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Sample records for ag berlin germany

  1. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education. PMID:10650563

  2. Prevention of Homicidal Violence in Schools in Germany: The Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks against School Shootings Project (NETWASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondu, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on…

  3. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants (<4 year olds): Rotavirus incidence increased by 4.95% for each additional percent of unemployed inhabitants in the neighbourhood (95% credibility interval (CI): 3.10%-6.74%) and by 0.53% for each additional percent of children attending day care in the neighbourhood (95% CI: 0.00%-1.06%). We found no evidence

  4. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

  5. The deep geothermal potential of Berlin (Germany) - Predictions from 3D structural and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Judith; Fuchs, Sven; Cacace, Mauro; Kastner, Oliver; Huenges, Ernst; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    In the light of an aspired reduction of CO2 emissions for Germany's capital Berlin, one possible alternative for meeting the city's growing energy demands lies in deep geothermal energy. To minimise exploration risks, a profound knowledge about the subsurface temperature distribution is indispensable. We present a 3D structural model that is used for thermal modelling and thus correlates calculated subsurface temperatures with geothermally relevant structures in the deep subsurface of Berlin - an ideal base for improving the probability of finding adequate geothermal reservoirs. Berlin is located in the eastern part of the North German Basin which is filled with several thousand metres of Permian to Cenozoic sediments containing hot and water bearing aquifers to potentially be used as hydrothermal reservoirs. To characterise the geological underground, the 3D structural model integrates stratigraphical, petrophysical and well-log based information from local boreholes as well as stratigraphic trends from (seismic data based) regional 3D models. The model differentiates 21 geological units: 17 Permian-Cenozoic sedimentary layers, pre-Permian sediments, upper crust, lower crust and the lithospheric mantle. Based on this 3D geological model complemented by databased lithology-dependent thermal properties, two groups of numerical thermal simulations have been carried out: calculations of the steady-state conductive thermal field and simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport. The 3D thermal models predict large lateral variations in temperatures that are validated by high-precession temperature logs. These variations are mostly caused by three specific geological layers and their physical properties: the Permian Zechstein salt with its markedly high thermal conductivity and strong thickness variation (171-3442 m); the crystalline upper crustal layer with its high radiogenic heat production and decreasing thickness from east to west; and the Tertiary Rupelian

  6. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  7. Murder-suicide by carbon dioxide (CO2) poisoning: a family case from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Julia; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Oesterhelweg, Lars

    2014-03-01

    This report demonstrates how carbon dioxide (CO(2)) may be a potent weapon in murder-suicide, where the death scene offers virtually no clues as to the lethal modality and the autopsy findings are nonspecific. Four bodies were discovered in an apartment in midsummer 2012 in Berlin, Germany. The bodies were those of a father (a 69-year-old business consultant), his wife (aged 26-years), and two sons (aged 3 and 6 years, respectively). The police found the wife and two sons lying in their beds and the husband in a supine position on the floor with a plastic bag over his head tied loosely around his neck with a rope. A 500 g single-use CO(2) cylinder was standing on the floor. The container was almost empty and according to the label had been sold as a CO(2)-fertilizer for aquarium plants. Two synthetic inhalation face masks and tubing were also found, which tested positive for the DNA of all four deceased family members. It is hypothesized that the husband placed an inhalation mask over the mouths and noses of his wife and children while they were sleeping. Inhalation of pure CO(2) ensured their rapid unconsciousness due to hypercapnia and severe anoxia. The rapid increase in CO(2) concentration would render a victim helpless, with no time to wake and defend themselves, or others. The proximate cause of death in all cases was attributed to CO(2) intoxication, based on the scene findings, the reconstructed sequence of events, the autopsy, and results of toxicological studies. PMID:24114436

  8. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany).

    PubMed

    Henzler, Aline F; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for λ=2.25e(-3) 1/d and 2.4e(-3) 1/d. For AOI a λ=0.0106 1/d and R=1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R=1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (λ=0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 μg/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R=1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic and

  9. Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzler, Aline F.; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) are frequently detected in urban surface water and the adjacent groundwater and are therefore an increasing problem for potable water quality. River bank filtration (RBF) is a beneficial pretreatment step to improve surface water quality for potable use. Removal is mainly caused by microbial degradation of micropollutants, while sorption retards the transport. The quantification of biodegradation and adsorption parameters for EOCs at field scale is still scarce. In this study, the fate and behavior of a range of organic compounds during RBF were investigated using a two dimensional numerical flow- and transport model. The data base used emanated from a project conducted in Berlin, Germany (NASRI: Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). Oxygen isotope signatures and hydraulic head data were used for model calibration. Afterwards, twelve organic micropollutants were simulated with a reactive transport model. Three compounds (primidone, EDTA, and AMDOPH) showed conservative behavior (no biodegradation or sorption). For the nine remaining compounds (1.5 NDSA, AOX, AOI, MTBE, carbamazepine, clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole), degradation and/or sorption was observed. 1.5 NDSA and AOX were not sorbed, but slightly degraded with model results for λ = 2.25e- 3 1/d and 2.4e- 3 1/d. For AOI a λ = 0.0106 1/d and R = 1 were identified. MTBE could be characterized well assuming R = 1 and a low 1st order degradation rate constant (λ = 0.0085 1/d). Carbamazepine degraded with a half life time of about 66 days after a threshold value of 0.2-0.3 μg/L was exceeded and retarded slightly (R = 1.7). Breakthrough curves of clindamycin, phenazone, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole could be fitted less well, probably due to the dependency of degradation on temperature and redox conditions, which are highly transient at the RBF site. Conditions range from oxic to anoxic (up to iron-reducing), with the oxic

  10. A new software package for SANS data processing at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut in Berlin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiderling, U.

    1997-02-01

    This paper gives a general description of the “SANS” data reduction software package being developed recently for the small-angle spectrometer V4 operated at the BER II reactor in Berlin, Germany. Following an overview of programs and options available for anisotropic and isotropic data reduction, special features of the software for handling large amounts of data are discussed. A highlight is given to the automation tools, including command file usage and built-in repetition functions. The discussion is rounded off by a short description of the new, flexible data file format.

  11. Contested Namesakes: East Berlin School Names under Communism and in Reunified Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the municipal authorities eliminate the names of all schools in eastern Berlin in 1990 to formalize the spontaneous purge of school identities. She added, that the renaming of primary and secondary schools at this historical juncture provides a unique vantage point for examining what the democratic turning…

  12. Berlin: United Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Compares East and West Berlin before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. Offers divergent viewpoints on German reunification from interviews of two professors: one from East Germany, the other from West Germany. Recommends that social studies classes incorporate current events such as German reunification. (CH)

  13. Prevention of homicidal violence in schools in Germany: the Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks Against School Shootings Project (NETWASS).

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. PMID:21491573

  14. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital. PMID:26294002

  15. The geothermal field below the city of Berlin, Germany: Results from structurally and parametrically improved 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Maximilian; Sippel, Judith; Cacace, Mauro; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the influence of the geological structure and geophysical parametrization of model units on the geothermal field as calculated by 3D numerical simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport for the subsurface of Berlin, Germany. The study area is located in the Northeast German Basin which is filled with several kilometers of sediments. This sedimentary infill includes the clastic sedimentary units Middle Buntsandstein and Sedimentary Rotliegend which are of particular interest for geothermal exploration. Previous studies conducted in the Northeast German Basin have already shown the geometries and properties of the geological units majorly control the distribution of subsurface temperatures. In this study we followed a two-step approach, where we first improved an existing structural model by integrating newly available 57 geological cross-sections, well data and deep seismics (down to ~4 km). Secondly, we performed a sensitivity analysis investigating the effects of varying physical fluid and rock properties on the subsurface temperature field. The results of this study show, that the structural configuration of model units exerts the highest influence on the geothermal field (up to ± 23 K at 1000 m below sea level). Here, the Rupelian clay aquitard, displaying a heterogeneous thickness distribution, locally characterized by hydrogeological windows (i.e. domains of no thickness) enabling intra-aquifer groundwater circulation has been identified as major controlling factor. The new structural configuration of this unit (more continuous, less numerous hydrogeological windows) also leads to a reduction of the influence of different boundary conditions and heat transport mechanisms considered. Additionally, the models results show that calculated temperatures highly depend on geophysical properties of model units whereas the hydraulic conductivity of the Cenozoic succession was identified as most dominant, leading to changes

  16. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  17. Developing whole mycobacteria cell vaccines for tuberculosis: Workshop proceedings, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany, July 9, 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-06-12

    On July 9, 2014, Aeras and the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology convened a workshop entitled "Whole Mycobacteria Cell Vaccines for Tuberculosis" at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology on the grounds of the Charité Hospital in Berlin, Germany, close to the laboratory where, in 1882, Robert Koch first identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss progress in the development of TB vaccines based on whole mycobacteria cells. Live whole cell TB vaccines discussed at this meeting were derived from Mtb itself, from Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against TB, which was genetically modified to reduce pathogenicity and increase immunogenicity, or from commensal non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Inactivated whole cell TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterial vaccines, intended as immunotherapy or as safer immunization alternatives for HIV+ individuals, also were discussed. Workshop participants agreed that TB vaccine development is significantly hampered by imperfect animal models, unknown immune correlates of protection and the absence of a human challenge model. Although a more effective TB vaccine is needed to replace or enhance the limited effectiveness of BCG in all age groups, members of the workshop concurred that an effective vaccine would have the greatest impact on TB control when administered to adolescents and adults, and that use of whole mycobacteria cells as TB vaccine candidates merits greater support, particularly given the limited understanding of the specific Mtb antigens necessary to generate an immune response capable of preventing Mtb infection and/or disease. PMID:25882170

  18. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  19. [Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin--EpiBerlin].

    PubMed

    Bau, A M

    2004-06-01

    The Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin (EpiBerlin) has the goal of bringing together epidemiologists and experts in epidemiology and public health in Germany's capital city of Berlin and to offer them opportunities for knowledge transfer and networking. In that way, existing resources may be strengthened and additional potential in Berlin as a science center may be developed. EpiBerlin was founded by an initiative of the Berlin Center of Public Health (BZPH) and is closely affiliated with the three universities in Berlin (Free University, Technical University, and Humboldt University) as well as the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national center for health research. EpiBerlin is evenly funded by the state of Berlin, through the Senatsverwaltung für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur (Senate Administration for Science, Research, and Culture), and the Bund-Länder-Kommission (Commission of the Federation and States). The development of a databank of the epidemiological databases in the region of Berlin (EpiDB) aims to show the variety of epidemiological work in the area. The aim of EpiDB is to provide transparency and an overview of existing and current research in Berlin, which may also benefit external users. Cooperation, networking, and division of labor for joint venture research may be promoted, also beyond the region of Berlin. PMID:15221106

  20. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines. PMID:24507151

  1. Occurrence of endocrine-disrupting and other wastewater compunds during water treatment with case studies from Lincoln, Nebraska and Berlin, Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Heberer, T.; Vogel, J.R.; Speth, T.; Zuehlke, S.; Duennbier, U.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the fate and transport of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other organic wastewater compounds released into the environment and their potential presence in drinking water is in its infancy. Studies conducted during the last decade in Lincoln, Nebraska, and Berlin, Germany, indicate that removal of less polar compounds probably can be obtained through bank filtration, ground-water enrichment, and additional drinking-water and wastewater treatment processes. Polar compounds, such as atrazine and some metabolites, occur in drinking water obtained from contaminated surface water or ground water, but at concentrations generally lower than those occurring in wastewater and surface water. The results of the studies also suggest that concentrations of nonpolar estrogenic compounds decrease during drinking-water pretreatment processes such as bank filtration and ground-water enrichment.

  2. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. PMID:22445920

  3. Occurrence and distribution of psychoactive compounds and their metabolites in the urban water cycle of Berlin (Germany).

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulrike; Duennbier, Uwe; Massmann, Gudrun

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence and distribution of six psychoactive compounds (primidone, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, meprobamate, and pyrithyldione) and a metabolite of primidone (phenylethylmalonamide) were investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface water, groundwater of a bank filtration site, raw and final drinking water, and in groundwater affected by former sewage irrigation. Primidone and its metabolite phenylethylmalonamide were found to be ubiquitous in environmental water samples in Berlin. Maximum concentrations of 0.87 and 0.42 μg/L, respectively, were encountered in WWTP effluents. Both compounds are apparently not removed when passaging through the different compartments of the water cycle and concentrations are only reduced by dilution. Phenobarbital was present at nearly every stage of the Berlin water cycle with the exception of raw and final drinking water. The highest concentrations of phenobarbital (up to 0.96 μg/L) were measured in groundwater influenced by former sewage irrigation. Oxazepam was only present in WWTP effluents and surface waters (up to 0.18 μg/L), while diazepam was not detected in any matrix. Due to their withdrawal from the German market years ago, the pharmaceuticals meprobamate and pyrithyldione were only found in sewage farm groundwater (up to 0.50 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively) and, in case of meprobamate, also in decade old bank filtrate (0.03 μg/L). Our results indicate a high persistence of some of the investigated compounds in the aquatic system. As a consequence, these pollutants may potentially reach drinking water resources via bank filtration if present in WWTP effluents and/or surface waters in partly closed water cycles such as Berlin's. PMID:22967903

  4. Assessment of indoor heat stress variability in summer and during heat warnings: a case study using the UTCI in Berlin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walikewitz, Nadine; Jänicke, Britta; Langner, Marcel; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2015-09-01

    Humans spend most of their time in confined spaces and are hence primarily exposed to the direct influence of indoor climate. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was obtained in 31 rooms (eight buildings) in Berlin, Germany, during summer 2013 and 2014. The indoor UTCI was determined from measurements of both air temperature and relative humidity and from data of mean radiant temperature and air velocity, which were either measured or modeled. The associated outdoor UTCI was obtained through facade measurements of air temperature and relative humidity, simulation of mean radiant temperature, and wind data from a central weather station. The results show that all rooms experienced heat stress according to UTCI levels, especially during heat waves. Indoor UTCI varied up to 6.6 K within the city and up to 7 K within building. Heat stress either during day or at night occurred on 35 % of all days. By comparing the day and night thermal loads, we identified maximum values above the 32 °C threshold for strong heat stress during the nighttime. Outdoor UTCI based on facade measurements provided no better explanation of indoor UTCI variability than the central weather station. In contrast, we found a stronger relationship of outdoor air temperature and indoor air temperature. Building characteristics, such as the floor level or window area, influenced indoor heat stress ambiguously. We conclude that indoor heat stress is a major hazard, and more effort toward understanding the causes and creating effective countermeasures is needed.

  5. Sexing Berlin?

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Berlin has always been a literary space of extremely diverse political and cultural projections. This essay investigates why after the unification of East and West Berlin the city has been imagined as a play zone of sexual self-fulfilment by authors such as Inka Parei, Tanja Dückers, Kathrin Röggla, Judith Hermann and Julia Franck. Have such erotic adventures replaced political vision in our post-utopian decade? What is the purpose of the laboured allegorisation of the fall of the wall in Durs Grünbein's essays or in the novels of Katja Lange-Müller and Thomas Hettche? The sexification of historical and political processes recalls similar stereotypes in the East German literature of the 1980s: the metropolis as a whore in works by Heiner Müller or Wolf Biermann, but also by younger authors of the independent literary scene in Berlin like Uwe Kolbe or Frank-Wolf Matthies. PMID:21186684

  6. Tracking city CO2 emissions from space using a high-resolution inverse modelling approach: a case study for Berlin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Dhanyalekshmi; Buchwitz, Michael; Gerbig, Christoph; Koch, Thomas; Reuter, Maximilian; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Marshall, Julia; Burrows, John P.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, 52 % of the world's population resides in urban areas and as a consequence, approximately 70 % of fossil fuel emissions of CO2 arise from cities. This fact, in combination with large uncertainties associated with quantifying urban emissions due to lack of appropriate measurements, makes it crucial to obtain new measurements useful to identify and quantify urban emissions. This is required, for example, for the assessment of emission mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. Here, we investigate the potential of a satellite mission like Carbon Monitoring Satellite (CarbonSat) which was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) to retrieve the city emissions globally, taking into account a realistic description of the expected retrieval errors, the spatiotemporal distribution of CO2 fluxes, and atmospheric transport. To achieve this, we use (i) a high-resolution modelling framework consisting of the Weather Research Forecasting model with a greenhouse gas module (WRF-GHG), which is used to simulate the atmospheric observations of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fractions (XCO2), and (ii) a Bayesian inversion method to derive anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their errors from the CarbonSat XCO2 observations. We focus our analysis on Berlin, Germany using CarbonSat's cloud-free overpasses for 1 reference year. The dense (wide swath) CarbonSat simulated observations with high spatial resolution (approximately 2 km × 2 km) permits one to map the city CO2 emission plume with a peak enhancement of typically 0.8-1.35 ppm relative to the background. By performing a Bayesian inversion, it is shown that the random error (RE) of the retrieved Berlin CO2 emission for a single overpass is typically less than 8-10 Mt CO2 yr-1 (about 15-20 % of the total city emission). The range of systematic errors (SEs) of the retrieved fluxes due to various sources of error (measurement, modelling, and inventories) is also quantified. Depending on the assumptions made, the SE

  7. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  8. Towards Cooperation among Researchers of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Europe. Platform Meeting of VET Researchers from EC, EFTA and Central Europe (Berlin, Germany, October 23, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootings, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A meeting held in Berlin provided a forum for researchers from the Central European countries of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to discuss the research situation in vocational education and training (VET) in their countries and to discuss the possibilities for developing forms of cooperation with researchers from the 10 Western European…

  9. Familie in Ost- und West-Berlin: Erziehungseinstellungen und Kinderfreundschaften (The Family in East and West Berlin: Pedagogical Attitudes and Friendship among Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlendorff, Harald; Oswald, Hans; Krappmann, Lothar

    1997-01-01

    Compares the family-centeredness of East and West Berliners with primary school-aged children shortly after the breakdown of East Germany by examining parental attitudes regarding friendship among children. Observes that while parents in East Berlin exerted greater control than those in West Berlin, children's integration into their extrafamilial…

  10. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  11. Caesarean Section Frequency among Immigrants, Second- and Third-Generation Women, and Non-Immigrants: Prospective Study in Berlin/Germany

    PubMed Central

    David, Matthias; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; Henrich, Wolfgang; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Razum, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objective The frequency of caesarean section delivery varies between countries and social groups. Among other factors, it is determined by the quality of obstetrics care. Rates of elective (planned) and emergency (in-labor) caesareans may also vary between immigrants (first generation), their offspring (second- and third-generation women), and non-immigrants because of access and language barriers. Other important points to be considered are whether caesarean section indications and the neonatal outcomes differ in babies delivered by caesarean between immigrants, their offspring, and non-immigrants. Methods A standardized interview on admission to delivery wards at three Berlin obstetric hospitals was performed in a 12-month period in 2011/2012. Questions on socio-demographic and care aspects and on migration (immigrated herself vs. second- and third-generation women vs. non-immigrant) and acculturation status were included. Data was linked with information from the expectant mothers’ antenatal records and with perinatal data routinely documented in the hospital. Regression modeling was used to adjust for age, parity and socio-economic status. Results The caesarean section rates for immigrants, second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrant women were similar. Neither indications for caesarean section delivery nor neonatal outcomes showed statistically significant differences. The only difference found was a somewhat higher rate of crash caesarean sections per 100 births among first generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants. Conclusion Unlike earlier German studies and current studies from other European countries, this study did not find an increased rate of caesarean sections among immigrants, as well as second- and third-generation women, with the possible exception of a small high-risk group. This indicates an equally high quality of perinatal care for women with and without a migration history. PMID:25985437

  12. [Mission to Berlin 1946].

    PubMed

    Sicard, A

    2001-01-01

    An interallied military delegation went to Spandau, a Berlin suburb, in order to realize the health state of some main Nazis accused of crimes against mankind and waiting to appear before the Nürnberg Court of Justice. PMID:11764800

  13. SMARTE: IMPROVING REVITALIZATION DECISIONS (BERLIN, GERMANY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART). In the U.S., the SMART compilation is housed in a web-based, decision support tool called SMARTe. All tools within SMARTe that are developed specifically for...

  14. Workshop report. Children as a special subpopulation: focus on immunotoxicity. Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), 15-16 November 2001, Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Richter-Reichhelm, H B; Althoff, J; Schulte, A; Ewe, S; Gundert-Remy, U

    2002-07-01

    An international symposium on the impact of environmental hazards, chemicals and drugs on the developing immune system of children was held in Berlin (Germany) organized by the BgVV. Epidemiological evidence indicates that an immature immune system challenged early in life by bacterial antigens may prevent, to some extent, allergic reactions including asthma bronchiale triggered by environmental pollutants. However, the prevalence for infectious disease is increased in childhood, especially when exposure to contaminants takes place in the period of pregnancy and breast-feeding. The effects of chlorinated biphenyls, dioxin, endotoxins, hexachlorobenzene, and direct and indirect in utero tobacco smoke exposure are examples. All participants recommend comparative and follow-up epidemiological studies and clinical examination of infants and children at risk during upbringing. There is ample evidence from experimental studies that indicates adverse effects on the developing immune system after in utero and postnatal exposure to chemicals and drugs. The adverse reactions of aciclovir, benzodiazepines, hexachlorobenzene, organotins (di-n-octyltin dichloride, tributyltin oxide), pesticides (methoxychlor, heptachlor) and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) are presented and reviewed. To determine the predictive value of test data in risk assessment for neonates and children, development, differentiation and maturation of the immune system in humans and laboratory rodents is compared in their pre- and postnatal stages. Considering some differences in immunocompetence at birth and after lactation, and differences in the time frame for maturation of the immune system, reaction types are thought to be common, comparable and similar in human childhood and early adolescence and the postnatal lifetime of laboratory rodents. The participants of the symposium felt strongly that regulatory steps urgently need to be initiated to incorporate some

  15. Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times. Conference Proceedings of the Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) (7th, Berlin, Germany, September 4-7, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käpplinger, Bernd, Ed.; Lichte, Nina, Ed.; Haberzeth, Erik, Ed.; Kulmus, Claudia, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book assembles over 50 papers from the 7th Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA), which was held from the 4th to the 7th of September 2013 at Humboldt-University in Berlin. The title of the conference was "Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional…

  16. "Eurotrain for Training." Proceedings of a European Congress on Continuing Education and Training (4th, Berlin, Germany; Warsaw, Poland; Prague, Czechoslovakia; Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria, October 5-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisser, Ulrike, Ed.; Grootings, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A "travelling" congress was conducted in five European cities (Berlin, Warsaw, Prague, Budapest, and Vienna) to promote a mutual exchange of views between east and west. The participants stressed the growing European Community interest in current examples of cooperation with neighbors in central and eastern Europe. In addition to promoting…

  17. The clean energy partnership Berlin-CEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhoff, Klaus

    The clean energy partnership (CEP) is an international cooperation comprising 11 energy and technology companies as well as car manufacturers (Aral/BP, BMW, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel, Hydro, Linde, TOTAL, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen AG). The vision of mobility based on hydrogen is commonly shared by the partners. The objective of the CEP is to prove everyday suitability of hydrogen for transportation purposes by real-life operation of hydrogen stations integrated into conventional filling stations, by efficient and reliable hydrogen vehicles in customer operation and by fast, convenient and safe fuelling of vehicles with liquid an gaseous hydrogen.

  18. Multi-stage Ag-Bi-Co-Ni-U and Cu-Bi vein mineralization at Wittichen, Schwarzwald, SW Germany: geological setting, ore mineralogy, and fluid evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staude, Sebastian; Werner, Wolfgang; Mordhorst, Teresa; Wemmer, Klaus; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    The Wittichen Co-Ag-Bi-U mining area (Schwarzwald ore district, SW Germany) hosts several unconformity-related vein-type mineralizations within Variscan leucogranite and Permian to Triassic redbeds. The multistage mineralization formed at the intersection of two fault systems in the last 250 Ma. A Permo-Triassic ore stage I with minor U-Bi-quartz-fluorite mineralization is followed by a Jurassic to Cretaceous ore stage II with the main Ag and Co mineralization consisting of several generations of gangue minerals that host the sub-stages of U-Bi, Bi-Ag, Ni-As-Bi and Co-As-Bi. Important ore minerals are native elements, Co and Ni arsenides, and pitchblende; sulphides are absent. The Miocene ore stage III comprises barite with the Cu-Bi sulfosalts emplectite, wittichenite and aikinite, and the sulphides anilite and djurleite besides native Bi, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and tennantite. The mineral-forming fluid system changed from low salinity (<5 wt.% NaCl) at high temperature (around 300°C) in Permian to highly saline (around 25 wt.% NaCl + CaCl2) at lower temperatures (50-150°C) in Triassic to Cretaceous times. Thermodynamic calculations and comparison with similar mineralizations worldwide show that the Mesozoic ore-forming fluid was alkaline with redox conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. We suggest that the precipitation mechanism for native elements, pitchblende and arsenides is a decrease in pH during fluid mixing processes. REE patterns in fluorite and the occurrence of Bi in all stages suggest a granitic source of some ore-forming elements, whereas, e.g. Ag, Co and Ni probably have been leached from the redbeds. The greater importance of Cu and isotope data indicates that the Miocene ore stage III is more influenced by fluids from the overlying redbeds and limestones than the earlier mineralization stages.

  19. The Transformation of East German Education--A Comparison between the Federal States of Berlin and Brandenburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambach, Jurgen

    1993-01-01

    Identifies issues related to educational reform in the former East Germany. Compares changes in the educational systems of the states of Berlin and Brandenburg and points out that the two entities are growing closer together. (CFR)

  20. Derivation of urban objects and their attributes for large-scale urban areas based on very high resolution UltraCam true orthophotos and nDSM: a case study Berlin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poznanska, Anna Maria; Bayer, Steven; Bucher, Tilman

    2013-10-01

    The development of automatic extraction methods for urban building and vegetation objects and the realization on a large urban data set have been accomplished within the project `Derivation of Building- and Vegetation Heights and Structures in Berlin'. This project was executed on behalf of the Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment of the City of Berlin. As input an UltraCamX dataset consisting of the true ortho mosaic with four spectral channels and the normalized digital surface model (nDSM) with 30 cm resolution were used. The size of the area adds up to about 450 km2. For the delineation of roof tiles additional slope and aspect layers were created. The workflow was developed in eCognition for automatic extraction of elevated urban objects and their height structures. Additionally we used focal statistics in ArcGIS to extend the workflow for the extraction of single tree crowns, since detailed information about the correct position and number of urban trees is relevant and completes the urban geo database. In this way a unique, complete and extensive workflow for an automatic urban objects extraction arises. Within the project methods for robust extraction of buildings with roof tiles as well as vegetation were applied. Greened roofs are automatically extracted and assigned to the class buildings. Furthermore building tiles which are located under trees are extracted by the intersection with the cadastral building data. For the transferability of the complete rule set a multi-layered workflow consisting of automated data import and export, iterating segmentation methods and fuzzy classification as well as object reshaping was developed and applied. The methods are transferable and effectively operate on large data sets. As results complete layers with building and vegetation shapes including single tree tops and crown outlines with comprehensive attributes like height and area are derived. The accuracies are in the range of 85% (trees) to 95

  1. Physics in Berlin I: The Historical City Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Hans-Jürgen Treder has written that, “During the nearly 60 years that spanned the call of Hermann Helmholtz to become professor of physics in the Berlin University ... in 1871, and Erwin Schrödinger’s call to the chair of theoretical physics [in 1927] ..., the general history of physics was closely connected to the history of physics in Berlin.”1 Besides Helmholtz and Schrödinger, the list of famous physicists who worked in Berlin during those six decades includes Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Max von Laue, Walther Nernst, Gustav Hertz, James Franck, and Lise Meitner, to name but some of them.2 But the heyday of physics in Berlin arose neither by chance nor out of the blue: It resulted from a long historical process that began with the foundation of the Brandenburg Academy of Science in 1700 by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; the present Academy of Science in Berlin is the direct descendent of that society. With the founding of the Academy in the capital of Prussia, science established itself in Berlin as a constituent part of its social life. It was predominantly in the context of mathematical research and the fields of mechanics and astronomy that physics was practiced at first. The names of such renowned scientists as Leonhard Euler, Joseph Louis Lagrange, Johann Heinrich Lambert, and Franz Ulrich Theodosius Aepinus bear witness to the remarkably high level that mathematical and physical research had reached in Berlin as early as the 18th century. There was no other city in Germany at that time where there was such a large and extraordinary community of mathematicians, physicists, and chemists teaching and carrying out research. You will find a reminder of this early period in the history of physics in Berlin at Behrenstrasse 21 (a street parallel to the western part of Unter den Linden), where Leonhard Euler lived during his Berlin period from 1743 to 1766. Of course, this is not Euler’s original house, since large parts of Berlin were totally destroyed by

  2. The Berlin Emissivity Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Jorn

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions

  3. [Eating disorders in adolescents in East and West Berlin in the 80's].

    PubMed

    Neumärker, K J; Steinhausen, H C; Dudeck, U; Neumärker, U; Seidel, R; Reitzle, M

    1994-02-01

    Data collected in the 1980's, before the reunification of Germany, and comparing 39 patients in former East Berlin and 60 patients in former West Berlin are presented in this second report on the Berlin longitudinal study of eating disorders in adolescence. The clinical profiles of patients of former East Berlin were found to differ from those of their West Berlin counterparts in the following assessed measures: younger age at disease onset and at admission for inpatient treatment; greater number of siblings; fewer accounts of the clinical symptoms lanugo, bradycardia, hypothermia, constipation; lower rate of premorbid psychopathological features; lower number of psychopathological findings; less frequent sibling rivalry; lower rate of psychopathological attributes among the siblings; lower incidence of maternal mental and physical illness; higher parental educational status; fewer number of complaints, and better sense of well-being. PMID:8165205

  4. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  5. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  6. Implementation and enforcement of the 3Rs principle in the field of transgenic animals used for scientific purposes. Report and recommendations of the BfR expert workshop, May 18-20, 2009, Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kretlow, Ariane; Butzke, Daniel; Goetz, Mario E; Grune, Barbara; Halder, Marlies; Henkler, Frank; Liebsch, Manfred; Nobiling, Rainer; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Reifenberg, Kurt; Schaefer, Bernd; Seiler, Andrea; Luch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, 2.7 million vertebrates were used for animal experiments and other scientific purposes in Germany alone. Since 1998 there has been an increase in the number of animals used for research purposes, which is partly attributable to the growing use of transgenic animals. These animals are, for instance, used as in vivo models to mimic human diseases like diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Here, transgenic model organisms serve as valuable tools, being instrumental in facilitating the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases, and might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Due to variable and, sometimes low, efficiency (depending on the species used), however, the generation of such animals often requires a large number of embryo donors and recipients. The experts evaluated methods that could possibly be utilised to reduce, refine or even replace experiments with transgenic vertebrates in the mid-term future. Among the promising alternative model organisms available at the moment are the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Specific cell culture experiments or three-dimensional (3D) tissue models also offer valuable opportunities to replace experiments with transgenic animals or reduce the number of laboratory animals required by assisting in decision-making processes. Furthermore, at the workshop an in vitro technique was presented which permits the production of complete human antibodies without using genetically modified ("humanised") animals. Up to now, genetically modified mice are widely used for this purpose. Improved breeding protocols, enhanced efficiency of mutagenesis as well as training of laboratory personnel and animal keepers can also help to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals. Well-trained staff in particular can help to minimise the pain, suffering and discomfort of animals and, at the same time, improve the quality of data obtained from animal

  7. Inverting Images of the 40s: The Berlin Wall and Collective Amnesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loshitzky, Yosefa

    1995-01-01

    Examines images of World War II invoked in two live, international music concerts (one rock, one classical) celebrating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Argues that Western television's choice of imagery represented the Wall's demise as a marker of the end of the Cold War rather than a vanishing monument of Germany's conflicted struggle with Holocaust…

  8. Formation of the Wiesloch Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the extensional setting of the Upper Rhinegraben, SW Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Katharina; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the Wiesloch area, Southwest Germany, is controlled by graben-related faults of the Upper Rhinegraben. Mineralization occurs as vein fillings and irregular replacement ore bodies consisting of sphalerite, banded sphalerite, galena, pyrite, sulfosalts (jordanite and geocronite), barite, and calcite in the Middle Triassic carbonate host rock. Combining paragenetic information, fluid inclusion investigations, stable isotope and mineral chemistry with thermodynamic modeling, we have derived a model for the formation of the Wiesloch deposit. This model involves fluid mixing between ascending hot brines (originating in the crystalline basement) with sedimentary formation waters. The ascending brines originally had a near-neutral pH (around 6) and intermediate oxidation state, reflecting equilibrium with granites and gneisses in the basement. During fluid ascent and cooling, the pH of the brine shifted towards more acidic (around 4) and the oxidation state increased to conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. These chemical characteristics contrast strongly with those of the pore and fracture fluid residing in the limestone aquifer, which had a pH between 8 and 9 in equilibrium with calcite and was rather reduced due to the presence of organic matter in the limestone. Mixing between these two fluids resulted in a strong decrease in the solubility of silver-bearing sphalerite and galena, and calcite. Besides Wiesloch, several Pb-Zn deposits are known along the Upper Rhinegraben, including hydrothermal vein-type deposits like Badenweiler and the Michael mine near Lahr. They all share the same fluid origin and formation process and only differ in details of their host rock and fluid cooling paths. The mechanism of fluid mixing also seems to be responsible for the formation of other MVT deposits in Europe (e.g., Reocin, Northern Spain; Treves, Southern France; and Cracow-Silesia, Poland), which show notable

  9. CEDEFOP Forum (7th, Berlin, Germany, September 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, F. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This narrative account summarizes the 2-day research forum of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP). Presentations focus on the central theme of the forum: new qualifications versus skill shortages. They include Kees Meijer's outline of the research undertaken in a series of national studies on skill shortages…

  10. Child Care in East Germany: A Visit after the Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes contrasts in the author's visits to East and West Berlin in 1972 and 1990. Discusses visits to child care centers in East and West Germany in 1990 and concludes with speculation about the future of child care services in a reunited Germany. (DR)

  11. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic self-concept and…

  12. Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device: Multilayer Membrane Rupture in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Filippelli, Sergio; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Secinaro, Aurelio; Zielinski, Krystzof; Amodeo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A 2-year-old child was implanted with an Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany) as a bridge to heart transplantation for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. At postoperative day 296, a significant reduction of membrane movement was observed. The device was explanted and tested on a hydronumerical circulation simulator. Findings suggested that the integrity of the multilayered membrane had been compromised. This was confirmed by a computed tomography scan of the device. The computed tomography evidenced a detachment of the 3-layered membrane, with a thinner, convex layer on the side of the air chamber and an opposite convexity of the remaining membranes. These showed an additional air space within the layers. PMID:27449447

  13. Candi(e)d action: biosocialities of Turkish Berliners living with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guell, Cornelia

    2011-09-01

    In this article, I explore Turkish migrants' responses to diabetes in Germany. Anthropological studies on health inequalities tend to theorize "social suffering" as passive experiences; those that analyze active social engagement by patient groups as "biosociality" do so solely in the realm of biotechnologies and suggest that social disadvantage prevent active engagement. This article draws on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Berlin from 2006 to 2007. Although Turkish Berliners seem burdened by diabetes, informal diabetes care, for example through a self-help group, is nonetheless collectively negotiated. Increasing incidence and awareness of diabetes in Berlin's Turkish population and their growing political organization and economic entrepreneurship, against the backdrop of experiences of marginality, gives rise to biosociality unanticipated in previous accounts. Addressing the limitations of previous uses of biosociality, this ethnography suggests that social interaction and belonging that formed around altered biologies, here diabetes, are complex and fragmented. PMID:22007563

  14. When the Girls Still Wore Headscarves: Integration and Belonging in an After-School Center in Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    This study is centered on a youth center in Berlin, Germany, that serves migrant females. It draws on the anthropology of performance and the concept of "friction" to argue for an understanding of performances of belonging, where migrant girls stage acts of inclusion through creative encounters with the forces of integration to negotiate…

  15. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  16. "Verfremdung" in Action at the Berliner Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas K.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of Brecht's aesthetic principles, particularly "Verfremdung" (the device of renewal and estrangement), including the opinions of the Berliner Ensemble concerning to what degree they have retained Brecht's principles in productions of his plays. (DD)

  17. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  18. Erich Langer: the last Jewish dermatologist in Nazi Berlin. 532-41.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Plewig, Gerd; Kohl, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    Nazi anti-Semitism had a considerable impact on dermatology during the period 1933 to 1945. Before World War II, dermatology in German-speaking lands was at the forefront of medicine, and about 25% of the dermatologists were Jewish. Many perished during the Holocaust; others emigrated from Germany and played a major role in advancing dermatology in their new homes, especially in the United States. Erich Langer (1891-1957) was almost unique, because he survived the entire period in Berlin. Langer had been chief of dermatology at Berlin-Britz, a large city hospital, before 1933 but was discharged almost immediately after the Nazi takeover because of his Jewish roots. In June 1945 he returned to his old department and resumed charge. He became one of the key figures in rebuilding German dermatology in the immediate postwar years. He served as first chair of dermatology at the new Free University in Berlin, started two journals, and wrote several books. Until recently, very little was known about Erich Langer's mysterious tale of survival and how he evaded Nazi roundups. Fortunately, we have discovered considerable archival material that has allowed us to piece together, for the first time, a detailed account of Langer's courageous and remarkable story as the last Jewish dermatologist inNazi Berlin. PMID:25144942

  19. Emigrated neuroscientists from Berlin to North America.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The highest number of German scholars and physicians, forced by the National Socialist regime to emigrate for "race" or political reasons, were from Berlin. Language and medical exams were requested differently in their new host country-the United States-leading to a concentration of immigrants in the New York and Boston areas. Very early Emergency Committees in Aid of German Scholars and Physicians were established. Undergraduate students (like F. A. Freyhan, H. Lehmann, and H.-L. Teuber) from Berlin seemed to integrate easily, in contrast to colleagues of more advanced age. Some of the former chiefs and senior assistants of Berlin's neurological departments could achieve a successful resettlement (C. E. Benda, E. Haase, C. F. List, and F. Quadfasel) and some a minor degree of success (F. H. Lewy and K. Goldstein). A group of neuropsychiatrists from Bonhoeffer's staff at the Berlin Charité Hospital could rely on the forceful intercession of their former chief. The impact of the émigré colleagues on North American neuroscience is traced in some cases. Apart from the influential field of psychoanalysis, a more diffuse infiltration of German and European neuropsychiatry may be assumed. The contribution to the postwar blossoming of neuropsychology by the émigré neuroscientists K. Goldstein, F. Quadfasel, and H.-L. Teuber is demonstrated in this article. PMID:26853762

  20. Inevitable? Doping attitudes among Berliners in 2011: the role of socialist state socialisation and athlete experience.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gert G; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2016-06-01

    To design effective and commonly accepted public health policies against performance-enhancing drugs (PED), it is important to understand general population attitudes. This article elicits PED attitudes in the Berlin population and compares response rates of former athletes (N = 496) with those of non-athletes (N = 1686). In addition, exploiting the natural experiment of the division of Germany, by comparing East (N = 687) to West Berliners (N = 1315), the article studies the long-term impact of state socialisation on PED attitudes. Former West German amateur athletes are a statistically significant 6ppt more likely to believe that athletes can be successful without doping. Former GDR amateur athletes are 8ppt more likely to believe that doping is inevitable in professional sports. PMID:27056894

  1. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  2. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A Portrait of…

  3. 78 FR 41398 - City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Treatment Plant Hydroelectric Project (Project) to be located on a water supply conduit at the City of Berlin's municipal water treatment plant (WTP), in Coos County, New Hampshire. The sole purpose... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  4. How Did the Tree of Knowledge Get Its Blossom? The Rise of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, with an Eye on Berlin and Leipzig.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Bretislav

    2016-04-25

    "Physical chemistry is not just a branch on but the blossom of the tree of knowledge," declared Ostwald, a most vocal advocate of his field, conceived as the basis for all of chemistry. This Essay describes the historical development of physical and theoretical chemistry with a focus on Berlin and Leipzig, its foremost centers in Germany. PMID:27010426

  5. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. PMID:23505255

  6. The influence of geopolitical change on the well-being of a population: the Berlin Wall.

    PubMed Central

    Héon-Klin, V; Sieber, E; Huebner, J; Fullilove, M T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Social cohesion is recognized as a fundamental condition for healthy populations, but social cohesion itself arises from political unity. The history of the Berlin Wall provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of partition on social cohesion and, by inference, on health. METHODS: This ethnographic study consisted of examination of the territory formerly occupied by the Wall, formal and informal interviews with Berlin residents, and collection of cultural documents related to the Wall. Transcripts, field notes, and documents were examined by means of a keyword-in-context analysis. RESULTS: The separation of Berlin into 2 parts was a traumatic experience for the city's residents. After partition, East and West Germany had divergent social, cultural, and political experiences and gradually grew apart. CONCLUSIONS: The demolition of the Wall--the symbol and the instrument of partition--makes possible but does not ensure the reintegration of 2 populations that were separated for 40 years. The evolution of a new common culture might be accelerated by active attempts at cultural and social exchange. PMID:11236400

  7. Akademische Sternkarten, Berlin 1830-59

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. H. P.

    The star charts published by the Berlin Academy between 1830 and 1859 are now largely remembered only for the fact that they enabled Galle to discover Neptune in 1846. The plan to produce them was proposed by F.W. Bessel in 1822 ( A.N.,l, 17, 257). He suggested that the catalogues of Bradley, Lalande and Piazzi should be reduced according to a uniform scheme and collated with the zone catalogues within 15 degrees of the equator which he was publishing piecemeal at that time. The catalogued stars were to be supplemented by un-catalogued stars which could be seen in a `comet-seeker'. The first reason put forward for the project was to aid the discovery of comets and minor planets. Twenty four astronomers were to take part in the work, each taking an hour of right ascension. The results were to be published by the `Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin' as both charts and catalogue. The project was not completed until 1859, after Bessel's death. The introduction is signed by Encke and Dove. Most contributors confined themselves to the catalogued stars, only three made supplementary observations of fainter stars. They used a `Glasmikrometer' invented by Steinheil. The project is an early paradigm of international co-operation. It led to the `Bonner durchmusterung' of Argelander, who was himself a contributor to the Akademische Sternkarten. The 19th century concept of a `durchmusterung' led to the 20th century concept of a `flux-limited sample'.

  8. The macromolecular crystallography beamlines at BESSY II of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin: Current status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Uwe; Förster, Ronald; Hellmig, Michael; Huschmann, Franziska U.; Kastner, Alexandra; Malecki, Piotr; Pühringer, Sandra; Röwer, Martin; Sparta, Karine; Steffien, Michael; Ühlein, Monika; Wilk, Piotr; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-07-01

    For a little over a decade now, the Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) group at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has been operating three state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX at the BESSY II storage ring in Berlin. The three HZB-MX beamlines, BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3, serve a stable and growing user community of currently more than 100 independent research groups from Berlin, Germany and Europe. Every year, the beamlines provide close to 200 days of MX-beamtime. Over time, the HZB-MX beamlines and endstations, in particular BL14.1, have been continually developed and upgraded and, since 2010, they operate as the most productive MX beamlines in Germany. The environment of the beamlines includes various ancillary equipment as well as additional facilities, such as office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a safety level 1 biology laboratory (HZB-MX BioLab) and all necessary computing resources. In this paper, the current status of the beamlines as well as the ongoing developments are described.

  9. Berlin's Adult Education Centres (Volkshochschulen) from 1945 to 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Karl Heinz; Korthaase, Werner

    Two lectures on the development of Berlin's adult education centers after World War II are included. The lecture by Werner Korthaase begins by describing the situation prior to 1920, when Berlin was divided into independent districts, each with its own administrative authorities. It then describes the reestablishment of the local adult education…

  10. The Berlin Wall: A Simulation for the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III

    2010-01-01

    November 9, 2009, marked the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Berlin Wall. The Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, separated the German people for 28 years (1961-1989), keeping those on the East side isolated. Although the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall is a significant part of history, the topic is little covered in the…

  11. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date. PMID:27527765

  12. [Selmar Aschheim (1878-1965) and Bernhard Zondek (1891-1966). On the fate of 2 Jewish physicians and researchers at the Berlin Charité Hospital].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    1997-03-01

    In 1927, Selmar Aschheim and Bernhard Zondek developed the first biological pregnancy test by urine hormone detection. This so-called Aschheim-Zondek-reaction was a practical application of their research about the effects of anteropituitary hormones (gonadotrophin) on the female sexual organs and pregnancy. Life and scientific merits of these two gynecologists working in Berlin until 1933 are demonstrated. Due to their Jewish extraction, they had to leave their duties and finally Germany during National Socialism. PMID:9244663

  13. Current state and development of the real-time control of the Berlin sewage system.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1970s, we have known about real-time control of urban drainage systems. However, global real-time control strategies still show a lack of implementation for large drainage systems of high complexity. In Berlin, Germany, a city of 3.5 million inhabitants covering an area of around 900 km2, the demand for enhanced protection of the environment and growing economic pressure have led to an increasing application of control assets and concepts within the sewage system. In the framework of the project "Integrated Sewage Management", the possibilities of a global and integrated control strategy for the Berlin system are examined. The paper is focused on the historical concept and design of the sewerage and the further improvement towards an environment-oriented system that builds the basis for today's considerations. The operational method and functionality of local regulators that have already been implemented are described. Further-more, the model-based methodology for the analysis of the system and the development of global control concepts, as well as the results of system analysis, are stated. On the basis of model simulations, it is shown that a global coordination of pump stations can lead to a reduction of sewer overflows, and consequently to an enhanced water protection. PMID:16477985

  14. 10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 1 of 2, July 5, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  15. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  16. [A case of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in a zoo born dromedary in the Berlin-Fridrichsfelde zoo].

    PubMed

    Priemer, J; Jakob, W

    1998-03-01

    In Germany, the threat to human health by the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has been increasingly discussed in the last few years. On the other hand, the hydatid worm of the dog (Echinococcus granulosus) became more and more rare in Germany and was often declared to be eradicated. This paper presents a case of hydatid infection of the lung in an adult dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), which was born and kept all its life at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Questions connected with E. granulosus infection are discussed from an ecological point of view: history, urbanisation, biology, clinical signs, potential threat to man, prophylaxis and treatment. In view of the extensive and sometimes uncontrolled dog keeping in urban households it must be stressed that careful documentation and surveillance of this life-threatening zoonosis, which was the main reason for its decline in the past, has not yet lost its importance. PMID:9542809

  17. Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women - Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin.

    PubMed

    David, M; Borde, T; Brenne, S; Ramsauer, B; Henrich, W; Breckenkamp, J; Razum, O

    2014-05-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6 %; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The

  18. Robotics Developments and Future Applications. Seminar Report (Berlin, West Germany, November 29, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illi, M.; And Others

    This collection includes five papers assessing current and projected developments in the field of robotics and the implications of these developments for vocational-technical education. The first paper, "New Applications for Industrial Robots--Perspectives for the Next Five Years" (M. Illi) compares advances in robotics in Japan and the Federal…

  19. Optical methods in atmospheric chemistry; Proceedings of the Meeting, Berlin, Germany, June 22-24, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Harold I.; Platt, Ulrich

    Various papers on atmospheric chemistry are presented. Individual topics addressed include: molecular modulation spectroscopy studies involving peroxy radical reactions, spectroscopic studies of model polar stratospheric cloud films, rates of hydroxyl radical reactions with some HFCs, heterogeneous processes of nitrogen dioxide on liquid surfaces, temperature-dependence absorption cross sections for HNO3 and H2O5, tunable-diode-laser-based monitoring of atmospheric gases, compact tunable diode laser spectrometer for environmental monitoring, improved open-path multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3, problems in global atmospheric chemistry, scattered sky observations of stratospheric OClO at McMurdo Station, star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer for remote sensing of the stratosphere. Also discussed are: sensitivity limits of laser intracavity spectroscopy, novel ranging UV-visible spectrometer for remote sensing of the troposphere, balloon-borne measurements of the actinic flux in the UV spectral region, balloon-borne submillimeter-wave stratospheric measurements, FIR Fabry-Perot spectrometer for OH measurements, ESA's contribution to atmospheric chemistry, the ATLAS-1 mission atmospheric trace molecular spectroscopy experiment, thermal sounding of the atmosphere under non-LTE conditions, GOME instrument simulation, global ozone monitoring experiment on board ERS 2.

  20. CEDEFOP Forum 1993 (9th, Berlin, Germany, October 21-22, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The ninth meeting of CEDEFOP (French acronym for the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) is summarized in this report. Attending the forum were representatives of the leading vocational training research and development institutions and ministerial departments from the European Community (EC) Member States and from…

  1. Education through music--the model of the Musikkindergarten Berlin.

    PubMed

    Uibel, Stefanie

    2012-04-01

    In 2005, the pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim initiated the Musikkindergarten Berlin as the first kindergarten in which music is not only used as an occasional add-on but as the central education medium for the child every day. The skills of specially trained kindergarten teachers combined with regular visits by professional musicians of the Staatskapelle Berlin (the Berlin State Opera orchestra) form the basis of a new educational concept, in which children experience music in all its different aspects and in its unique capability as a transfer medium into all the other educational areas. In this context, the method, the aim, and the experimental ground is not only education in or with music, but through music. This paper provides information and examples about first-hand experiences over the last six years. PMID:22524339

  2. Illegality as risk factor: a survey of unauthorized migrant patients in a Berlin clinic.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Heide

    2009-04-01

    Unauthorized migrants face health disadvantages in many receiving nations. However, few studies have explored precisely how the condition of "illegality" influences illness experiences, medical treatment, and convalescence. This article presents a case study from Germany (2004-2006 and 2008), where unauthorized migrants face limited access to health care and the threat of deportation results in avoidance of services and treatment delays. This is confounded by unique laws which essentially criminalize health care workers for aiding migrants. This article provides a snapshot of 183 patients who attended a Berlin clinic that functions as the single largest source of medical assistance for unauthorized persons in Germany. The demographic information sketches a picture of labor migrants with a mean age of approximately 29 years. More women than men presented at this clinic, a result of its ability to successfully arrange prenatal care and delivery as well as a reflection of local labor markets. The diversity of countries of origin (n=55) is surprising, underscoring the utility of using illegal status as a unifying variable to highlight migrants' shared position in the global economy and the resulting barriers to basic medical services. Patients presented with a range of illnesses typical for their age group. However, the effects of illegal status resulted in four areas of disparities: 1) limits to the overall quality and quantity of care for mothers and infants; 2) delayed presentation and difficulties accessing a regular supply of medication for patients with chronic illnesses; 3) difficulties in accessing immediate medical attention for unpredictable injuries and other acute health concerns; and 4) a lack of mental health care options for generalized stress and anxiety affecting health. In Germany, an incoherent policy environment contributes to inadequate services and treatment delays. Solutions must address these legal ambiguities, which represent a primary barrier

  3. Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Howe Pony ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Howe Pony Truss, 1918, Title Sheet - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  4. Influence of shallow flow on the deep geothermal field of Berlin - Results from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Maximilian; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Hassanzadegan, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the influence of fluid-driven heat transport on the subsurface temperature distribution of the city of Berlin, Germany. Berlin is located in the Northeast German Basin filled with several kilometers of sediments. Two of the clastic sedimentary units, namely the Middle Buntsandstein and the Sedimentary Rotliegend are of particular interest for geothermal exploration. Previous studies in the Northeast German Basin have already shown that subsurface temperature distributions are highly dependent on the geometries and properties of the geological units. Our work benefits strongly from these studies that involve numerical modeling of coupled conductive and convective heat transport. We follow a two-step approach where we first improve an existing structural model by integrating newly available 57 geological cross-sections, well data and deep seismics (down to ~4 km). Secondly, we perform a sensitivity analysis in which we investigate the effects of varying physical fluid and rock properties as well as hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions on the resulting temperature configuration. Computed temperatures are validated via comparison with existing well temperature measurements in the area. Of special interest for this study is the influence of the shallow aquifer systems on the subsurface temperature field. The major constituents of this system are the Quaternary silts and sands, the Tertiary Rupelian clay and the Tertiary sands beneath the Rupelian. These units have different hydraulic properties. The Rupelian clay represents a major aquitard in this respect hydraulically disconnecting the pre- and post-Rupelian succession. This aquitard shows a heterogeneous thickness distribution locally characterized by different hydrogeological windows (i.e. domains of no thickness) enabling intra-aquifer groundwater circulation at depth thus having a first-order effect on the shallow thermal field. As result of the simulations, we present

  5. Kinderland in the Fatherland: Growing Children in Imperial Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the milieu in which children of Imperial Berlin were raised. When contemporaries in the rapidly expanding capital of the Second German Empire (1871-1918) looked at children, this milieu darkened. The city, they argued, threatened children's growing bodies, and such institutions as the home, the clinic, and the school…

  6. Berlin Kompass: Multimodal Gameful Empowerment for Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioniemi, Pekka; Posti, Laura-Pihkala; Hakulinen, Jaakko; Turunen, Markku; Keskinen, Tuuli; Raisamo, Roope

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative, gameful, multimodal, and authentic learning environment for training of oral communication in a foreign language--a virtual adventure called Berlin Kompass. After a brief presentation of the pedagogical and technological backgrounds, the system is described. Central results of a series of pilots in autumn 2013…

  7. Studying Abroad in Berlin and Achieving Cultural Competence Using English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gregory H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a short-term study abroad program conducted in Berlin in English for college students. Guided by the academic goals of developing cultural competence, demonstrating cultural communication, and attaining a basic level of cultural literacy, this program, with its pre- and post-program academic components, offers an alternative…

  8. Trends and Perspectives of Secondary Education in West Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Kohler, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Two factors have shaped the development of the secondary education system in Berlin during the last 15 years: the demographic fluctuations shifting the pressure from one stage of the school system to another and the lengthened duration of school attendance. (MLW)

  9. On Improving Teacher Effectiveness: A Conversation with David Berliner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1982-01-01

    An interview with David Berliner explores his claims that research on teacher effectiveness will only be applied practically when "connoisseurs of teaching" act as teacher coaches, helping teachers to analyze the effects of their behaviors, specify new behaviors, and assess the results. (PGD)

  10. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. PMID:25466970

  11. Battling Creaticide: An Interview with David C. Berliner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David C. Berliner, a Regents' Professor in the College of Education at Arizona State University. His books include "Educational Psychology," "The Manufactured Crisis," and "The Handbook of Educational Psychology." He has served as president of the American Educational Research Association and of the…

  12. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998. PMID:9670490

  13. Career Patterns of Female Professors in West Berlin Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The career patterns of 30 women professors in West Berlin were studied to compare the pace of progress of American female academics and to raise the consciousness of women for each other and for the situation of women in West Berlin universities. The data revealed that the West Berlin universities are male-dominated and resistant to change. Women…

  14. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany. PMID:23892481

  15. Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegele, Stefan; Koch, Hagen; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin Stefan Vögelea, Hagen Kochb&c, Uwe Grünewaldb a Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy Research - Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, D-52425 Jülich, Germany b Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Chair Hydrology and Water Resources Management, P.O. Box. 101 344, D-03013 Cottbus, Germany c Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Research Domain Climate Impacts and Vulnerabilities, P.O. Box 601203, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany Numerous power plants in Europe had to be throttled in the summer months of the years 2003 and 2006 due to water shortages and high water temperatures. Therefore, the effects of climate change on water availability and water temperature, and their effects on electric power generation in power plants have received much attention in the last years. The water demand of a power plant for cooling depends on the temperature of the surface waters from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Furthermore, air temperature and air humidity influence the water demand if a cooling tower is used. Beside climatic parameters, the demand for water depends on economic and technological factors as well as on the electricity demand and the socio-political framework. Since the different systems are connected with certain levels of uncertainty, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change should be used in analyses of climate change on power plants and to identify adaptation measures. In this presentation the effects of global change, comprising technological, socio-economic and climate change, and adaptation options to water shortages for power plants in the German capital Berlin in the short- and long-term are analysed. The interconnection between power plants, i.e. water demand, and water resources management, i.e. water availability, is described in detail. By changing the cooling system of power

  16. Berlin Access: an initiative of Berlin SMEs and Fraunhofer-HHI for new FTTH technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döldissen, Walter; Keil, Norbert; Möhrle, Martin; Schlaak, Wolfgang; Yao, Huihai; Zawadzki, Crispin

    2006-07-01

    "Berlin Access", a regional R&D project carried out by six companies and Heinrich Hertz Institute, Fraunhofer Society, is geared towards low cost solutions for fibre access network architectures (PON and CWDM-PON), ONU transceivers, and passive fibre components. Close communication with system manufacturers, non-incumbent carriers, and a city services supplier implementing a local FTTH network supports orientation towards market demands. In this paper we report on a new FTTH transceiver based on an all-polymer PLC motherboard. The waveguides exhibit high transmission, strong optical confinement, and large operation temperature range. Low loss passively adjusted fibre/PLC coupling is achieved by employing a waveguide taper. Downstream/upstream wavelength separation is accomplished by a directional coupler, or, alternatively, a thin film filter inserted into the input/output waveguide (the latter approach also allowing for the provisioning of an overlay broadcasting channel). The horizontal-cavity surface-emitting laser diode, the pin-photodiode (equipped with a thin film filter for improved crosstalk suppression), and the monitor diode are all flip-chip surface mounted; the light being coupled via 45° waveguide mirrors. Chip mounting can be done with a commercial fineplacer using semi-active automatic alignment. Micro-strip lines with impedances adapted to both laser and photodiode are fabricated on the basis of the PLC films. The polymer motherboard integration scheme offers compact transceiver optical subassemblies and lends itself favourably to highly automized, low cost manufacturing with high yield. Extended functionalities like loss of light alarm or concepts for colourless CWDM ONUs can be easily realized with this concept.

  17. Accuracy Assessment for AG500, Electromagnetic Articulograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Mefferd, Antje

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the AG500 (Carstens Medizinelectronik, Lenglern, Germany), an electromagnetic device developed recently to register articulatory movements in three dimensions. This technology seems to have unprecedented capabilities to provide rich information about time-varying…

  18. [The neurology department of the Lankwitz Hospital. A contribution to the history of emigration, psychotherapy and the Berlin hospital].

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    At Lankwitz near Berlin the Jewish physicians James Fraenkel and Albert Oliven founded a private hospital in 1890. This hospital, which integrated seven departments, became one of the biggest private asylums in the Reich during the first decade of the 20th century. Parts of the hospital served the military during WWI. As most of the physicians at Lankwitz were Jewish, the year 1933 meant an immense moral and scientific decline, since these physicians were forced to leave and later threatened. We know of one physician killed in a concentration camp. Hardly any research about this hospital had been published until the 1990's. This contribution is the first portraying one department--that of neurology. From the early years of the hospital, therapists involved with psycho-dynamic psychiatry and psychoanalysis were attracted to it. Lankwitz was a major experience for a number of later famous psychiatrists and psychoanalysts. This continued to be the case during the years of the Weimar Republic, after the hospital had been leased [verpachtet] to the insurance companies [gesetzliche Krankenkassen] of Greater Berlin. Revealing more about the history of Berlin's private clinics, this article also contributes to the city's history of neurology, psychiatry and psychotherapy. For the example of Lankwitz, the myth of a 'marginalized psychoanalysis', rejected by the contemorary medicine, cannot be corroborated. On the contrary, the Lankwitz physicians portrayed here seemed to have combined and integrated clinical work with psychoanalytic theory and practice. Germany's turn towards National Socialism however meant an immediate end for the Lankwitz clinic and the mode of therapy described. PMID:15291149

  19. Migration and informal work in the new Berlin: new forms of work or new sources of labour?

    PubMed

    Wilpert, C

    1998-04-01

    This article focuses on the growing informalization of work, which refers to the strategies that aim to avoid state control and its identification with new migration streams in Berlin. The growth of unemployment and low-waged precarious jobs in an informal or shadow economy is said to be a result of the influx of new illegal migrants. Although Germany does not consider itself as a country of immigration, continuous exceptions have been made to permit the restricted access of temporary workers. The major patterns for new migration were shaped by policies adopted during post-war reconstruction. Programs were started in connection with the asylum compromise and the transformations in Germany and eastern Europe. The informalization of work has gained a new significance in the post-unification era. In conclusion, the diverse processes of re-structuring, deregulation, and migratory labor movements combined with the total lack of acceptance of the notion that Germany is a country of immigration, have created new sources of undocumented skilled and unskilled labor for an expanding informalized sector of the labor market. PMID:12294872

  20. Giving back: activist research with undocumented migrants in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Huschke, Susann

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my doctoral field work in Berlin (2008-2010), on the illness experiences of undocumented Latin American labor migrants, and on my work as an activist for the Berlin-based nongovernmental organization Medibüro, an anti-racist migrant health organization. I highlight how my attempts to 'give back,' and the various forms of engagements and commitments that resulted from it, shaped my relationships with actors in the field, the data I gathered, and the analytical framework I employed. I offer solutions on how to address these (unintended) effects of activism, and highlight the unique potential of activist research in regard to the forms of data available to the researcher and in gaining and retaining field access. By probing into some of its concrete methodological and analytical implications, I explore how to do activist research. PMID:25084824

  1. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of the Berlin definition].

    PubMed

    de Luis Cabezón, N; Sánchez Castro, I; Bengoetxea Uriarte, U X; Rodrigo Casanova, M P; García Peña, J M; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is due to many causes. The absence of a universal definition up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive diagnosis. The incidences of ARDS and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) vary widely in the current literature. The American-European Consensus Conference definition has been applied since its publication in 1994 and has helped to improve knowledge about ARDS. However, 18 years later, in 2011, the European Intensive Medicine Society, requested a team of international experts to meet in Berlin to review the ARDS definition. The purpose of the Berlin definition is not to use it as a prognostic tool, but to improve coherence between research and clinical practice. PMID:24780650

  2. Max Eitingon's rise and decline: the Berlin years.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Max Eitingon's main achievement was the foundation of the Berlin psychoanalytic Poliklinik that served both as an outpatient center and a training institute. Another area of his responsibility was the Verlag, the International Psychoanalytic Press. By 1926, he occupied several leading positions, including presidency of the International Psychoanalytical Association and editorship of the major psychoanalytic journal of the time. The basis of his power was his personal relationship with Freud, as well as his monetary wealth, which he put into the service of the Freudian cause. By 1932, he had suffered an overall setback, however, with the Berlin Institute losing its best teachers, the Verlag barely escaping bankruptcy, and the journal's editorship returning to Vienna. PMID:25619367

  3. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  4. Hydrodynamische und hydrochemische Aspekte der anthropogen und natürlich induzierten Uferfiltration am Beispiel von Berlin/Brandenburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, G.; Pekdeger, A.; Dünnbier, U.; Heberer, T.; Richter, D.; Sültenfuß, J.; Tosaki, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Bank filtration is the natural or anthropogenically induced process of surface water infiltration into an aquifer. It is of particular importance as a method to gain or pre-treat water for drinking water production. The hydrodynamic and hydrochemical processes during bank filtration were investigated at one rural site in the Oderbruch and at two urban sites in Berlin (Germany). Results show that these sites differ substantially with regard to the characteristics of the hyporheic zone (permeable versus clogged), travel times (decades versus months to decades) and shape of the redox zones (horizontal versus vertical redox succession). The hyporheic zone is a key parameter determining the site characteristics. Since the surface water in Berlin contains a proportion of treated sewage, a number of wastewater-bound substances (e. g. pharmaceutical residues) have been detected in the surface water. Most of them were, however, fully or partly removed during bank filtration. The redox conditions are an important key parameter with regard to the elimination (or persistence) of a number of organic trace compounds (e. g. phenazone, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin), whose elimination depends on the prevailing redox environment.

  5. Scientific Cooperation Between the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) and Cuba in the 1960s and 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Helge

    After the ratification of its constitution in 1959, the young Cuban Republic sought new cooperation partners in a number of different fields. One of these fields was scientific cooperation. It seems the Cubans quickly found partners in the academies of science of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and China, whereas the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) was reluctant to engage in long-term cooperative projects. In the early 1960s, the universities of East Germany (GDR) began to send docents and scientists to Cuba where they participated in the summer schools, taught for one semester or more in one of the universities and undertook research that would be useful for their home institutions. However, the DAW carefully observed the reestablishment of Cuba's own academy of science before becoming involved in common projects with Cuban partners.

  6. Jewish gynecologists in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Udo; Ludwig, Hans

    2005-10-01

    The political changes in Germany of 1933 led to discrimination, expulsion and emigration of Jewish doctors. This article addresses the memory of gynecologists who were eminent physicians or made fundamental discoveries. Short biographies of Ludwig Fraenkel, Selmar Aschheim, Bernhard Zondek, Ludwig Adler, Robert Meyer and Paul Ferdinand Strassmann highlight their work and their links to the Gynecological Society in Berlin and to the German Society of Gynecology, the foundation of the latter being inspired by Wilhelm Alexander Freund from Strasbourg. PMID:16086229

  7. Time-of-flight Extreme Environment Diffractometer at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhnenko, Oleksandr Stein, Wolf-Dieter; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen; Fromme, Michael; Bartkowiak, Maciej; Wilpert, Thomas

    2015-03-15

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED) is a new neutron time-of-flight instrument at the BER II research reactor at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany. Although EXED is a special-purpose instrument, its early construction made it available for users as a general-purpose diffractometer. In this respect, EXED became one of the rare examples, where the performance of a time-of-flight diffractometer at a continuous source can be characterized. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of EXED with an emphasis on the unique instrument capabilities. The latter comprise variable wavelength resolution and wavelength band, control of the incoming beam divergence, the possibility to change the angular positions of detectors and their distance to the sample, and use of event recording and offline histogramming. These features combined make EXED easily tunable to the requirements of a particular problem, from conventional diffraction to small angle neutron scattering. The instrument performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements and user experiments.

  8. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics. PMID:24355858

  9. Time-of-flight Extreme Environment Diffractometer at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

    PubMed

    Prokhnenko, Oleksandr; Stein, Wolf-Dieter; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen; Fromme, Michael; Bartkowiak, Maciej; Wilpert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED) is a new neutron time-of-flight instrument at the BER II research reactor at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany. Although EXED is a special-purpose instrument, its early construction made it available for users as a general-purpose diffractometer. In this respect, EXED became one of the rare examples, where the performance of a time-of-flight diffractometer at a continuous source can be characterized. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of EXED with an emphasis on the unique instrument capabilities. The latter comprise variable wavelength resolution and wavelength band, control of the incoming beam divergence, the possibility to change the angular positions of detectors and their distance to the sample, and use of event recording and offline histogramming. These features combined make EXED easily tunable to the requirements of a particular problem, from conventional diffraction to small angle neutron scattering. The instrument performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements and user experiments. PMID:25832206

  10. Heat storage in the Hettangian aquifer in Berlin - results from a column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkus, Chri(Sch)augott

    2015-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is a sustainable alternative for storage and seasonal availability of thermal energy. However, its impact on the subsurface flow regime is not well known. In Berlin (Germany), the Jurassic (Hettangian) sandstone aquifer with highly mineralized groundwater (TDS 27 g/L) is currently used for heat storage. The aim of this study was to examine the hydrogeochemical changes that are caused by the induced temperature shift and its effects on the hydraulic permeability of the aquifer. Column experiments were conducted, in which stainless steel columns were filled with sediment from the aquifer and flushed with native groundwater for several weeks. The initial temperature of the experiment was 20°C, comparable to the in-situ conditions within the aquifer. After reaching equilibrium between sediment and water, the temperature was increased to simulate heating of the aquifer. During the experiment, physical and chemical parameters (pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide) were measured at the outflow of the column and the effluent water was sampled. Using a Scanning Electron Microscope, the deposition of precipitated minerals and biofilm on sediment grains was analyzed. Changes in hydraulic properties of the sediment were studied by the use of tracer tests with Uranin.

  11. [The history of medical physics and biophysics at the Humboldt University in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    2001-01-01

    The present Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics (former Institute of Radiation Research) was established on September 1st in 1923 by Walter Friedrich (1883-1968). It was after the Institute in Frankfurt A.M. (founded by Friedrich Dessauer in 1921) - the second Institute of its kind in Germany. As a physicist who wrote his dissertation under Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, he did research together with a Gynecologist in Friedburg on problems of radiation therapy and the prevention of radiation injuries. Thus Friedrich became one of the first German Biomedical Physicists and was appointed to a professorship at the university of Berlin and its faculty of medicine. The paper gives a survey of the history of the Institute of Radiation Research in the twenties, in the time of Nazi-rule, the period after the World War II and in the era of GDR until 1990 and up to the present time. The succession of directorship of the Institute and the main research subjects in medical physics and biophysics have been sketched. PMID:11710396

  12. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  13. The Historical Development of the Teacher-Researcher Ideal in Germany and the U.S.A. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, William R.

    The way that the teacher/researcher ideal developed in Germany is discussed, along with discrepancies between the original context of the concept and the American one. The focal point is the foundation of the University of Berlin in 1810. Social, political, and intellectual development of the eighteenth century are reviewed, along with reforms at…

  14. Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women – Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Borde, T.; Brenne, S.; Ramsauer, B.; Henrich, W.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6 %; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The

  15. The Berlin time-of-flight ERDA setupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Röschert, G.

    1998-03-01

    The new mass and energy dispersive Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) spectrometer located at a high-energy target position of the heavy-ion-beam laboratory (ISL) of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin is presented. Many different projectile ions from hydrogen to xenon with variable energies up to several MeV/u are available. The recoil identification is done by means of a time-of-flight (TOF) energy setup with a relatively large solid angle of 1.57 msr. Due to the long flight path of 123 cm and a time resolution of about 180 ps, a good mass and depth resolution can be achieved.

  16. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  17. Germany and NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes the following topics: Road to NATO Germany in NATO, Germany and NATO Defense Policy, Evolution of NATO, German Security in NATO-Domestic Considerations, Toward the Future, The Brussels Treaty, The North Atlantic Treaty, The Future Tasks of Alliance (Harmel Report).

  18. Martian Analogues Emissivity Spectra From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analog materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, and Martian analogue minerals, measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 microns as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 microns. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. We present here the results of our analysis on well knew and characterized Martian analogue minerals: JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, and Palagonite from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 microns, even in a vacuum environment.

  19. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Urban Migration and Koineization in the Development of the Berlin Urban Vernacular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresmann, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Berlin urban vernacular during the late Early Modern and Industrial Period has been described in the literature in two primary ways: The first describes it as the result of the wholesale adoption of an autochthonous Upper Saxon dialect by a small and mobile urban elite in Berlin, who in turn imparted this newly-acquired…

  1. Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.

    PubMed

    Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients. PMID:22362683

  2. Modeling Urban Air Quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg Region: Evaluation of a WRF-Chem Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, F.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Lauer, A.; Mar, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution is the number one environmental cause of premature deaths in Europe. Despite extensive regulations, air pollution remains a challenging issue, especially in urban areas. For studying air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is set up and evaluated against meteorological and air quality observations from monitoring stations as well as from a field campaign conducted in 2014 (incl. black carbon, VOCs as well as mobile measurements of particle size distribution and particle mass). The model setup includes 3 nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 15km, 3km, and 1km, online biogenic emissions using MEGAN 2.0, and anthropogenic emissions from the TNO-MACC-II inventory. This work serves as a basis for future studies on different aspects of air pollution in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, including how heat waves affect emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban vegetation (summer 2006) and the impact of selected traffic measures on air quality in the Berlin-Brandenburg area (summer 2014). The model represents the meteorology as observed in the region well for both periods. An exception is the heat wave period in 2006, where the temperature simulated with 3km and 1km resolutions is biased low by around 2°C for urban built-up stations. First results of simulations with chemistry show that, on average, WRF-Chem simulates concentrations of O3 well. However, the 8 hr maxima are underestimated, and the minima are overestimated. While NOx daily means are modeled reasonably well for urban stations, they are overestimated for suburban stations. PM10 concentrations are underestimated by the model. The biases and correlation coefficients of simulated O3, NOx, and PM10 in comparison to surface observations do not show improvements for the 1km domain in comparison to the 3km domain. To improve the model performance of the 1km domain we will include an

  3. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... 0.00 NTN-SNR 0.00 Volkswagen AG 0.00 Volkswagen Zubehor GmbH 0.00 Germany: Bayerische Motoren...

  4. Sind die Schulleistungsbezogenen Uberzeugungen Ostberliner Kinder entwicklungshemmend? = Are Achievement-Related Beliefs of East Berlin Children Detrimental to Their Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oettingen, Gabriele; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses research results concerning the attitudes of Berlin children. Reports that the east Berlin children expressed less faith in self-efficacy than did their western counterparts. Explains that west Berliners were more likely to think they could influence their school performance. Suggests that attitude differences may be partly due to…

  5. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. PMID:24673277

  6. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  7. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  8. Adult Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, John

    This study is limited essentially to adult education in West Germany, although the historical sections include references to earlier experiences and experiments in areas now Russian-occupied. The terms "adult edcuation" and "workers' education" are clarified. Both are presented as separate movements. Brief reference is made to political, social,…

  9. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  10. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  11. Teacher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  12. Caring Communities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreisle, Beate

    2012-01-01

    "Caring communities" is a great sounding line, but what does it really mean? There are many ways that communities which present themselves as caring make life easier or worse for those who live there. For centuries in Germany, there have been religious groups who claim to care for each member. By definition, this is circumscribed caring as it…

  13. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  14. Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #143.06, Spanning Snyder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #143.06, Spanning Snyder Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad (now Presidential Range Rail Trail), just south of U.S. Route 2, Randolph, Coos County, NH

  15. Collection and utilization of Japanese scientific and technological information in Europe and U.S.A. - Report on the Berlin Conference 1989 -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takayasu; Miwa, Makiko; Obara, Michio

    The 2nd International Conference on Japanese Information in Science Technology and Commerce was held on October 23-25, 1989 at Japanisch-Deutsches Zentrum Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany. During two years since previous Conference at Warwick, England, in 1987, much progresses were made in collecting, using and evaluating Japanese scientific, technological and industrial information in Western countries. On the other hands, overseas supply of Japanese databases and information by Japanese governmental and private organizations have been improved in many aspects. There occurred presentation of papers and valuable exchange of opinions and experiences. The Conference consisted of II Sessions which covered trends and policies, various information sources, analysis and distributions, Japanese language and Kanji processings and direct connection with Japan.

  16. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    PubMed

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. PMID:26039370

  17. Frequent Combination of Antimicrobial Multiresistance and Extraintestinal Pathogenicity in Escherichia coli Isolates from Urban Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Bethe, Astrid; Fruth, Angelika; Semmler, Torsten; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs), indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95), which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1), and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9), pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public health threat need careful consideration in the future. PMID:23189197

  18. European Conference 'Training, Employment and Integration of Disabled Persons' (Berlin, West Germany, June 19-20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This report summarizes contributions, discussions, results, and proposals from a conference focusing on the social and economic integration of the disabled. Introductory materials include the conference objectives and summaries of the opening, words of greeting, and introduction to conference objectives by Ernst Piehl, Henry Scicluna, and Tina…

  19. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  20. [Urologists meet in Berlin. Martin Stolze (1900-1989) and the urologist convention in 1959 in East and West Berlin].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Halling, T; Fangerau, H

    2013-09-01

    Scientific meetings are a major part of policy in science and within the scientific community and furthermore they have a major influence on medical and lay communities. Prominent examples for this are the presidential networks and the opening speeches in which the function of science within the society is presented in a special manner. The last joint meeting of the German Society for Urology (DGU) in East and West Germany was instrumentalized by the rivalry of the two systems during the Cold War but was also a brilliant presentation of the newly established German Urology after World War II and its scientific force. PMID:24026062

  1. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-03

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET.

  2. The sound of Berlin. The noise annoyance you love to hate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Hehner, Cay

    2001-05-01

    Noise is part of life in Berlin. The Berlin Sound is often described as Berlin is a loud city, but this sound is also a matter of identification. Just like human beings, metropolitan areas may be identified by their gait. People enjoy living in Berlin but they also claim negative health effects and often permanent annoyance caused by daily environmental noise. For instance 1119714 cars demonstrate the volume of traffic from 6.30-9.00 a.m, and another impressive descriptor of the volume of traffic is the number of 1567600 cars from 4.00-6.30 p.m. In a representative survey of 2000 adults, almost all German (80%) citizens are affected by some level of noise pollution. The predominant source of noise in residential areas is road traffic, which remains a nuisance for over half the population, and a source of serious annoyance for some 18%. Next to road traffic, air traffic is the most important transport-related source of annoyance, followed by rail traffic noise. Results from a qualitative survey in a residential area of Berlin give insights into the different perspectives of the noise perception of the investigated subjects and of important parameters with respect to daily life.

  3. Application of portable FTIR spectrometers for detecting greenhouse gas emissions of the major city Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, F.; Frey, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Groß, J.; Kiel, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Schäfer, K.; Sha, M. K.; Orphal, J.

    2015-07-01

    Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers have been used for the accurate and precise observation of column-averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 around the major city Berlin. In the work by Frey et al. (2015), a calibration procedure is developed and applied to the set of spectrometers used for the Berlin campaign. Here, we describe the observational setup of the campaign and aspects of the data analysis, and we present the recorded time series of XCH4 and XCO2. We demonstrate that the CO2 emissions of Berlin can be clearly identified in the observations. A simple dispersion model is applied which indicates a total strength of the Berlin source of about 0.8 t CO2 s-1. In the Supplement of this work, we provide the measured data set and auxiliary data. We hope that the model community will exploit this unique data set for state-of-the art inversion studies of CO2 and CH4 sources in the Berlin area.

  4. Safe water supply without disinfection in a large city case study: Berlin.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, A; Petersohn, D

    2000-01-01

    Berlin's water supplies originate exclusively from groundwater. For sustainable water management, river water is treated by flocculation and filtration and used either for artificial groundwater recharge (rivers Spree and Havel) or for bank filtration (Nordgraben and Lake Tegel). Drinking water chlorination was abandoned in Berlin (West) in 1978, and in Berlin (East) in 1992, following German unification. Chlorine consumption for the purpose of weekly performance checks in the chlorination plants of Berlin's 11 waterworks and occasional chlorination within the pipe system following pipe burst events amounts to 2500 kg per year. Based on the annual water demand of 250 million cubic metres, this is equivalent to 0.01 mg of chlorine per litre. Microbiological monitoring at the 11 waterworks and at 383 sampling points within the pipe system shows CFU at less than 10/1 ml-1 and coliforms and E. coli invariably at 0/100 ml-1. In view of the low AOX content, a multiplication of bacteria within the pipe system can be expected to occur not at all or only to a small extent. Resource protection measures, filter backwashing and pipe system maintenance in observance of the relevant technical rules will continue to ensure that the quality of Berlin's drinking water meets stringent hygiene requirements without chlorination. PMID:11225280

  5. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  6. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  7. Reactions to Receiving a Gift-Maternal Scaffolding and Cultural Learning in Berlin and Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kärtner, Joscha; Crafa, Daina; Chaudhary, Nandita; Keller, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    This study shows how Berlin (n = 35) and Delhi (n = 28) mothers scaffold a common and highly scripted social situation, namely gift giving, and enable cultural learning in 19-month-olds. Using modeling and prompting to encourage appropriate responses, mothers took culture-specific directions during scaffolding that were in line with the broader cultural model as assessed by maternal socialization goals (SGs). Whereas Berlin mothers prioritized autonomous SGs, Delhi mothers emphasized autonomous and relational SGs to similar degrees. During scaffolding, Berlin mothers focused on maximizing positive affect and acknowledging the gift, whereas Delhi mothers prompted toddlers to acknowledge the giver more often. Furthermore, there were differences in toddlers' behavior in line with these culture-specific scripts guiding gift giving. PMID:27189399

  8. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  9. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  10. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

  11. Ecology in a walled city: researching urban wildlife in post-war Berlin.

    PubMed

    Lachmund, Jens

    2007-06-01

    The division of Berlin in the aftermath of World War II and the erection of the Wall in 1961 were not only of tremendous political, social and cultural significance, but also had implications for the way in which science was undertaken in this city. For ecologists living and working in the enclosed city part of West Berlin, the lack of accessible countryside motivated them to focus their fieldwork increasingly on urban sites and, thereby, to engage themselves in one of the most significant attempts to develop an ecology of the city. PMID:17583791

  12. Diffractive focusing optics design at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Firsov, Anatoly; Svintsov, Alexander; Erko, Alexei

    2014-09-01

    X-ray laser facilities are being constructed all over the world: Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in California, RIKEN X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SPring-8 in Japan, European XFEL in Germany etc. XFEL is the next-generation (4th) light source. However, the number of such experimental facilities (SRS and FEL) is quite limited. At the same time, relatively small vacuum ultraviolet laboratories with impulse sources [High Harmonic Generators (HHG)] allow one conduct in-house research. This makes the research community directly involved in experiments with time resolution much wider. The latest radiation sources and modern physical experiments require application of the newest diffractive elements. Such diffractive elements are required for implementation of experiments with time resolution using synchrotron radiation sources or high harmonics generators. For example, valence state evolution or molecules dissociation in time-resolved investigation. Modern experiments like this might require implementation of time resolution in femto - (10-15) and even atto- (10-18) seconds.

  13. Mass Media in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  14. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  15. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  16. Space technology in Berlin. Volume 1: Ideas for the establishment of an institute for space processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The past, present, and future status of space technology in Berlin is discussed, including raw material processing, transportation, energy, and information generation and distribution. How Berlin can contribute toward further advancement in this field, individually or in collaboration with international partners is indicated.

  17. In the Center of the Cold War: The American Occupation of Berlin and Education Reform, 1945-1952.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory

    1995-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in the Education and Religion branch of postwar Berlin's Office of Military Government relating to the "gymnasium," a potent symbol of elite German schooling tradition. As shown by West Berlin's conservative 1950s schooling policies, German education traditions were so powerful that neither Hitler's efforts…

  18. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  19. Germany: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities. PMID:25115137

  20. Fitness as "Social Heritage": A Study of Elementary School Pupils in Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Gertrud; Reeg, Annemarie

    2006-01-01

    Health and fitness among children and adolescents is a subject currently receiving public attention. This article focuses on the fitness of German pupils (third and fourth grades) in five schools in Berlin with widely differing social catchment areas as well as children from differing social backgrounds. Besides an orthopaedic examination and…

  1. Digital Photography and Web-Based Assignments in an Urban Field Course: Snapshots from Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alan; McCormack, Derek P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects on the use of digital photography in urban-based human geography fieldwork. It draws on the authors' experience of introducing digital photography into the teaching and assessment of a level 3 undergraduate field course in Berlin. To begin they outline how they sought to use simple digital technologies in order to facilitate…

  2. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-05-01

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection. PMID:20022478

  3. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1011 Section 180.1011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL...

  4. Improving the Quality of the Teaching Force: A Conversation with David C. Berliner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    2001-01-01

    In a question-and-answer session, David C. Berliner discusses wide range of topics related to current state of the teaching profession, including qualities of the expert teacher, attracting higher quality teachers, teacher career-stage programs, merit pay, and promising reforms for teacher education in last decade. (PKP)

  5. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  6. Structured Parent Education in the Management of Childhood Atopic Dermatitis: The Berlin Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Kerstin; Kehrt, Rainer; von Ruden, Ursula; Lehmann, Christine; Binder, Christiane; Wahn, Ulrich; Staab, Doris

    2000-01-01

    Describes the goals and content of the Berlin education program for parents and children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Program included six group sessions concerning medical, nutritional, and psychological issues. Program aimed to contribute towards a comprehensive, family-oriented management of childhood AD. Data showed the program had a positive…

  7. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M.

    2010-05-15

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  8. A Doubled Heterotopia: Shifting Spatial and Visual Symbolism in the Jewish Museum Berlin's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saindon, Brent Allen

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the rhetoric of space in a rapidly transforming culture. Using Michel Foucault's concept of "heterotopias" to understand the rhetorical power of a building's disposition, it is argued that the Jewish Museum Berlin contains two heterotopias, one within the other. The first is Daniel Libeskind's original building design in…

  9. Neurological Complications and Outcomes in the Berlin Heart EXCOR® Pediatric Investigational Device Exemption Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lori C.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Reinhartz, Olaf; Humpl, Tilman; Pruthi, Sumit; Tjossem, Christine; Rosenthal, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Berlin Heart EXCOR® ventricular assist device has been approved for use in the United States as a bridge to heart transplantation in children. We sought to characterize neurological events in children supported with the Berlin Heart EXCOR® device. Methods and Results The multicenter prospective cohort consisted of all 204 children implanted with the Berlin Heart EXCOR® device at 47 centers in North America between May 2007 and December 2010. There were 73 neurological events in 59 patients, with 29% of the cohort experiencing ≥1 neurological event. Events included 52 strokes in 43 patients (21% of the cohort). The neurological event rate was 0.51 events per 100 patient‐days. Many of the neurological events occurred early in the course of support, with 30 events recorded during the first 14 days of support. The mortality rate in participants with at least 1 neurological event was 42% (25 of 59), significantly higher than the 18% mortality rate (26 of 145) for those who did not have a neurological event (P=0.0006). Risk‐factor analysis did not identify significant preimplantation predictors of neurological injury. Conclusions Of children treated with the Berlin Heart EXCOR® device as a bridge to transplant, 29% experienced at least 1 neurological event. The majority of neurological events were ischemic strokes, and many of those occurred early in the course of support. Neurological injury was the leading cause of death after implantation of the Berlin Heart EXCOR® device. Risk stratification for stroke or neurological injury is not possible based on baseline preimplantation characteristics. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00583661. PMID:25613996

  10. Pulsatile mechanical cardiac assistance in pediatric patients with the Berlin heart ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Frank; Boettcher, Wolfgang; Stiller, Brigitte; Hetzer, Roland

    2003-06-01

    Mechanical cardiac assistance for neonates, infants, children and adolescents may be accomplished with pulsatile ventricular assist devices (VAD) instead of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or centrifugal pumps. The Berlin Heart VAD consists of extracorporeal, pneumatically driven blood pumps for pulsatile univentricular or biventricular assistance for patients of all age groups. The blood pumps are heparin-coated. The stationary driving unit (IKUS) has the required enhanced compressor performance for pediatric pump sizes. The Berlin Heart VAD was used in a total number of 424 patients from 1987 to November 2001 at our institution. In 45 pediatric patients aged 2 days-17 years the Berlin Heart VAD was applied for long-term support (1-111 days, mean 20 days). There were three patient groups: Group I: "Bridge to transplantation" with various forms of cardiomyopathy (N = 21) or chronic stages of congenital heart disease (N = 9); Group II: "Rescue" in intractable heart failure after corrective surgery for congenital disease (N = 7) or in early graft failure after heart transplantation (N = 1); and Group III: "Acute myocarditis" (N = 7) as either bridge to transplantation or bridge to recovery. Seventeen patients were transplanted after support periods of between 4 and 111 days with 12 long-term survivors, having now survived for up to 10 years. Five patients (Groups I and III) were weaned from the system with four long-term survivors. In Group II only one patient survived after successful transplantation. Prolonged circulatory support with the Berlin Heart VAD is an effective method for bridging until cardiac recovery or transplantation in the pediatric age group. Extubation, mobilization, and enteral nutrition are possible. For long-term use, the Berlin Heart VAD offers advantages over centrifugal pumps and ECMO in respect to patient mobility and safety. PMID:12939019

  11. The AgNORs.

    PubMed

    Derenzini, M

    2000-04-01

    The structure and the function of interphase AgNORs and the importance of the "AgNOR" parameter in tumor pathology have been reviewed. Interphase AgNORs are structural-functional units of the nucleolus in which all the components necessary for ribosomal RNA synthesis are located. Two argyrophilic proteins involved in rRNA transcription and processing, nucleolin and nucleophosmin, are associated with interphase AgNORs and are responsible for their stainability with silver methods, thus allowing interphase AgNORs to be visulaized at light microscopic level, also in routine cyto-histopathological preparations. The number of interphase AgNORs is strictly related to rRNA transcriptional activity and, in continuously proliferating cells, to the rapidity of cell proliferation. Evaluation of the quantitative distribution of interphase AgNORs has been applied in tumor pathology both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The "AgNOR" parameter has been proved to represent a reliable tool for defining the clinical outcome of cancer disease, being an independent prognostic factor in many types of tumors. PMID:10588056

  12. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them." PMID:959329

  14. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  15. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346372

  16. The Optici and Mechanici of the Berlin Academy and of its Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Optici und Mechanici der Berliner Akademie und ihrer Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaun, Joerg

    Amongst the staff of the Berlin Academy in the 18th century, who have until now been almost completely absent from historical texts, were numerous mechanical and optical technicians. Although only a partial picture can be drawn from the available historical sources, it is clear that the Academy continuously employed a number of instrument makers, and financed their labours generously. Their primary task was the care and repair of the Academy's and its observatory's scientific instruments. Most of this equipment was, in the 18th century, imported from Paris or London.

  17. Nursing in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Steppe, H

    1992-12-01

    German nursing did indeed change during the Nazi period. There were external changes, in terms of the improved social status of nursing, the tightening and unification of professional nursing organizations, the laws affecting nursing, and the politicization of the profession. Articles written by nurses at the time and more recent interviews suggest that there were internal changes as well. It appears that at least a portion of German nurses accepted the National Socialism reinterpretation of professional nursing ethics and humanitarian principles in the assumption that through their obedience they were doing good. This historical research points to clear lessons for contemporary nurses. Nurses in Nazi Germany were under the illusion that they were remaining true to their professional ethics, unaffected by the social change around them. This apolitical professional consciousness made it possible for the profession to be subsumed as a part of the larger political system. I believe that we must be clear that nursing never takes place in a value-free, neutral context; it is always a socially significant force. This means that we cannot simply observe what is taking place around us but must take a stand and get involved, helping to shape sociopolitical developments. I also believe that we must deal with the history of our profession, especially its darkest hours, so that we may remain sensitive to any signs of inhumanity. We must call into question traditional principles, such as obedience, and replace them with professional competence, professionalism, and creative self-consciousness. And not least, we have a moral obligation to the millions of victims of National Socialism, even if it only means that, through historical research, we assure that they are not forgotten. By taking responsibility for this part of our history, we can become more sensitive for the future, with eyes and ears open for all social injustices. PMID:1455849

  18. First Considerations Concerning an Optimized Cavity Design for the Main Linac of BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    B. Riemann, T. Weis, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, H.-W. Glock, C. Potratz, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    The Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) is designed to develop and demonstrate CW linac technology and expertise required to drive next-generation Energy Recovery Linacs. Strongly HOM-damped multicell 1.3 GHz cavities are required for the main linac. The optimization of the cavities presented here is primarily based on the CEBAF 1.5 GHz 5-cell high-current cavity design, including HOM waveguide couplers. The cavity was scaled to 1.3 GHz and extended to 7 cells. Modifications to the end group design have also been studied. An effort was also made to reduce the ratio Epk/Eacc while still permitting HOMs to propagate.

  19. Polarized neutron imaging at the CONRAD instrument at Helmholtz Centre Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manke, Ingo; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Strobl, Markus; Dawson, Martin; Banhart, John

    2009-06-01

    Neutrons are highly sensitive to magnetic fields because of their intrinsic magnetic moment. At the same time, their zero net electrical charge allows them to penetrate thick layers of matter. In combination with standard radiographic and tomographic imaging techniques, these properties have been exploited to visualize magnetic fields in free space and within the bulk of solid, massive, opaque samples. In this paper, the basic principle of this new technique and its realization at the CONRAD instrument at the Helmholtz Centre Berlin (formerly Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin) are explained. Two application examples will be given: the visualization of the magnetic field around a permanent magnet and the investigation of the displacement of the current density from the core of a conductor to the surface (the skin effect).

  20. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

  1. The Energy Materials in-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL) at BESSY II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follath, R.; Hävecker, M.; Reichardt, G.; Lips, K.; Bahrdt, J.; Schäfers, F.; Schmid, P.

    2013-03-01

    The Helmholtz Center Berlin (HZB) and the Max-Planck Society (MPG) strengthen their research in renewable energies with the implementation of the joint Energy Material in-Situ Lab Berlin (EMIL) at the third generation light source BESSY II. The new facility is dedicated to the in-situ and in-system x-ray analysis of materials and devices for photovoltaic applications, (photo-) catalytic processes, energie conversion and storage. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the involved materials, spectroscopic methods with x-rays from the soft- up to the hard x-ray regime reveal an almost complete picture of their chemical and electronic properties. The contribution presents the layout of the x-ray beamlines and their performance in terms of photon flux, energy resolution and spot sizes.

  2. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  3. Screening for infectious diseases among unaccompanied minor refugees in Berlin, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Stefanie; Friedrich-Jänicke, Barbara; Pörtner, Kirsten; Trebesch, Isabel; Durst, Anita; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Steiner, Florian; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2016-07-01

    Infectious diseases (except tuberculosis) were screened among 1248 unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) arriving in Berlin in 2014-2015; 40 % originated from Syria. More than half of the refugees presented without any pathologic finding. Infections requiring treatment were diagnosed in 19.6 %, mainly infections with Giardia and intestinal helminths as well as schistosomiasis, while potentially contagious diseases were diagnosed in 15.3 % of all screened UMRs. PMID:27450185

  4. [History as politics. Medical historians in Berlin and Graz serving the NS-State].

    PubMed

    Bruns, Florian; Frewer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    History of medicine played an important part in the ideology and policy of the Third Reich. The Nazi Party and the "Schutzstaffel" (SS) tried to instrumentalize historical knowledge to justify their ideology and medical ethics. The academic discipline of the history of medicine saw a revival during the Nazi period and, especially, during the Second World War. Important medical historians were eager to contribute to a symbiosis between the State and their field. The close relationship between the history of medicine and the Nazi regime was particularly apparent at Paul Diepgen's Department for the History of Medicine and Natural Sciences at the University of Berlin. Diepgen, apart from his own collaboration with the Nazi regime, was the teacher of Bernward J. Gottlieb who became the leading medical historian of the SS and Director of the new "SS-Institute for the History of Medicine" in Berlin in 1941. Gottlieb's institute moved in 1943 to the "SS-Academy" in Graz to train future SS-physicians in the history of medicine. The history of medicine was of great relevance also for certain members of the Nazi elite. They included Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, who ensured that Gottlieb would become Diepgen's successor in 1945 for the chair of medical history at the University of Berlin. Hitler was asked to intervene in the appointment process given the political importance of the field and, in particular, the professorship being located in Berlin. The SS was able to exercise, by this time, a decisive influence on the field of the history of medicine. Only the collapse of the Third Reich prevented the traditional discipline from becoming a "science" to legitimize the Nazi System and the SS. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of the field of the history of medicine and of its key institutions and personalities during the Third Reich. PMID:17144620

  5. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  6. The use of a Berlin Heart EXCOR LVAD in a child receiving chemotherapy for Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tamara O; Chandrakasan, Shanmuganathan; O'Brien, Maureen; Jefferies, John L; Ryan, Thomas D; Wilmot, Ivan; Baker, Michael L; Madueme, Peace C; Morales, David; Lorts, Angela

    2015-02-01

    We present the unique case of a pediatric patient who received chemotherapy for a diagnosis of CD, while mechanically supported with a Berlin EXCOR LVAD secondary to restrictive cardiomyopathy. A four-yr-old previously healthy male with restrictive cardiomyopathy required MCS after cardiac arrest but was diagnosed with multicentric CD, a non-malignant lymphoproliferative disorder fueled by excessive IL-6 production. Treatment with IL-6 blockade (tocilizumab) every two wk and methylprednisolone had no effect on his lymph nodes or cardiac function while on temporary RotaFlow. A Berlin LVAD was placed for treatment with rituximab, COP, vincristine, and methylprednisolone. After three courses of chemotherapy, his inflammatory markers normalized and his lymphadenopathy decreased but cardiac function remained severely depressed. He tolerated chemotherapy on the Berlin but required frequent titrations of his anti-coagulation regimen and he did suffer a hemorrhagic stroke. His clinical status improved significantly with rehabilitation, and he tolerated heart transplantation without further complications. MCS is a feasible option as a bridge to recovery or heart transplant eligibility for patients with hemodynamic collapse requiring chemotherapy but it does necessitate close titration of the anti-coagulation regimen to coincide with changes in the inflammatory state. PMID:25440410

  7. Distributed medical services within the ATM-based Berlin regional test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Krauss, Manfred; Schulz, Sandra; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1996-05-01

    The ATM-based Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) of Berlin connects two university hospitals (Benjamin Franklin University Hospital and Charite) with the computer resources of the Technical University of Berlin (TUB). Distributed new medical services have been implemented and will be evaluated within the highspeed MAN of Berlin. The network with its data transmission rates of up to 155 Mbit/s renders these medical services externally available to practicing physicians. Resource and application sharing is demonstrated by the use of two software systems. The first software system is an interactive 3D reconstruction tool (3D- Medbild), based on a client-server mechanism. This structure allows the use of high- performance computers at the TUB from the low-level workstations in the hospitals. A second software system, RAMSES, utilizes a tissue database of Magnetic Resonance Images. For the remote control of the software, the developed applications use standards such as DICOM 3.0 and features of the World Wide Web. Data security concepts are being tested and integrated for the needs of the sensitive medical data. The highspeed network is the necessary prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of data in a joint teleconference. The transmission of digitized real-time sequences such as video and ultrasound and the interactive manipulation of data are made possible by Multi Media tools.

  8. Spatial analysis in recreation resource management for the Berlin Lake Reservoir Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwardo, H. A.; Koryak, M.; Miller, M. S.; Wilson, H.; Merry, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Spatial analysis of geographic information systems and the acquisition and use of remotely-sensed data within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is an emerging Technology Work units have been developed under te Remote Sensing Research and Development Program, which are most relevant to the productive needs of the Corps in both the military and civil works missions. Corps participation in the SPOT simulation champaign is one such example of this research. This paper describes the application of spatial analysis and remote sensing in recreation resource managmaster planning at the Berlin Lake Reservoir Project within the Pittsburgh District. SPOT simulator data was acquired over Berlin Lake, Site No. 10, on July 8, 1983. The first part of this paper describes the background of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Berlin Lake project, the geographic information system being developed, and the planned use of SPOT and similar data. The remainder of the paper describes the results on an analysis of the simulated SPOT data conducted at the NASA Goddard Institut for Space Studies.

  9. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department. PMID:25298542

  10. Quantification of nanoscale silver particles removal and release from municipal wastewater treatment plants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Hartmann, Georg; Döblinger, Markus; Schuster, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The majority of pure silver nanoparticles in consumer products are likely released into sewer systems and usually end up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Research investigating the reduction in nanoscale silver particles (n-Ag-Ps) has focused on the biological treatment process, generally in controlled laboratory experiments. This study, analyzing the field-collected samples from nine municipal WWTPs in Germany, is the first to evaluate the reduction in n-Ag-Ps by mechanical and biological treatments in sequence in WWTPs. Additionally, the concentration of n-Ag-Ps in effluent was determined through two different methods that are presented here: novel ionic exchange resin (IER) and cloud point extraction (CPE) methods. The n-Ag-Ps concentrations in influent were all low (<1.5 μg/L) and decreased (average removal efficiency of ∼35%) significantly after mechanical treatment, indicating that the mechanical treatment contributes to the n-Ag-Ps removal. Afterward, more than 72% of the remaining n-Ag-Ps in the semi-treated wastewater (i.e., wastewater after mechanical treatment) were reduced by biological treatment. Together, these processes reduced 95% of the n-Ag-Ps that entered WWTPs, which resulted in low concentration of n-Ag-Ps in the effluents (<12 ng/L). For a WWTP with 520,000 t/d treatment capacity, we estimated that the daily n-Ag-Ps load in effluent discharge equated to about 4.4 g/d. Obviously, WWTPs are not potential point sources for n-Ag-Ps in the aquatic environment. PMID:23750458

  11. Significant increase in trisomy 21 in Berlin nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident: temporal correlation or causal relation?

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R. D.; Dörries, A.; Grüters, A.; Mikkelsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 might have been causally related to exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident or was merely a chance event. DESIGN--Analysis of monthly prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin from January 1980 to December 1989. SETTING--Confines of West Berlin. RESULTS--Owing to the former "island" situation of West Berlin and its well organised health services, ascertainment of trisomy 21 was thought to be almost complete. A cluster of 12 cases occurred in January 1987 as compared with two or three expected. After exclusion of factors that might have explained the increase, including maternal age distribution, only exposure to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident remained. In six of seven cases that could be studied cytogenetically the extra chromosome was of maternal origin, confirming that nondisjunction had occurred at about the time of conception. CONCLUSION--On the basis of two assumptions--(a) that maternal meiosis is an error prone process susceptible to exogenous factors at the time of conception; (b) that owing to the high prevalence of iodine deficiency in Berlin a large amount of iodine-131 would have been accumulated over a short period--it is concluded that the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 was causally related to a short period of exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:8044094

  12. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  13. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    PubMed

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. PMID:22169920

  14. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  15. The Volkshochschulen: Germany's Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhardt, Harry

    1978-01-01

    Compares the Volkshochschulen (VHS) or "People's Universities" of Germany with the community college system in the United States. Discusses enrollment policies, job-related instructional programs, functions of the national association of the VHS, and the advancement of adult education in developing nations. (TP)

  16. Self-medication in Germany.

    PubMed

    Uehleke, B; Steinhoff, B

    2001-11-01

    We introduce the legal background of self-medication with OTC-drugs in Germany with regard to the pharmacy, drug store and health food shop distribution channels and the qualifications of the sales personnel. We give an overview of the frequency of self-medication and discuss risk/benefit in a pharmacoepidemiological context. PMID:11727968

  17. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  18. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  19. High Prevalence and High Incidence of Coinfection with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Syphilis and Low Rate of Effective Vaccination against Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men with Known Date of HIV Seroconversion in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Klaus; Thamm, Michael; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Muenstermann, Dieter; Hagedorn, Hans-Jochen; Jessen, Heiko; Dupke, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis than the general population. HIV infection and these coinfections accelerate disease progression reciprocally. This study evaluated the prevalence and incidence of these coinfections in HIV1-positive MSM in Germany. Materials and Methods As part of a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected MSM, plasma samples collected yearly were screened for HBsAg and antibodies to HBc, HBs, HCV, and syphilis. Samples with indications of active HBV or HCV infection were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and incidence of each infection and incidence rates per study participant were calculated, and incidences over 4-year time intervals compared. Results This study screened 5,445 samples from 1,843 MSM. Median age at HIV seroconversion was 33 years. Prevalences of active, cleared, and occult HBV, and of active/cleared HCV were 1.7%, 27.1%, 0.2%, and 8.2%, respectively, and 47.5% had been effectively vaccinated against HBV. Prevalence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum and of triple or quadruple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were 39.6% and 18.9%, respectively. Prevalence of STI, cleared HBV, HBV vaccination, and history of syphilis differed significantly among age groups. Incidences of HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 2.51, 1.54, and 4.06 per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidences of HCV and syphilis increased over time. HCV incidence was significantly higher in MSM coinfected with syphilis and living in Berlin, and syphilis incidence was significantly higher for MSM living in Berlin. Discussion Despite extensive HBV vaccination campaigns, fewer than 50% of screened MSM were effectively vaccinated, with a high proportion of HIV-positive MSM coinfected with HBV. High rates of STI coinfections in HIV-positive MSM and increasing incidences emphasize the need for better tailored campaigns for

  20. A Tandetron™ as proton injector for the eye tumor therapy in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrich, J.; Damerow, T.; Hahn, W.; Müller, U.; Reinholz, U.; Denker, A.

    2012-02-01

    The therapy of eye tumors with fast protons is an excellent tool giving very high local control rates. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) almost 1800 patients were treated since 1998. A 2 MV Tandetron™ was installed as injector for the k = 132 HZB cyclotron. Using the standard 358 duoplasmatron ion source with direct extraction of negative hydrogen ions an extremely stable proton beam can be delivered, both on the short-term and the long-term scale. The hair-needle filaments made from thoriated tungsten wires have safe operation times of more than 1000 h.

  1. A Tandetron as proton injector for the eye tumor therapy in Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrich, J.; Damerow, T.; Hahn, W.; Mueller, U.; Denker, A.; Reinholz, U.

    2012-02-15

    The therapy of eye tumors with fast protons is an excellent tool giving very high local control rates. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) almost 1800 patients were treated since 1998. A 2 MV Tandetron was installed as injector for the k = 132 HZB cyclotron. Using the standard 358 duoplasmatron ion source with direct extraction of negative hydrogen ions an extremely stable proton beam can be delivered, both on the short-term and the long-term scale. The hair-needle filaments made from thoriated tungsten wires have safe operation times of more than 1000 h.

  2. [Magnetism and immorality--or the rapid demise of magnetism in Berlin around 1819-1820].

    PubMed

    Peter, B

    1995-08-01

    In the years 1821 and 1822 two books offered contradictory accounts of a scandal in Berlin involving sexual abuse in connection with magnetism. Historical research has determined that the accused was the famous physician and magnetizer Karl Christian Wolfart. If, however, we look more closely at the general context, it appears that this was not just a case of abuse of the therapeutic relationship. Rather, it is suggested that a specific combination of therapeutic ignorance and particular psycho-social influences contributed almost inevitably to the abuse of patients--sexually or otherwise. PMID:7568647

  3. Is there still a role for the lung injury score in the era of the Berlin definition ARDS?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lung Injury Score (LIS) remains a commonly utilized measure of lung injury severity though the additive value of LIS to predict ARDS outcomes over the recent Berlin definition of ARDS, which incorporates severity, is not known. Methods We tested the association of LIS (in which scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe lung injury) and its four components calculated on the day of ARDS diagnosis with ARDS morbidity and mortality in a large, multi-ICU cohort of patients with Berlin-defined ARDS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare the predictive validity of LIS for mortality to Berlin stages of severity (mild, moderate and severe). Results In 550 ARDS patients, a one-point increase in LIS was associated with 58% increased odds of in-hospital death (95% CI 14 to 219%, P = 0.006), a 7% reduction in ventilator-free days (95% CI 2 to 13%, P = 0.01), and, among patients surviving hospitalization, a 25% increase in days of mechanical ventilation (95% CI 9 to 43%, P = 0.001) and a 16% increase (95% CI 2 to 31%, P = 0.02) in the number of ICU days. However, the mean LIS was only 0.2 points higher (95% CI 0.1 to 0.3) among those who died compared to those who lived. Berlin stages of severity were highly correlated with LIS (Spearman’s rho 0.72, P < 0.0001) and were also significantly associated with ARDS mortality and similar morbidity measures. The predictive validity of LIS for mortality was similar to Berlin stages of severity with an area under the curve of 0.58 compared to 0.60, respectively (P-value 0.49). Conclusions In a large, multi-ICU cohort of patients with ARDS, both LIS and the Berlin definition severity stages were associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality. However, predictive validity of both scores was marginal, and there was no additive value of LIS over Berlin. Although neither LIS nor the Berlin definition were designed to prognosticate

  4. Further advances of chronic renal replacement therapy in eastern Germany, 1994 versus 1989.

    PubMed

    Thieler, H; Kohler, I; Achenbach, H; Goetz, K H; Kraatz, G; Osten, B; Smit, H

    1995-08-01

    Unlike the other former Soviet-block countries, Eastern Germany/the "GDR", had the opportunity to the re-unification with a highly developed western country, the Federal Republic of (West) Germany in 1990. In order to record the following rapid improvements in renal replacement therapy, we performed our own survey in Eastern Germany--excluding Eastern Berlin--by questionnaire, comparing the years 1989/December, and 1994/December. 112 of the 113 dialysis facilities for adult regular dialysis patients replied to our questionnaire (99%). From 1989 to 1994, the number of dialysis centers increased from 53 to 113 (-->213%), reaching 7.9 centres p.m.p. Of these facilities, 29% were hospital centers, 48% were private dialysis units, and 23% were run by nonprofit dialysis organizations. The number of dialysis stations increased from 602 to 1,719 (-->286%), i.e. 120 stations p.m.p. The number of patients in regular dialysis treatment rose from 2,127 to 5,335 (-->251%), that means a prevalence of 373 patients p.m.p. In 1989, 67 new patients (p.m.p.) had been accepted for maintenance treatment (incidence), in contrast to 130 new patients p.m.p. in 1994 (-->194%), now under the conditions of unlimited accessibility to dialysis treatment. Questions referring to this point--the incidence of new patients--were only asked in Thüringen (2.5 mio. inhabitants). Alternative treatment modalities became feasible under the new conditions in Eastern Germany. In contrast to 99% hemodialysis patients in December 1989, at the end of 1994 92.8% of the patients were treated by hemodialysis, 2.0% by hemofiltration, and 5.2% by peritoneal dialysis, predominantly CAPD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8529297

  5. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  6. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  7. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  8. [Protestant healthcare? The building of denominational hospitals in Berlin during the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Tangerding, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This essay tries to show that, in the Berlin of the Weimar Republic, Protestant hospitals were built not only to relieve the suffering of the population, but also out of a sense of inferiority to a reinvigorated Catholicism. Hospitals were consequently not only places of care and healing but also of denominational self-assertion. Based on Olaf Blaschke's thesis of a "second denominational age," this contribution tries to demonstrate that the responsible Protestant agents did not make anti-Catholic proclamations at every occasion and in all the media. The founders of the "Protestant Hospital Building Association," which this essay investigates, made deliberate use of anti-Catholic resentment, expressing it boldly when approaching the Protestant elites, while playing it down deliberately when addressing the people of Berlin. With a view to the severe economic crisis and mass unemployment prevailing from 1930, they justified the building of new hospitals with the need to create work places, without making recourse to the denomination argument. The political situation, the addressees and the hope for economic success seem to have informed the representation of denominational resentments decisively. Confessionalism therefore seemed to have been not as much a question of ideology as one of strategy. PMID:26137643

  9. Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach

    PubMed Central

    Blick, Theo; Hannig, Karsten; Kowarik, Ingo; Lemke, Andreas; Otte, Volker; Scharon, Jens; Schönhofer, Axel; Teige, Tobias; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. New information We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin. PMID:27099549

  10. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  11. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Nomoto, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, H.; Yagi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Ag loaded Ga2O3 (Ag/Ga2O3) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO2 with water. Ag L3-edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga2O3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO2-like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga2O3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d-orbitals by interacting with the Ga2O3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity.

  12. Weather conditions and their effect on the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection onset in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Shahraiyni, Hamid; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a minimum distance classification and forward feature selection technique are joined to determine the relationship between weather conditions and the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) events in Berlin. The results demonstrate that changes in the amount of cloudiness and air temperature are the most representative weather predictors among the studied parameters. A discrimination surface was developed for the prediction of AAD events 6 h ahead, and it is found that, under a specific amount of cloudiness and air temperature, the risk of AAD events in Berlin increases about 20 %.

  13. The hemostatic history of a 15-month-old child implanted with a Berlin heart left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Steenwyk, Brad L; Kirklin, James K; Gurley, William Q; Nielsen, Vance G

    2007-03-01

    We documented the hemostatic changes associated with placement of a EXCOR Berlin Heart left ventricular assist device in a 15-month-old child before heart transplantation. The development of hypercoagulability was rapid, manifested first by a plasmatic and subsequently platelet-mediated increase in coagulation kinetics and strength that persisted for weeks. The patient had no thrombotic complications for 6 wk before transplant but required extraordinary blood product administration to achieve hemostasis secondary to aggressive, multimodal anticoagulation. In summary, when proscribing anesthetic and surgical management of patients with a Berlin Heart, consideration of hypercoagulable features and anticoagulant therapy must be made to maximize patient safety. PMID:17312204

  14. Weather conditions and their effect on the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection onset in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Taheri Shahraiyni, Hamid; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a minimum distance classification and forward feature selection technique are joined to determine the relationship between weather conditions and the increase of the risk of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) events in Berlin. The results demonstrate that changes in the amount of cloudiness and air temperature are the most representative weather predictors among the studied parameters. A discrimination surface was developed for the prediction of AAD events 6 h ahead, and it is found that, under a specific amount of cloudiness and air temperature, the risk of AAD events in Berlin increases about 20 %. PMID:26546312

  15. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  16. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  17. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  18. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  19. [Domestic and sexual violence against women. Implications of WHO guidelines for Germany].

    PubMed

    Wieners, Karin; Winterholler, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence and sexual violence are widespread and have serious health effects for those affected. If the problem is identified and confidence in responding exists, healthcare providers can make a significant contribution to support and intervention. In 2013 the WHO published evidence-based guidelines for responding to the issue in healthcare, training of healthcare providers and health policy. In principle, the guidelines confirm existing recommendations, best-practice guidelines and handbooks. They also encourage a review and further development-for example, regarding the issue of sexual violence. If and how the present recommendations are put into practice in healthcare and training of healthcare staff can currently be looked at only with the use of examples, given the lack of data in Germany. Examples from Berlin show that implementation is quite possible. However, there is a lack of clear mandate, of sustainability and of obligation. Existing good practice models are highly reliant on organisations' and employees' commitment. For Germany, the WHO guidelines indicate the need to develop national standards for healthcare in cases of domestic and sexual violence. A (legal) obligation for the healthcare system should be drawn up. A systematic embedding in training curricula of health care professions is needed. Quality assurance and a systematic evaluation of the practical implementation are required. PMID:26449411

  20. Doctors in court, honour, and professional ethics: two scandals in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors' professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children's Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin "patient trade" affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  1. Doctors in Court, Honour, and Professional Ethics: Two Scandals in Imperial Germany*

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors’ professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children’s Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin ‘patient trade’ affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  2. Using Machine learning method to estimate Air Temperature from MODIS over Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzban, F.; Preusker, R.; Sodoudi, S.; Taheri, H.; Allahbakhshi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is defined as the temperature of the interface between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere and thus it is a critical variable to understand land-atmosphere interactions and a key parameter in meteorological and hydrological studies, which is involved in energy fluxes. Air temperature (Tair) is one of the most important input variables in different spatially distributed hydrological, ecological models. The estimation of near surface air temperature is useful for a wide range of applications. Some applications from traffic or energy management, require Tair data in high spatial and temporal resolution at two meters height above the ground (T2m), sometimes in near-real-time. Thus, a parameterization based on boundary layer physical principles was developed that determines the air temperature from remote sensing data (MODIS). Tair is commonly obtained from synoptic measurements in weather stations. However, the derivation of near surface air temperature from the LST derived from satellite is far from straight forward. T2m is not driven directly by the sun, but indirectly by LST, thus T2m can be parameterized from the LST and other variables such as Albedo, NDVI, Water vapor and etc. Most of the previous studies have focused on estimating T2m based on simple and advanced statistical approaches, Temperature-Vegetation index and energy-balance approaches but the main objective of this research is to explore the relationships between T2m and LST in Berlin by using Artificial intelligence method with the aim of studying key variables to allow us establishing suitable techniques to obtain Tair from satellite Products and ground data. Secondly, an attempt was explored to identify an individual mix of attributes that reveals a particular pattern to better understanding variation of T2m during day and nighttime over the different area of Berlin. For this reason, a three layer Feedforward neural networks is considered with LMA algorithm

  3. Paediatric mechanical circulatory support with Berlin Heart EXCOR: development and outcome of a 23-year experience.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Roland; Kaufmann, Friedrich; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews the development and establishment of the Berlin Heart EXCOR® (BHE®) as a paediatric mechanical circulatory support and reports our entire experience with regard to indications, timing of implantation and explantation and outcome. The Berlin group reported the first successful paediatric bridge to transplantation using a pulsatile pneumatic paracorporeal biventricular assist device, the BHE®, in 1990 in an 8-year-old boy with end-stage heart failure and coarctation of the aorta. This experience prompted them to develop miniaturized pump systems for children through the company Berlin Heart Mediproduct GmbH. The development and production of BHE® to support paediatric patients with heart failure then began. Between 1990 and 2013, the BHE® has been implanted in 122 patients (median age 8.64 years, range 3 days to 17 years) with heart failure, who were inotrope-dependent or switched from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support or had postcardiotomy low-output syndrome. Thirty-five patients were <1 year old (median 125 days). The aetiology of heart failure included cardiomyopathy in 56 (median age 9.14 years), fulminant myocarditis in 17 (median age 8.2 years), end-stage congenital heart disease in 18 (median age 6.4 years), postcardiotomy heart failure (after correction of congenital heart disease) in 28 (median age 9.6 years) and transplant graft failure in 3 (median age 12.5 years). The overall median duration of implantation was 63.6 (range 1-841) days. Fifty-six children eventually underwent orthotopic heart transplantation. Eighteen patients had myocardial recovery and were weaned successfully. They had entirely normal cardiac function after a range of 4-10 years after surgery. At the time of this report, five patients were still on support, with a duration of 354-369 days. Forty-three patients died on the system from loss of peripheral circulatory resistance, multiorgan damage, sepsis or haemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Re

  4. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  5. Waste management programs of the reunified Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Janberg, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Germany has been divided into an Eastern and Western part de facto since the end of World War II. The development of the Federal Republic followed the lines of the major Western democracies with respect to its internal organizations, but of course also with respect to the technologies pursued. This report describes radioactive waste management issues in the Federal republic of Germany and discusses the issues with respect to the differences from Eastern and Western Germany.

  6. A purification and some properties of an insecticidal exotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    PubMed Central

    Bond, R. P. M.; Boyce, C. B. C.; French, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    An insecticidal exotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis (Berliner) has been purified. The efficiency of each stage of the purification has been ascertained and the yield of toxic material estimated by means of a quantitative bioassay. It is shown that the exotoxin is an adenine derivative substituted at position 9 and having a molecular weight of approximately 825. It can be dephosphorylated enzymically or chemically under conditions that define the exotoxin as a phosphomonoester. This results in loss of toxicity, both to insects and to mice. Spectroscopic and kinetic data are presented which suggest that a β-ribofuranosyl moiety may be attached to the adenine. Glucose and allomucic acid have been positively identified as hydrolysis fragments from the exotoxin. These results are discussed and compared with the results of others on similar (or possibly identical) compounds. PMID:5820635

  7. The new time-of-flight ERDA setup at the HMI-Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Röschert, G.

    1998-04-01

    The new time-of-flight ERDA (TOF ERDA) spectrometer of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin is presented. It is located at a high-energy target position of the ion-beam laboratory (ISL). The great variety of ions from helium to xenon with variable energies up to several MeV/amu allows the determination of the distribution of all elements in the samples up to a depth of some micrometer. The measurement of the hydrogen concentration is possible with high efficiency. With the relatively large solid angle of 1.57 msr fast measurements with low ion beam currents are possible. The long flight path of 123 cm and a time resolution of about 180 ps enable a good mass and depth resolution.

  8. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P; Matveenko, A N; Schmeisser, M; Volker, J; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R; Schubert, S G; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V; Will, I; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  9. Occurrence of Endocrine-Disrupting and Other Wastewater Compounds during Water Treatment with Case Studies from Lincoln, Nebraska and Berlin, Germany

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for herbicides, research on the fate and transport of endocrine disrupting compounds and other organic wastewater compounds released into the environment and their potential presence in drinking water is in its infancy. Analytical methods still are being developed, evalua...

  10. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  11. The Challenge of the Future. Future Trends in Adult and Continuing Technical and Vocational Education. An International Symposium (Berlin, Germany, October 16-20, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This report on an international symposium on the strengthening of the development and improvement of vocational education begins with a description of UNEVOC, the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education. Section 2 presents discussions of the following topics: adult and continuing technical and vocational education and its…

  12. Vocational Guidance and Counselling for Young People and Adults in the European Community. Findings of a Conference (Berlin, West Germany, December 7-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Heinz J., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document reports on a conference centered around three topics: vocational guidance in the Member States of the European Community (EC), the "Europeanization" of vocational guidance, and approaches to cross-frontier vocational guidance. Among the recommendations of the conference participants are the following: the tasks of vocational guidance…

  13. Not Aid, Cooperation. European Congress on Continuing Education and Training (3rd, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, March 14-15, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A congress on continuing education and training attended by participants from more than 20 Eastern and Western European countries is summarized in this document. Topics discussed at the plenary sessions, panel discussions, and nine workshops included the following: cooperation between Eastern and Western Europe; the role of the social partners in…

  14. US-German Cooperation For Further Development Of Decision Support Systems For Sustainable Contaminated Site Revitalization - Berlin, Germany, Sept. 24, 2008.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic) is a web-based decision support tool developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revital...

  15. Great Blunders?: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, and the Proposed United States/Mexico Border Fence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langerbein, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall which reveals that both grew from unique political, historical, geographical, cultural, and economic circumstances. The purpose of this article is to provide new arguments for a debate that all too often has been waged with emotions, polemics, and misinformation. The…

  16. Health assessment for Berlin and Farro Site, Schwartz Creek, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID000605717. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-19

    Presented is a memorandum describing a public hearing in which members of the public ascribed illnesses to pollutants issuing from the Berlin and Farro Site in Schwartz Creek, Michigan. While air sampling at the site did reveal the presence of contaminants, their association with the medical symptoms listed at the hearing is unclear.

  17. [Psychiatric morbidity in the oldest old. Results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Helmchen, H; Linden, M; Wernicke, T

    1996-09-01

    An increasing life expectancy leads to a higher number of persons aged 70-84 years and persons aged 85 years and older. Information concerning changes in the spectrum of psychiatric morbidity is rare. The Berlin Aging Study was based on a representative age- and gender-stratified sample (n = 516) of Berlin citizens aged 70-100 years and older. In this inter-disciplinary study, an intensive investigation was carried out by psychologists, sociologists, internists and psychiatrists. This report focuses on subjectively reported complaints (Beschwerdeliste, BL), observed psychopathological symptomatology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS) and psychiatric diagnoses following the criteria of DSM-III-R (based on the Geriatric Mental State Examination, GMSA). On the self-rating scale (BL) 10% of all persons reported severe subjective complaints, 32% moderate complaints. On the BPRS, 17% showed severe psychopathological symptomatology, 75% at least mild symptoms. Following the criteria of DSM-III-R, 23.5% of all persons had a psychiatric disease, 4.2% a disease of severe intensity. When the DSM-III-R diagnoses "Not Otherwise Specified" (NOS) were included 40.4% of all subjects were diagnosed by the clinical judgement of the psychiatrists to have a psychiatric disease. The most frequent psychiatric diseases were insomnia (18.8%), depression NOS (17.8%) and dementia (13.8%). Dementia showed the well-known age-related increase, whereas no other incidences of psychiatric morbidity were age-related. Persons aged 70-84 years did not differ in the investigated psychiatric variables from persons aged 85 years and older, the only exception being the prevalence of dementia. PMID:8992371

  18. Spectral Characterization of Mars Analogues From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.

    2007-12-01

    Several well-recognized Martian soil analogues have been classified and studied in the past years. The JSC Mars-1, collected and distributed under control of the NASA Johnson Space Center, originates from Puú Nene cinder cone in Hawaii, USA. It is a palagonitic tephra (glassy volcanic ash altered at low temperatures), whose spectral features resemble the bright regions on Mars. The Salten Skov, coming from a subsurface deposit in the Midjutland region of Denmark, is a Fe-oxide precipitate with a dark red color, composed mainly of goethite, hematite and maghemite, with mineralogical and magnetic close to those of the martian soil. Montmorillonite and palagonite are other natural materials commonly referred as Martian soil analogues. We present and discuss the emissivity spectra of these analogue minerals from the Berlin Emissivity Database spectral library. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains also emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from < 25 to 250 μm. The current main setup at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR consist of an emissivity device built at DLR coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) equipped with both a cooled MTC detector and a room temperature DTGS detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm- 1. The combination of detectors and spectrometer allows a unique wavelength coverage encompassing the whole thermal radiation range measured by spacecraft instruments. The emissivity device is currently purged with dry air, while the spectrometer is evacuated. In a future upgrade of the facility the emissivity device will be replaced by a planetary simulation chamber which can be evacuated and which

  19. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally). PMID:19261507

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures for Patients With Anxiety Disorders by the Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Service in a General Hospital in Germany: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christina; Tauch, Deborah; Quante, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population of patients with anxiety disorders in a general hospital in Germany who required treatment by a consultation psychiatrist. Method: A retrospective investigation of psychiatric consultations concerning 119 patients with anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012, was conducted in a general hospital of the Charité Berlin, Berlin, Germany. The frequency of different anxiety disorders, the distribution of anxiety disorders among the departments of the general hospital, and the recommended treatment procedure were investigated. Results: The largest group of patients with anxiety symptoms presented panic attacks. Many of these patients sought treatment in the emergency department of the hospital primarily due to their anxiety symptoms. Within the group of somatically ill patients, panic attacks were prominent, especially in patients with cardiac or respiratory diseases. Treatment procedures comprised pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions. Benzodiazepines and psychoeducation were common acute treatments; antidepressants, pregabalin, and psychotherapy were recommended for long-term treatment. Conclusions: Many patients who primarily suffer from symptoms of anxiety seek treatment in a general hospital, especially in the emergency department. It is therefore very important for the individual patient as well as the health care system that the correct treatment is initiated. The consultation-liaison psychiatric service within a general hospital is important to ensure the best possible diagnostic procedures as well as treatment for patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:26835174

  1. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  2. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  3. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  4. Neuropathology in Germany during World War II: Julius Hallervorden (1882-1965) and the Nazi programme of 'euthanasia'.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J T

    2007-05-01

    In Germany, during World War II, more than 120,000 handicapped children and adults were murdered for the convenience of the State. To gain scientific knowledge, the brains of many of these patients were examined by German neuropathologists. Some 698 of these specimens were examined in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Hirnforschung in Berlin-Buch by Julius Hallervorden, whose career is reviewed together with that of his superior, Hugo Spatz. Hallervorden also oversaw the examination of cases of mental handicap by W-J Eiche at a laboratory at the Hospital Brandenburg-Gorden. Also in Berlin was Berthold Ostertag, neuropathologist at the Rudolf-Virchow-Hospital, who examined cases from the Children's Ward at Wiesengrund. Smaller but significant numbers of brains were examined in Munich, Heidelberg, Hamburg and Schleswig. Some brains of similar origin were examined in Vienna and in Lubliniecz. Jürgen Peiffer has estimated that German neuropathologists examined 2097 brains arising from the Nazi Programme of 'Euthanasia'. PMID:17551614

  5. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  6. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  7. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe. PMID:25258173

  8. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  9. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  10. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  11. 2 x Germany; 2 x Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Gebhard

    1991-01-01

    Describes textbooks of both East and West Germany from 1949-56, 1957-62, 1963-69, and 1970 on. Discusses a shift in West German texts from intense antagonism during the Cold War to a more critical comparison by the 1980s. Compares East German text development that increased in hostility over time, viewing West Germany as a negative alternative to…

  12. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition. PMID:11783839

  13. Bimetallic Pt-Ag and Pd-Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Debdutta; Bunker, Bruce; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Zhang, Zhenyuan; Meisel, Dan; Doudna, C. M.; Bertino, M. F.; Blum, Frank D.; Tokuhiro, A. T.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Terry, Jeff

    2005-04-19

    We report studies of bimetallic nanoparticles with 15%–16% atomic crystal parameters size mismatch. The degree of alloying was also probed in a 2-nm Pt core ssmallest attainable core sized of Pt–Ag nanoparticles scompletely immiscible in bulkd and 20-nm-diameter Pd–Ag nanowires scompletely miscible in bulkd. Particles were synthesized radiolytically, and depending on the initial parameters, they assume spherical or cylindrical snanowired morphologies. In all cases, the metals are seen to follow their bulk alloying characteristics. Also, Pt and Ag segregate in both spherical and wire forms, which indicates that strain due to crystallographic mismatch overcomes the excess surface free energy in the small particles. The Pd–Ag nanowires alloy similar to previously reported spherical Pd–Ag particles of similar diameter and composition

  14. Bimetallic Pt-Ag and Pd-Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Debdutta; Bunker, Bruce; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Zhang, Zhenyuan; Meisel, Dan; Doudna, C.M.; Bertino, M. F.; Blum, Frank D.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Terry, Jeff

    2005-05-01

    We report studies of bimetallic nanoparticles with 15%-16% atomic crystal parameters size mismatch. The degree of alloying was probed in a 2-nm Pt core (smallest attainable core size) of Pt-Ag nanoparticles (completely immiscible in bulk) and 20-nm-diameter Pd-Ag nanowires (completely miscible in bulk). Particles were synthesized radiolytically, and depending on the initial parameters, they assume spherical or cylindrical (nanowire) morphologies. In all cases, the metals are seen to follow their bulk alloying characteristics. Pt and Ag segregate in both spherical and wire forms, which indicates that strain due to crystallographic mismatch overcomes the excess surface free energy in the small particles. The Pd-Ag nanowires alloy similar to previously reported spherical Pd-Ag particles of similar diameter and composition.

  15. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  16. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  17. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  18. THE AGS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTUM.

    SciTech Connect

    HOCK,J.RUSSO,T.GLEN,J.BROWN,K.

    2003-05-12

    The previous slow beam extraction electro static septum in the AGS was designed in 1981. Research documented at the Fermi Laboratory was used as the base line for this design. The septum consisted of a ground plane of .002 inch diameter wire tungsten-rhenium alloy (75%W 25%Re) with a hollow welded titanium cathode assembly. The vacuum chamber is stationary and the septum is moved with a pair of high vacuum linear feed throughs. After years of beam time, the frequency of failures increased. The vacuum system design was poor by today's standards and resulted in long pump down times after repairs. The failures ranged from broken septum wires to a twisted cathode. In addition to the failures, the mechanical drive system had too much backlash, making the operating position difficult to repeat. The new septum needed to address all of these issues in order to become a more reliable septum.

  19. EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Hans-Peter; Kluge, Peter; Mauch, Simon

    2005-07-01

    EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG is a leading provider of pharmacogenetic consulting, genotyping and research services to the international pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, contract research organizations and healthcare providers. The company's mission is to improve safety, efficacy and predictability in drug development and drug therapy. EPIDAUROS determines its customers' needs in the field of pharmacogenetics using an in-depth consultancy process. The development and conduct of genotyping assays for drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug targets (for example, receptors)--all performed under stringent quality standards--are a major activity at EPIDAUROS. The company offers its research services to academic and industrial partners for the development of innovative diagnostic solutions by using its intellectual property. PMID:16014003

  20. AgH, Ag/sub 2/, and AgO revisited: Basis set extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    An extended basis set has been developed for Ag which significantly improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental spectroscopic parameters for AgH, AgO, and Ag/sub 2/. The major improvement comes about as a result of the improved treatment of electron correlation in the Ag d shell upon the introduction of f functions. Their inclusion produces very slight differences at the SCF level, but significant reductions in r/sub e/ and increases in ..omega../sub e/ and D/sub e/ in the Mo-dash-barller--Plesset perturbation theory expansion. At the MP4(SDTQ) level, typical results are 0.02 A too long for r/sub e/, 4% too low for ..omega../sub e/, and 10 kcal too small for D/sub e/. From a pragmatic standpoint, MP2 give results very similar to this at a much reduced level of effort.

  1. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  2. Processing and Testing of the SRF Photoinjector Cavity for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clemens, William; Kneisel, Peter; Turlington, Larry; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2014-07-01

    The BERLinPro project is a compact, c.w. SRF energy recovery linac (ERL) that is being built to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to operate the next generation of high current ERLs. The machine is designed to produce a 50 MeV 100 mA beam, with better than 1 mm-mrad emittance. The electron source for the ERL will be a SRF photoinjector equipped with a multi-alkali photocathode. In order to produce a SRF photoinjector to operate reliably at this beam current HZB has undertaken a 3 stage photoinjector development program to study the operation of SRF photoinjectors in detail. The 1.4 cell cavity being reported on here is the second stage of this development, and represents the first cavity designed by HZB for use with a high quantum efficiency multi-alkali photocathode. This paper will describe the work done to prepare the cavity for RF testing in the vertical testing dewar at Jefferson Laboratory as well as the results of these RF tests.

  3. Hindi translation of Berlin questionnaire and its validation as a screening instrument for obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Ali, Ramjan; Dhyani, Mohan; Das, Sourav; Pundir, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common problem with adverse health consequences. However, any screening questionnaire is not available in Hindi to screen sleep apnea. Materials and Methods: Subjects undergoing video-synchronized in laboratory attended polysomnography were requested to participate in this study. They were screened with the help of Hindi version of Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Outcome of the BQ was tested against the gold standard polysomnography. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of Hindi version were calculated. Results: 38 patients with polysomnography diagnosed OSA and 12 controls were included in this study. Average body mass index (BMI) in the OSA group was 33.12 + 6.66 kg/m2 whereas in the control group BMI was 25.01 + 4.20 kg/m2. Average age in the OSA group was 48.9 + 10.2 years whereas the control group was older (56.9 + 12.1 years). Hindi version had sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 58%. PPV of the instrument was 0.87 whereas NPV was 0.63. Conclusion: Hindi version of BQ is a valid tool for screening the OSA irrespective of the literacy status of the subjects. PMID:27114656

  4. The new cold neutron radiography and tomography instrument CONRAD at HMI Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilger, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Banhart, J.

    2006-11-01

    The new cold neutron radiography instrument CONRAD is a multifunctional facility for radiography and tomography with cold neutrons at Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin. It is located at the end of a curved neutron guide, which faces the cold-neutron source of the BER-II research reactor. The geometry provides a cold-neutron beam with wavelengths between 2 and 12 Å. Two measuring positions are available for radiography and tomography investigations. The first one is placed at the end of the guide and it is optimized for in situ experiments in which a high neutron flux is required. The available flux at this position is approximately 10 8 cm -2 s -1. The second measuring position uses a pin-hole geometry which allows better beam collimation ( L/ D up to 1000) and higher image resolution in the range of 200 μm in the CCD based detector system (10×10 cm 2). The use of cold neutrons for radiography purposes increases the image contrast and improves the sensibility e.g., the detection of small amounts of water and hydrogen-containing materials in metal matrixes. On the other hand the cold-neutron beam can be modified easily by using diffraction and neutron optical techniques. This enables to perform radiography and tomography experiments with more sophisticated measuring techniques. Recent examples of research and industrial applications will be presented.

  5. Drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Hildebrandt, Martin; Späth-Schwalbe, Ernst; Grüneisen, Andreas; Mayer, Beate; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kurtal, Hanife

    2011-09-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a rare but serious condition. This study investigated the possibility of drug aetiology of immune haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in 134 patients with new onset of IHA who were identified in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study between 2000 and 2009. Single drugs related to IHA in three or more patients and assessed more than once as a certain or probable cause of IHA in a standardized causality assessment included diclofenac, fludarabine, oxaliplatin, ceftriaxone and piperacillin. In a case-control study including all 124 IHA cases developed in outpatient care and 731 controls, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) were observed for beta-lactam antibiotics (OR=8·8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3·2-25·2), cotrimoxazole (OR=6·5; CI 1·1-37·9), ciprofloxacin (OR=6·9, CI 1·3-38·5), fludarabine (OR=22·2; CI: 2·8-454·5) and lorazepam (OR=5·3; CI: 1·2-21·2). Excluding new onset cases with a chronic IHA disease course, an increased risk became also apparent for diclofenac with an OR of 3·1 (CI 1·3-7·0). This is the first case-control study investigating drugs as risk factors for IHA. It corroborates an increased risk for several drugs that have been implicated as a cause of IHA in the standardized causality assessment of individual cases. PMID:21749359

  6. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations. PMID:27258327

  7. Border cases between autonomy and relevance: Economic sciences in Berlin--A natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Düppe, Till

    2015-06-01

    The faculty of economics at today's Humboldt University in Berlin, as no other institution of economics, has witnessed three radical ruptures in its history: in 1933, National Socialism replaced the pluralism prevailing in the Weimar Republic by imposing a "German economics"; after WWII, GDR authorities replaced this NS regime by imposing a Marxist imperative, which after the fall of the wall was replaced by the Western standards of neoclassical economics. In reconstructing these three reforms, institutional history can serve as a context in which questions about the political nature of economic knowledge can be answered that remain speculative in a conceptual context. I thus present a natural experiment in the political epistemology of economics: How do economists respond to, resist, and stabilize, changing political regimes? How do economists renegotiate the autonomy of economic knowledge given changing demands as of its social task? Among others, I show that contrary to Robert Merton's old, but still widely held thesis in political epistemology-that the values of science are compatible only with democratic regimes-the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes created better conditions for methodological pluralism in economics than democratic society. PMID:26227228

  8. Neutron Scattering at Highest Magnetic Fields at the Helmholtz Centre Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeibidl, P.; Tennant, A.; Ehmler, H.; Bird, M.

    2010-04-01

    The Helmholtz Centre Berlin (HZB), formerly Hahn-Meitner Institute is a user facility for the study of structure and dynamics with neutrons and synchrotron radiation with special emphasis on experiments under extreme conditions. Neutron scattering is uniquely suited to study magnetic properties on a microscopic length scale, because neutrons have comparable wavelengths and, due to their magnetic moment, they interact with the atomic magnetic moments. At HZB a dedicated instrument for neutron scattering at extreme fields is under construction, the Extreme Environment Diffractometer ExED. It is projected according to the “time-of-flight” principle for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and for the special geometric constraints of analysing samples in a high field magnet. The new magnet will not only allow for novel experiments, it will be at the forefront of development in magnet technology itself. The design of the magnet will follow the Series Connected Hybrid System Technology (SCH) developed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Tallahassee, Florida. To compromise between the needs of the magnet design for highest fields and the concept of the neutron instrument, the magnetic field will be generated by means of a coned solenoid with horizontal field orientation. By using resistive insert coils, which are mounted in the room temperature bore of a superconducting cable-in-conduit (CIC) magnet, fields above 30 Tesla can be obtained in a geometry optimised for the demands of neutron scattering.

  9. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A single center experience with Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munster-95 protocol

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Gupta, Sumant; Ganesan, Prasanth; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajalekshmy, Kamalalayan Raghavan; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data on the outcome following the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from developing countries. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-eight consecutive patients with ALL <30 years of age diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were treated modified Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munster 95 protocol. Event-free survival (EFS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and variables were compared using log-rank test. Results: The EFS was 63.4% at a median follow-up was 32.7 months. On univariate analysis National Cancer Institute (NCI) risk stratification, sex, white blood cell count, day 8 blast clearance, and income were significantly associated with EFS. However, on multivariate analysis only female sex (P = 0.01) and day 8 blast clearance (P = 0.006) were significantly associated with EFS. Seventy-four of 238 (31%) patients had recurrent leukemia. The common sites of relapse were bone marrow in 55/74 (75%) patients and central nervous system in 11/74 (20%) patients. Conclusion: Compared to western data, there was an increased proportion of NCI high-risk patients and T-cell immunophenotype in our study. There has been an improvement in outcome of patients with ALL at our center over the last 2 decades. Female sex and clearance of blast in peripheral blood by day 8 of induction was associated with better EFS. PMID:26811597

  10. Use of portable FTIR spectrometers for detecting greenhouse gas emissions of the megacity Berlin - Part 2: Observed time series of XCO2 and XCH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, F.; Frey, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Groß, J.; Kiel, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Schäfer, K.; Sha, M. K.; Orphal, J.

    2015-03-01

    Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers have been used for the accurate and precise observation of column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 around the megacity Berlin. In the first part of this work (Frey et al., 2015) we have presented the various measures that were undertaken to ensure that the observations are consistent between sites, accurate and precise. Here, we present the recorded time series of XCH4 and XCO2 and demonstrate that the CO2 emissions of Berlin can be clearly identified in the observations. A simple dispersion model is applied which indicates a total strength of the Berlin source of about 0.8 t CO2 s-1. In the Supplement of this work, we provide the measured dataset and auxiliary data. We hope that the model community will exploit this unique dataset for state-of-the art inversion studies of CO2 and CH4 sources in the Berlin area.

  11. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain. PMID:12502173

  12. The Diary of Schiaparelli in Berlin (26 October 1857-10 May 1859): a guide for his future scientific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, P.

    In February 1857, three years after his degree in Turin, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli moved to Berlin with a scholarship from the Sardinian government. There he lived for over two years and from October he attended the University. Berlin was an important astronomical center at the time and the young Schiaparelli had the opportunity to study with some of the most distinguished astronomers of his epoch and to be in one of the best equipped observatory in the world. During his staying in Berlin Schiaparelli regularly wrote a diary which runs from Monday, October 26, 1857 to Tuesday, May 10, 1859. The Diary is very important for the reconstruction of Schiaparelli's training as an astronomer. In this communication I'll give some information about the sections of the Diary which deal more strictly with astronomy. In the Diary all astronomical trainings of the mature Schiaparelli are outlined. But there is an exception: Mars and the inhabitability of other worlds. This rises an intere-sting historiographical problem which pushes historians to find elsewhere the origins of a research which is inextricably linked to Schiaparelli and that allowed him to found the planetology as a new astronomical discipline.

  13. [Leaking: Frequency and correlates of announcements and threats of homicidal violence reported by Berlin schools between 1996 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Allroggen, Marc; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Threats and announcements of homicidal violence at schools may have massive consequences like evacuations, police searches, criminal investigations, or loss of the sense of security by students, teachers, and parents. However, there is a lack of systematic studies about that phenomenon. The present article would like to contribute to closing the research gap. It presents results about the frequency and structure of threats and announcements of homicidal violence in schools in Berlin. The study is based on an official dataset from school administration reports of violent acts in Berlin schools which has been studied within the Berlin Leaking-Projekt. The sample consists of 427 threats and announcements of homicidal violence between 1996 and 2007. The study is an exceptional analysis of the phenomenon: it presents crosscutting results about frequency and characteristics of threats and the threatening students as well as results of a longitudinal analysis about the development of threats and announcements. Results show a rate of 0,3 threats and announcements per 1 000 student and year. During the observation time span a steady increase of threats and announcements – year by year, influenced by imitation effects after school shootings – has been observed. PMID:27216327

  14. Silencing the Singer. Antibioethics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schöne-Seifert, B; Rippe, K P

    1991-01-01

    "Die Gedanken sind frei," in the words of the old song. But in Germany, thoughts are no longer free. Peter Singer, the "death ethicist," has become a special target for activists attempting to silence bioethical debate in Germany. In the context of the trauma inflicted by National Socialism, a profound unease over issues at the end of life is accompanied by an insistence that these issues are not to be discussed. PMID:1837289

  15. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  16. NMR investigation of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwanghyo; Jang, Zeehoon

    2013-01-01

    109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and relaxation measurements have been performed on two powder samples of Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of 20 nm and 80 nm. The measurements have been done in an external field of 9.4 T and in the temperature range 10 K < T < 280 K. The 109Ag NMR spectra for both samples have close to Lorentzian shapes and turn out to be mixtures of homogeneous and inhomogeneous lines. The linewidth Δ ν at room temperature is 1.3 kHz for both samples and gradually increases with decreasing temperature. Both the Knight shift ( K) and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/ T 1) are observed to be almost identical to the values reported for the bulk Ag metal, whereby the Korringa ratio R(= K 2 T 1 T/S) is found to be 2.0 for both samples in the investigated temperature range.

  17. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  18. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  19. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  20. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a 'special' visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolution was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  1. GNSS in real-time: Demonstration experiment at Berlin Airport International

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Jens; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Heise, Stefan; Li, XingXing; Ming, Shangguan; Nischan, Thomas; Ramatschi, Markus; Schuh, Harald; Alberding, Jürgen; Weigmann, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Real-time (RT) applications are in focus of recent GNSS research. International activities related to the RT data collection and distribution, as well as provision of specific RT data products (e.g., satellite orbits and clocks, station coordinates) are coordinated within the Real-Time Project of the International GNSS Service (IGS). Currently IGS provides real-time data from more than 100 globally distributed GNSS ground stations. This number, in parallel with the extension of various additional international real-time networks, is continuously increasing. In parallel to the rapid development of GNSS RT activities also innovative geophysical applications were pioneered by GNSS research groups and institutions, including GFZ. One prominent example is the use of GNSS components in early warning systems. GNSS measurements can be used there for the rapid detection and characterization of deformation fields, related to earthquakes, which induce Tsunamis. Such deformation data cannot be provided by seismometer measurements, but are important for the prediction of the tsunami wave propagation caused by earthquakes. The GNSS real-time group at GFZ is involved in several research projects related to geophysical RT GNSS applications, and also operates one of the RT analysis centers of the IGS. We introduce results of a real-time GNSS demonstration project, which was performed in 2012 at the new Berlin International Airport BER at Schönefeld, south-east of Berlin city center. The main goal of the project was the demonstration of the functionality of a complex RT-PPP server-client solution for dynamic applications which was developed within a joint research project of GFZ and the company Alberding GmbH. Compared to the standard PPP (clock & orbit) this solution uses additional information (ionosphere, uncalibrated phase delays UPD) to increase the positioning accuracy and to reduce the convergence time. The major challenges of the experiment were the stable operation of the

  2. Source apportionment of organic compounds in Berlin using positive matrix factorization - assessing the impact of biogenic aerosol and biomass burning on urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Sandra; Langner, Marcel; Hansen, Ute; Moriske, Heinz-Jörn; Endlicher, Wilfried R

    2012-10-01

    Source apportionment of 13 organic compounds, elemental carbon and organic carbon of ambient PM(10) and PM(1) was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF). Samples were collected at three sites characterized by different vegetation influences in Berlin, Germany in 2010. The aim was to determine organic, mainly biogenic sources and their impact on urban aerosol collected in a densely populated region. A 6-factor solution provided the best data fit for both PM-fractions, allowing the sources isoprene- and α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA), bio primary, primarily attributable to fungal spores, bio/urban primary including plant fragments in PM(10) and cooking and traffic emissions in PM(1), biomass burning and combustion fossil to be identified. With mean concentrations up to 2.6 μg Cm(-3), biomass burning dominated the organic fraction in cooler months. Concentrations for α-pinene-derived SOA exceeded isoprene-derived concentrations. Estimated secondary organic carbon contributions to total organic carbon (OC) were between 7% and 42% in PM(10) and between 11% and 60% in PM(1), which is slightly lower than observed for US- or Asian cities. Primary biogenic emissions reached up to 33% of OC in the PM(10)-fraction in the late summer and autumn months. Temperature-dependence was found for both SOA-factors, correlations with ozone and mix depth only for the α-pinene-derived SOA-factor. Latter indicated input of α-pinene from the borders, highlighting differences in the origin of the precursors of both factors. Most factors were regionally distributed. High regional distribution was found to be associated with stronger influence of ambient parameters and higher concentrations at the background station. A significant contribution of biogenic emissions and biomass burning to urban organic aerosol could be stated. This indicates a considerable impact on PM concentrations also in cities in a densely populated area, and should draw the attention

  3. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R; Förster, Ronald; Hellmig, Michael; Paithankar, Karthik S; Pühringer, Sandra; Steffien, Michael; Zocher, Georg; Weiss, Manfred S

    2012-05-01

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-β section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5-16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All three beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days per year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-κ goniometer and an automated sample changer. Additional user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given. PMID:22514183

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea, diagnosed by the Berlin questionnaire and association with coronary artery disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Abdullatef; Roghani, Farshad; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Amra, Babak; Kermani-Alghoraishi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep-related disorder that is associated with increased risk of hypertension (HTN) and coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the OSAS and coronary artery disease (CAD) severity. METHODS The cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to December 2013. We enrolled 127 patients with chronic stable angina who were referred for coronary angiographic studies in Shahid Chamran and Nour Hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) was used for estimate the probability of OSAS in patients as a low or high probability. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, HTN, obesity, and smoking also were recorded. The severity of CAD was assessed and compared based on the Gensini score with Mann-Whitney U statistical test. Independent t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables were used. RESULTS Totally, 65.4% of subjects were considered as high and 34.6% as low probability for OSAS, which 81.1% of them had CAD. There was a significant difference between body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and ischemic heart disease drug consumption with OSAS probability (P < 0.0500). CAD was accompanied by OSAS significantly (P = 0.0260). The Gensini score was significantly higher in patients with high OSAS probability (100.4 ± 69.1 vs. 65.3 ± 68.9; P = 0.0030). OSAS also increase odds of CAD based on regression analysis (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 2.7). CONCLUSION This study indicates that more severe CAD is associated with high OSAS probability identified by BQ. PMID:26715932

  5. The future of heart valve banking and of homografts: perspective from the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin.

    PubMed

    Delmo Walter, E M; de By, T M M H; Meyer, R; Hetzer, R

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the early days of homograft implantation in 1956, and the introduction into clinical practice by Ross and Barrat Boyes, homograft heart valves have proven to have many advantages. Its disadvantages became evident during long-term follow up. Factors, such as donor and recipient morbidity, tissue banking techniques, and the often complex surgical technique required to implant, are of great influence on the long term results. Because of European Directives, legally binding quality assurance regulations have been introduced in homograft banks. However, still not all processing methods have been scientifically sub-structured on their effects on the final product and its durability. The donor shortage has stimulated researchers and industries to develop and improve mechanical and biological valve substitutes such as the stentless bioprostheses. In general, candidates for homograft valve implantation include patients with: endocarditis, congenital defects and women who wish to become pregnant. For each category of patients different implantation techniques are required. The results of homograft banking and homograft transplantation in the German Heart Institute Berlin are satisfactory. Freedom of re-infection rate after homograft implantation is 91.9% +/- 3.6% after 15 years. Current developments show an increased interest in tissue engineered as well as in de- and re-cellularization of heart valve homografts. The advantages and disadvantages of the several processing techniques have not yet been proven in long term clinical results. For homograft bankers these developments pose as a challenge to join forces and to initiate cooperate projects aimed at scientific and organizational development. PMID:23439605

  6. Postpartum Contraception: a Comparative Study of Berlin Women with and without Immigration Background

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Brenne, S.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.; Borde, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research Questions: Are there differences in postpartum contraceptive use between women with and without immigration background? Do women more commonly use contraception following a high-risk pregnancy or caesarean section? What role does current breastfeeding play and, amongst immigrants, what is the effect of acculturation level on the frequency of contraceptive use? Study Population and Methods: Data collection was carried out as part of a larger study in three Berlin delivery units using standardised interviews (questionnaires covering e.g. sociodemographics, immigration history/acculturation and use of antenatal care); telephone interviews comprising 6 questions on postpartum contraception, breastfeeding and postpartum complications were conducted on a sample of the study population six months after delivery. Results: 247 women with, and 358 women without a background of immigration were included in the study (total study population n = 605, response rate 81.1 %). 68 % of 1st generation immigrants, 87 % of 2nd/3rd generation women and 73 % of women without immigration background (non-immigrants) used contraception. In the logistical regression analysis 1st generation immigrants were less likely than non-immigrants to be using contraception six months postpartum, and 1st generation immigrants with low acculturation level were significantly less likely to use contraception than 2nd/3rd generation women with low acculturation level. Conclusion: In the extended postpartum period there was no major difference in contraceptive use between immigrants in general and non-immigrants. It remains unclear whether the differing contraceptive behaviour of 1st generation immigrants is the result of less access to information, sociocultural factors or differing contraceptive requirements and further targeted, qualitative study is required. PMID:26500367

  7. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R.; Förster, Ronald; Hellmig, Michael; Paithankar, Karthik S.; Pühringer, Sandra; Steffien, Michael; Zocher, Georg; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-β section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5–16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All three beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days per year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-κ goniometer and an automated sample changer. Additional user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given. PMID:22514183

  8. Evaluation of Berlin Questionnaire Validity for Sleep Apnea Risk in Sleep Clinic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam; Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Tahmasian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a common tool to screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in the general population, but its application in the clinical sleep setting is still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the BQ compared to the apnea-hypopnea index obtained from polysomnography recordings obtained from a sleep clinic in Iran. Methods: We recruited 100 patients who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Research Center of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the evaluation of suspected sleep-disorder breathing difficulties. Patients completed a Persian version of BQ and underwent one night of PSG. For each patient, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was calculated to assess the diagnosis and severity of OSA. Severity of OSA was categorized as mild when AHI was between 5 and 15, moderate when it was between 15 and 30, and severe when it was more than 30. Results: BQ results categorized 65% of our patients as high risk and 35% as low risk for OSA. The sensitivity and the specificity of BQ for OSA diagnosis with AHI>5 were 77.3% and 23.1%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 68.0% and negative predictive value was 22.0%. Moreover, the area under curve was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49 – 0.67, P=0.38). Discussion: Our findings suggested that BQ, despite its advantages in the general population, is not a precise tool to determine the risk of sleep apnea in the clinical setting, particularly in the sleep clinic population. PMID:27303598

  9. Strong magnetization damping induced by Ag nanostructures in Ag/NiFe/Ag trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley Domínguez, D.; da Silva, G. L.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2013-07-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance has been used to investigate the magnetization relaxation in trilayers of Ag(t)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ag(t), sputter deposited on Si(001) where the thickness of the Ag layer varied from 0 nm to 24 nm. In the first stages of formation, the Ag layers form islands that work as mold to imprint defects or inhomogeneities on the NiFe film surface. The magnetic inhomogeneities and defects imprinted on the surface of the NiFe film act as extrinsic sources of magnetization relaxation in addition to the intrinsic Gilbert damping mechanism. Weak inhomogeneities are associated to the two-magnon scattering source and the strong inhomogeneities are associated to the fluctuations of the local magnetization. By adding the three different sources of magnetization damping, we were able to explain the azimuthal dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth.

  10. Synthesis of Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms and their use as DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ma, Zhanfang

    2011-06-01

    A simple synthetic route to prepare Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms consists of the facile addition of Na(2) S to a solution of triangular Ag nanoprisms. The resulting Ag(2) S-Ag nanoparticles are more stable in solution than the original Ag nanoprisms, and two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the original Ag nanoprisms still remain. In addition, the SPR bands of the Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms are tunable over a wide range. The Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms can be directly bioconjugated via well-established stable Ag(2) S surface chemistry with readily available sulfur coupling agents. The nanoprisms are used in the hybridization of functionalized oligonucleotides, and show promise as probes for future biosensing applications. PMID:21538868

  11. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  12. AQUABOX 50 AND MARABU PACKED BIOLOGICAL REACTOR SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION, STADTWERKE DUESSELDORF AG SITE, DUESSELDORF, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ITER summarizes the results of an evaluation of the AQUABOX 50 and MARABU Packed Biological Reactor technologies. The evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology ...

  13. One Germany, Two Identities? Challenges to Political Education in Germany Following Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussmuth, Hans

    After a discussion of the circumstances that led to the unification of the two German states, this paper then evaluates the challenges to political education in Germany after unification. Beginning with the focus by the media and politics on the effects of East German political changes on the two German states, the revolution in East Germany and…

  14. Constitutional Therapy and Clinical Racial Hygiene in Weimar and Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Hau, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The paper examines the history of constitutional therapy in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Focusing on Walther Jaensch's "Institute for Constitutional Research" at the Charité in Berlin, it shows how an entrepreneurial scientist successfully negotiated the changing social and political landscape of two very different political regimes and mobilized considerable public and private resources for his projects. During the Weimar period, his work received funding from various state agencies as well as the Rockefeller foundation, because it fit well with contemporary approaches in public hygiene and social medicine that emphasized the need to restore the physical and mental health of children and youths. Jaensch successfully positioned himself as a researcher on the verge of developing new therapies for feeble-minded people, who threatened to become an intolerable burden on the Weimar welfare state. During the Nazi period, he successfully reinvented himself as a racial hygienist by convincing influential medical leaders that his ideas were a valuable complement to the negative eugenics of Nazi bio-politics. "Constitutional therapy," he claimed, could turn genetically healthy people with "inhibited mental development" (geistigen Entwicklungshemmungen) into fully productive citizens and therefore made a valuable contribution to Nazi performance medicine (Leistungsmedizin) with its emphasis on productivity. PMID:26342037

  15. Genetic epidemiology and pathology of raccoon-derived Sarcoptes mites from urban areas of Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Z; Min, A M; Alasaad, S; Müller, K; Michler, F-U; Schmäschke, R; Wittstatt, U; Rossi, L; Wibbelt, G

    2014-08-01

    The raccoon, Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae), is an invasive species that is spreading throughout Europe, in which Germany represents its core area. Here, raccoons mostly live in rural regions, but some urban populations are already established, such as in the city of Kassel, or are starting to build up, such as in Berlin. The objective of this study was to investigate Sarcoptes (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae) infections in racoons in these two urban areas and to identify the putative origin of the parasite. Parasite morphology, and gross and histopathological examinations of diseased skin tissue were consistent with Sarcoptes scabiei infection. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped individual mites from five raccoons and compared them with Sarcoptes mites derived from fox, wild boar and Northern chamois, originating from Italy and Switzerland. The raccoon-derived mites clustered together with the fox samples and were clearly differentiated from those of the wild boar and chamois samples, which suggests a fox origin for the raccoon mange infection. These results are evidence of the cross-transmission of S. scabiei among wild carnivores. Although our results cannot elucidate whether raccoons became infected by frequent interaction with endemically or epidemically infected foxes or whether these cases resulted from occasional contacts among these animal species, they do nevertheless show that pathogens can be shared among urban populations of native and invasive carnivores. PMID:25171612

  16. Diurnal changes of PM10-emission from arable soils in NE-Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Carsten; Funk, Roger

    2015-06-01

    Repeated loss of fine soil particles by dust emission from arable fields caused by tillage operations, decline soil fertility and reduce air quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the diurnal dynamic of topsoil moisture and the connected PM10-emission of 15 different soils from arable fields around Berlin. As typical for the young moraine landscape in NE Germany, soils from glacial (sand and loam dominated), aeolian (silt loam), and fluvial (organic) sediments were selected. Soil samples were placed outside under hot summer and clear sky conditions for 24 h to reproduce the natural dynamic of soil surface moisture, including dew uptake during the night and evaporation during the day. Dynamic of PM10 emissions of all soils were then measured nine times per day in a stationary wind tunnel. Glacial and fluvial sands showed lowest fine dust emission potential (PM10pot) between 89 and 415 μg PM10 g-1 soil, while PM10pot of loess soils were higher (369-1215 μg PM10 g-1 soil). During the night, the moisture of all samples increased slightly by dew uptake, and fine dust emissions of soil samples were reduced up to 51% directly after sunrise. Highest average reductions in PM10 emissions were found for glacial and fluvial loams. Some hours after sunrise, all soil samples heated up and quickly dried again. Under minimal moisture conditions, highest fine dust emissions were measured between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.

  17. Significant prevalence of sickle cell disease in Southwest Germany: results from a birth cohort study indicate the necessity for newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Joachim B; Awad, Saida; Happich, Margit; Muckenthaler, Lena; Lindner, Martin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bruckner, Thomas; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-02-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit from newborn screening, because life-threatening complications can be prevented by pre-symptomatic diagnosis. In Germany, the immigration of people from endemic countries is steadily growing. Comprehensive data about the epidemiology and prevalence of SCD in Germany are however lacking, and SCD is not included in the national newborn screening program. We provide data on the prevalence of SCD in a population from both urban and rural areas in Southwest Germany. Anonymized dried blood spots from 37,838 unselected newborns were analyzed by allele-specific PCR for the HbS mutation. Samples tested positive were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the entire β-globin coding sequence firstly to validate the screening and secondly to identify compound heterozygous SCD patients with other mutations of the β-globin gene. We identified 83 carriers of the sickle cell trait, three compound heterozygous SCD patients (two with sickle cell-β-thalassemia, one with sickle cell-Hb Tianshui) but no homozygous SCD patients. The novel molecular method and strategy for newborn screening for SCD presented here compares favorably in terms of sensitivity (1.0 for homozygous HbS, 0.996 for heterozygous HbS), specificity (0.996), practicability, and costs with conventional biochemical screening. Our results demonstrate a significant prevalence of SCD of approximately 1:12,000 in an unselected urban and rural population in Southwest Germany. Together with previously published even higher results from exclusively urban populations in Berlin and Hamburg, our data provide the basis for the decision on a newborn screening program for SCD in Germany. PMID:26658910

  18. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au+ ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  19. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures. PMID:26563266

  20. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance. PMID:27256122

  1. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  3. [Berolina iubilans: Berlin physicians as Halle doctoral candidates (III): Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812), Halle doctoral candidate of 1789].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1987-09-15

    Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812) who was trained as a pharmaceutical chemist and awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine by the Faculty of Medicine of Halle University in 1789 belongs to the great botanists in an era in which the special subject represented by him finally disengages from the complex of medicine. The plant systematizer Willdenow worked on the traces of Linné, trying to note down the complex of species enlarged by him. Under his management the Botanic Garden in Berlin gained a world-wide renown. The Halle dissertation which was remarkable by its details was the intermediate station of Willdenow's professional career. PMID:3318184

  4. Proportion of drug-related serious rare blood dyscrasias: estimates from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2004-11-01

    Drugs are an important cause of serious rare blood dyscrasias. To estimate the proportion of drug-related cases, we used data from the ongoing Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The analysis included a total of 171 cases. The number of cases in which a drug etiology was assessed as at least "possible" was n = 29 (97%) for acute agranulocytosis, n = 4 (0.21%) for aplastic anemia, n = 8 (26%) for immune hemolytic anemia, n = 20 (25%) for immune thrombocytopenia, and n = 2 (20%) for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our analysis suggests that a substantial fraction of blood dyscrasias may be attributable to drug therapy. PMID:15495238

  5. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article. PMID:26294077

  6. [Migration in Germany: 1945-1996].

    PubMed

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348943

  7. The Co-operation Schemes Linking Berlin Humboldt University (GDR) with Universities and Academic Establishments in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Helmut; Zuckert, Ulrich

    1986-01-01

    East Germany's largest university has cooperative agreements and exchanges with six developing countries. The exchange activities include education and training of staff, delegation of university faculty to those countries, collaboration in research, advising, and exchange of experience. (MSE)

  8. The AGS Booster control system

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper.

  9. Photoreduction of Ag+ in Ag/Ag2S/Au memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, N. I.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag2S/Au memristors using a green laser (473-523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from -0.8 V to -0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag2S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  10. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2011-04-01

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  11. Ag-Ag2S Hybrid Nanoprisms: Structural versus Plasmonic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahjamali, Mohammad M; Zhou, Yong; Zaraee, Negin; Xue, Can; Wu, Jinsong; Large, Nicolas; McGuirk, C Michael; Boey, Freddy; Dravid, Vinayak; Cui, Zhifeng; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-05-24

    Recently, Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their enhanced chemical and thermal stability, in addition to their morphology- and composition-dependent tunable local surface plasmon resonances. Although Ag-Ag2S nanostructures can be synthesized via sulfidation of as-prepared anisotropic Ag nanoparticles, this process is poorly understood, often leading to materials with anomalous compositions, sizes, and shapes and, consequently, optical properties. In this work, we use theory and experiment to investigate the structural and plasmonic evolution of Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms during the sulfidation of Ag precursors. The previously observed red-shifted extinction of the Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanoprism as sulfidation occurs contradicts theoretical predictions, indicating that the reaction does not just occur at the prism tips as previously speculated. Our experiments show that sulfidation can induce either blue or red shifts in the extinction of the dipole plasmon mode, depending on reaction conditions. By elucidating the correlation with the final structure and morphology of the synthesized Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms, we find that, depending on the reaction conditions, sulfidation occurs on the prism tips and/or the (111) surfaces, leading to a core(Ag)-anisotropic shell(Ag2S) prism nanostructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the direction of the shift in the dipole plasmon is a function of the relative amounts of Ag2S at the prism tips and Ag2S shell thickness around the prism. PMID:27148792

  12. Regression analysis of time trends in perinatal mortality in Germany 1980-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Scherb, H; Weigelt, E; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    2000-01-01

    Numerous investigations have been carried out on the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of anomalies at birth and on perinatal mortality. In many cases the studies were aimed at the detection of differences of pregnancy outcome measurements between regions or time periods. Most authors conclude that there is no evidence of a detrimental physical effect on congenital anomalies or other outcomes of pregnancy following the accident. In this paper, we report on statistical analyses of time trends of perinatal mortality in Germany. Our main intention is to investigate whether perinatal mortality, as reflected in official records, was increased in 1987 as a possible effect of the Chernobyl accident. We show that, in Germany as a whole, there was a significantly elevated perinatal mortality proportion in 1987 as compared to the trend function. The increase is 4.8% (p = 0.0046) of the expected perinatal death proportion for 1987. Even more pronounced levels of 8.2% (p = 0. 0458) and 8.5% (p = 0.0702) may be found in the higher contaminated areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), including West Berlin, and of Bavaria, respectively. To investigate the impact of statistical models on results, we applied three standard regression techniques. The observed significant increase in 1987 is independent of the statistical model used. Stillbirth proportions show essentially the same behavior as perinatal death proportions, but the results for all of Germany are nonsignificant due to the smaller numbers involved. Analysis of the association of stillbirth proportions with the (137)Cs deposition on a district level in Bavaria discloses a significant relationship. Our results are in contrast to those of many analyses of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and contradict the present radiobiologic knowledge. As we are dealing with highly aggregated data, other causes or artifacts may explain the observed effects. Hence, the findings

  13. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  14. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany. PMID:27112761

  15. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the world of…

  16. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  17. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the paper, a…

  18. Dobrava-Belgrade Virus Spillover Infections, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Mathias; Klempa, Boris; Auste, Brita; Bemmann, Margrit; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Büchner, Thomas; Groschup, Martin H.; Meier, Markus; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Zoller, Hinrich; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2009-01-01

    We present the molecular identification of Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) as reservoir host of the Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) lineage DOBV-Aa in 3 federal states of Germany. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for multiple spillover of DOBV-Aa to A. flavicollis, a crucial prerequisite for host switch and genetic reassortment. PMID:19961690

  19. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  20. Satellite Teleconferencing between Massachusetts and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; Warshawsky, Rebecca

    1991-01-01

    In June 1989, eighth graders in 3 Massachusetts schools participated in a live, 2-way, 90-minute video teleconference with students in Karlsruhe, Germany, as part of a multiorganization partnership called KITES (Kids Interactive Telecommunications Experience by Satellite). Although environmental sciences was the official topic, students also…

  1. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  2. Apprenticeships in Germany: Modernising the Dual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deissinger, Thomas; Hellwig, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? This paper proposes to investigate the modernisation of the German Dual System for apprenticeships. Design/methodology/approach ? The paper looks at the history of the development of the Dual System and looks at the challenges it faces today. Findings ? The paper finds that Germany, with its long-standing tradition of dual…

  3. Codetermination in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schons, Paul A.

    The Federal Republic of Germany has begun an experiment in industrial democracy giving workers federally guaranteed rights and authority in industrial decision making. All workers in companies with five or more employees are entitled to elect a works council with which management must consult concerning all employment policies and conditions. All…

  4. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes and their…

  5. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  6. Germany gets largest ever MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2008-07-01

    A 57-tonne cylindrical magnet has arrived at the Jülich Research Centre in Germany, where physicists are putting together the world's largest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. When the machine comes online next year, medical researchers will use it to examine the brain in unprecedented detail, in the hope of gaining new insights into neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

  7. Vocational Training in Germany: Modernisation and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in Germany. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Part I is "The…

  8. Integration in Germany: Mainstreaming or Swimming Upstream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Seegert, Carola

    1992-01-01

    This article provides an overview of European trends in integration for persons with disabilities, with emphasis on the slow pace of integration in Germany. The historical, attitudinal, and political context of German disability services are stressed, noting the effects of reunification, community living, workplace and school integration, and…

  9. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  10. The Berlin questionnaire for sleep apnea in a sleep clinic population: relationship to polysomnographic measurement of respiratory disturbance.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Negar; Chung, Sharon A; Gibbs, Alison; Shapiro, Colin M

    2008-03-01

    The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) has been used to help identify patients at high risk of having sleep apnea in primary care and atrial fibrillation patients. The BQ may be a useful adjunct in sleep medicine and research, but it has never been validated in a sleep clinic population. The aim of the study is to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the BQ compared to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) values obtained from two nights of polysomnographic recording in a sleep clinic population. This is a retrospective chart review study of 130 sleep clinic patients. Patients' demographics, BQ scores, RDI measurements, and sleep study parameters were extracted from the patients' chart. Of the 130 charts reviewed, the BQ identified 76 (58.5%) as being at high-risk of having sleep apnea, but overnight polysomnography found only 34 of the 130 patients (26.2%) had an RDI > 10. The BQ performed with 0.62 sensitivity and 0.43 specificity at the RDI > 10 level. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity as well as the large number of false negatives and positives, the Berlin questionnaire is not an appropriate instrument for identifying patients with sleep apnea in a sleep clinic population. PMID:17684781

  11. Money and microbes: Robert Koch, tuberculin and the Foundation of the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin in 1891.

    PubMed

    Gradmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Starting from an assessment of how far Robert Koch's bacteriology had developed in the late 1880s this paper attempts to analyse different aspects of the process that led to the foundation of the Berlin Institute for Infectious Diseases in 1891. With the development of his supposed cure against tuberculosis, tuberculin, Koch attempted to give his research a new direction, earn a fortune with the profits and become more independent of Prussian government officials who, up to that point, had had a major influence on his career. In the period following the presentation of the cure in autumn 1890, however, it became clear that tuberculin's value in treatment was at most dubious. Thus, the failure of tuberculin meant that Koch had to drop his own plans and accommodate those of the Prussian Ministry of Culture. As a result he assumed directorship of the newly founded Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. Even though this was definitely a prestigious position it reaffirmed Koch's dependency on Prussian government officials and was by no means the kind of institution he had aimed for at the outset. PMID:11258101

  12. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linley, Judy; Mylne, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Ag-Ed, an agricultural education project for upper elementary students, was held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show in Queensland, Australia. Agriculture industry representatives provided 20 interactive agricultural presentations for class groups, which were supplemented with a teacher resource-package containing a directory and 13 sections of…

  13. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  14. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  15. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  16. Illness Perception and Clinical Treatment Experiences in Patients with M. Maroteaux-Lamy (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI) and a Turkish Migration Background in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, Hansjörg; Leissner, Linn; Bosanska, Lenka; Lampe, Christina; Plöckinger, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation of the gene for arylsulfatase B (ASB). Of the thirty-one patients registered in Germany, almost fifty percent have a Turkish migration background. MPS VI is treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which is time-consuming and expensive. Methods This interdisciplinary study explored the illness perceptions and clinical treatment experiences among ten MPS VI patients with a Turkish migration background in two centers for metabolic diseases (Berlin and Mainz, Germany). The clinical treatment situation was observed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and health care personnel, in addition to participatory observation in four patients' everyday environments in Berlin. The data from the interviews, patient records, and personal field notes were encoded, cross-related, and analyzed. Results Patients' acknowledgement of the disease and coping strategies are influenced predominantly by the perception of their individual health status and the handling of the disease within their family. Patients' willingness to cooperate with treatment strategies is further modified by their knowledge of the disease and the relationships with their health care providers. In this analysis, cultural factors turned out to be marginally relevant. Conclusion As with other chronic and debilitating diseases, effective treatment strategies have to reach beyond delivering medication. Health care providers need to strengthen the support for patients with a migration background. In this regard, they should respect the patients' cultural and social background and their personal perception of the disease and the therapy. Yet structural and social aspects (clinical setting, family and educational background) may be more crucial here than “cultural barriers.” PMID:23826140

  17. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success. PMID:10121315

  18. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  19. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  20. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  1. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  2. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  3. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  4. [Future supply of tuberculin in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sagebiel, D; Hauer, B; Haas, W; Magdorf, K; Priwitzer, M; Loddenkemper, R

    2005-04-01

    The manufacturers of the only tuberculin available up to now in Germany for intradermal TB tests according to Mantoux, Chiron Vaccines Behring, in 2004 unexpectedly stopped the production of the tuberculin Behring GT (GT="gereinigtes Tuberkulin"-purified protein derivative tuberculin). Only residual stocks were sold during the preceding months. The stocks of GT 10 were already depleted at the beginning of 2005, while there are small supplies left of GT 100 and GT 1000. As a temporary solution, Chiron Vaccines Behring is offering to import the Italian tuberculin Biocine PPD 5 IE lyophil produced by Chiron S.r.l. in Siena. As this is not licensed for sale in Germany, it is necessary to obtain an exceptional prescription (Einzelverordnung) according to section sign 73 (3) of the Federal Law Relating to the Manufacture and Distribution of Medicine (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). In the long term, Chiron Vaccines Behring plan to secure the supply of tuberculin in Germany by importing, starting in the summer of 2006, the tuberculin produced by Chiron Vaccines Evans in the UK (PPD Evans). However, these plans involve changing over to a different type of tuberculin twice within a very short period of time. Another problem is the unresolved issue of bioequivalence. Besides the above-mentioned tuberculins produced by Chiron Vaccines, a further possibility would be the import of the tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI of the Statens Serums Institute (Copenhagen/Denmark), which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the standard tuberculin and which has already been introduced in several European countries, or of other tuberculins such as Tubersol (PPD CT68), which is used in the US. Together with the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis (DZK) is striving to find a solution, in view of the urgent need for an uninterrupted supply of tuberculin in Germany for diagnostic purposes and contact tracing

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of a Ag/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sandwich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Alexson, D. M.; Prokes, Sharka; Glembocki, Orest; Vivoni, Alberto; Hosten, Charles

    2011-02-01

    α,ω-Dithiols are a useful class of compounds in molecular electronics because of their ability to easily adsorb to two metal surfaces, producing a molecular junction. We have prepared Ag nanosphere/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNS/OPE/Ag sol) and Ag nanowire/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNW/OPE/Ag sol) sandwiches to simulate the architecture of a molecular electronic device. This was achieved by self-assembly of OPE on the silver nanosurface, deprotection of the terminal sulfur, and deposition of Ag sol atop the monolayer. These sandwiches were then characterized by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The resulting spectra were compared to the bulk spectrum of the dimer and to the Ag nanosurface/OPE SERS spectra. The intensities of the SERS spectra in both systems exhibit a strong dependence on Ag deposition time and the results are also suggestive of intense interparticle coupling of the electromagnetic fields in both the AgNW/OPE/Ag and the AgNS/OPE/Ag systems. Three previously unobserved bands (1219, 1234, 2037 cm -1) arose in the SER spectra of the sandwiches and their presence is attributed to the strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field which is predicted from the COSMOL computational package. The 544 cm -1 disulfide bond which is observed in the spectrum of solid OPE but is absent in the AgNS/OPE/Ag and AgNW/OPE/Ag spectra is indicative of chemisorption of OPE to the nanoparticles through oxidative dissociation of the disulfide bond.

  6. Curriculum Transition in Germany and South Africa: 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, there is not much to compare, or any reason to compare, German and South African curricular frameworks. The history, nature of their respective transitions, level of development and educational legacies are very different. But the fall of the Berlin Wall and ending of apartheid brought both within a common neo-liberal global…

  7. Modeling closure of the Pd-Ag system in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Orman, J.; Matthes, M.; Fischer-Gödde, M.; Krawczynski, M. J.; Kleine, T.

    2015-12-01

    J.A. Van Orman1, M. Matthes2, M. Fischer-Godde2, M.J. Krawczynski3, T. Kleine21 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (james.vanorman@case.edu) 2 Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany 3 Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 The short-lived Pd-107/Ag-107 system can provide constraints on the timing of assembly and cooling of iron meteorite parent bodies, but to interpret the dates derived from this system it is necessary to understand the closure conditions. Palladium is strongly enriched in the metal phases, and sulphide (troilite) is the primary sink for radiogenic silver. Closure of the system hence depends primarily on the transfer of Ag-107 from metal to troilite. Because cation diffusion in troilite is extremely rapid, Ag-107 transfer is likely to be controlled by diffusion through the metal. Sugiura and Hoshino (2003) estimated a closure temperature of ~1100 K for the Pd/Ag system in iron meteorites under the assumption that the diffusion rate of Ag in the metal is similar to that of Ni diffusion in taenite. Here we consider the problem in more detail, utilizing constraints on Ag diffusion in taenite and kamacite from the metallurgical literature to numerically model diffusive exchange between metal and troilite with simultaneous radiogenic ingrowth. The process is complicated by exsolution of the metal into bcc kamacite and fcc taenite phases during cooling. We will discuss approaches to the treatment of this issue and their influence on the derived closure temperatures. Sugiura N., Hoshino H. (2003) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 38, 117-143.

  8. Visualizing Redox Dynamics of a Single Ag/AgCl Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst at Atomic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yimin A; Li, Liang; Li, Zheng; Kinaci, Alper; Chan, Maria K Y; Sun, Yugang; Guest, Jeffrey R; McNulty, Ian; Rajh, Tijana; Liu, Yuzi

    2016-03-22

    Operando characterization of gas-solid reactions at the atomic scale is of great importance for determining the mechanism of catalysis. This is especially true in the study of heterostructures because of structural correlation between the different parts. However, such experiments are challenging and have rarely been accomplished. In this work, atomic scale redox dynamics of Ag/AgCl heterostructures have been studied using in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in combination with density function theory (DFT) calculations. The reduction of Ag/AgCl to Ag is likely a result of the formation of Cl vacancies while Ag(+) ions accept electrons. The oxidation process of Ag/AgCl has been observed: rather than direct replacement of Cl by O, the Ag/AgCl nanocatalyst was first reduced to Ag, and then Ag was oxidized to different phases of silver oxide under different O2 partial pressures. Ag2O formed at low O2 partial pressure, whereas AgO formed at atmospheric pressure. By combining in situ ETEM observation and DFT calculations, this structural evolution is characterized in a distinct nanoscale environment. PMID:26937679

  9. The new gastarbeiter system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, H

    1996-04-01

    "Germany's new gastarbeiter policy is evaluated in the context of a long tradition of labour recruitment, particularly the last period of active recruitment abroad (1955-1973). The policy's characteristic features (of permission to stay being dependent on a work permit; this being limited to a certain period and linked to the requirements of a specific employer) [imply] that the gastarbeiter regime is a low cost means of increasing flexibility in cases of regional and/or sectoral bottlenecks in the employment system as well as a way of ¿exporting' problems.... The mounting employment crisis in Germany has prompted the German government repeatedly to take advantage of provisions to restrict the conventions on labour movement." PMID:12179821

  10. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  11. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    PubMed

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut. PMID:27281981

  12. Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962-2003.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Andreas; Schöneberg, Irene; Frank, Christina; Alpers, Katharina; Schneider, Thomas; Stark, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998-2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:16022779

  13. The hospital sector in Germany: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schölkopf, M

    2000-01-01

    The German health care system has recently experienced far reaching reforms within its hospital sector, including a new financing and remuneration system, the life span of which is to the year 2003. The reforms have been based on the DRG-system already in operation in another country. Other regulations of the new reform involve the system of quality assurance and quality management in German hospitals and a new form of supply of services, the so called "integrated care" system, the introduction of which was to overcome the fragmented system of ambulatory and stationary medical care in Germany. This article, in short, presents an overview of the hospital sector in Germany and reports on the latest developments resulting from implementation of the health care reform. PMID:11276937

  14. Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962–2003

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Irene; Frank, Christina; Alpers, Katharina; Schneider, Thomas; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998–2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:16022779

  15. Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gethmann, Jörn M.; Staubach, Christoph; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, bluetongue disease had not been reported before 2006. During August 2006–August 2008, >24,000 bluetongue virus serotype 8 infections were reported, most (20,635) in 2007. In 2006 and 2007, respectively, case-fatality rates were 6.4% and 13.1% for cattle and 37.5% and 41.5% for sheep. Vaccination in 2008 decreased cases. PMID:19239757

  16. [Health conferences in Germany: an overview].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A

    2015-03-01

    Health conferences are a special management instrument of health policy. Less is known about the distribution. There is a lack of systematic evaluation methods.This overview is based on comprehensive literature, data base and internet searches about health conferences in Germany.The establishment of structured conferences is derived from funding projects of the federal states or local initiatives which began in different phases and with various emphases. The strategies varied from individual actions to an implementation in the whole state. Currently there are altogether 130 health conferences in Germany for approximately one third of the county and city districts in 13 federal states. The federal states assist health conferences by providing financial support, health policy, support by health authorities and regulations in the law. In the majority of the cases the office is located within the public health service. There is a great diversity in the composition of the stakeholders and in the contents. A systematic monitoring and outcome evaluation was conducted only in a few cases. Those studies predominantly report positive results but also promoting and inhibiting factors. They referred to restrictions.Health conferences are broadly disseminated, especially in west Germany. They offer opportunities for a community health management. There is a need for more intensive exchange and evaluation to improve their development. PMID:24420647

  17. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  18. An Arabic dictionary of technical alchemical terms: MS Sprenger 1908 of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (fols. 3r-6r).

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Gabriele

    2009-03-01

    The Arabic MS Sprenger 1908 (Staatsbibliothek, Berlin) is a handbook of medieval alchemy. Among the works it preserves, we can find the only extant witness to the Arabic original of the well-known Liber de aluminibus et salibus. In this paper, I focus on a detailed alchemical dictionary preserved in this manuscript (fols. 3r-6r) whose explicit aim is to clarify the meaning of the secret language used by the alchemists to conceal the names of substances and operations. Other versions of the same alchemical lexicon are found in Syriac and karsuni in MSS Oriental 1593 and Egerton 709, both preserved in the British Library. After describing these manuscripts, I analyse the contents of this dictionary, its structure, its different versions, and the features of the alchemical language that it attests to, providing some examples to show how this kind of dictionary is still a useful tool for the contemporary researcher. PMID:19831258

  19. 'A Berlin psychiatrist with an American passport': Lothar Kalinowsky, electroconvulsive therapy and international exchange in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-12-01

    The emigration of Lothar Kalinowsky (1899-1992) might, at first glance, seem to be a history of coincidence and twists of fate, but it is shown to be a truly entangled and intertwined history and story. The international introduction of electroconvulsive therapy was not only closely involved with the political, scientific and economic conditions during World War II, but the story of Kalinowsky's relevance to it emerges from competing stories, told differently in Europe and the USA - and by Kalinowsky himself. Tracing these stories up to the end of the 1960s reveals Kalinowsky as an influential inheritor and patron of Berlin Biological Psychiatry, rather than telling the history of an émigré innovator of international neuropsychiatric research. PMID:26574059

  20. Visible emission from Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Imakita, K.; Fujii, M.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Gordina, N. E.; Saïd, B.; Galarneau, A.

    2015-09-01

    Broad visible emissions dominant at green or red have been observed for the thermally-treated Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites, determined by the Ag+ loading contents and the excitation wavelengths. Contrary to the notable reversible green/red dominant emission evolution in the Ag+ exchanged LTA zeolites upon hydration/dehydration in air (or water vapor)/vacuum, emission spectra of the Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites are insensitive to the environmental change. This is most probably due to the difficult H2O permeation in SOD zeolites in comparison with LTA zeolites. By combining the environment dependent emission spectra of the Ag+ exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites, we proposed the following emission mechanisms for Ag+ exchanged LTA and SOD zeolites: the green emission is due to the transition from ligand-to-metal (framework O2- --> Ag+) charge transfer state to the ground state and the red emission is due to the transition from the metal-metal (Ag+-Ag+) charge transfer state to the ground state. The insensitive environment dependent emission characteristics of Ag+ exchanged SOD zeolites may have potential applications as robust phosphors.

  1. The Berlin Airlift (1948-49): Reporting History with Children's Express. Learner's Guide: An Educational Resource for Students in Middle and High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Express, New York, NY.

    This guide examines the Berlin Airlift (1948-49) as a 3 component initiative consisting of an educational video report, a "Learner's Guide," and an Internet Web site. These three components were developed by Children's Express at Maryland Public Television in accordance using the national history standards to enrich existing curricula. The…

  2. [Urology and Sexology in Berlin 1880-1933: Original citations for the establishment of this frontier of urology - protagonists as reflected in their publications].

    PubMed

    Moll, Friedrich H; Fangerau, Heiner

    2016-02-01

    The connections between urology and sexology are often not obvious today. At the end of the 19th century both specialties developed in parallel especially in Berlin and had a fruitful relationship. Urologic journals and books were an ideal forum for publication especially for sexologists. PMID:26839117

  3. History of Education and the Struggle for Intellectual Liberation in Post-Soviet Baltic Space after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestere, Iveta

    2014-01-01

    This study on a "new" history of education is written from the perspective of a participant in the process of discarding Soviet intellectual and physical boundaries. The fall of the Berlin Wall has, over the past two decades, become a continuous process in post-Soviet societies, when the now liberated historians of education were faced…

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Berlin and Farro site, Swartz Creek, MI. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The 40-acre Berlin and Farro site is a former liquid incineration and landfill facility in Gaines Township, Genessee County, Michigan. The site overlies two aquifers, which provide well water to the approximately 80 permanent homes located within a 1/2 mile radius of the site. From 1971 to 1975, Berlin and Farro Liquid Incineration, Inc., used the site to accept and store industrial wastes prior to incineration, and disposed of crushed drums in a 1.1-acre onsite landfill. In 1975, Berlin and Farro's permits were revoked; however, illegal dumping of industrial waste into the lagoons apparently continued after the site was closed. Several separate clean-up actions were undertaken by the PRPs, the State, and EPA during the early to mid-1980's. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the final remedy for contaminated soil, sediment, and ground water at the Berlin and Farro site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  5. Drug-induced liver injury: results from the hospital-based Berlin Case–Control Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Sarganas, Giselle; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2015-01-01

    Aim Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often responsible for acute liver failure, drug withdrawal, boxed warnings or drug non-approval. Therefore, we conducted a case–control study to determine the hepatotoxic risk of a wide range of drugs. Methods The Berlin Case–Control Surveillance Study FAKOS included all 51 Berlin hospitals in a hospital network. Between 2002 and 2011, 198 patients with acute idiopathic hepatitis, 377 inpatient controls and 708 outpatient controls were ascertained. Case patients were thoroughly validated using anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and histological data. Drug exposure was obtained in a face-to-face interview. A possible drug aetiology was assessed in individual patients by applying the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale. Drug risks were further quantified [odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] in a case–control design with unconditional logistic regression analysis. Drug intake in the last 28 days before index date was considered for the analysis. Results The study corroborated hepatotoxic risks for a number of drugs, including phenprocoumon (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5, 6.7), amiodarone (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.3, 21.2), clozapine (OR 34.6, 95% CI 2.8, 824.9) and flupirtine (OR 40.2, 95% CI 5.5, 856.9). Increased risks were also suggested for less commonly reported substances such as angiotensin II receptor blockers, atypical antipsychotics and for biperiden, a drug never before reported to be hepatotoxic. Conclusions Our study identified a large number of drugs as possible causes of hepatotoxicity. The observed risk for seldom reported substances highlights the need for further post-authorization safety studies not exclusively focusing on drugs already labelled as potentially hepatotoxic. PMID:25444550

  6. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  7. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water. PMID:24928455

  8. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2011-04-15

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses. PMID:21389573

  9. Facile synthesis of S–Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S–Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70–160 nm and lengths of 200–360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S–Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S–Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S–Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10–40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S–Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet–visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S–Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S–Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  10. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  11. Schooling the New Generation of German Citizens: A Comparison of Citizenship Curricula in Berlin and Baden-Wurttemberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel; Street, Alex

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, unlike other European countries, citizenship education has a long history. Since the Second World War, its role has evolved from promoting de-Nazification in the West and state socialism in the East to emphasising common citizenship in a multicultural society. Today, the federal states ("Bundeslander") are largely autonomous in matters…

  12. Acceleration of polarized proton at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y Y

    1980-01-01

    The unexpected importance of high energy spin effects and the success of the ZGS in correcting many intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances led us to attempt to accelerate polarized protons in the AGS. A collaborative effort is underway by the groups in Argonne, Michigan, Rice, Yale and Brookhaven to improve and modify the AGS to accelerate polarized protons. With the appropriate funding the first polarized proton acceleration at the AGS should be possible by 1983.

  13. The cardiovascular response to the AGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Mctaggart, Wesley G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on human subjects conducted to study the cardiovascular response to various g-levels and exposure times using an artificial gravity simulator (AGS). The AGS is a short arm centrifuge consisting of a turntable, a traction system, a platform and four beds. Data collection hardware is part of the communication system. The AGS provides a steep acceleration gradient in subjects in the supine position.

  14. AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system. • h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup ·−} play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center.

  15. Serum carotenoids and atopy among children of different ethnic origin living in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rühl, Ralph; Taner, Ceylan; Schweigert, Florian J; Wahn, Ulrich; Grüber, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    The manifestation of atopy in early life is thought to be influenced by the diet. We hypothesized that the previously reported lower prevalence of atopy among Turkish immigrant children in Germany might be related to a different pattern of serum carotenoids. Serum carotenoid concentrations were measured in pre-school children of different ethnic origin from Berlin, D. German children (D, N = 49) were compared to Turkish children with well (TR-D, N = 32) or weak cultural adaptation (TR-TR, N = 41). Serum levels of pro-vitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin) and non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Serum IgE to common inhalant allergens was measured by immunoassay. Median levels of pro-vitamin A carotenoids were lower in Turkish children if compared to German children: D 135 μg/L, TR-D 100 μg/L (p = 0.025), TR-TR 82 μg/L (p = 0.001). By contrast, median levels of non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids were not higher in German children. The ratio of pro-vitamin A to non-pro-vitamin A carotenoid median levels was highest among D (2.05), lower among TR-D (1.32; p = 0.001) and lowest among TR-TR (1.26; p < 0.001)). A higher ratio was not significantly associated with atopy (atopic 1.79, non-atopic 1.36; p = 0.067). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids are higher in children originating from a cultural population with a higher prevalence of atopy, but atopy seems not to be directly related to the current carotenoid serum levels in children at school age. The distinct pattern of carotenoid levels among Turkish migrant and German children indicates changed nutrition patterns with acculturation. PMID:20561236

  16. Visible-light-driven photocatalysts Ag/AgCl dispersed on mesoporous Al2O3 with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhouzhou; Yu, Jiajie; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Tianhe

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, Ag/AgCl and Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 photocatalysts were synthesized via a precipitation reaction between NaCl and CH3COOAg or Ag(NH3)2NO3, wherein Ag/AgCl was immobilized into mesoporous Al2O3 medium. The Ag/AgCl-based nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and so on. The photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradations of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) pollutants under visible light irradiation. The Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 sample exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, degrading 99% MO after 9min of irradiation, which was 1.1 times, 1.22 times and 1.65 times higher than that of Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3)/Al2O3, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg) and Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3) photocatalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 also showed excellent capability of MB degradation. Compared to the data reported for Ag/AgCl/TiO2, the Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 prepared in this work exhibited a good performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The results suggest that the dispersion of Ag/AgCl on mesoporous Al2O3 strongly affected their photocatalytic activities. O2(-), OH radicals and Cl(0) atoms are main active species during photocatalysis. PMID:27442145

  17. Multiple Partial Siberian Snakes in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Hattori, T.; Lin, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized protons are accelerated up to 24.3 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To accelerate the beam with preserving the polarization, two different types of helical dipole partial Siberian snake have been installed to the AGS. One is a superconducting magnet (Cold Snake, CSNK), and the other is a normal conducting one (Warm Snake, WSNK). With these snake magnets, the polarization at the AGS extraction achieved 65%. However, the AGS has spin mismatches at the injection and extraction. This description shows calculated results to have better spin matching with using two or three snakes.

  18. Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jechow, Andreas; Hölker, Franz; Kolláth, Zoltán; Gessner, Mark O.; Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2016-09-01

    We report luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5-21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicates that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.

  19. Synthesis of Cu-Ag@Ag particles using hyperbranched polyester as template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wen-Song

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, the third-generation hyperbranched polyester was synthesized with 2, 2-dimethylol propionic acid as AB2 monomer and pentaerythrite as core molecule by using step by step polymerization process at first. Then, the Cu-Ag particles were prepared by co-reduction of silver nitrate and copper nitrate with ascorbic acid in the aqueous solution using hyperbranched polyester as template. Finally, the Cu-Ag@Ag particles were prepared by coating silver on the surface of Cu-Ag particles by reduction of silver nitrate. The synthesized hyperbranched polyester and Cu-Ag@Ag particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectra, x-ray diffraction, Laser light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM. UV-vis spectra results showed that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had a strong absorption band at around 420 nm. Laser light scattering and SEM studies confirmed that the most frequent particle sizes of Cu-Ag@Ag particles were 1.2 um. TGA results indicated that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had good thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Antibacterial action of Ag-containing MFI zeolite at low Ag loadings.

    PubMed

    Lalueza, Patricia; Monzón, Marta; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaria, Jesus

    2011-01-14

    We show that Ag-containing zeolites are highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteria even at low Ag loadings and in the presence of high (10(9) CFU per mL) bacterial concentrations. At short contact times the bactericidal efficiency correlates strongly with Ag(+) release. At longer times data dispersion is higher, probably as a consequence of bacterial metabolism. PMID:21103583

  1. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35736, must be filed with the...

  2. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization.

  4. Hypernuclear research at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Although the field of hypernuclear research is over 30 years old, progress in exploring the detailed behavior of hypernuclei has been slow. This fact is due mainly to the technical problems of producing and studying these strange objects. Indeed each step in the improvement of technique has been accompanied by a breakthrough in our understanding of this fascinating subject. In this paper, the aim is to describe the evolution of hypernuclear research, stressing especially the contributions of the program based on the Brookhaven AGS. 23 references, 17 figures, 1 table.

  5. New AGS fast extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1980-09-01

    Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8/sup 0/-bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed.

  6. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment. PMID:26581474

  7. [Postoperative pain therapy in Germany. Status quo].

    PubMed

    Pogatzki-Zahn, E M; Meissner, W

    2015-10-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the field of postoperative pain therapy in the last 20 years. Beginning from clinical trials on the effectiveness of individual procedures, such as epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia, a wide range of healthcare services research as well as basic research with human and animal experiments has been established. Whereas health services research in the 1980s and 1990s focused more on the implementation of acute pain services, outcome-oriented research approaches are nowadays the center of attention. Acute pain registries and pain certification projects initiated in Germany have to be mentioned particularly in this respect. Basic research papers from recent years increasingly address specific aspects of acute postoperative pain and have provided translational approaches that are applied around the world for studying neurobiological mechanisms of postoperative pain. At the same time, interdisciplinary cooperation in research projects has led to a better understanding of complex correlations regarding predictors and mechanisms (including psychosocial aspects) of acute and in recent times also chronic pain after surgery. In parallel, evidence-based medicine has found its way into acute pain medicine in Germany. In 2007, clinical acute pain therapy in Germany was enhanced by S3 level guidelines for the first time; however, the implementation is still incomplete. In future, questions concerning mechanism-based therapy of acute pain need to be equally in the center of attention of research, such as prevention of persisting pain after surgery and acute pain of different origins. PMID:26289394

  8. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010. PMID:23738682

  9. Negligible shift of 3Ag- potential in longer-chain carotenoids as revealed by a single persistent peak of 3Ag-→1Ag- stimulated emission followed by 3Ag-←1Ag- transient-absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyong; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Upon excitation of lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin or spirilloxanthin to the 1Bu+(0) state, stimulated emission followed by transient-absorption was observed as a single peak with the 3Ag-(0) energy that had been determined by measurement of resonance-Raman excitation profiles. This observation was explained in terms of negligible shift of the 3Ag- potential, in reference to the 1Ag- potential, where only the 3Ag-(υ)→1Ag-(υ) emission and the 3Ag-(υ)←1Ag-(υ) absorption become allowed during the vibrational relaxation of υ = 2 → 1 → 0, starting from the 3Ag-(2) level generated by diabatic internal conversion from the 1Bu+(0) level, in anhydrorhodovibrin, for example.

  10. Recollections of life as a student and a young astronomer in Germany in the 1920s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brück, Hermann A.; Brück, Mary T.

    2000-12-01

    The author of this essay, Hermann Alexander Brück, Emeritus Professor of Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh and former Astronomer Royal for Scotland, died on 4 March 2000 in his 95th year. He was the last of his generation of astronomers in both Germany and Britain, and among the oldest members, if not the oldest, of the Royal Astronomical Society and of the Astronomische Gesellschaft. Hermann Brück was born in Berlin in 1905 and, as he recounts below, received his education at the Universities of Kiel, Bonn and Munich in 1924-1928. To the end of his life he looked back on his student days in Munich as the most profitable and exciting he ever experienced. From Munich he began his astronomical career at the Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory. These, too, were happy days, destined, however, to be blighted within a few years by the rise of Nazism. In 1936 Brück left Germany, and obtained a temporary Research Assistantship at the Vatican Observatory. From there he went a year later to Cambridge, rising to the rank of John Couch Adams Astronomer and Assistant Director of the Observatory. In 1947, in response to an invitation from Eamon de Valera, then Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland, he moved to Dublin where he undertook the task of re-founding the defunct Dunsink Observatory under the auspices of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. He moved from Dublin to the Royal Observatory Edinburgh in 1957, taking up the combined post of Astronomer Royal for Scotland and Regius Professor of Astronomy in the University of Edinburgh. He retired in 1975 at the age of 70. Always interested in history, he occupied himself in his retirement with various historical projects. These included writing the histories of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh (The Story of Astronomy in Edinburgh, Edinburgh 1983) and of the earlier Dun Echt Observatory in Aberdeenshire (Lord Crawford's Observatory at Dun Echt 1872-1892, Vistas in Astronomy 35, 1992) as well as a record of his own

  11. [Occupational medicine preventive studies in West Germany].

    PubMed

    Valentin, H

    1986-01-01

    Prevention is of increasing importance in medicine, particularly in occupational medicine. The programs of health surveillance at the workplace in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed. In 1983, 1,400,000 examinations of employees were performed; exclusion criteria were fulfilled in 2.1% (0.9% only temporarily). In 1984 the respective numbers were 1,450,000 examinations (1.8%, 0.8%). During the last few years, health surveillance programs markedly have improved the efficiency of prevention of occupational diseases. They will be an important task for occupational physicians in the future. PMID:3087086

  12. Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kemski, J; Siehl, A; Stegemann, R; Valdivia-Manchego, M

    2001-05-14

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation results from a distance-weighted interpolation of the site-specific values of radon concentration in soil gas and in situ gas permeability of soils on a regular grid considering the corresponding geological units. The map of Germany in a scale of 1:2 million is based on the radon concentration in soil gas as an estimator of the geogenic radon potential assuming the 'worst case' of uniform highest permeability. The distribution is subdivided into categories of low (< 10 kBq/m3), medium (10-100 kBq/m3), increased (100-500 kBq/m3) and high (> 500 kBq/m3) radon concentration. High values occur especially in regions with granites and basement rocks of Paleozoic age, and are proven by measurements in 0.03% of the total area. Many of these regions are also known for their enhanced indoor values. The class with increased values takes a portion of 7.86% and likewise occurs mainly in regions with outcrops of folded and metamorphic basement, but also of some Meso- and Cenozoic sediments with increased uranium contents and/or higher emanation coefficients. For 67.3% of the country, the radon concentration is classified as 'medium', and an assignment to specific geological units cannot be made at the map scale considered. Low radon contents, where protective measures against radon are usually not considered, are found in the geologically rather homogeneous part of northern Germany with unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments, covering approximately 25% of the total country. It is of course not possible to predict the indoor radon concentration of single houses from these maps, because construction type and

  13. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  14. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus castoreus isolated from carcasses of European beavers (Castor fiber) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Kutzer, Peter; Winterhoff, Nora; Engelhardt, Andreas; Bilk, Sabine; Teubner, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) castoreus was isolated from seven beavers (Castor fiber), which were found dead in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany, and submitted to the Berlin-Brandenburg State laboratory for post mortem diagnostics. The isolates originated from various inflammatory processes where they were associated with other Gram negative and Gram positive aerobic and/or anaerobic bacteria (i. e. Actinobacillus sp., species of the Actinomycetaceae family, coliform bacteria, Fusobacterium sp., Prevotella sp.), but also from cloacal swabs. Testing their antimicrobial susceptibility, all S. castoreus isolates and the type strain S. castoreus (DSM 17536) were classified as being susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 1st generation cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicole but intermediate to gentamicin. Considering both the polymicrobial flora isolated from the inflamed tissues and the fact that antimicrobials of a narrow spectrum (namely penicillins, 1st generation cephalosporins, macrolids and lincosamids) can be toxic to rodents, chloramphenicol might be a suitable drug for treatment of beavers suffering from S. castoreus (mixed)-bacterial infections. PMID:26591385

  15. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s. PMID:26070381

  16. Detours to the unification of calendars: The ``Improved Calendar'' (1700 bis 1775) and the foundation of the Berlin Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Umwege zur Kalendereinheit: Der ``Verbesserte Kalender'' (1700 bis 1775) und die Gründung der Berliner Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The refusal of most protestant communities in Germany and other countries to accept the calendar reform decreed by Pope Gregor XIII in 1582 was finally circumvented by the introduction of an ``Improved (Julian) Calendar''. It did provide for astronomical rather than cyclical calculation of the date of Easter. While for most years both calendars were identical except in name, some conflicts did eventually occur. This led finally, in 1775, to a decision in favour of the Gregorian mode of calculation.

  17. Performance evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices in normal police procedure in Germany.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and

  18. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Burkart, W; Grosche, B; Schoetzau, A

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meioses, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. PMID:9052678

  19. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-03-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  1. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  2. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  3. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  4. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted. PMID:11951159

  5. Final year medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, Christoph; Krautter, Markus; Celebi, Nora; Obertacke, Udo; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Medical education in Germany has undergone significant changes. The current article attempts to give an overview of final year medical education in Germany and implications for further developments. Challenges in final year medical education mainly arise from the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, the provision of structure, independent patient management and professional guidance and supervision. The abolition of the one-and-a-half-year period of pre-registration medical training in 2004 and the changes in the structure of state examinations in line with the amendment of medical licensing regulations in 2002, meant pressure on the efficiency of final year medical education on the one hand, and additional burden on final year students on the other. In this article, a broad variety of innovative models that have been implemented at different medical faculties, and which address final year students' needs, will be reported. Further challenges, such as the integration of general medicine rotations, the abolishment of the second state examination in its present form, and the integration of final year students' individual career plans will be discussed. PMID:22480889

  6. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  7. Acceleration of heavy ions in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to use the Brookhaven AGS as a heavy ion machine by adding a cyclotron to the Tandem and using this combination as injector. An intermediate step for lighter ions might consist of injecting the Tandem beam directly into the AGS. In either case, quite high intensities should be possible.

  8. Tribological properties of ag-based amphiphiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ag-based materials are amphiphilic because they comprise polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule. One of the major categories of amphiphilic ag-based materials are seed oils, which are actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum in a wide variety of consumer and industrial a...

  9. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A quarterly listing of documents issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is provided. The technical publications are arranged by type of documents. The reference AgRISTARS document number, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number is given.

  10. Recent hypernuclear research at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent AGS experiments contributing to our knowledge of hypernuclei are reviewed. These experiments have suggested new areas of research on hypernuclei. With the proper beam line facilities, the AGS will be able to perform experiments in these areas and provide a transition to the future era of ''kaon factories''. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO₃ in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils. PMID:26071943

  12. Laser generated Ag and Ag-Au composite nanoparticles for refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, M. P.; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is highly sensitive to size, shape and the surrounding medium. Metal targets were laser ablated in liquid for preparation of spherical Ag and Ag@Au core-shell NP colloidal solution for refractive index sensing. The LSPR peak wavelength and broadening of the NPs were monitored in different refractive index liquid. Quasi-static Mie theory simulation results show that refractive index sensitivity of Ag, Ag-Au alloy and Ag@Au core-shell NPs increases nearly linearly with size and shell thickness. However, the increased broadening of the LSPR peak with size, alloy concentration and Au shell thickness restricts the sensing resolution of these NPs. Figure-of-merit (FOM) was calculated to optimize the size of Ag NPs, concentration of Ag-Au alloy NPs and Au shell thickness of Ag@Au core-shell NPs. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) and FOM were optimum in the size range 20-40 nm for Ag NPs. Laser generated Ag@Au NPs of Au shell thickness in the range of 1-2 nm showed optimum FOM, where thin layer of Au coating can improve the stability of Ag NPs.

  13. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  14. Raman scattering enhanced within the plasmonic gap between an isolated Ag triangular nanoplate and Ag film.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-22

    Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance. PMID:26939539

  15. Raman scattering enhanced within the plasmonic gap between an isolated Ag triangular nanoplate and Ag film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of AgI/Ag hollow fibers for near-infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xuan; Liu, Bing-Hong; He, Yu-Jing; Sun, Bang-Shan; Iwai, Katsumasa; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-01

    AgI/Ag hollow fibers have found applications in mid- and far-infrared regions owing to the properties of low loss and high power capability. It has been a challenge to fabricate low-loss AgI/Ag hollow fiber in the near-infrared laser light. In this paper, we report on improvements of the fabrication technology. In order to coat a thin and smooth AgI film, ethanol was used as the solvent of iodine and the iodination process is carried out in low temperatures with high flow-rate of iodine solution. Low-loss AgI/Ag hollow fibers with various inner diameters were firstly obtained for 1 μm wavelength band. Fabrication parameters were discussed in detail and transmission properties were characterized.

  17. Atomic-level observation of Ag-ion hopping motion in AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Kawata, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of the 111mCd(→111Cd) and 111In(→111Cd) probes to the study of dynamics in polycrystalline silver iodide (AgI) was examined by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. It was found that the 111mCd(→111Cd) probe occupies a unique site in γ-AgI and exhibits nuclear relaxation caused by dynamic perturbation arising from Ag + hopping motion in α-AgI; while the residential sites of 111In(→111Cd) vary, suggesting that 111In ions can not settle themselves in a fixed site in the AgI crystal structure. We here demonstrate that 111mCd(→111Cd) can be a potential nucleus to probe the Ag +-ion dynamic motion in α-AgI.

  18. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst’s equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix.

  19. AgPO2F2 and Ag9(PO2F2)14: the first Ag(i) and Ag(i)/Ag(ii) difluorophosphates with complex crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Przemysław J; Kurzydłowski, Dominik; Grochala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    The reaction of AgF2 with P2O3F4 yields a mixed valence Ag(I)/Ag(II) difluorophosphate salt with AgAg(PO2F2)14 stoichiometry - the first Ag(ii)-PO2F2 system known. This highly moisture sensitive brown solid is thermally stable up to 120 °C, which points at further feasible extension of the chemistry of Ag(ii)-PO2F2 systems. The crystal structure shows a very complex bonding pattern, comprising of polymeric Ag(PO2F2)14(4-) anions and two types of Ag(I) cations. One particular Ag(II) site present in the crystal structure of Ag9(PO2F2)14 is the first known example of square pyramidal penta-coordinated Ag(ii) in an oxo-ligand environment. Ag(i)PO2F2 - the product of the thermal decomposition of Ag9(PO2F2)14 - has also been characterized by thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. It has a complicated crystal structure as well, which consists of infinite 1D [Ag(I)O4/2] chains which are linked to more complex 3D structures via OPO bridges. The PO2F2(-) anions bind to cations in both compounds as bidentate oxo-ligands. The terminal F atoms tend to point inside the van der Waals cavities in the crystal structure of both compounds. All important structural details of both title compounds were corroborated by DFT calculations. PMID:26200921

  20. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1) "Physical Features of Germany"; (2)…

  1. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys.

    PubMed

    Tie, D; Feyerabend, F; Müller, W D; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; Kainer, K U; Willumeit, R

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4) and aging (T6) heat treatment. The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH)₂ and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7), revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269), and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials. PMID:23771512

  2. Establishment of the Certification System "Gynaecological Dysplasia" in Germany.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, M W; Quaas, J; Bischofberger, A; Kämmerle, A; Lux, M P; Wesselmann, S

    2014-09-01

    Gynaecological cancer centres have been established nationwide in Germany since 2008 according to the certification system of the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e. V. [DKG]) and the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe e. V. [DGGG]). However, patient access to the certified gynaecological cancer centres is currently only possible through direct referrals. A longitudinal structure with the corresponding long-term documentation of both the high-grade precursors as well as the cancers does not exist as yet. According to the aims of the National Cancer Plan, a corresponding structure for the cancer entity "cervix carcinoma" should be established. The foundations for such a structure are appropriate diagnostic units that are responsible, after nationwide screening, for clarification according to guideline-conform principles. On the basis of the vote of the certification commission for gynaecological cancer centres under the chairmanship of the DKG, the Working Group for Gynaecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie e. V. [AGO]), the Committee on Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zervixpathologie & Kolposkopie [AG-CPC]) and the DGGG the certification system for gynaecological dysplasia has been established. As a general principle, a distinction is made between the certification of a consulting practice for gynaecological dysplasia and a gynaecological dysplasia facility in order to integrate both outpatient and inpatient health-care facilities into the certification system. In analogy to the further catalogue of requirements from the DKG, quantitative and qualitative minimum numbers are demanded. Furthermore, the requirements of the certification process include a summary of patient information, the applied guidelines, continuing and further training, interdisciplinary cooperation in tumour boards, contents or, respectively, procedure

  3. BioRef: A versatile time-of-flight reflectometer for soft matter applications at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Steitz, R.; Rose, M.; Herrlich, H.; Mezei, F.; Grunze, M.; Dahint, R.

    2011-05-15

    BioRef is a versatile novel time-of-flight reflectometer featuring a sample environment for in situ infrared spectroscopy at the reactor neutron source BER II of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB). After two years of design and construction phase the instrument has recently undergone commissioning and is now available for specular and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements. BioRef is especially dedicated to the investigation of soft matter systems and studies at the solid-liquid interface. Due to flexible resolution modes and variable addressable wavelength bands that allow for focusing onto a selected scattering vector range, BioRef enables a broad range of surface and interface investigations and even kinetic studies with subsecond time resolution. The instrumental settings can be tailored to the specific requirements of a wide range of applications. The performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements, and the unique option of in situ on-board infrared spectroscopy is illustrated by the example of a phase transition study in a lipid multilayer film.

  4. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives. PMID:23794831

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    PubMed

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives. PMID:23794831

  6. Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rosol, Marit

    2010-01-01

    This article examines citizen participation in the governance of contemporary urban green space. Rather than exploring normative questions of ideal forms of participatory democracy, it focuses on changing roles and relationships between local state and non-state actors in order to identify and explain the changing nature of participation. I argue that neoliberal urban restructuring has changed the conditions for participation and thus participation itself in fundamental ways and that we need an account of changes in statehood and governance in order to capture this conceptually. Based on the case of community gardens in Berlin, the article discusses the extent to which this changed relationship is expressed by current citizen participation as well as the potential and problems that result from it. My empirical results show the emergence of a new political acceptance of autonomously organized projects and active citizen participation in urban green space governance. The central argument of this article is that this new acceptance can be conceptualized as an expression of the neoliberalization of cities. Nevertheless, this neoliberal strategy at the same time leads to complex and contradictory outcomes and the resulting benefits are also acknowledged. PMID:20824946

  7. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    PubMed

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. PMID:26773897

  8. Overview of Outreach Activities of the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Balthasar, H.; Dumke, A.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Neu, D.; Platz, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Schreiner, B.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary Sciences teach us how special our homeplanet is in the solar system. Incorporating a broad variety of natural science topics they count to the most fundamental branches of scientific research with a strong interdisciplinary character. However, since planetary sciences are not a school subject, children as well as adults are often lacking an overall awareness and understanding of that field. The mission of planetary education has to be fulfilled by research institutions. With several platforms and activities our group is engaged to address this topic. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) is involved in space missions such as Mars Express with the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Cassini to Saturn, and Dawn to the asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Moreover, we participate in developing a planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Information of our planetary research activities can be found on our institutes website [1]. Our outreach activities include press releases, an image download hub, permanent and special exhibition support, 3D-HD-animation production, science fairs, workshops, hands-on courses, public talks at observatories and schools, as well as media appearances in radio, press and TV.

  9. Ag(I)-binding to phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R K; Tran, K; Scott, G W; Mulchandani, P; Saini, S S

    1996-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)nGly, where n varies from 2 to 11. A variety of metal ions such as Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) induce PC synthesis in plants and some yeasts. It has generally been assumed that the inducer metals also bind PCs. However, very little information is available on the binding of metals other than Cu(I) and Cd(II) to PCs. In this paper, we describe the Ag(I)-binding characteristics of PCs with the structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly. The Ag(I)-binding stoichiometries of these three peptides were determined by (i) UV/VIS spectrophotometry, (ii) luminescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and (iii) reverse-phase HPLC. The three techniques yielded similar results. ApoPCs exhibit featureless absorption in the 220-340 nm range. The binding of Ag(I) to PCs induced the appearance of specific absorption shoulders. The titration end point was indicated by the flattening of the characteristic absorption shoulders. Similarly, luminescence at 77 K due to Ag(I)-thiolate clusters increased with the addition of graded Ag(I) equivalents. The luminescence declined when Ag(I) equivalents in excess of the saturating amounts were added to the peptides. At neutral pH, (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly bind 1.0, 1.5, and 4.0 equivalents of Ag(I), respectively. The Ag(I)-binding capacity of (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly and (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly was increased at pH 5.0 and below so that Ag(I)/-SH ratio approached 1.0. A similar pH-dependent binding of Ag(I) to glutathione was also observed. The increased Ag(I)-binding to PCs at lower pH is of physiological significance as these peptides accumulate in acidic vacuoles. We also report lifetime data on Ag(I)-PCs. The relatively long decay-times (approximately 0.1-0.3 msec) accompanied with a large Stokes shift in the emission band are indicative of spin-forbidden phosphorescence. PMID

  10. Further Education in Germany: Qualification in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IN Press, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The further education of adults in Germany has its roots in the 19th century. In a unified Germany, further education and training enjoy a key position in the establishment of free market economy structures. Further education enjoys equal status with all other educational sectors. It is distinguished by the plurality of organizing bodies and…

  11. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  12. A Decade of Skill Formation in Britain and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedman, Hilary

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of training and qualifications in engineering and construction in Germany and Britain showed that National Vocational Qualifications have not improved training activity in Britain. Britain lags behind Germany in production of intermediate engineering skills and craft qualifications in the building trades. (SK)

  13. American Fulbright Grantees' Experience in Germany: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    The effect of Fulbright grantees' experience in West Germany is analyzed in terms of subsequent careers, involvement with international education activities, personal values and life styles, and German language proficiency. Some comparisons are made between Fulbright scholars to Germany and those to other Western European countries. Data were…

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  16. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  18. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans are changing the…

  19. Special Education in East Germany under Communist Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of special education in East Germany from the close of World War II through the cold war period, and examines the problems and challenges currently facing special education in a reunified Germany. These include a lack of infrastructure, economic needs, staffing problems, and needed curriculum changes. (DB)

  20. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Weiss, Reinhard; van der Reijden, Tanny; van den Broek, Peterhans; Baljer, Georg; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany. PMID:21888812

  2. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  3. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  4. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S. "Deregulation and…

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in...

  6. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  7. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  8. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  9. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  10. [Albert Schweitzer's East Africa plans and the Berlin mission. According to, thus far, unpublished correspondence of the years 1929-1936].

    PubMed

    Oelsner, R

    1990-01-01

    In 1928 Albert Schweitzer planned to found a second private hospital comparable to that in Lambaréné (Gabon), this time in Somalia, the former German colony Deutsch-Ostafrika. At Lambaréné there were French missionaries nearby whereas in Somalia Schweitzer intended to cooperate with protestant missionaries from Berlin. For that reason informative talks with responsible members of the Berliner Missionsgesellschaft and negotiations about basic conditions started in 1928 continuing until 1936. As the correspondence is still preserved in the society's archives at East Berlin an ample documentation about the whole procedure can be published here for the first time. It demonstrates different aspects of Schweitzer's unique personality, his social aims, contrary and corresponding views of his German partners, flashlights on the organizing support by intimate friends, the way of collecting financial support, etc. Collaboration was assuming its concrete form, when, all of a sudden, the growing monetary inflation and deteriorating economic situation forced Schweitzer to desist of realizing his East-African dream in order to save Lambaréné. PMID:2145666

  11. Evidence for an unorthodox firing sequence employed by the Berlin Painter. Deciphering ancient ceramic firing conditions through high-resolution material characterization and replication

    SciTech Connect

    Cianchetta, I.; Trentelman, K.; Maish, J.; Saunders, D.; Foran, B.; Walton, M.; Sciau, Ph.; Wang, T.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Meirer, F.; Liu, Y.; Pianetta, P.; Mehta, A.

    2014-12-10

    XANES spectroscopy was used to complement the results previously obtained with Raman spectroscopy by the same group to determine the firing conditions used in the production of a single vessel painted by the Berlin Painter in the 5th century B.C. The vessel, part of the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, presents a complicated layered architecture of black and red gloss, with different stratigraphies present on the interior and exterior surfaces. The study of two samples, one each from the interior and exterior surface of the vessel, was performed with the complementary analytical techniques of X-ray nano- and micro-spectroscopy (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and full-field transmission X-ray micro-spectroscopy (FF-XANES) across the Fe K edge), and supported by a replication study. The replicates, made in a laboratory furnace providing complete control over the firing temperature and oxygen partial pressure, provided a paradigm for the comparison of the mineralogical phases observed in the ancient samples, which led to a deeper understanding of the firing conditions necessary for the production of the Berlin Painter's vessel. Our results confirm the necessity of multiple firings and painting applications to obtain the Berlin Painter's architecture and provide a further example of the multiplicity of techniques and practices employed by the potters of the Kerameikos in ancient Athens.

  12. Evidence for an unorthodox firing sequence employed by the Berlin Painter. Deciphering ancient ceramic firing conditions through high-resolution material characterization and replication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cianchetta, I.; Trentelman, K.; Maish, J.; Saunders, D.; Foran, B.; Walton, M.; Sciau, Ph.; Wang, T.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; et al

    2014-12-10

    XANES spectroscopy was used to complement the results previously obtained with Raman spectroscopy by the same group to determine the firing conditions used in the production of a single vessel painted by the Berlin Painter in the 5th century B.C. The vessel, part of the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, presents a complicated layered architecture of black and red gloss, with different stratigraphies present on the interior and exterior surfaces. The study of two samples, one each from the interior and exterior surface of the vessel, was performed with the complementary analytical techniques of X-ray nano- and micro-spectroscopymore » (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and full-field transmission X-ray micro-spectroscopy (FF-XANES) across the Fe K edge), and supported by a replication study. The replicates, made in a laboratory furnace providing complete control over the firing temperature and oxygen partial pressure, provided a paradigm for the comparison of the mineralogical phases observed in the ancient samples, which led to a deeper understanding of the firing conditions necessary for the production of the Berlin Painter's vessel. Our results confirm the necessity of multiple firings and painting applications to obtain the Berlin Painter's architecture and provide a further example of the multiplicity of techniques and practices employed by the potters of the Kerameikos in ancient Athens.« less

  13. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  14. Spectroscopic Study on Eu3+ Doped Borate Glasses Containing Ag Nanoparticles and Ag Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaobo; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jinsu; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Jiashi; Hua, Ruinian; Dong, Bin; Xia, Haiping; Chen, Baojiu

    2015-01-01

    Transparent Eu(3+)-doped borate glasses containing Ag nanoparticles and Ag aggregates with composition (40 - x) CaO-59.5B2O3-0.5Eu2O3-xAgNO3 were prepared by a simple one-step melt-quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the glasses reveal amorphous structural properties and no diffraction peaks belonging to metal Ag particles. Ag particles and Ag aggregates were observed from the absorption spectra. Effective energy transfers from the Ag aggregates to the Eu3+ ions were observed in the excitation spectra from monitoring the intrinsic emission of Eu3+x .5D0 --> 7F2. The glasses with higher Ag content can be effectively excited by light in a wide wavelength region, indicating that these glasses have potential application in the solid state lighting driven by semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission spectra of the samples with higher Ag contents exhibit plenteous spectral components covering the full visible region from violet to red, thus indicating that these glass materials possess an excellent and tunable color rendering index. The color coordinates for all the glass samples were calculated by using the intensity-corrected emission spectra and the standard data issued by the CIE (Commission International de l' Eclairage) in 1931. It was found that the color coordinates for most samples with higher Ag contents fall into the white region in the color space. PMID:26328363

  15. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  16. [Population developments in Germany until 2050].

    PubMed

    Osterkamp, R

    2005-01-01

    While the total population in Germany is expected to diminish until 2050, the proportion of old and very old persons will rise considerably. The annual frequency of sicknesses, clinic days, and fatalities of old persons will likewise strongly increase. This raises difficult problems for the future design of the German public health care system. In any case, reforms will contain elements of rationing which will lead to a less expansion of the field of activity for geriatric physicians and surgeons than the purely demographic development would suggest. This dampening effect of rationing reforms on geriatric medical treatment and surgery, however, might possibly be least when done in an age-specific way and combined with long-term individual provisions through savings and health insurance. PMID:15551009

  17. Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America: Their scientific contributions and their impact on China's higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jing Cheng

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation records the historical paths of Chinese physicists educated in Germany and America, explores their representative achievements in modern physics that have not been recognized by Chinese scholars, and provides sociological analyses of their contributions to China's higher education. We have found that Chinese students of physics in Germany and America were not passive recipients of Western science, but active contributors. They were also crucial contributors to science education and important scientific projects upon their return to China. Chapter One briefly describes physics knowledge in ancient China and introduces the transplantation of modern science and technology to China. Three distinct historical periods have been identified. In Chapter Two and Chapter Three, 30 Chinese physicists educated in Germany and 89 in America have been investigated. This research analyzes the significant achievements of these physicists. It also examines the political changes, the social background, and other factors impacting on their studies in the two countries. The selected cases in the two chapters are Li Fo-ki, Chinese physics students in Berlin, Werner Heisenberg and his Chinese students, Max Born and his Chinese students, Robert Millikan and Chinese physicists, the first two Chinese physicists from Harvard, and the Science Society of China. Chapter Four explores the geographical distribution, education and careers, return and expatriation, and the social influence exerted by these Chinese physicists. Statistical compilation and quantitative analyses comprise the basic methodology. In terms of two periods and two generations, this dissertation explores the physicists' contributions to the development of modern science in China and to education in China. Significant cases from Beijing University, Qinghua University, and Yanjing University are analyzed. The last chapter, Chapter Five, concludes that some of the achievements of these Chinese physicists were

  18. The AGS with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2010-02-25

    The idea of using multiple partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron, to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This modification provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. First, it provides a larger 'spin tune gap' for the placement of the vertical betatron tune of the AGS during acceleration, second, the vertical spin direction during the beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, third, the symmetric placement of the snakes allows for a better control of the AGS optics, and for reduced values of the beta and eta functions, especially near injection, fourth, the optical properties of the helical magnets also favor the placement of the horizontal betatron tune in the 'spin tune gap', thus eliminating the horizontal spin resonances. In this paper we provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and we compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  19. Enhancement of the visible light activity and stability of Ag2CO3 by formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Chen, Jianchai; Fan, Qizhe; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    An insurmountable problem for silver-based semiconductor photocatalysts is their poor stability. Here, at room temperature, AgI with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) were coupled into Ag2CO3, producing a series of novel AgI/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts. The effects of AgI addition on the Ag2CO3 catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. Some physicochemical technologies like N2 physical adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) were applied to characterize these products. Results show that the photocatalytic degradation activity of AgI/Ag2CO3 photocatalyst is much higher than that of pure AgI and Ag2CO3. With the optimal content of AgI (20 wt%), the AgI/Ag2CO3 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Its first order reaction rate constant (0.54 h-1) is 20 times of that of AgI (0.026 h-1) and 3.6 times of that of Ag2CO3 (0.15 h-1). The characterizations and theory calculation show that AgI and Ag2CO3 have suitably matched band gap structures. The formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction with intimate interface could effectively increase the separation efficiency of the e-/h+ pairs and promote the production of •OH and O2•- radicals, which brings about the fast degradation rate of the dye and an increase in photocatalytic stability.

  20. Temporal clustering of floods across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, B.; Nguyen, V. D.; Vorogushyn, S.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe are temporally organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This suggestion is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence for 67 catchments across Germany. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion which quantifies the degree of temporal clustering and the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process is investigated. Further, the flood occurrence rate is derived by nonparametric kernel implementation. For the latter, the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and nonparametric tests. To understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale, the significance is assessed for different thresholds and time scales, from the intra-annual to the decadal time scale. It is found that the large majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5 % significance level for low thresholds and intra-annual to inter-annual time scales. However, the relevance of clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. These results suggest that flood clustering is mainly caused by catchment memory effects and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role in Germany. Although the methods give consistent overall results, i.e. decreasing clustering with increasing severity and time scale, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, it is advisable to apply different methods when investigating flood clustering.

  1. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  2. Monitoring of Climate Change in Germany - Data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Penda, E.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Zimmermann, K.; Mächel, H.

    2012-04-01

    Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is responsible for monitoring climate change in Germany. The section "National Climate Monitoring" is responsible for operating the National Climate Data Centre (NCDC, "Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum NKDZ") and for provision of statistical data derived from these observations. The NCDC database mainly comprises 'conventional' in-situ observations that are observed within the station network of DWD, but also other categories of data, e.g. phenological observations. The main aim of the NCDC is the sustained development of a comprehensive data base of high quality, which provides basic information for climate research and applied climatology. A major focus of the activity is to guarantee a defined data quality by means of validation and correction of the data (or at least a description of errors), as well as a detailed description of the data base. The main focus of these quality assurance tasks has been shifted to the quality control of previously insufficiently verified historical data. The data base can be used to analyse the climate in Germany over a period of more than 100 years. DWD's National Climate Data Centre is thus the reference for climate data from stations in Germany and acts as data supplier especially for national climate research, but data and products are also used in international projects. In order to complete the data base for historic periods (esp. the first half of the 20th century), original paper documents are currently digitized and integrated into the data base. External customers may obtain data and products directly via Internet-based access tools. DWD currently starts to provide access to its climate data based on standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), e.g. Web Mapping Services (WMS) to provide access to the derived gridded data products of NCDC.

  3. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype. PMID:89163

  4. Hierarchically plasmonic photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl nanocrystals coupled with single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Li, Tao; Chen, Qianqian; Gao, Jiabing; Fan, Bingbing; Li, Jian; Li, Xinjian; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2012-08-01

    The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in situ. WO3 nanocrystals with various shapes (i.e., nanoplates, nanorods, and nanoparticles) were used as the substrates to synthesize Ag/AgCl@WO3 photocatalysts, and the effects of the WO3 contents and photoreduction times on their visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance were investigated. The techniques of TEM, SEM, XPS, EDS, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and UV-vis DR spectra were used to characterize the compositions, phases and microstructures of the samples. The RhB aqueous solutions were used as the model system to estimate the photocatalytic performance of the as-obtained Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures under visible light (λ >= 420 nm) and sunlight. The results indicated that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalyst has a higher photodegradation rate than Ag/AgCl, AgCl, AgCl@WO3 and TiO2 (P25). The contents and morphologies of the WO3 substrates in the Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 photocatalysts have important effects on their photocatalytic performance. The related mechanisms for the enhancement in visible-light-driven photodegradation of RhB molecules were analyzed.The hierarchical photocatalysts of Ag/AgCl@plate-WO3 have been synthesized by anchoring Ag/AgCl nanocrystals on the surfaces of single-crystalline WO3 nanoplates that were obtained via an intercalation and topochemical approach. The heterogeneous precipitation process of the PVP-Ag+-WO3 suspensions with a Cl- solution added drop-wise was developed to synthesize AgCl@WO3 composites, which were then photoreduced to form Ag/AgCl@WO3 nanostructures in

  5. Agent planning in AgScala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  6. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  7. Ag induced enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shern, C. S.; Su, C. W.; Wu, Y. E.; Chen, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Some interesting magnetic properties were observed after Ag ultrathin films were deposited on Co/Pt(1 1 1). The spin reversal of Co can be prevented when Ag atoms cap Co on Pt(1 1 1). The out-of-plane magnetization has a significant enhancement after annealing at high temperature. The Curie temperature increases from 625 to 710 K as 1 ML of Ag is deposited on 1 ML Co/Pt(1 1 1). The change of surface anisotropy and the formation of a Co-Pt alloy are possible mechanisms for the magnetization enhancement.

  8. [The history of the prosector's department of the Charité Berlin. 3. Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow, prosector of Charité, 1846 to 1849].

    PubMed

    Krietsch, P

    1991-01-01

    Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (1821-1902) had been prosector at the Charité of Berlin, from 1846 to 1849. He had moved to Berlin in October 1839 for army surgeon training at the Pépinière, the Academy of Military Medicine. He had to choose that line of education, as it was free, for his parents were in no financial position to pay for ordinary university studies. On completion of theoretical classes, Easter 1843, he was delegated to Charité for an 18-months practical training programme. He worked in all compulsory clinical departments and, subsequently, took up service in the Prosector's Department then headed by Robert F. Froriep who guided and supported Virchow towards independent scientific activity. Virchow defended his doctoral thesis with good success in 1843. His application for the expected vacant office of Prosector was supported by Froriep before he left Berlin in 1846. The application was granted "ad interim", on May 11, 1846. His name became known very soon on account of his ambitious commitment. He also began to take a growing commitment to political change in Prussia in general, and change to the medical system in particular. He achieved discharge from military service in 1847, formally qualified for university lecturing, and was officially appointed as Prosector and lecturer. In the same year, 1847, he founded the "Archives" in cooperation with Benno H. E. Reinhardt. During an epidemic cholera outbreak in Berlin and an outbreak of petechial typhus in Upper Silesia, early 1848, he realised social root causes of disease and accused the Prussian government for negligence of its own citizens. He then joined the March struggles of 1848 out of his insight into the need for change of society. A weekly under the heading of "Die medicinische Reform" ("Reform in Medicine") was published under Virchow's editorship, from mid-1848 to mid-1849. Early 1849, his involvement on the premises of Charité in a leaflet campaign against planned mock elections in Prussia

  9. [Data on the history of the Pathology Department of the Berlin Charité Hospital. 2. Robert Friedrich Froriep, prosector at Charité, 1833-1846].

    PubMed

    Krietsch, P

    1990-01-01

    An account is given in this publication of the activities of Robert Friedrich Froriep (1804-1861), Prosector at Charité Berlin. He headed the Prosector's Department from 1833 through 1846. Froriep had come to Berlin in 1831 with intentions to do research, primarily on cholera with which the city had been afflicted in those years. When the position of a "Provisional Prosector" of Charité became vacant, after withdrawal of Philipp Phoebus, autumn 1832, the officials of the Hospital Affairs Curatory decided to continue the provisional arrangement, and five candidates applied for the office. Froriep was accepted primarily for two reasons: He had just completed service as an extraordinary professor at the Berlin Faculty of Medicine, and he was capable of producing evidence to the double-track education desired for the job, anatomy and scientific drawing. The Prosector's office was a low-salary side job. Therefore, to ensure his own livelihood, he went into two additional occupations, teaching of anatomic drawing at the Academy of Fine Arts and running of a private clinic. Froriep did extremely well in firmly establishing the Prosector's Department by enhancement of its scope and enlargement of its collection of pathologic-anatomic specimens. He failed, on the other hand, in his attempts to establish pathological anatomy as a subject in its own right at the Berlin Faculty of Medicine. That failure together with insecurity regarding the Prosector's office and position in the hierarchic system of Charité, compounded by protracted disputes between him and Johannes Müller on the Prosector's collection of specimens were causes for Froriep's aggravating frustration towards the late thirties. He also failed in trying to stabilize his scientific and financial positions by accepting directorship of a surgical department. The totality of problems in Berlin and illness of his father in Weimar prompted him to move to Weimar, in spring 1846, to take over as a manager of the

  10. Extranuclear dynamics of 111Ag(→111Cd) doped in AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Komatsuda, S.; Kawata, S.; Taoka, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic behavior of the extranuclear field relative to the 111Ag(→111Cd) probe nucleus introduced in a superionic conductor silver iodide (AgI) was investigated by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. For poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgI nanoparticles, we observed nuclear spin relaxation of the probe at room temperature. This result signifies that Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated sample make hopping motion from site to site at this low temperature. The activation energy for the dynamic motion was successfully estimated to be 46(10) meV. The first atomic-level observation of the temperature-dependent dynamic behavior of Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated AgI is reported.

  11. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  12. Highly luminescent Ag+ nanoclusters for Hg2+ ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xun; Yeow, Teik Jin; Zhang, Qingbo; Lee, Jim Yang; Xie, Jianping

    2012-03-01

    A simple, low-cost and label-free Hg2+ ion sensor has been developed by using novel luminescent Ag+ nanoclusters (NCs) with an excellent optical property (quantum yield = 15%), an ultra-high ratio of active Ag+ species in the NC surface (~100%), and an ultra-short diffusion path length of Hg2+ ions to access the NC surface (~0.5 nm).A simple, low-cost and label-free Hg2+ ion sensor has been developed by using novel luminescent Ag+ nanoclusters (NCs) with an excellent optical property (quantum yield = 15%), an ultra-high ratio of active Ag+ species in the NC surface (~100%), and an ultra-short diffusion path length of Hg2+ ions to access the NC surface (~0.5 nm). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details of the synthesis of b-Ag NCs; time-resolved evolution of photoemission spectra of the b-Ag NCs in toluene; photoexcitation spectrum of the b-Ag NCs in toluene; comparison of the luminescence of b-Ag NCs at different temperatures (4 and 25 °C) TEM image of the b-Ag NCs in toluene; optical properties of r-Ag NCs obtained by the reduction of b-Ag NCs in toluene; XPS spectra of b-Ag NCs, thiolate-Ag+ complexes, r-Ag NCs, and large Ag nanoparticles; TEM image of the Hg2+-Ag NCs; photostability of the b-Ag NCs; tolerance studies of the b-Ag NCs over other metal ions; tolerance studies of the b-Ag NCs over common thiol ligands (e.g., GSH) and anions; relative luminescence of the b-Ag NCs in different real water samples in the presence of Hg2+ ions; and relative luminescence of the b-Ag NCs in NaCl solution with different concentrations. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11999d

  13. Standards of nutrition for athletes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diel, F; Khanferyan, R A

    2013-01-01

    The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the 'Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten'. The 'Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports' have been established since 1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sport type specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes 'colour lists' for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff. PMID:24741951

  14. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag(+) plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag(+) was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag(+) becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles. PMID:27109417

  15. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  16. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  17. Airborne and groundbased measurements of ash particles on Iceland and over Germany during the Grímsvötn eruption May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A.; Weber, K.; Eliasson, J.; Palsson, A.; Moser, H. M.; Palsson, T.; von Löwis, S.; Fischer, C.

    2012-04-01

    The eruption of the Grimsvötn volcano in May 2010 posed with its ash plume a thread to the aviation in northern Europe. Because of ash plume forecasts of the VAAC London the airport of Keflavik in Iceland as well as airports in England, Scotland and Scandinavia were closed for some time, which caused the cancellation or change of about 500 flights in Europe. Even in Germany the airports of Bremen, Hamburg and Berlin were closed for several hours on 25 May 2011. During this eruption period in May 2011, a team of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences, the University of Iceland, the University of Reykjavik and the IMO has performed airborne in-situ measurements over Iceland and Germany as well as ground based measurements in the south of Iceland. The ground based measurements were performed continuously during the whole eruption period at two significant positions (Skogar and Hvollsvöllur) with optical particle counters (OPCs). The measurement method was based on measuring the airborne concentrations of the classic aerosol components (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and TSP (total suspended particles) every 6 seconds. Additional measurement flights on Iceland were started already one day after the beginning of the eruption (twelve in-situ measurement flights) and marked the spatial and temporal spread of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. For the flights light slow flying piston engine powered airplanes where used. The flights over Iceland focused on the western part of Iceland in the region of Reykjavik and Keflavik and over the international airport in Keflavik and were mostly coordinated by ISAVIA. The measurement flights helped to keep Keflavik International Airport open for many additional hours despite of adverse predictions by the London VAAC model, because it was possible to observe the particle concentration on-line during the flights. In Germany a measurement flight was performed on 25 May 2012 over the northern part of Germany where the volcanic ash cloud was

  18. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    thermal maturities beyond the oil window, intra-mineral and intra-organic pores develop. In such overmature samples, nanopores occur within pyrobitumen masses. Important for gas storage and transport, they likely result from exsolution of gaseous hydrocarbon. References Bernard S., Wirth R., Schreiber A., Bowen L., Aplin A.C., Mathia E.J., Schulz H-M., & Horsfield B.: FIB-SEM and TEM investigations of an organic-rich shale maturation series (Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale): Nanoscale pore system and fluid-rock interactions. AAPG Bulletin Special Issue "Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs" (in press). Bernard, S., Horsfield, B., Schulz, H-M., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A., & Sherwood, N., 2012, Geochemical evolution of organic-rich shales with increasing maturity: A STXM and TEM study of the Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, northern Germany): Marine and Petroleum Geology 31 (1) 70-89. Lott, G.K., Wong, T.E., Dusar, M., Andsbjerg, J., Mönnig, E., Feldman-Olszewska, A. & Verreussel, R.M.C.H., 2010. Jurassic. In: Doornenbal, J.C. and Stevenson, A.G. (editors): Petroleum Geological Atlas of the Southern Permian Basin Area. EAGE Publications b.v. (Houten): 175-193.

  19. Redetermination of AgPO(3).

    PubMed

    Terebilenko, Katherina V; Zatovsky, Igor V; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V; Baumer, Vyacheslav N; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of silver(I) polyphosphate(V), AgPO(3), were prepared via a phospho-ric acid melt method using a solution of Ag(3)PO(4) in H(3)PO(4). In comparison with the previous study based on single-crystal Weissenberg photographs [Jost (1961 ▶). Acta Cryst. 14, 779-784], the results were mainly confirmed, but with much higher precision and with all displacement parameters refined anisotropically. The structure is built up from two types of distorted edge- and corner-sharing [AgO(5)] polyhedra, giving rise to multidirectional ribbons, and from two types of PO(4) tetra-hedra linked into meandering chains (PO(3))(n) spreading parallel to the b axis with a repeat unit of four tetra-hedra. The calculated bond-valence sum value of one of the two Ag(I) ions indicates a significant strain of the structure. PMID:21522230

  20. Nanoporous Ag prepared from the melt-spun Cu-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijing; Song, Xiaoping; Sun, Zhanbo; Yang, Shengchun; Ding, Bingjun; Yang, Sen; Yang, Zhimao; Wang, Fei

    2011-07-01

    Nanoporous Ag ribbons with different morphology and porosity were achieved by the electrochemical corrosion of the melt-spun Cu-Ag alloys. The Cu-rich phase in the alloys was removed, resulting in the formation of the nanopores distributed across the whole ribbon. It is found that the structures, morphology and porosity of the nanoporous Ag ribbons were dependent on the microstructures of the parent alloys. The most of ligaments presented a rod-like shape due to the formation of pseudoeutectic microstructure in the melt-spun Cu 55Ag 45 and Cu 70Ag 30 alloys. For nanoporous Ag prepared from Cu 85Ag 15 alloys, the ligaments were camber-like because of the appearance of the divorced microstructures. Especially, a novel bamboo-grove-like structure could be observed at the cross-section of the nanoporous Ag ribbons. The experiment reveals that nanoporous Ag ribbons exhibited excellent enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect, but a slight difference existed due to the discrepancy of their morphology.

  1. Surface migration and volume diffusion in the AgGaSe2-Ag2Se system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, N.-H.; Feigelson, R. S.; Route, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    Surface migration and volume diffusion in the Ag2Se-AgGaSe2 system were investigated using reactive diffusion couples which were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The surface diffusivities of all mobile species are found to be much larger than volume diffusivities. The results of the study suggest that Se moves together with Ag and Ga to maintain binary (Ag2Se and Ga2Se3) stoichiometry and electroneutrality. The dominance of surface migration kinetics can account for the uniform annihilation of second-phase precipitates during heat treatments.

  2. A surface plasmon model for laser ablation of Ag sup + ions from a roughened Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.H. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics); Manson, J.R. . Dept. of Physics); Echenique, P.M. . Faculdad de Quimica)

    1991-01-01

    Experimental work by Shea and Compton suggests that Ag{sup +} ions emitted from a roughened Ag surface irradiated by a nanosecond or picosecond laser beam may absorb the full energy of the Ag surface plasmon. We have modeled this process under the assumption that it proceeds through an inverse bremsstrahlung-type absorption of the SP quantum by Ag{sup +} ion which also undergoes a small-impact parameter collision with another ion or atom in the vicinity of the surface. We give a quantitative estimate of the absorption probability and find reasonable agreement with the Shea-Compton results. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1998-08-27

    Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

  4. The non-invasive Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: fast acquisition of effective performance in untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Dornhege, Guido; Krauledat, Matthias; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel

    2007-08-15

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems establish a direct communication channel from the brain to an output device. These systems use brain signals recorded from the scalp, the surface of the cortex, or from inside the brain to enable users to control a variety of applications. BCI systems that bypass conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles can provide novel control options for paralyzed patients. One classical approach to establish EEG-based control is to set up a system that is controlled by a specific EEG feature which is known to be susceptible to conditioning and to let the subjects learn the voluntary control of that feature. In contrast, the Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) uses well established motor competencies of its users and a machine learning approach to extract subject-specific patterns from high-dimensional features optimized for detecting the user's intent. Thus the long subject training is replaced by a short calibration measurement (20 min) and machine learning (1 min). We report results from a study in which 10 subjects, who had no or little experience with BCI feedback, controlled computer applications by voluntary imagination of limb movements: these intentions led to modulations of spontaneous brain activity specifically, somatotopically matched sensorimotor 7-30 Hz rhythms were diminished over pericentral cortices. The peak information transfer rate was above 35 bits per minute (bpm) for 3 subjects, above 23 bpm for two, and above 12 bpm for 3 subjects, while one subject could achieve no BCI control. Compared to other BCI systems which need longer subject training to achieve comparable results, we propose that the key to quick efficiency in the BBCI system is its flexibility due to complex but physiologically meaningful features and its adaptivity which respects the enormous inter-subject variability. PMID:17475513

  5. Relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men in the German penal system--a survey of inmates in a Berlin prison.

    PubMed

    Barth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The lack of concrete scientific data on the sexual behavior of inmates in German prisons is surprising, especially given the extant international scholarship on prison culture and sexual violence. Historically, the most influential publications were Clemmer's "The Prison Community", and Sykes's "The Society of Captives", which both addressed the importance of sexual deprivation and analyzed the impact of sexual victimization on prisoners. Different forms of homosexual contact between inmates include prostitution and "protective pairing", both characterized as "dark" issues--nonconsensual sexual acts--which still have not been scientifically researched. The United States enacted the Prison Rape Elimination Act, 2003, revealing nationwide data on the prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. Prison inmates suffer not only from separation from their spouses or partners, but also from sexual harassment, extortion, and the threat of rape, which has multiple implications for their mental and physical health. This article presents the first German study to record data about the relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men, and was conducted in an adult correctional facility for long-term prisoners in Berlin-Tegel. The survey, which is based on results from a questionnaire taken by voluntary study participants, had a special focus on the occurrence of consensual homoerotic contacts between heterosexual inmates. The emphasis was on the potential impact of such contact on role behavior during confinement, as well as the impact on sexual identity after release. The survey revealed the first data on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within correctional facilities. This article presents the results of this survey for the first time. PMID:22425293

  6. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  7. Plasmonic TiO2/AgBr/Ag ternary composite nanosphere with heterojunction structure for advanced visible light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kai; Li, Dongpei; Lu, Luhua; Liu, Qi; Liang, Changhao; Lv, Jiali; Zhu, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In this work, TiO2/AgBr/Ag ternary composite nanosphere photocatalyst has been synthesized by in situ deposition of AgBr onto hollow spherical TiO2 template and followed by sun light reduction of AgBr into AgBr/Ag. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images have shown that the diameter of hollow TiO2 nanospheres is 250-350 nm and AgBr/Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed on the outer surface of TiO2 nanosphere. UV-vis spectrum analysis has shown largely improved visible light absorption of this ternary composite, in comparison to pure TiO2 and AgBr. The building-in AgBr/Ag, TiO2/AgBr and TiO2/Ag junctions within the ternary composite enhanced the visible light absorption because of plasmonic resonance and narrow bandgap. The pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp of the TiO2/AgBr/Ag ternary composite for methylene blue photodegradation displays 24.5 times and 3.3 times than the pure TiO2 nanosphere and AgBr/Ag nanoparticles, respectively. Furthermore, the stability of TiO2/AgBr/Ag ternary composite is characterized through cyclic photocatalytic test. Results indicate that 92.7% of photocatalytic degradation can be achieved by TiO2/AgBr/Ag ternary composite even after five recycles.

  8. 20% PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKE IN THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H; Bai, M; Brown, K A; Glenn, W; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Montag, C; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tsoupas, N; Zeno, K; Ranjbar, V; Spinka, H; Underwood, D

    2002-11-06

    An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized proton through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances. Some design and operation issues of the new partial Siberian snake are discussed.

  9. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A quarterly listing of those documents and related publications that have been issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is presented. The Tracking List Report provides a catalog, by project, of technical publications arranged by type of document and gives the reference AgRISTARS document numbers, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number.

  10. AGS polarized proton operation in run 8.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,H.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.A.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A.U.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.

    2008-06-23

    Dual partial snake scheme has been used for the Brookhaven AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) polarized proton operation for several years. It has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5 x 10{sup 11} intensity and 65% polarization for RHIC spin program. There is still residual polarization loss. Several schemes such as putting horizontal tune into the spin tune gap, and injection-on-the-fly were tested in the AGS to mitigate the loss. This paper presents the experiment results and analysis.

  11. Exposure-dependent Ag+ release from silver nanoparticles and its complexation in AgS2 sites in primary murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, G.; Aude-Garcia, C.; Kieffer, I.; Gallon, T.; Delangle, P.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Rabilloud, T.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides the fraction of Ag+ ions released from the AgNPs under a given exposure condition and highlights their complexation with thiolate groups; the ab initio modelling of the extended spectra allows measuring the Ag-S bond length in cellulo. Dissolution rates depend on the exposure scenario, chronicity leading to higher Ag+ release than acute exposure; Ag-S bond lengths are 2.41 +/- 0.03 Å and 2.38 +/- 0.01 Å in acute and chronic exposure respectively, compatible with digonal AgS2 coordination. Glutathione is identified as the most likely putative ligand for Ag+. The proposed method offers a scope for the investigation of metallic nanoparticle dissolution and recombination in cellular models.Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides

  12. Near-infrared emitting AgInTe2 and Zn-Ag-In-Te colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Marc-Antoine; Pons, Thomas; Ritcey, Anna M.; Nì. Allen, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of AgInTe2 nanocrystals emitting between 1095 nm and 1160 nm is presented. Evolution of the Ag:In:Te ratio shows progressive incorporation of In3+ in Ag2Te, leading to the formation of orthorhombic AgInTe2. When zinc is added to the synthesis, the photoluminescence quantum yield reaches 3.4 %.

  13. A Stretcher for the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Foelsche, H.W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposing to add a Stretcher ring to increase the capacity and the quality of the experimental physics program at the AGS. At the present time a typical AGS cycle is about equally divided between the task of accelerating the beam to full energy and the task of distributing it on a 30 GeV flattop. The Stretcher, a 30 GeV dc storage ring, will take over from the AGS the distribution of the high energy beam with a continuous slow spill, and the AGS can then provide beam for the program at more than twice the present repetition rate. In this manner the average current delivered to the experimenters will be more than doubled, and the duty cycle of the spill will increase from the present optimum of about 40% to nearly 100%. The Stretcher proposal continues the gradual evolution of the AGS toward a high intensity hadron factory. At the present time the AGS provides about 1 ..mu..A average proton current. With the booster alone, now under construction, this is expected to increase to above 4 ..mu..A, and with the Stretcher to about 8-10 ..mu..A, an order of magnitude higher than now. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. High temperature superconductivity research in selected laboratories in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebenberg, Donald H.; Clark, Alan

    1988-07-01

    The superconductivity work at eight West German laboratories is reviewed. The laboratories are (or located at): the University of Giessen; the Technical University at Darmstadt; Hoechst AG; Siemens AG; KFA Julich; KFK, Karlsruhe; the Walter Meissner Institute, Garching; and the Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart.

  15. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents. PMID:26614356

  16. Association of hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) with the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBcAg).

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, J; Hess, G; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1985-02-01

    Three substances (pronase E, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and guanidine hydrochloride) with different chemical actions partially convert HBcAg to HBeAg. This process retains the integrity of the HBcAg particle, which was not different between HBcAg subpopulations, and does not generate HBcAg or HBeAg sub-units. DNA polymerase activity was destroyed by SDS and guanidine hydrochloride, but not by pronase E. Serum HBeAg could not be converted into HBcAg, suggesting that this might be an irreversible process. The data are consistent with the assumption that HBcAg and HBeAg are coded for by the same gene (C gene of the HBV-DNA). PMID:3982243

  17. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2015-04-22

    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example. PMID:25835391

  18. An Ab Initio Study of the Low-Lying Doublet States of AgO and AgS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Spectroscopic constants (D(sub o), r(sub e), mu(sub e), T(sub e)) are determined for the doublet states of AgO and AgS below approx. = 30000/cm. Large valence basis sets are employed in conjunction with relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). Electron correlation is included using the modified coupled-pair functional (MCPF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods. The A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) - X(sup 2)Pi band system is found to occur in the near infrared (approx. = 9000/cm) and to be relatively weak with a radiative lifetime of 900 microns for A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) (upsilon = 0). The weakly bound C(sup 2)Pi state (our notation), the upper state of the blue system, is found to require high levels of theoretical treatment to determine a quantitatively accurate potential. The red system is assigned as a transition from the C(sup 2)Pi state to the previously unobserved A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) state. Several additional transitions are identified that should be detectable experimentally. A more limited study is performed for the vertical excitation spectrum of AgS. In addition, a detailed all-electron study of the X(sup 2)Pi and A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) states of AgO is carried out using large atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets. Our best calculated D(sub o) value for AgO is significantly less than the experimental value, which suggests that there may be some systematic error in the experimental determination.

  19. A visible-light-driven core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 composite photocatalyst with high performance in pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Zhu, Lihua; Shu, Qing; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    A series of Ag2S-Ag2CO3 (4%, 8%, 16%, 32% and 40% Ag2S), Ag2CO3@Ag2S (32%Ag2S) and Ag2S@Ag2CO3 (32%Ag2S) composite photocatalysts were fabricated by coprecipitation or successive precipitation reaction. The obtained catalysts were analyzed by N2 physical adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photocurrent test. Under visible light irradiation, the influences of Ag2S content and core-shell property on photocatalytic activity and stability were evaluated in studies focused on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, phenol, and bisphenol A. Results showed that excellent photocatalytic performance was obtained over Ag2S/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts with respect to Ag2S and Ag2CO3. With optimal content of Ag2S (32 wt%), the Ag2S-Ag2CO3 showed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the structured property of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 greatly influenced the activity. Compared with Ag2S-Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3@Ag2S, core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 demonstrated the highest activity and stability. The main reason for the boosting of photocatalytic performance was due to the formation of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 well contacted interface and unique electron structures. Ag2S/Ag2CO3 interface could significantly increase the separation efficiency of the photo-generated electrons (e(-)) and holes (h(+)), and production of OH radicals. More importantly, the low solubility of Ag2S shell could effectively protect the core of Ag2CO3, which further guarantees the stability of Ag2CO3. PMID:27236845

  20. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, F-G B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496