that latent class clustered regression approach is suitable for reducing heterogeneity and revealing important hidden relationships in traffic safety analyses.

  10. European Seismic Risk Model Covering Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Nyst, M.; Onur, T.; Seneviratna, P.; Baca, A.; Sorby, A.

    2006-12-01

    A seismic risk model for Europe has been developed to assisted insurers and reinsurers in assessing their financial risk posed by earthquakes. This model was covers Italy and several countries in central Europe including Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Belgium. This presentation summarizes the methodology and data within the model and includes a discussion of the key results from the hazard and risk perspectives. The earthquake, risk-model framework has four components. First, the stochastic event set is determined, as well as its associated event probabilities. A ground-motion model including geotechnical data is added to complete the seismic hazard model. To determine risk, regional building vulnerability curves and a financial model are incorporated. An insurer property exposure database was developed to determine the insured seismic risk in these countries. Using this model, examination of resulting hazard maps (200, 475, 1000 and 2500 years) and of city-level, hazard-curves gives insight to the key drivers of risk across the region. Hazard de-aggregation allow for examination of key drivers of risk in terms of seismic sources, event magnitude and events types. Examination of loss costs for residential and commercial (short and mid-rise) structures gives insight into the risk perspective for these various lines of business. Finally, incorporation of the insurer property exposure allows for an examination of the insured risk across the region and between exposure concentrations including Rome, Zurich, Munich, Vienna and Brussels.

  11. Interprofessional collaboration and diabetes care in Switzerland: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Angélick; Morin, Diane; Henry, Valérie; Bize, Raphaël; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2017-02-28

    To face the increasing prevalence of diabetes in Switzerland, a cantonal programme has been implemented. One of its goals is to promote collaborative approaches among healthcare professionals (HCPs). The objectives of the current study were to examine HCPs' perceptions about the collaboration they experience in diabetes care and to determine whether perceptions differed among professional groups. A mixed-methods study was conducted. First, a total of 332 HCPs comprising diabetes specialists and non-specialists participated by completing a questionnaire on interprofessional collaboration. Focus groups were then led in order to deepen the understanding and complement the interpretation of quantitative results. Quantitative results showed a perception of a moderate level of collaboration. Mean scores for specialists were systematically worse than those of non-specialists and more prominently in the "level of conflict dimension," which means that specialists generally perceived a lower level of collaboration and a higher level of possible conflict associated with it. Qualitative results highlighted the vagueness in role definition and emphasised a form of reluctance by general physicians to collaborate with specialists, as the physicians felt that they were losing their responsibilities. The findings suggest that it is not the need to collaborate that encourages HCPs involved in collaborative schemes to desire or to know how to successfully initiate, promote, or conduct interprofessional collaboration. This study highlights the important perceptions about collaboration that could be taken into account when planning future collaborative programmes.

  12. A prototype platform for water resources monitoring and early recognition of critical droughts in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, M.; Bernhard, L.; Spirig, C.; Pfaundler, M.; Stahl, K.; Kruse, S.; Seidl, I.; Stähli, M.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years Switzerland has experienced some unprecedented drought situations. At a political level solutions have been requested for early recognition of hydrological droughts. A prototype information platform has been developed to guide water resources management during situations where water resources drop below critical levels. The development was steered by stakeholders from national administrations and different economic sectors. Since June 2013 the platform has presented daily updated real-time information on several drought indicators including precipitation, streamflow, lake levels, groundwater levels, soil moisture deficit, snow resources, dryness in forests and stream temperatures. For three basins, ensemble forecasts of runoff, soil moisture, snowpack and groundwater storage have been provided. Furthermore, a nationwide operational hydrological simulation at 600 × 600 m resolution gives indications on local water resources deficits. Information for each variable has been used to create automatic "awareness maps" for nine large regions. Three levels of information with increasing detail and complexity can be accessed by over 180 registered users. The operators of the platform give interpreted comments on the content of the platform each week-day. The test phase of the platform will last until the end of 2014.

  13. Health trends among drug users attending needle exchange programmes in Switzerland (1994-2000).

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, F; Morency, P; Geense, R; Huissoud, T; Dubois-Arber, F

    2006-05-01

    As a part of an assessment of the Swiss drug harm-reduction policy, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1994, 1996 and 2000 among attenders of all needle exchange programmes (NEP) in Switzerland to assess changes in specific aspects of their health related to drug use. Data were gathered in each NEP over one week, using a questionnaire completed partly with an interviewer and partly self administered. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic characteristics, drug consumption, risk, prevention behaviour and state of health. Over a 6-year period (1994-2000), the average age of NEP attenders rose by 4 years. The prevalence of reported HIV remained fairly stable at around 10%. Reported level of Hepatitis C prevalence was high (59%). Incidence of used injection equipment sharing during the last 6 months was low and stable (9% in 1994, 12% in 2000); however, other forms of risk behaviour linked to intravenous drug use, such as sharing spoons, cotton or water, were more frequently reported. The HIV epidemic among NEP attenders seems to be contained, but this is not the case with Hepatitis C, and more attention should be paid to its prevention.

  14. Typology of injection profiles of clients of a supervised drug consumption facility in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Arber, Françoise; Benninghoff, Fabienne; Jeannin, André

    2008-01-01

    The use of a supervised drug consumption room (DCR) in a newly established low threshold facility in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2002 is analyzed. Two sources of routine data were used: data collected at the first visit by any new client (entry questionnaire) which included some personal details, and data collected on the substances injected at each visit to the DCR. A typology of injection profiles was constructed. Overall, the mean number of injections and days of visits per client over the year was low and cocaine was the main substance injected. However, an important heterogeneity in the use of the DCR was found and five types of clients identified: 1-day clients; standard clients; heroin-oriented clients; high cocaine consumption clients, and newcomers. Typology was associated with some characteristics at the first visit and the drug consumption pattern in the month preceding the first visit was in accordance with the subsequent use of the DCR. This heterogeneity in the use of the DCR highlights the diverse roles of the DCRs in harm reduction.

  15. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Dominique; Bravin, Esther; Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert; Kuske, Stefan

    2017-02-08

    First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers' survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016) observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  16. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  17. Concentrations in ambient air and emissions of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Buser, Andreas M; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bogdal, Christian; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-07-02

    Tens of thousands of tonnes of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used each year globally, which leads to high and continuous cVMS emissions to air. However, field measurements of cVMS in air and empirical information about emission rates to air are still limited. Here we present measurements of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in air for Zurich, Switzerland. The measurements were performed in January and February 2011 over a period of eight days and at two sites (city center and background) with a temporal resolution of 6-12 h. Concentrations of D5 and D6 are higher in the center of Zurich and range from 100 to 650 ng m(-3) and from 10 to 79 ng m(-3), respectively. These values are among the highest levels of D5 and D6 reported in the literature. In a second step, we used a multimedia environmental fate model parametrized for the region of Zurich to interpret the levels and time trends in the cVMS concentrations and to back-calculate the emission rates of D5 and D6 from the city of Zurich. The average emission rates obtained for D5 and D6 are 120 kg d(-1) and 14 kg d(-1), respectively, which corresponds to per-capita emissions of 310 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D5 and 36 mg capita(-1) d(-1) for D6.

  18. [Occurrence of scrapie in Switzerland: an anonymous cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, L; Heim, D; Zurbriggen, A; Doherr, M G

    2001-11-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, which leads to neurological signs and ends with the death of the infected animal. In Switzerland only a few cases were reported since 1982. In 1999, a questionnaire survey was conducted to increase information about neurological diseases in sheep and goat breeding farms. The aim was to estimate the frequency of neurological disorders including Scrapie and to increase the disease awareness of sheep and goat breeders. The main goal of the study was to increase the reporting of suspect cases of Scrapie and its differential diagnoses. Out of a database of all registered farms with at least five breeding sheep or breeding goats a random sample of 4711 was drawn to which anonymous questionnaires were sent. The return rate was 36%. In a parallel study, 150 voluntarily participants were interviewed using the same questionnaire. The results of both parts of the survey coincided. For the years 1997 and 1998, on average 1.0% of the breeding sheep and breeding goats showed neurological signs. 7.7% of the breeders indicated to have observed animals with neurological symptoms in their flock. At the population level, a total of 1954-2336 animals with neurological signs are observed in 691-929 flocks. The minority is reported to the veterinary authorities.

  19. Motivation in medical education and patient communication. The EGPRN meeting in Zurich, Switzerland, October 2010.

    PubMed

    Rethans, Jan-Joost; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2011-06-01

    The European General Practice Research Network held an international research meeting on 'Motivation in medical education and patient communication' in Zürich, Switzerland, in October 2010. The two authors were keynote speakers, who introduced the theme from different angles and summarized and reflected on individual papers presented at the conference. The theme of the conference underlined the importance of communication in general practice and of motivation in medical education in particular. There were a variety of papers each addressing in its own way the topic of this meeting. We conclude that it is still uncommon to use psychological theories on motivation in research on motivation and patient communication in general practice/family medicine. Motivation and readiness to change are essential concepts in experimental health services research. Research designs increasingly follow the Framework for the Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Health Care as suggested by the British Medical Research Council. However, there are also difficulties related to classical experimental designs that have to be critically discussed.

  20. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S.; Forster, N.; Giovanoli, P.; Guggenheim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed. PMID:26668566

  1. Use-patterns of personal care and household cleaning products in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hidalgo, E; von Goetz, N; Siegrist, M; Hungerbühler, K

    2017-01-01

    Reliable consumer use data are needed to determine health risks posed by chemicals contained in household cleaning and personal care products. Essential information includes the amount of product applied, the frequency of use, and the site of application. To obtain such data, a survey was conducted in Switzerland to assess consumer usage patterns. The use-patterns of 12 household care products, 5 laundry products, and 22 personal care products were collected among the Swiss population (N = 759; ages 0-91) by postal questionnaire, providing for the first time in Europe comprehensive information regarding use of household cleaning and personal care products for the same study population. Apart from the investigation of use frequency, quantity, duration, and habits, also co-use analysis was performed separately for household and personal care products. Use-patterns are presented for both genders and all age groups, including children below the age of 12, who may be more vulnerable to adverse effects attributed to certain chemicals. Also, the currently missing use factors for cosmetic/baby wet wipes were assessed. Stratification of the data by gender, age and other socio-demographic factors, such as region affiliation, allowed us to identify differences between population sub-groups, emphasizing the need for region-specific exposure factors.

  2. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M

    2015-03-31

    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  3. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae infection and correlation with disease status in cats in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Glaus, T; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Greene, C; Glaus, B; Wolfensberger, C; Lutz, H

    1997-11-01

    The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzerland. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), or feline spumavirus (FeSFV), and the living environments of the cats. The seroprevalence in all cats was 8.3%. No significantly different prevalence was found in sick versus healthy cats (9.2 versus 7.2%); however, in sick cats seropositive for B. henselae, there was an increased frequency of stomatitis and a variety of diseases of the kidneys and the urinary tract. There was an increased prevalence of B. henselae in cats positive for FCoV (P = 0.0185) or FeSFV (P = 0.0235) and no statistically significant increased prevalence in cats infected with FeLV or FIV. There was no correlation between a positive titer and sex or breed. The same prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was found in cats with and without access to the outdoors and in cats from single- and multicat households. The seroprevalence was increased in cats living south of the Alps (12.1%); however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.0616).

  4. Climatic changes and anthropogenic pollution as evidenced by two Alpine lacustrine records, Switzerland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenon, Florian; Poté, John; Guédron, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Chiaradia, Massimo; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Spangenberg, Jorge; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to provide high-resolution records of climatic changes and human impacts on two different Alpine environments: Lake Lucerne is a large (114 km2) lake located at 434 m asl in Central Switzerland, whereas Meidsee is a small (<1 km2) remote lake located at 2661 m asl in the Southern Alps. Two short gravity cores (1.2 and 1.6 m) recovering the industrial history and the last millennia were sampled with a resolution of 1 cm, and investigated for organic (13δC, 15δN, C/N) and/or inorganic (δ13C, δ18O) matter contents, and elemental composition (REE compositions, trace elements, and heavy metals). Both sites exhibit 1) rapid hydrological changes related to variations in winter precipitations, and 2) increases in atmospheric pollution due to human activities. Lead enrichment factors combined to changes in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb ratio) are used to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources. The greatest mercury and lead atmospheric emissions occurred during the twentieth century, resulting from the extensive combustion of fossil coal and petroleum in Europe. Although the highest heavy metals fluxes are synchronous with major anthropogenic changes (e.g. Roman mining, industrial revolution), proxies show that in absence of such events, the heavy metals deposition in the sedimentary records is primarily influenced by sedimentological processes linked to climate variations (i.e. runoff and erosion processes).

  5. Change of direction of overthrust shear in the Helvetic nappes of western Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diftrich, Dorothee; Durney, David W.

    The lowest of the Helvetic nappes in western Switzerland, the Morcles and the Doldenhorn nappes, are large-scale recumbent folds in equivalent tectonic positions in the Alpine chain. A comparison of the orientations of stretching lineations in both nappes shows that the lineations in the two stratigraphically normal sequences trend N-S, whereas those in the two stratigraphically inverted sequences trend NW-SE. A similar geometrical relationship has been found from an analysis of the calcite c-axis directions of these limestones: the two normal sequences show NW-SE directed c-axes, whereas the two inverted sequences show W-E directed c-axes. These observations lead to the following conclusions: (1) Regionally consistent shear movements occurred over a strike distance of more than 60 km, and these gave rise to similar deformation patterns in both nappes. (2) A progressive rotation of these shear movements from a northerly direction in the earlier-formed limbs to northwesterly in the later-formed inverted limbs can be deduced. The finite-strain stretching lineations lag behind the crystallographic fabric axes formed in the later part of the deformation history.

  6. a Database for the Architectural Heritage Recovery Between Italy and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, I.; Del Giudice, M.; Zerbinatti, M.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show some results coming from the international Interreg-AlpStone project, a research whose main aim is the protection and valorisation of a rural Cultural Heritage, theme of recent growing interest. In particular the background of this contribute is the traditional stone architecture placed in the territory between Italy and Switzerland, while into the foreground is put the method to right document, archive and analyse information about the objects of study. The response comes from BIM technologies (acronym of Building Information Modeling) which objective is the creation of a dynamical and interoperable system allowing the share of information through a unique database. If these methods have been largely employed on new constructions, they still haven't been enough tested on the field of historical architecture. In order to fill this gap, the paper suggest a method leading to the creation of a Cultural Heritage information system, which arise during the survey phase and continue through the detection of different building information, the proposal of recovery solutions, the asset georeferentiation on the territory and finally the moment of sharing information on a web platform. The creation of an architectural database is made possible by a survey based on point clouds. The latter constitute then the input data for the creation of a 3D model made with a parametric software allowing the increase of various kind of information. The future work plans will complete this project by locating the Cultural Heritage models on a webGIS.

  7. Molecular characterization of endolithic cyanobacteria inhabiting exposed dolomite in central Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sigler, William V; Bachofen, Reinhard; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-07-01

    The phototrophic microbial community inhabiting exposed dolomite in the alpine Piora Valley (Switzerland) forms a distinct endolithic bilayer that features adjacent red dolomite (exterior) and green dolomite (interior) layers that are c. 0.5-1 mm below the rock surface. Characterization of the community, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria, was conducted with culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Direct microscopy of green dolomite revealed four distinct morphotypes consistent with Chlorophyta genera Chlorella and Stichococcus and the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc and Calothrix, whereas only Stichococcus and Nostoc were observed in the red dolomite. Enrichment in BG-11 media resulted in the growth of Chlorella and Stichococcus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of DNA extracted from the enrichment revealed two dominant phylotypes with sequence similarity to Chlorella osrokiniana chloroplast and the cyanobacteria genus Leptolyngbya. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis of DNA extracted directly from both layers indicated that although both layers harboured phylotypes most similar to the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc, Chroococcidiopsis, and Microcoleus, and the Chlorophyte Stichococcus bacillaris, the two layers also harboured unique genera such as Scytonema, and Symploca (red, external layer of dolomite) and Chlorella (green, internal layer of dolomite). The unique community structure of each layer suggests a selection process directed by the pressures of the endolithic environment. We conclude that the overall composition of the phototrophic community closely resembles that of endolithic communities located in extreme habitats, suggesting that a cosmopolitan community inhabits this defined niche.

  8. AgS2O6CF3: the first trifluoromethylsulfonylsulfate(VI).

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Derzsi, Mariana; Grochala, Wojciech

    2013-08-07

    We describe the synthetic route towards a novel class of salts, trifluoromethylsulfonylsulfates, as exemplified by the silver(I) derivative (AgS2O6CF3). Formation proceeds via direct reaction between a triflate precursor, AgSO3CF3, and SO3. The title compound crystallizes in the P2(1)/c unit cell with a = 5.15746(14) Å, b = 25.8563(9) Å, c = 5.53970(14) Å and β = 101.1749(19)°. The structure is layered with the puckered [AgS2O6] 2D sheets; the terminal CF3 groups are separated by the van der Waals gap, as seen also for related metal triflates. The compound is very fragile thermally and it decomposes endothermally to AgSO3CF3 with concomitant evolution of SO3 even at 65 °C or upon grinding in an agate mortar; thus it may serve as a solid store of--otherwise volatile and corrosive--SO3. The IR and Raman spectra of AgS2O6CF3 have been tentatively assigned based on similarities to those of related Ag2S2O7 and AgSO3CF3 and phonon calculations. Synthesis and properties of KS2O6CF3 are also briefly described.

  9. On the measurement of /sup 107/Ag//sup 109/Ag ratios in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Fortuna, G.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of stable Ag isotopes in meteorites at the ppB level was attempted in an AMS experiment using the Munich MP tandem accelerator in conjunction with a time-of-flight detection system. The sensitivity of detecting Ag at this level was established by observing a counting rate of 17 ions of /sup 107/Ag per sec from a Au sample, which had been spiked with the radioisotope /sup 105/Ag (T/sub 1/2/ = 41 d) at a concentration of 1.0 ppB. A blank Ta sample gave no /sup 105/Ag counts in 13 min, which corresponds to a detection limit of 7.5 x 10/sup -5/ ppB. Although this sensitivity was clearly sufficient to perform /sup 107/Ag and /sup 109/Ag measurements in the desired concentration range, experiments with these isotopes were hampered by a currently irreducable background of stable Ag in the ppM range, possibly originating from the ion source itself. Indications of extraordinarily high Ag concentrations, far above this background, were observed in some of the investigated meteorites, but conclusions on their actual existence must await a better understanding of the origin of the general Ag background. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  11. Hierarchically plasmonic photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl nanocrystals coupled with single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Li, Tao; Chen, Qianqian; Gao, Jiabing; Fan, Bingbing; Li, Jian; Li, Xinjian; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2012-08-01

    The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in situ. WO3 nanocrystals with various shapes (i.e., nanoplates, nanorods, and nanoparticles) were used as the substrates to synthesize Ag/AgCl@WO3 photocatalysts, and the effects of the WO3 contents and photoreduction times on their visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance were investigated. The techniques of TEM, SEM, XPS, EDS, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and UV-vis DR spectra were used to characterize the compositions, phases and microstructures of the samples. The RhB aqueous solutions were used as the model system to estimate the photocatalytic performance of the as-obtained Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures under visible light (λ >= 420 nm) and sunlight. The results indicated that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalyst has a higher photodegradation rate than Ag/AgCl, AgCl, AgCl@WO3 and TiO2 (P25). The contents and morphologies of the WO3 substrates in the Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalysts have important effects on their photocatalytic performance. The related mechanisms for the enhancement in visible-light-driven photodegradation of RhB molecules were analyzed.The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in

  12. The AGS with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2010-02-25

    The idea of using multiple partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron, to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This modification provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. First, it provides a larger 'spin tune gap' for the placement of the vertical betatron tune of the AGS during acceleration, second, the vertical spin direction during the beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, third, the symmetric placement of the snakes allows for a better control of the AGS optics, and for reduced values of the beta and eta functions, especially near injection, fourth, the optical properties of the helical magnets also favor the placement of the horizontal betatron tune in the 'spin tune gap', thus eliminating the horizontal spin resonances. In this paper we provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and we compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  13. Ion-exchange synthesis of Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 ternary hollow microspheres with efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chaosheng; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Zhudong; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2014-02-21

    Ternary Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microspheres were synthesized via an in situ ion-exchange method using Cu7S4 hollow submicrospheres as the template. The as-obtained Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 composite exhibited a well-defined uniform hollow microsphere morphology with an average diameter of about 1.3 μm. The photocatalytic property of the as-prepared Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microsphere composite was investigated by the decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the Ag/Ag2S/Ag3CuS2 hollow microsphere was higher than those of Ag/Ag2S, Cu2O, Cu7S4 and P25 for the photodegradation of MO under visible light irradiation. Radical scavenger experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals and holes were the main reactive species for MO degradation.

  14. Agent planning in AgScala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  15. SPIN MATCHING FROM AGS TO RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    MACKAY,W.W.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2002-11-06

    With a partial Siberian snake in the AGS and transport lines with interspersed horizontal and vertical bends, the incoming spin direction at the injection points of both the collider rings is not likely to match the ideal vertical stable spin direction of RHIC which has two full helical Siberian snakes per ring. In this paper we examine the matching of a polarized beam transferred from the AGS into RHIC. The present 5% partial solenoidal snake as well as a proposed 20% superconducting helical are considered for the AGS. Solutions with retuned snakes in RHIC to better match the incoming beam have been found.

  16. Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO2 and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Penko; Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya; Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Kumar, Narendra; Sarker, Dipak K; Pishev, Dimitar; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2010-12-15

    Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO(2) sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm(-1)) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag(+), instead of Na(+), Ca(2+), or K(+) ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO(2) and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

  17. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  18. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  19. Differences in experiences in rockfall hazard mapping in Switzerland and Principality of Andorra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbruzzese, J.; Labiouse, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need to cope with rockfall hazard and risk led many countries to adopt proper strategies for hazard mapping and risk management, based on their own social and political constraints. The experience of every single country in facing this challenge provides useful information and possible approaches to evaluate rockfall hazard and risk. More, with particular regard to the hazard mapping process, some important points are common to many methodologies in Europe, especially as for the use of rock fall intensity-frequency diagrams to define specific hazard levels. This aspect could suggest a starting point for comparing and possibly harmonising existing methodologies. On the other hand, the results obtained from methodologies used in different countries may be difficult to be compared, first because the existing national guidelines are established as a consequence of what has been learned in each country from dealing with past rockfall events. Particularly, diverse social and political considerations do influence the definition of the threshold values of the parameters which determine a given degree of hazard, and eventually the type of land-use accepted for each hazard level. Therefore, a change in the threshold values for rockfall intensity and frequency is already enough to produce completely different zoning results even if the same methodology is applied. In relation with this issue, the paper introduces some of the current challenges and difficulties in comparing hazard mapping results in Europe and, subsequently, in the chance to develop a common standard procedure to assess the rockfall hazard. The present work is part of an on-going research project whose aim is to improve methodologies for rockfall hazard and risk mapping at the local scale, in the framework of the European Project "Mountain Risks: from prediction to management and governance", funded by the European Commission. As a reference, two approaches will be considered, proposed in Switzerland and

  20. Flood triggering in Switzerland: the role of daily to monthly preceding precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, P.; Schwanbeck, J.; Weingartner, R.; Chevalier, C.; Martius, O.

    2015-09-01

    Determining the role of different precipitation periods for peak discharge generation is crucial for both projecting future changes in flood probability and for short- and medium-range flood forecasting. In this study, catchment-averaged daily precipitation time series are analyzed prior to annual peak discharge events (floods) in Switzerland. The high number of floods considered - more than 4000 events from 101 catchments have been analyzed - allows to derive significant information about the role of antecedent precipitation for peak discharge generation. Based on the analysis of precipitation times series, a new separation of flood-related precipitation periods is proposed: (i) the period 0 to 1 day before flood days, when the maximum flood-triggering precipitation rates are generally observed, (ii) the period 2 to 3 days before flood days, when longer-lasting synoptic situations generate "significantly higher than normal" precipitation amounts, and (iii) the period from 4 days to 1 month before flood days when previous wet episodes may have already preconditioned the catchment. The novelty of this study lies in the separation of antecedent precipitation into the precursor antecedent precipitation (4 days before floods or earlier, called PRE-AP) and the short range precipitation (0 to 3 days before floods, a period when precipitation is often driven by one persistent weather situation like e.g., a stationary low-pressure system). A precise separation of "antecedent" and "peak-triggering" precipitation is not attempted. Instead, the strict definition of antecedent precipitation periods permits a direct comparison of all catchments. The precipitation accumulating 0 to 3 days before an event is the most relevant for floods in Switzerland. PRE-AP precipitation has only a weak and region-specific influence on flood probability. Floods were significantly more frequent after wet PRE-AP periods only in the Jura Mountains, in the western and eastern Swiss plateau, and at

  1. Flood triggering in Switzerland: the role of daily to monthly preceding precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froidevaux, P.; Schwanbeck, J.; Weingartner, R.; Chevalier, C.; Martius, O.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the role of different precipitation periods for peak discharge generation is crucial for both projecting future changes in flood probability and for short- and medium-range flood forecasting. We analyze catchment-averaged daily precipitation time series prior to annual peak discharge events (floods) in Switzerland. The high amount of floods considered - more than 4000 events from 101 catchments have been analyzed - allows to derive significant information about the role of antecedent precipitation for peak discharge generation. Based on the analysis of precipitation times series, we propose a new separation of flood-related precipitation periods: (i) the period 0 to 1 day before flood days, when the maximum flood-triggering precipitation rates are generally observed, (ii) the period 2 to 3 days before flood days, when longer-lasting synoptic situations generate "significantly higher than normal" precipitation amounts, and (iii) the period from 4 days to one month before flood days when previous wet episodes may have already preconditioned the catchment. The novelty of this study lies in the separation of antecedent precipitation into the precursor antecedent precipitation (4 days before floods or earlier, called PRE-AP) and the short range precipitation (0 to 3 days before floods, a period when precipitation is often driven by one persistent weather situation like e.g. a stationary low-pressure system). Because we consider a high number of events and because we work with daily precipitation values, we do not separate the "antecedent" and "peak-triggering" precipitation. The whole precipitation recorded during the flood day is included in the short-range antecedent precipitation. The precipitation accumulating 0 to 3 days before an event is the most relevant for floods in Switzerland. PRE-AP precipitation has only a weak and region-specific influence on flood probability. Floods were significantly more frequent after wet PRE-AP periods only in the Jura

  2. Impacts of the November 2014 extreme rainfall event in Ticino, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Matasci, Battista; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The 2-17th November, a meteorological block in the south of the Alps produced record rain precipitations in the North of Italy and in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland. During those fifteen days, the rain quantity was three to five times higher than the November average monthly rain. The Lugano meteorological station recorded a new precipitation record with 538 mm during this period. During this event, the rainfall triggered many landslides and floods. Four people died in two different events 11 km apart. In the first case, a two-storey house, located in a large wooded area 10 km West of Lugano, was destroyed by a 1'000 m3 landslide composed of mud, trees and rock masses which flew over 150 meters on November 5th 2014. The two occupants, a mother and her three years old daughter, were killed. The second event occurred in an urban area of the Lugano agglomeration where a wall, weakened by the heavy rainfalls, located 50 m away and above a three-storey apartment building broke, releasing 500 m3 to 1'000 m3 of muddy material. Besides two fatalities, one man was seriously injured, three persons were slightly injured and one person kept uninjured. Concerning the transportation network, more than twenty roads and railways were blocked by landslides, floods and rockfalls. Some of them were closed over one month. The two secondary roads to Arogno and Rovio villages were blocked by landslides. The only asphalted access to those villages was a 45 km deviation of more than one hour travel time through Italy. Two hamlets a couple of kilometers away were isolated by a landslide. The only access was by boat from the lake. Two main roads and one railway along the Lake Maggiore and the Tresa River taken by Italian cross-border commuters who work in Switzerland were cut by floods and landslides generating economic and societal inconveniences. The two main lakes of the canton of Ticino -lakes Maggiore and Lugano- reached their maximum flood level. In Locarno, the 3rd biggest city of

  3. Epidemiology and direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Kurt; Golder, Matthias; Greiner, Roger

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the hospitalization incidence and the total number of hospital days related to all fractures and osteoporotic fractures in the year 2000 in Switzerland and to compare these with data from other frequent disorders in men and women. The official administrative and medical statistics database of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics (SFOS) from the year 2000 was used. It covered 81.2% of all registered patient admissions and was considered to be representative of the entire population. We included the ICD-10 codes of 84 diagnoses that were compatible with an underlying osteoporosis and applied the best matching age-specific osteoporosis attribution rates published for the ICD-9 diagnosis codes to the individual ICD-10 codes. To preserve comparability with previously published data from 1992, we grouped the data related to the ICD-10 fracture codes into seven diagnosis pools (fractures of the axial skeleton, fractures of the proximal upper limbs, fractures of the distal upper limbs, fractures of the proximal lower limbs, fractures of the distal lower limbs, multiple fractures, and osteoporosis) and analyzed them separately for women and men by age group. Incidences of hospitalization due to fractures were calculated, and the direct medical costs related to hospitalization were estimated. In addition, we compared the results with those from chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), stroke, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes and breast carcinoma from the same database. In Switzerland during 2000, 62,535 hospitalizations for fractures (35,586 women and 26,949 men) were registered. Fifty-one percent of all fractures in women and 24% in men were considered as osteoporotic. The overall incidences of hospitalization due to fractures were 969 and 768 per 100,000 in women and men, respectively. The hospitalization incidences for fractures of the proximal lower limbs and the axial skeleton increased exponentially after

  4. Effects of Ag on the Kirkendall void formation of Sn-xAg/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Yu, Jin

    2010-10-01

    Binary Sn-Ag solders with varying amounts of Ag (0.5, 2.0, and 3.5 wt %) were reacted with Cu under bump metallurgy (UBM) which was electroplated with bis-sodium sulfopropyl-disulfide additive, and the characteristics of Kirkendall void formation at the solder joints were investigated. The results indicate that the propensity to form Kirkendall voids at the solder joint decreased with the Ag content. Subsequent Auger electron spectroscopy analyses showed that Ag dissolved in the Cu UBM reduced the segregation of S to the Cu3Sn/Cu interface, which suppressed the nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the interface.

  5. Nanoporous Ag prepared from the melt-spun Cu-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijing; Song, Xiaoping; Sun, Zhanbo; Yang, Shengchun; Ding, Bingjun; Yang, Sen; Yang, Zhimao; Wang, Fei

    2011-07-01

    Nanoporous Ag ribbons with different morphology and porosity were achieved by the electrochemical corrosion of the melt-spun Cu-Ag alloys. The Cu-rich phase in the alloys was removed, resulting in the formation of the nanopores distributed across the whole ribbon. It is found that the structures, morphology and porosity of the nanoporous Ag ribbons were dependent on the microstructures of the parent alloys. The most of ligaments presented a rod-like shape due to the formation of pseudoeutectic microstructure in the melt-spun Cu 55Ag 45 and Cu 70Ag 30 alloys. For nanoporous Ag prepared from Cu 85Ag 15 alloys, the ligaments were camber-like because of the appearance of the divorced microstructures. Especially, a novel bamboo-grove-like structure could be observed at the cross-section of the nanoporous Ag ribbons. The experiment reveals that nanoporous Ag ribbons exhibited excellent enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect, but a slight difference existed due to the discrepancy of their morphology.

  6. Joint seismic, hydrogeological, and geomechanical investigations of a fracture zone in the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Myer, L.R.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Martel, S.J. ); Bluemling, P.; Vomvoris, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. From 1987 to 1989 the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Swiss Cooperative for the Storage of Nuclear Waste (Nagra) participated in an agreement to carryout experiments for understanding the effect of fractures in the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. As part of this joint work field and laboratory experiments were conducted at a controlled site in the Nagra underground Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The primary goal of these experiments in this fractured granite was to determine the fundamental nature of the propagation of seismic waves in fractured media, and to relate the seismological parameters to the hydrological parameters. The work is ultimately aimed at the characterization and monitoring of subsurface sites for the storage of nuclear waste. The seismic experiments utilizes high frequency (1000 to 10,000 Hertz) signals in a cross-hole configuration at scales of several tens of meters. Two-, three-, and four-sided tomographic images of the fractures and geologic structure were produced from over 60,000 raypaths through a 10 by 21 meter region bounded by two nearly horizontal boreholes and two tunnels. Intersecting this region was a dominant fracture zone which was the target of the investigations. In addition to these controlled seismic imaging experiments, laboratory work using core from this region were studied for the relation between fracture content, saturation, and seismic velocity and attenuation. In-situ geomechanical and hydrologic tests were carried out to determine the mechanical stiffness and conductivity of the fractures. 20 refs., 90 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Organic UV filters in personal care products in Switzerland: a survey of occurrence and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hauri, Urs; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are a group of compounds designed to absorb UV radiation and hence protect our skin against UV-induced damage. Apart from traditional sunscreens, they can be found in many other categories of personal care products (PCPs). These include skin care, facial makeup and lip care products, which are often used simultaneously, and on a regular basis. The frequency of occurrence as well as concentrations of organic UV filters contained in PCPs change over time. Furthermore, in Switzerland the exact UV filter concentrations are confidential. To date, only limited data are available for the levels of organic UV filters in PCPs, and these data refer mainly to sunscreens. In this paper, we provide an up-to-date frequency of occurrence and concentrations of organic UV filters in PCPs, including for the first time PCPs used in everyday life. A total of 116 PCPs was selected on the basis of a product-use questionnaire and distributed among seven PCP categories: lip care products, lipsticks, face creams, liquid makeup foundations, aftershaves, hand creams, and sunscreens. Concentrations of 22 organic UV filters were measured in the selected PCPs. The most frequently occurring UV filters were butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM) detected in 82 products (71%), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) in 59 products (51%) and octocrylene (OCT) in 50 products (43%). BMBM, EHMC and OCT concentrations averaged 2.6%, 4.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. Overall, UV filter concentrations in PCPs applied regularly throughout the year can be as high as those in sunscreens that are primarily used for sun protection and hence applied only on selected days. PCPs that are used on a regular basis, and often simultaneously, thus represent an important and, as yet, unquantified source of UV filter exposure. This study provides essential information for aggregate exposure assessments that combine data on concentrations of individual UV filters widely used in a variety of PCP

  8. Intensity, frequency and spatial configuration of winter temperature inversions in the closed La Brevine valley, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitasse, Yann; Klein, Geoffrey; Kirchner, James W.; Rebetez, Martine

    2016-09-01

    Some of the world's valleys are famous for having particularly cold microclimates. The La Brevine valley, in the Swiss Jura Mountains, holds the record for the lowest temperature ever measured in an inhabited location in Switzerland. We studied cold air pools (CAPs) in this valley during the winter of 2014-2015 using 44 temperature data loggers distributed between 1033 and 1293 m asl. Our goals were to (i) describe the climatic conditions under which CAPs form in the valley, (ii) examine the spatial configuration and the temperature structure of the CAPs and (iii) quantify how often temperature inversions occur in winter using long-term series of temperature from the valley floor. Our results show that CAPs occurred every second night, on average, during the winter of 2014-2015 and were typically formed under cloudless, windless and high-pressure conditions. Strong temperature inversions up to 28 °C were detected between the valley floor and the surrounding hills. The spatial temperature structure of the CAPs varies among the different inversion days, with the upper boundary of the cold pool generally situated at about 1150 m asl. Although mean temperatures have increased in this area over the period 1960-2015 in connection with climate change, the occurrences of extreme cold temperatures did not decrease in winter and are highly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic indices. This suggests that CAPs in sheltered valleys are largely decoupled from the free atmosphere temperature and will likely continue to occur in the next decades under warmer conditions.

  9. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.

  10. Surface ice motion deviating toward the margins during speed-up events at Gornergletscher, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, S.; Bauder, A.; Riesen, P.; Funk, M.

    2010-09-01

    High frequency ice flow measurements during speed-up events in Gornergletscher, Switzerland, revealed intriguing ice motion which has never been reported in detail before. During the summer 2005, more than a 100% flow speed increase was observed three times at four GPS stations installed across Gornergletscher. The speed-ups were accompanied by a decimeter scale surface uplift. Two of the events were triggered by intensive surface melt and rainfall, while the third one was due to the outburst of Gornersee, a glacier-dammed lake located 2 km upglacier. An interesting observation was ice motion deviating toward the side margins during the events. As the glacier accelerated, a transverse (cross glacier) velocity component was generated, turning the flow direction away from the central flow line toward the margins. When the glacier decelerated, the transverse velocity component reversed so that the ice flowed back to the azimuth of the initial flow direction. In the most significant case, the trajectory of the survey stake deviated from the original track by 0.2 m in the transverse direction. We hypothesize that the observed lateral ice motion was caused by locally elevated subglacial water pressure. When the ice sole decoupled from the bed at a part of the glacier, a point source of vertical displacement was transmitted to the surface through viscous ice. This caused the transverse as well as vertical surface motion, as observed in ground motion during magma intrusion. The hypothesis was tested with a two-dimensional ice flow model applied to the transverse glacier cross section. The model confirmed that the surface ice would move toward the margins as observed in Gornergletscher, if subglacial water pressure exceeded the ice overburden pressure over a limited part of the bed.

  11. Space-time clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland: A nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Kreis, Christian; Grotzer, Michael; Hengartner, Heinz; Spycher, Ben Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The aetiology of childhood cancers remains largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that infections may be involved and that mini-epidemics thereof could result in space-time clustering of incident cases. Most previous studies support spatio-temporal clustering for leukaemia, while results for other diagnostic groups remain mixed. Few studies have corrected for uneven regional population shifts which can lead to spurious detection of clustering. We examined whether there is space-time clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland identifying cases diagnosed at age <16 years between 1985 and 2010 from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Knox tests were performed on geocoded residence at birth and diagnosis separately for leukaemia, acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL), lymphomas, tumours of the central nervous system, neuroblastomas and soft tissue sarcomas. We used Baker's Max statistic to correct for multiple testing and randomly sampled time-, sex- and age-matched controls from the resident population to correct for uneven regional population shifts. We observed space-time clustering of childhood leukaemia at birth (Baker's Max p = 0.045) but not at diagnosis (p = 0.98). Clustering was strongest for a spatial lag of <1 km and a temporal lag of <2 years (Observed/expected close pairs: 124/98; p Knox test = 0.003). A similar clustering pattern was observed for ALL though overall evidence was weaker (Baker's Max p = 0.13). Little evidence of clustering was found for other diagnostic groups (p > 0.2). Our study suggests that childhood leukaemia tends to cluster in space-time due to an etiologic factor present in early life.

  12. Post-glacial rock avalanches in the Obersee Valley, Glarner Alps, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelisen, Jan; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christoph; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The geological record of prehistoric rock avalanches provides invaluable data for assessing the hazard posed by these rare but destructive mass movements. Here we investigate two large rock avalanches in the Obersee valley of the Glarner Alps, Switzerland, providing detailed mapping of landslide and related Quaternary phenomena, revised volume estimates for each event, and surface exposure dating of rock avalanche deposits. The Rautispitz rock avalanche originated from the southern flank of the Obersee valley, releasing approximately 91 million m3 of limestone on steeply-dipping bedding planes. Debris had maximum horizontal travel distance of ~ 5000 m, a fahrboeschung angle (relating fall height to length) of 18°, and was responsible for the creation of Lake Obersee; deposits are more than 130 m thick in places. The Platten rock avalanche encompassed a source volume of 11 million m3 sliding from the northern flank of the Obersee valley on similar steeply-dipping limestone beds (bedrock forms a syncline under the valley). Debris had a maximum horizontal travel distance of 1600 m with a fahrboeschung angle of 21°, and is more than 80 m thick in places. Deposits of the Platten rock avalanche are superposed atop those from the Rautispitz event at the end of the Obersee valley where they dam Lake Haslensee. Runout for both events was simulated using the dynamic analysis code DAN3D; results showed excellent match to mapped deposit extents and thickness and helped confirm the hypothesized single-event failure scenarios. 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of 13 deposited boulders revealed a Younger Dryas age of 12.6 ± 1.0 ka for the Rautispitz rock avalanche and a mid-Holocene age of 6.1 ± 0.8 ka for the Platten rock avalanche. A seismological trigger is proposed for the former event due to potentially correlated turbidite deposits in nearby Lake Zurich.

  13. Analysis of personal and bedroom exposure to ELF-MFs in children in Italy and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Struchen, Benjamin; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Gängler, Stephanie; Ravazzani, Paolo; Röösli, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the real everyday exposure of children in Europe to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs). The aims of this study are to (i) assess personal ELF-MF exposure in children; (ii) to identify factors determining personal and bedroom ELF-MF exposure measurements in children; (iii) to evaluate the reproducibility of exposure summary measures; and (iv) to compare personal with bedroom measurements. In Switzerland and Italy, 172 children aged between 5 and 13 years were equipped with ELF-MF measurement devices (EMDEX II, measuring 40-800 Hz) during 24-72 h twice, in the warm and the cold season. In addition, 24-h measurements were taken in the bedroom of children. In our study, sample geometric mean ELF-MF exposure was 0.04 μT for personal and 0.05 μT for bedroom measurements. Living within 100 m of a highest voltage power line increased geometric mean personal exposure by a factor of 3.3, and bedroom measurements by a factor 6.8 compared to a control group. Repeated measurements within the same subject showed high reproducibility for the geometric mean (Spearman's correlation 0.78 for personal and 0.86 for bedroom measurements) but less for the 95th and 99th percentile of the personal measurements (≤0.42). Spearman's correlation between bedroom and personal exposure was 0.86 for the geometric mean but considerably lower for the 95th and 99th percentiles (≤0.60). Most previous studies on ELF-MF childhood leukaemia used mean bedroom exposure. Our study demonstrates that geometric mean bedroom measurements is well correlated with personal geometric mean exposure, and has high temporal reproducibility.

  14. Basal ice flow regime influenced by glacial lake formation in Rhonegletscher, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Sugiyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    After the retreat of glacier terminus over a bedrock bump, a glacial lake has formed in front of Rhonegletscher, Switzerland. It is suspected that ice flow regime is now significantly influenced by the lake water. To investigate the impact of lake formation on glacier dynamics, we carried out surface and borehole observations in the terminus region of Rhonegletscher. In 2008 and 2009 summer seasons, we drilled more than 20 boreholes to measure borehole deformation by repeated inclinometry. Ice surface speed was measured by surveying stakes installed nearby the boreholes. We used a borehole televiewer to measure basal sliding speed by tracking stones and markers at the bottom of the boreholes. We also measured basal sediment layer thickness by hammering a penetrometer at the bottom of the boreholes. Our measurements showed clear decrease in the ice deformation rate near the lake (Fig. 1). Ice deformation accounted for 60-80% in the upper part of our study site (e.g. boreholes 1 and 5), whereas it is less than 10% near the lake (e.g. boreholes 7, 10 and 11). This result suggests that the basal ice flow near the lake is enhanced by the lake water. According to the basal sliding speed measurement in borehole 2, sliding accounted for less than 10% of basal flow speed from 2 to 31 August 2009. Deformation of a subglacial sediment layer is thus important in this region. The penetrometer measurement confirmed that the study site is underlain by a subglacial sediment layer whose thickness was in a range of 0-70 m. Fig.1 Terminus of Rhonegletscher and proglacial lakes indicated by the shaded areas. The columns show ice surface and deformation speeds measured at each borehole site from 9 July to 5 September in 2009. Ice deformation speed was negligibly small at boreholes 7, 10, and 11. Surface contour spacing is 20 m.

  15. Feeding practice and influence on selected blood parameters in show jumping horses competing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brunner, J; Liesegang, A; Weiss, S; Wichert, B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional management of show jumping horses in practice with recommendations from the literature. Additionally, the effects of these feeding practices on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise were studied. Blood samples were collected in the field from 27 different horses at 71 trials on the level M1 to S2 show jumping competitions in Switzerland and questionnaires on feeding practice of the studied horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training and on tournament days horses received on average 3.1 kg of concentrate per day (min. 2.0 kg, max. 6.6 kg) divided into two to three meals. The horses were fed on average 6.9 kg of roughage per day (min. 4.0 kg, max. 13.0 kg). Additionally, it was observed that the horses received the last meal on average 6 h 10 min (min. 1 h 50 min, max. 12 h 30 min) before the start of the first show jumping turn, respectively, 7 h 30 min (min 1 h 50 min, max. 13 h 0 min) before the second turn. Seven horses (35%) had access to hay waiting in the trailer between two turns. The statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the concentrate feeding time point on lactate, triglyceride and insulin levels, but a significant influence on free fatty acids (FFA) and blood glucose concentrations. Roughage feeding of the show jumping horses 2-4 h prior to exercise revealed the most remarkable changes in blood parameters during the show jumping course. These results received under field conditions should be approved in future under standardized conditions.

  16. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vriends, N.; Pfaltz, M. C.; Novianti, P.; Hadiyono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings. PMID:23382720

  17. Development of avalanche risk between 1950 and 2000 in the Municipality of Davos, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Bründl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2004-04-01

    In recent years, risk assessment has become increasingly important for the protection of settlements against natural hazards because the public authorities have to economise their budgets and therefore to legitimate their investments. To quantify risk, information is needed on both, recurrence intervals of the potentially damaging natural processes and on the associated damage potential. In the past, high efforts were undertaken to assess the former, while the latter was almost ignored. The aim of this study was to determine the development of the avalanche risk in the inhabited areas of the municipality of Davos, canton of Grisons, Switzerland, for the period between 1950 and 2000. The extent of avalanche prone areas was quantified using the numerical avalanche model AVAL-1D and the current legal hazard maps. The damage potential was quantified by the number and reinstatement values of buildings and by the number of persons per building. It has been demonstrated that, contrary to the frequently expressed statement that the vulnerability of communities has increased, the risk for this settlement in fact decreased substantially. This can mainly be attributed to the realisation of mitigation measures, such as defence structures in avalanche starting zones. The only exception regarding the development of risk was in the category of residential buildings, were an increase in risk was already detectable at medium recurrence intervals. This is remarkable because methods of land use planning, such as hazard mapping, are intended to protect residential buildings from the impact of hazardous processes. However, general statements referring to a larger area (region, country) might be difficult to make, since small-scale disparities have a very important influence on the diversification of risk and risk management. Furthermore, it has to be emphasized that the results are highly dependent on the assumptions made in this study.

  18. Meteorological factors and risk of community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease in Switzerland: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Conza, Lisa; Casati, Simona; Limoni, Costanzo; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify meteorological factors that could be associated with an increased risk of community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in two Swiss regions. Design Retrospective epidemiological study using discriminant analysis and multivariable Poisson regression. Setting We analysed legionellosis cases notified between January 2003 and December 2007 and we looked for a possible relationship between incidence rate and meteorological factors. Participants Community-acquired LD cases in two Swiss regions, the Canton Ticino and the Basle region, with climatically different conditions were investigated. Primary outcome measures Vapour pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind, precipitation and radiation recorded in weather stations of the two Swiss regions during the period January 2003 and December 2007. Results Discriminant analysis showed that the two regions are characterised by different meteorological conditions. A multiple Poisson regression analysis identified region, temperature and vapour pressure during the month of infection as significant risk factors for legionellosis. The risk of developing LD was 129.5% (or 136.4% when considering vapour pressure instead of temperature in the model) higher in the Canton Ticino as compared to the Basle region. There was an increased relative risk of LD by 11.4% (95% CI 7.70% to 15.30%) for each 1 hPa rise of vapour pressure or by 6.7% (95% CI 4.22% to 9.22%) for 1°C increase of temperature. Conclusions In this study, higher water vapour pressure and heat were associated with a higher risk of community-acquired LD in two regions of Switzerland. PMID:23468470

  19. Advances in the homogenization of daily climate surface data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllemann, C.; Begert, M.; Croci-Maspoli, M.

    2010-09-01

    It is often the extremes of weather and climate which have the greatest impact on society. In this respect temporal high-resolution and long-term climate data series are a unique source for e.g. variability and trend analyses, extreme value analysis or analyses of extreme climate indices. Consequentially that these analyses require high demands on the data quality for accurate conclusions on climate change. This can be achieved by homogenization of the corresponding data. It is the intention of MeteoSwiss to fulfill these requirements for their available long-term climate surface data in Switzerland by i) systematically preserve historical climate data in respect to national and international guidelines, ii) ensure efficient and extensive quality control and iii) homogenize long-term data series of the most important climate variables on monthly and daily time scales. In the framework of the COST Action ES0601 "Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME)", which dedicates a main focus on the comparison and development of daily homogenization methods, we present results of the comparison from different daily homogenization procedures using long-term series. Currently only a few statistical methods exist to help homogenize daily climate data. We will focus on three different daily homogenization methods and will present results of extreme temperature values during the period 1864 until 2009 for several Swiss surface stations. One aspect will be the exposure of the three methods to different weather conditions such as sunny calm days or days influenced by the foehn in spring. It is important to see how the methods deal with physical impacts (radiation, wind).

  20. Bed load transport in a very steep mountain stream (Riedbach, Switzerland): Measurement and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Turowski, Jens M.; Schmid, Bastian; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-12-01

    Compared to lower-gradient channels, steep mountain streams typically have rougher beds and shallower flow depths, making macro-scale flow resistance (due to, e.g., immobile boulders and irregular bedforms) more important as controls on sediment transport. The marked differences in hydraulics, flow resistance, and grain mobility between steep and lower-gradient streams raise the question of whether the same equations can predict bed load transport rates across wide ranges of channel gradients. We studied a steep, glacier-fed mountain stream (Riedbach, Ct. Valais, Switzerland) that provides a natural experiment for exploring how stream gradients affect bed load transport rates. The streambed gradient increases over a 1 km stream reach by roughly one order of magnitude (from 3% to 38%), while flow discharge and width remain approximately constant. Sediment transport rates were determined in the 3% reach using Bunte bed load traps and in the 38% reach using the Swiss plate geophone system. Despite a ten-fold increase in bed gradient, bed load transport rates did not increase substantially. Observed transport rates for these two very different bed gradients could be predicted reasonably well by using a flow resistance partitioning approach to account for increasing bed roughness (D84 changes from 0.17 m to 0.91 m) within a fractional bed load transport equation. This suggests that sediment transport behavior across this large range of steep slopes agrees with patterns established in previous studies for both lower-gradient and steep reaches, and confirms the applicability of the flow resistance and bed load transport equations at very steep slopes.

  1. Do insurers respond to risk adjustment? A long-term, nationwide analysis from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    von Wyl, Viktor; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-03-01

    Community rating in social health insurance calls for risk adjustment in order to eliminate incentives for risk selection. Swiss risk adjustment is known to be insufficient, and substantial risk selection incentives remain. This study develops five indicators to monitor residual risk selection. Three indicators target activities of conglomerates of insurers (with the same ownership), which steer enrollees into specific carriers based on applicants' risk profiles. As a proxy for their market power, those indicators estimate the amount of premium-, health care cost-, and risk-adjustment transfer variability that is attributable to conglomerates. Two additional indicators, derived from linear regression, describe the amount of residual cost differences between insurers that are not covered by risk adjustment. All indicators measuring conglomerate-based risk selection activities showed increases between 1996 and 2009, paralleling the establishment of new conglomerates. At their maxima in 2009, the indicator values imply that 56% of the net risk adjustment volume, 34% of premium variability, and 51% cost variability in the market were attributable to conglomerates. From 2010 onwards, all indicators decreased, coinciding with a pre-announced risk adjustment reform implemented in 2012. Likewise, the regression-based indicators suggest that the volume and variance of residual cost differences between insurers that are not equaled out by risk adjustment have decreased markedly since 2009 as a result of the latest reform. Our analysis demonstrates that risk-selection, especially by conglomerates, is a real phenomenon in Switzerland. However, insurers seem to have reduced risk selection activities to optimize their losses and gains from the latest risk adjustment reform.

  2. Population mixing and the risk of childhood leukaemia in Switzerland: a census-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lupatsch, Judith E; Kuehni, Claudia E; Niggli, Felix; Ammann, Roland A; Egger, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D

    2015-12-01

    Childhood leukaemia (CL) may have an infectious cause and population mixing may therefore increase the risk of CL. We aimed to determine whether CL was associated with population mixing in Switzerland. We followed children aged <16 years in the Swiss National Cohort 1990-2008 and linked CL cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry to the cohort. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all CL, CL at age <5 years and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) for three measures of population mixing (population growth, in-migration and diversity of origin), stratified by degree of urbanisation. Measures of population mixing were calculated for all municipalities for the 5-year period preceding the 1990 and 2000 censuses. Analyses were based on 2,128,012 children of whom 536 developed CL. HRs comparing highest with lowest quintile of population growth were 1.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.89] in rural and 0.59 (95 % CI 0.43-0.81) in urban municipalities (interaction: p = 0.271). Results were similar for ALL and for CL at age <5 years. For level of in-migration there was evidence of a negative association with ALL. HRs comparing highest with lowest quintile were 0.60 (95 % CI 0.41-0.87) in urban and 0.61 (95 % CI 0.30-1.21) in rural settings. There was little evidence of an association with diversity of origin. This nationwide cohort study of the association between CL and population growth, in-migration and diversity of origin provides little support for the population mixing hypothesis.

  3. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall-tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalneh Berhanu, Tesfaye; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rudiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Moret, Hanspeter; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CarboCount-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6, and 212.5 m above ground level, and it is equipped with a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm, and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively, over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation. Since the installation of an air-conditioning system recently at the measurement cabin, we have acquired better temperature stability of the measurement system, but no significant improvement was observed in the measurement precision inferred from the target gas measurements. Therefore, it seems that the observed higher variation in CO measurements is associated with the instrumental noise, compatible with the precision provided by the manufacturer.

  4. Spatial variation of storage capacity and winter recession in the alpine Poschiavino catchment / Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriancic, Marius; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Margreth, Michael; Naef, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of the spatial variability of recession and storage dynamics in alpine catchments may improve low flow estimation. Especially in areas with little gauging information, mapping water storing sediments and rocks may help identifying areas responsible for sustaining baseflow during low flow periods. In alpine catchments, low flow occurs during winter, because groundwater recharge from precipitation or snowmelt is limited. This provides good opportunities for research on storage behavior. We present a dataset of winter discharge measurements and water chemistry analyses in the alpine Poschiavino River, a 14km² watershed in southeast Switzerland with strongly contrasting subcatchments. To explore how low flow recession relates to the spatial organization of storage potential, geomorphology and sediment type were mapped. From 7 measurement campaigns throughout winter season 2013/14 we derived recession curves for various nested subcatchments. To identify different contributing sources, the discharge measurements were complemented with ion composition analyses of stream water and continuous hourly electric conductivity measurements. This dataset allowed identifying areas contributing during low flow periods and estimating the storage potential of different subcatchments. We found substantial variation in the contribution of different subcatchments from 54mm to 200mm in four months. The spatial variation of discharge and different drainage time scales in the various subcatchments could be attributed to storage properties like thickness of the sediment deposits. Contribution from areas with thick sediment cover is significantly higher than from parts with less deep deposits. However the spatial resolution of research was limited because of complicated subsurface flow paths. Topographic catchment borders did not always correspond to the hydrological ones. This first study on the relation of low flow recession and storage potential represents an

  5. Cephalopod associations and palaeoecology of the Cretaceous in the Alpstein, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajika, Amane; Klug, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In the Alpstein mountain chains around Säntis in northeastern Switzerland, Cretaceous strata are well exposed and highly fossiliferous. Over the last decades, geologists and paleontologists studied its stratigraphy and sedimentology. Although rich and quite highly diverse cephalopod fossils have been sporadically reported and collected, no comprehensive overview of the Cretaceous successions and their cephalopods was available so far. The examined units include the Tierwis Formation consisting of Altmann Member and Drusberg Member (latest Hauterivian-late Barremian), the Schrattenkalk Formation (late Barremian-Aptian), the Garschella Formation including the Kamm Bed (Aptian-earliest Cenomanian) and the Seewen Formation (Cenomanian). For palaeoecological analyses, we sampled several distinct fossiliferous layers. Wherever possible, we tried to find up to 100 identifiable specimens to obtain statistically representative results. In order to quantitatively analyze the palaeoecological changes through geologic time, we employed the method to compare ecospace utilization introduced by Bush et al. (2007). All the fossils were classified based on the ecological parameters (tiering, motility, and feeding mechanism) and were plotted into the three-dimensional ecospace. We documented 80 species (42 genera) of ammonites, 6 species (3 genera) of nautilids and other invertebrates. The results of these paleoecological analyses reflect dynamic changes through time. The Barremian faunule was dominated by nektopelagic animals , followed by the Aptian faunule lacking nektopelagic animals. In the Late Albian, the proportion of nektopelagic animals surged again, resulting in a nektopelagic dominance during the early Cenomanian. Comparison of the results of our palaeoecological analysis and previously studied regional sea level fluctuations suggests that the dynamic palaeoecological shifts through time were affected by the regional sea level fluctuations.

  6. Two early Holocene rock avalanches in the Bernese Alps (Rinderhorn, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grämiger, Lorenz M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christof; Aaron, Jordan; Hajdas, Irka; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Large rock avalanches constitute a critical process modulating the evolution of alpine landscapes; however, the relatively infrequent occurrence of these high-magnitude events makes identifying underlying process controls challenging. Here we describe two rock avalanches in the Rinderhorn area of the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, providing new mapping of rock avalanche source areas and deposits, refined volume estimates for each event, runout modeling back-analyses, and absolute age constraint from cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. Results reveal that the Daubensee rock avalanche released ~ 4 million m3 of limestone sliding from the western crest of the Rinderhorn. Debris ran out across a Lateglacial moraine before reaching the valley bottom and spreading, leaving thin (on average 7 m) deposits across a broad area. The runout resulted in a Fahrböschung angle of 21°. Part of the deposit now lies beneath Lake Daubensee. The Klein Rinderhorn rock avalanche released ~ 37 million m3 of limestone along a dip-slope sliding plane, with a maximum runout distance of 4.3 km and estimated Fahrböschung angle of 14°. Deposits bulked to ~ 47 million m3 running up the opposing slope, with distinct hummocky morphology in the proximal area and a distal longitudinal flow ridge. These deposits were later modified and partly obscured by ice avalanches from the nearby Altels peak. Cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating revealed nearly coincident ages for both rock avalanches of 9.8 ± 0.5 ka. The large lag time between local deglaciation and failure suggests that the events were not directly triggered by deglaciation. Rather, the concurrent exposure ages, also coinciding with the nearby Kander valley rock avalanche as well as paleoseismic records from nearby lakes, strongly suggest seismic triggering.

  7. Trends of classification, incidence, mortality, and survival of MDS patients in Switzerland between 2001 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Bonadies, Nicolas; Feller, Anita; Rovo, Alicia; Ruefer, Axel; Blum, Sabine; Gerber, Bernhard; Stuessi, Georg; Benz, Rudolf; Cantoni, Nathan; Holbro, Andreas; Schmidt, Adrian; Lehmann, Thomas; Wilk, C Matthias; Arndt, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are emerging disorders of the elderly with an increasing burden on healthcare systems. He we report on the first population-based, epidemiological analysis of patients diagnosed with MDS in Switzerland between 2001 and 2012. The aim of this study was to characterize the extent and limitations of currently available population-based, epidemiological data and formulate recommendations for future health services research. The investigated outcomes comprised trends of annual case frequency, classification of morphological subtypes, incidence, mortality and survival. Annual case frequency increased by 20% (from 263 to 315 cases per year), whereas age-standardized incidence-/mortality-rates remained stable (2.5/1.1 per 100'000 person-years). This observation reflects population growth as well as higher diagnostic awareness and not an increase of age-specific risk. However, it will inevitably influence the future prevalence of MDS and the impact on healthcare systems. Reporting of classification in MDS subtypes was poor with modest improvement from 20% to 39% and increased awareness for mainly higher-risk diseases. Relative survival for all patients at 5-years (RS) ranged between 37 and 40%. Significant better RS was found for younger compared to older higher-risk MDS patients (48% vs. 17%), reflecting the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. However, no survival advantage was found in elderly patients after introduction of hypomethylating agents as standard for care in this patient group. Our data is in line with results from other MDS and cancer registries. It allows formulating recommendations for future collaborative health services research on MDS patients with national and international partners.

  8. Dental injuries in water polo, a survey of players in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hersberger, Silvan; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Water polo is a sporting activity which has a medium risk of causing dental trauma. Owing to the high speed, close body contact, and the combination of throwing and swimming that is inherent to the sport, the general injury potential is high. Using a standardized questionnaire for a total of 415 water polo players from Switzerland, this study examines the frequency of dental and facial injuries in water polo, athletes' habits regarding the wearing of mouthguards, and the general level of knowledge about emergency procedures following dental trauma. The participating players came from 6 divisions: Swiss national leagues A and B, first and second leagues, as well as the women's, and junior's league. The data were evaluated according to division and gender. Of the 415 interviewees, 185 (44.6%) had witnessed a dental injury in water polo. Eighty-seven (21.0%) players reported having suffered a tooth injury when playing water polo. Tooth fracture was the most stated dental injury [86 (16.4%)]. A similar number of tooth injuries were experienced by both male [355 (21.1%)] and female [60 (20.0%)] players. The interviewees over the age of 50 showed a higher incidence of tooth injuries than younger players (>50 years = 41.7%). Slightly more than half of the interviewed players [228 (54.9%)] were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. As few as 43 (10.4%) players were familiar with tooth rescue boxes. Only 32 (7.7%) water polo players wore a mouthguard; the most common reason for not wearing a mouthguard was that it was seen to be unnecessary [169 (40.7%)]. This survey highlights the potential for improvement in the level of knowledge about dental injury prevention in water polo. In addition to information and guidelines from the relevant sports' associations, and coaches, dentists could also play a role in the provision of this education.

  9. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, T. A.; Satar, E.; Schanda, R.; Nyfeler, P.; Moret, H.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CARBOCOUNT-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6 and 212.5 m a.g.l., and it is equipped with a Picarro CRDS analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79, 0.05 and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation, which is mainly due to the above mentioned temperature effects.

  10. Active thermal tracer testing in a shallow aquifer of the Thur valley, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweingruber, Mischa; Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests are one of the standard methods for investigating groundwater processes. Among the range of different test variants, using heat as a tracer has gained substantial interest during the last decade. Temperature measurements have become essential ingredients for example for characterization of river-aquifer interactions and in the field of geothermics. Much less attention than on natural temperature signals has been devoted to induced synthetic temperature signals, even though it is well known that temperature is an easy to measure, invisible but sensitive system property. Design, application and inversion of such active thermal tracer tests represent one focus of our work. We build up on the experience from related field experiments, where heated water was injected and the propagation of the generated thermal anomaly was monitored. In this presentation, we show the results from first field-testing in an alluvial aquifer at the Widen site in the Thur valley in Switzerland. The thermal evolution of groundwater was monitored in summer 2014 during and after several days of heated water injection. By this test, we want to derive insights into the prevailing hydraulic heterogeneity of the shallow aquifer at the site. The results are used for calibration of a two dimensional hydrogeological numerical model. With the calibrated hydraulic conductivity field, the experiment is simulated and the transient evolution of the heat plume is visualized. Hydraulic heterogeneity is identified as one main factor for lateral spreading of the heat plume. The most important result of the experiment is that the significance of the ambient flow field is very high and even with high pumping rates to establish forced gradient conditions its effect cannot be overridden. During the test, precious technical experience was gained, which will be beneficial for subsequent heat tracer applications. For example, the challenge of maintaining a constant injection rate and temperature could

  11. Close geographic association of human neoehrlichiosis and tick populations carrying "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in eastern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Florian P; Keller, Peter M; Beuret, Christian; Joha, Cornelia; Achermann, Yvonne; Gubler, Jacques; Bircher, Daniela; Karrer, Urs; Fehr, Jan; Zimmerli, Lukas; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2013-01-01

    Neoehrlichiosis caused by "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" is an emerging zoonotic disease. In total, six patients have been described in Europe, with the first case detected in 2007. In addition, seven patients from China were described in a report published in October 2012. In 2009, we diagnosed the first human case of "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infection in the Zurich area (Switzerland). Here, we report two additional human cases from the same region, which were identified by broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Both patients were immunocompromised and presented with similar clinical syndromes, including fever, malaise, and weight loss. A diagnostic multiplex real-time PCR was developed for specific detection of "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infections. The assay is based on the signature sequence of a 280-bp fragment of the "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" 16S rRNA gene and incorporates a "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" species, a "Ca. Neoehrlichia" genus, and an Anaplasmataceae family probe for simultaneous screening. The analytical sensitivity was determined to be below five copies of the "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" 16S rRNA gene. Our results show that the assay is suitable for the direct detection of "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" DNA in clinical samples from, for example, blood and bone marrow. In addition, it allows for monitoring treatment response during antibiotic therapy. Using the same assay, DNA extracts from 1,916 ticks collected in four forests in close proximity to the patients' residences (<3 km) were screened. At all sampling sites, the minimal prevalence of "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was between 3.5 to 8% in pools of either nymphs, males, or females, showing a strong geographic association between the three patients and the assumed vector.

  12. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  13. Patterns of care in recurrent glioblastoma in Switzerland: a multicentre national approach based on diagnostic nodes.

    PubMed

    Hundsberger, T; Hottinger, A F; Roelcke, U; Roth, P; Migliorini, D; Dietrich, P Y; Conen, K; Pesce, G; Hermann, E; Pica, A; Gross, M W; Brügge, D; Plasswilm, L; Weller, M; Putora, P M

    2016-01-01

    Despite moderate improvements in outcome of glioblastoma after first-line treatment with chemoradiation recent clinical trials failed to improve the prognosis of recurrent glioblastoma. In the absence of a standard of care we aimed to investigate institutional treatment strategies to identify similarities and differences in the pattern of care for recurrent glioblastoma. We investigated re-treatment criteria and therapeutic pathways for recurrent glioblastoma of eight neuro-oncology centres in Switzerland having an established multidisciplinary tumour-board conference. Decision algorithms, differences and consensus were analysed using the objective consensus methodology. A total of 16 different treatment recommendations were identified based on combinations of eight different decision criteria. The set of criteria implemented as well as the set of treatments offered was different in each centre. For specific situations, up to 6 different treatment recommendations were provided by the eight centres. The only wide-range consensus identified was to offer best supportive care to unfit patients. A majority recommendation was identified for non-operable large early recurrence with unmethylated MGMT promoter status in the fit patients: here bevacizumab was offered. In fit patients with late recurrent non-operable MGMT promoter methylated glioblastoma temozolomide was recommended by most. No other majority recommendations were present. In the absence of strong evidence we identified few consensus recommendations in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. This contrasts the limited availability of single drugs and treatment modalities. Clinical situations of greatest heterogeneity may be suitable to be addressed in clinical trials and second opinion referrals are likely to yield diverging recommendations.

  14. High magnitude and rapid incision from river capture: Rhine River, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanites, Brian J.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael; Heuberger, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Landscape evolution is controlled by the development and organization of drainage basins. As a landscape evolves, drainage reorganization events can occur via river capture or piracy, whereby one river basin grows at the expense of another. The river downstream of a capture location will generate a transient topographic response as the added water discharge increases sediment transport and erosion efficiency. This erosional response will propagate upstream through both the captured and original river basins. Here we focus on quantifying the impact of drainage reorganization along the Rhine/Aare River system (~45,000 km2) during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, where gravel remnants indicate total incision of ~650 m during the last ~4.2 Myr in the region of the recent Aare-Rhine confluence. We develop a numerical model of drainage capture to quantify the range of possible magnitudes of erosion and the transient river response resulting from the reorganization of the Rhine River. The model accounts for both fluvial incision and sediment transport. Our model estimates 400-800 m of river elevation change (lowering profiles) during the last ~4 Myr due to river capture events, providing an important component to the recent exhumation budget of the Swiss Alpine Foreland. The model indicates a rapid response to capture events (re-equilibration timescale of ~1 Myr). The predicted incision magnitudes are consistent with incision measured from the elevation of Pliocene and early Pleistocene river gravels, suggesting that across northern Switzerland, a significant amount of incision can be explained by drainage reorganization.

  15. Future trends of the Alpine and ephemeral snowpack at selected sites across Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Lehning, Michael; Weingartner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Snow is a key feature of mountainous environments because of its high implications for hydrology, vegetation and economics, such as winter tourism or hydropower. In particular, snow depth, the stored snow water equivalent, the duration of the snow on the ground or the snow load on a roof are all important parameters for services like road maintenance, avalanche warning, water management, hydro power, flood prevention or building code regulations. The measurement of these snow parameters is either not always possible or too expensive. To overcome this problem, snow models with input from meteorological stations are a worthwhile alternative. In this study we apply the one-dimensional, physically based snow model SNOWPACK. We first demonstrate the performance of SNOWPACK in modelling the seasonal evolution of snow characteristics such as snow depth or duration of snow cover for single years. The required input data for SNOWPACK includes air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, incoming short- and long-wave radiation, and precipitation intensity. As most stations do not measure incoming long-wave radiation, it needs to be parameterized. Moreover, due to wind-induced errors, it is necessary to correct the precipitation measurements. In a second step we show future trends of the Swiss snowpack at selected sites located at different elevations across Switzerland. Therefore we concentrate on the ability of SNOWPACK to model climatological mean values of seasonal snow depth, maximum snow depth and the length of snow season for example. For the assessment of future trends, scenario data from the recently released CH2011 report will be used in order to perturb the observed time series of temperature and precipitation.

  16. Carbon storage versus albedo change: Radiative Forcing of forest expansion in temperate mountainous regions of Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaab, J.; Bavay, M.; Davin, E.; Hagedorn, F.; Hüsler, F.; Lehning, M.; Schneebeli, M.; Thürig, E.; Bebi, P.

    2014-06-01

    Forestation is seen as a possible option to counter climate change by sequestering carbon in forests and thus reducing the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. However, previous studies suggest that the Radiative Forcing (RF) caused by forestation-induced albedo change in snow-rich boreal regions may offset the carbon sequestration effect. The Swiss mountains are characterized by snow-rich areas with strongly varying environmental conditions and forest expansion is currently the dominant land-use change process. Thus, quantifying both carbon sequestration and albedo change on appropriately high resolution in this region will improve our understanding of the forests potential for climate mitigation. We calculated the albedo RF based on remotely sensed datasets of albedo, global radiation and snow cover. Carbon sequestration was estimated from changes in carbon stocks based on National Inventories. Our results show that the net RF of forest expansion ranges from -24 W m-2 at low elevations of the Northern Prealps to 2 W m-2 at high elevations of the Central Alps. The albedo RF increases with increasing altitude, which offsets the CO2 RF at high elevations with long snow-covered periods, high global radiation and low carbon sequestration. Results indicate that the albedo RF is particularly relevant during transitions from open land to open forest and not in later stages of forest development. The albedo RF offsets the CO2 RF by an average of 40% between 1985 and 1997 when overall forest expansion in Switzerland was approximately 4%. We conclude that the albedo RF should be considered at an appropriately high resolution when estimating the climatic effect of forestation in temperate mountainous regions.

  17. Lesson 3: Attorney General (AG) Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The AG Certification is a letter confirming legal authority to implement the electronic reporting covered by the application and enforce the affected programs using the electronic documents received under those programs.

  18. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A quarterly listing of those documents and related publications that have been issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is presented. The Tracking List Report provides a catalog, by project, of technical publications arranged by type of document and gives the reference AgRISTARS document numbers, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number.

  19. BNL AGS - a context for kaon factories

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.S.

    1983-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the Brookhaven site with the AGS-CBA complex highlighted. In this photograph the AGS is dwarfed by CBA and indeed during the past few years future plans for particle physics at BNL have been dominated by this enormous project. However, very recently interest in future physics use of the AGS has undergone a strong revival. Indeed, since the beginning of this year, two projects for augmenting the AGS have been proposed. Such projects could keep the AGS viable as a research machine for many years to come. In general such schemes will also improve the performance and increase the versatility of the CBA, and so are doubly valuable. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the fact the AGS has been perhaps the most fruitful machine in the history of high energy physics, its full capacities have never been exploited. Even without improvements at least one generation of rare K decay experiments beyond those currently launched seems feasible. Beyond that a major effort at any of the experiments discussed above could take it to the point where it would be limited by intrinsic physics background. To pursue a full program of physics at this level one would want to increase the intensity of the AGS as described. A ten-fold increase in K flux would remove such experiments from the category of all-out technological assaults and render them manageable by reasonably small groups of physicists. In addition, certain other, cleaner experiments, e.g., K/sub L//sup 0/ ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/ or e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup 0/, could be pushed to limits unobtainable at the present AGS. The increased flux would also be welcomed by the neutrino and hypernuclear physics programs. Even experiments which do not at present require higher fluxes would benefit through the availability of purer beams and cleaner conditions.

  20. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.