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Sample records for ag bi cd

  1. Fluorometric sensing of ultralow As(III) concentrations using Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been an important global issue in recent years. Because of the high level toxicity of arsenic to human health, an easy, inexpensive, low level and highly selective detection technique is of great importance to take any early precautions. This study reports the synthesis of Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer (Ag-h-CdS/ZnS) nanoparticles for the easy fluorometric determination of As(iii) ions in the aqueous phase. The hollow bi-layer structures were synthesized by a sacrificial core method using AgBr as the sacrificial core and the core was removed by dissolution in an ammonium hydroxide solution. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different instrumental techniques. A good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence quenching intensity and As(iii) concentration in the range of 0.75-22.5 μg L(-1) at neutral pH with a limit of detection as low as 0.226 μg L(-1). PMID:26541652

  2. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  3. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of CdO : Ag nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linjie; Wang, Shufang; Liu, Ran; Zha, Xinyu; Sun, Niefeng; Wang, Shujie; Wang, Jianglong; Fu, Guangsheng

    2016-07-26

    CdO : Ag nanocomposites with metallic Ag nanoparticles embedded in the polycrystalline CdO matrix were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The addition of Ag led to increased grain boundaries of CdO and created numerous CdO/Ag interfaces. By incorporating Ag into the CdO matrix, the power factor was increased which was probably due to the carrier energy filtering effect induced by the enhanced energy-dependent scattering of electrons. In addition, reduced thermal conductivity was also achieved by stronger phonon scattering from grain boundaries, CdO/Ag interfaces and Ag nanoparticles. These concomitant effects resulted in enhanced ZT values for all CdO : Ag nanocomposites, demonstrating that the strategy of introducing metallic Ag nanoparticles into the CdO host was very effective in optimizing the thermoelectric performance. PMID:27411573

  4. Regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl in a 188,000 km 2 area in the European arctic as displayed by terrestrial moss samples-long-range atmospheric transport vs local impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Finne, Tor Erik; Boyd, Rognvald; Jæger, Øystein; Volden, Tore; Kashulina, Galina; Bogatyrev, Igor; Chekushin, Viktor; Pavlov, Vladimir; Äyräs, Matti; Räisänen, Marja Liisa; Niskavaara, Heikki

    The regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl have been mapped in a 188,000 km2 area of the European Arctic (N Finland, N Norway, NW Russia) using the moss technique. The Russian nickel mining and smelting industry (Nikel and Zapoljarnij (Pechenganikel) and Monchegorsk (Severonikel)) in the eastern part of the survey area represents two of the largest point sources for S0 2 and metal emissions on a world wide basis. In contrast, parts of northern Finland and northern Norway represent still some of the most pristine areas in Europe. The terrestrial mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were used as monitors of airborne deposition. Samples in all three countries were collected during the summer of 1995 and analysed in one laboratory using ICP-MS. Maps for most elements clearly show elevated element concentrations near the industrial sites and delineate the extent of contamination. Pollution follows the main wind and topographical directions in the area (N-S). The gradients of deposition are rather steep. Background levels for all the elements are reached within 150-200 km from the industrial plants. The relative importance of long-range atmospheric transport of air pollutants from industrial point sources on the world wide increase of heavy metals observed in the atmosphere is thus debatable for many elements. Increasing population and traffic density, accompanied by increasing local dust levels, may play a much more important role than industrial emissions. The regional distribution patterns as displayed in the maps show some striking differences between the elements. The regional distribution of Hg and TI in the survey area is completely dominated by sources other than industry.

  5. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10-5 Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  6. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10‑5 Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  7. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-16

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10(-5) Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains.

  8. Noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains: annealing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao Hui; Fei, Guang Tao; You, Qiao; Gao, Xu Dong; Huo, Peng Cheng; De Zhang, Li

    2016-09-16

    One-dimensional noble-metal Ag nanoparticle chains have been prepared by electrodepositing Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires in a porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) template and following an annealing process in vacuum. It is found that Bi, as a sacrificial metal, can be removed completely after annealing at 450 °C with a vacuum degree of 10(-5) Torr. The regulation of particle size, shape and interparticle spacing of Ag NP chains has been realized by adjusting the segment length of the Ag/Bi superlattice nanowires and the annealing condition. With an extension of the annealing time, it is observed that Ag particles display the transform trend from ellipsoid to sphere. Our findings could inspire further investigation on the design and fabrication of metal nanoparticle chains. PMID:27487089

  9. Facile synthesis of novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were controllably synthesized via a facile ion-exchange followed by photoreduction strategy by using hierarchical BiOI microflower as substrate. The as-prepared Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were studied by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (λ>420 nm), Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed highly enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to the pure hierarchical BiOI, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through the closely contacted interfaces in the Ag/AgI/BiOI ternary system. - Graphical abstract: Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed excellent photocatalytic activities for methyl orange degradation under visible light, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through Z-scheme pathway. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed higher visible light activities than those of pure BiOI and AgI. • ·O{sub 2}{sup −} and h{sup +}, especially ·O{sub 2}{sup −}, dominated the photodegradation process of MO. • A Z-scheme pattern was adopted for Ag/AgI/BiOI activity enhancement.

  10. BiPO4 photocatalyst employing synergistic action of Ag/Ag3PO4 nanostructure and graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, N.; Rahimi, E.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst has been fabricated by simple hydrothermal and impregnation reaction. In BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), this network renders numerous pathways for rapid mass transport, strong adsorption and multireflection of incident light; meanwhile, the interface between BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and RGO increases the active sites and electron transfer rate. BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 based on RGO noticeably exhibited high photocatalytic activity than that of BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 and P25 under visible light irradiation for cationic dye (Rhodamine B), anionic dye (methyl orange) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as a neutral pollutant, which are usually difficult to be degraded over the other catalysts. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of Graphene-supported BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 for all pollutants could be mainly ascribed to the reinforced charge transfer from BiPO4/Ag/Ag3PO4 to RGO, which suppresses the recombination of electron/hole pairs. Besides that, this photocatalyst can be used repetitively with a high photocatalytic activity and no apparent loss of activity occurs. The results reveal that the RGO nanosheets work as a photocatalyst promoter during the photocatalytic reaction, leading to an improved photocatalytic activity.

  11. Nanoparticle Ag-enhanced textured-powder Bi-2212/Ag wire technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellams, J. N.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Vandergrifft, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new approach to the preparation of cores for Bi-2212/Ag wire is being developed. Nanoparticle Ag is homogeneously dispersed in Bi-2212 fine powder, and the mixture is uniaxially compressed to form highly textured, cold-sintered core rods. The rods can be assembled in a silver matrix, drawn to form multifilament wire, and restacked and drawn to form multifilament wire. Preliminary studies using tablet geometry demonstrate that a nonmelt heat treatment produces densification, grain growth, intergrowth among grains, and macroscopic current transport. The status of the development is reported.

  12. Photocurrent enhancement of chemically synthesized Ag nanoparticle-embedded BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Rika; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yuitoo, Isamu; Takeuchi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2016-10-01

    BiFeO3 and Ag nanoparticle-embedded BiFeO3 thin films were prepared on Pt/TiO x /SiO2/Si and MgO(100) substrates using colloidal silver and BiFeO3 metal-organic precursor solutions. Colloidal silver solution was prepared by a chemical reductive method using NaBH4 as a reductant. The prepared Ag nanoparticles exhibited characteristic optical absorption properties based on their surface plasmon resonance related to particle size. The synthesized BiFeO3 and Ag nanoparticle/BiFeO3 thin films demonstrated rapid on/off responses of photocurrent to visible light. The Ag nanoparticle-incorporated BiFeO3 film exhibited a 2-4-fold higher photocurrent than the BiFeO3 film. Optical and ferroelectric properties did not change markedly even when Ag nanoparticles were embedded in the BiFeO3 thin film within the quantities of this study. Furthermore, in the Ag nanoparticle/BiFeO3 composite structure, Ag nanoparticles were introduced in the near-metallic state with maintained their nanometer size. In the Ag nanoparticle-embedded BiFeO3 film, photoinduced charge separation and transport of photoexcited carriers were enhanced by the surface plasmon effect of nanosized Ag particles as well as the internal bias electric field existed in the narrow-bandgap BiFeO3 thin film.

  13. Near-net-shape fabrication of continuous Ag-Clad Bi-Based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M. T. et al.

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a near-net-shape process for Ag-clad Bi-2212 superconductors as an alternative to the powder-in-tube process. This new process offers the advantages of nearly continuous processing, minimization of processing steps, reasonable ability to control the Bi-2212/Ag ratio, and early development of favorable texture of the Bi-2212 grains. Superconducting properties are discussed.

  14. Advances in fabrication of Ag-clad Bi-2223 superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.

    1998-09-04

    Powder-in-tube (PIT) processing was used to fabricate multifilamentary Ag-clad Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Bi-2223) superconductors for various electric power applications. Enhancements in the transport current properties of long lengths of multifilament tapes were achieved by increasing the packing density of the precursor powder, improving the mechanical deformation, and adjusting the cooling rate. The dependence of the critical current density on magnetic field and temperature for the optimally processed tapes was measured. J{sub c} was greater than 10{sup 4} (A/cm{sup 2}) at 20 K for magnetic field up to 3 T and parallel to the c-axis which is of interest for use in refrigerator coded magnets. An attempt was made to combine the good alignment of Bi-2223 grains in Ag-sheathed superconducting tapes to obtain high J{sub c} values at high temperature and low field, and good intrinsic pinning of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}d} (Y-123) thin film to maintain high J{sub c} values in high fields. A new composite multifilament tape was fabricated such that the central part contained Bi-2223 filaments, with the primary function of conducting the transport current. The central Bi-2223 filaments were surrounded by Y-123 thin film to shield the applied magnetic field and protect the Bi-2223 filaments. The J{sub c} values of the composite tape were better than those of an uncoated tape. In the case of 77 K applications, an I{sub c} of about 60 A was obtained in a 150 m long tape and zero applied magnetic field. In-situ strain characteristics of the mono- and multifilament tapes were conducted.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of Ag-clad Bi-2223 tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.

    1999-04-20

    The powder-in-tube (PIT) technique was used to fabricate multifilament (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Bi-2223) superconducting tapes. Transport current properties of these tapes were enhanced by increasing the packing density of the precursor powder and improving the mechanical deformation condition. A critical current (I{sub c}) of > 35 A in long lengths (> 200 m) tapes has been achieved. In measuring the dependence of critical current density on magnetic field and temperature for the optimally processed tapes, we found a J{sub c} of > 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 20 K in magnetic fields up to 3 T and parallel to the c-axis, which is of interest for use in refrigerator-cooled magnets. I{sub c} declined exponentially when an external field was applied perpendicular to the tape surface at 77 K. Mechanical stability was tested for tapes sheathed with pure Ag and Ag-Mg alloy. Tapes made with pure Ag sheathing can withstand a tensile stress of {approx}20 MPa with no detrimental effect on I{sub c} values. Mechanical performance was improved by using Ag-Mg alloy sheathing: values of transport critical current began to decrease at the tensile stress of {approx} 100 MPa. Transport current measurements on tapes wound on a mandrel of 3.81 cm (1.5 in.) diameter at 30{degree} to the longitudinal axis, showed a reduction of {approx} 10% in I{sub c} values for pure Ag-sheathed tapes and 5% reduction in I{sub c} values for Ag-Mg sheathed tapes, compared with the I{sub c} values of as-coiled tapes.

  16. Measuring the thermodynamic properties of saturated solid solutions in the Ag2Te-Bi-Bi2Te3 system by the electromotive force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorenko, M. V.; Moroz, M. V.; Demchenko, P. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The temperature dependence of the electromotive force (EMF) of Ag|AgI|glass Ag2GeS3|D galvanic elements (where Ag, D are galvanic element electrodes, D is equilibrium three-phase alloys in the Ag2Te-Bi-Bi2Te3 system, AgI|glass Ag2GeS3 is a two-layer membrane with purely ionic (Ag+) conductivity) is studied in the range of 490-550 K. Analytical equations are obtained for the temperature dependences of the Gibbs energies of the formation of saturated solid solutions of the Bi14Te6, Bi2Te, BiTe, and Bi2Te phases from elements in the Ag2Te-Bi-Bi2Te3 system. E( T) analytical equations are used to calculate the standardstate thermodynamic functions of saturated solid solutions of the Bi14Te6, Bi2Te, BiTe, and Bi2Te3 phases in the Ag2Te-Bi-Bi2Te3 system.

  17. Bi-2212/Ag tape conductor and coil development

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, G.W.; Leung, E.M.; Zhou, R.; Salazar, K.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents recent progress by Los Alamos National Laboratory/Superconductivity Technology Center (LANL/STC) and Lockheed Martin Corporation/Advanced Development Operations (LMQADO) Energy and Power Systems group to jointly develop and test high temperature superconductor coils for practical applications such as motors, generators, magnetic bearings, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), MAGLEV trains, or electrical inductors. Critical currents of 105 A/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in a Bi-2212/Ag tape conductor using a patented Ag addition process to improve core morphology and uniformity. Results of testing to measure key conductor parameters are presented along with design and analysis details of a general-purpose multi-layer HTS coil.

  18. Bi-Assisted CdTe/CdS Hierarchical Nanostructure Growth for Photoconductive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Kwang; Lee, Hyungwoo; Jian, Jikang; Lee, Dong-Jin; Park, Yongju; Lee, Changhee; Lee, Byung Yang; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-08-01

    We developed a method to control the structure of CdTe nanowires by adopting Bi-mixed CdTe powder source to a catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition, which allowed us to fabricate CdTe/CdS hierarchical nanostructures. We demonstrated that diverse nanostructures can be grown depending on the combination of the Bi powder and film catalysts. As a proof of concepts, we grew CdTe/CdS branched nanowires for the fabrication of photodetectors. The hierarchical nanostructure-based photodetectors showed an improved photoresponsivity compared to the single CdTe nanowire (NW)-based photodetector. Our strategy can be a simple but powerful method for the development of advanced optoelectronic devices and other practical applications.

  19. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres and their high efficient photocatalytic degradation for p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingting; Luo, Shenglian; Yang, Lixia

    2013-10-15

    Flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres were successfully fabricated by the approach of microwave-assisted solvothermal and in situ photo-assisted reduction. A reactive ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 16}mim]Br) was employed as Br source in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgBr/BiOBr towards the decomposition of p-nitrophenol under visible light irradiation was evaluated. The results indicated that Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol, comparing with P25, BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. More than 96% of p-nitrophenol was decomposed in 3.5 h under visible-light irradation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres can be attributed to the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, suitable energy band structure and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species test and band gap structure analysis. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres. • The Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed much higher photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol as compared to BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. • The reasons for the excellent photocatalytic activity are the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. • The O{sub 2}·{sup −}, Br{sup 0} and photogenerated h{sup +} play key roles in the photocatalytic degradation process.

  20. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon nanotube-AgBiS2 hybrids and their optical limiting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dandan; Cai, Dongdong; Yang, Yan; Zhong, Huiye; Zhao, Yiwen; Song, Yinglin; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia

    2016-03-01

    AgBiS2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the solvothermal treatment on a mixture of MWCNTs, AgNO3, Bi(NO3)3·5H2O and thiosemicarbazide in a mixed polyol solvent. The resulting MWCNT-AgBiS2 hybrid samples have been extensively characterized by a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The AgBiS2 NPs can be uniformly deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs by appropriately regulating the reaction conditions including reaction temperature and reaction time. Optical limiting (OL) studies have been performed on typical MWCNT-AgBiS2 samples using the Z-scan and OL measurements at the laser wavelength of 532 nm. The MWCNT-AgBiS2 hybrids with AgBiS2 NPs of ∼16 nm in size uniformly coated on the nanotubes show a significantly enhanced OL effect in comparison to the purified MWCNTs.

  1. RRR and thermal conductivity of Ag and Ag-0.2 wt.%Mg alloy in Ag/Bi-2212 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Ye, L.; Jiang, J.; Shen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and thermal conductivity of metal matrix in metal/superconductor composite wires are important parameters for designing superconducting magnets. However, the resistivity of silver in reacted Ag/Bi-2212 wires has yet to be determined over temperature range from 4.2 K to 80 K because Bi-2212 filaments have a critical transition temperature Tc of ∼ 80 K, and because it is unknown whether the RRR of Ag/Bi-2212 degrades with Cu diffusing from Bi-2212 filaments into silver sheathes at elevated temperatures and to what degree it varies with heat treatment. We measured the resistivity of stand-alone Ag and AgMg (Ag-0.2 wt.% Mg) wires as well as the resistivity of Ag and Ag-0.2 wt.% Mg in Ag/Bi- 2212 round wires reacted in 1 bar oxygen at 890 °C for 1, 8, 24 and 48 hours and quickly cooled to room temperature. The heat treatment was designed to reduce the critical current Ic of Bi- 2212 wires to nearly zero while allowing Cu loss to fully manifest itself. We determined that pure silver exhibits a RRR of ∼ 220 while the oxide-dispersion strengthened Ag-Mg exhibits a RRR of ∼ 5 in stand-alone samples. A surprising result is that the RRR of silver in the composite round wires doesn't degrade with extended time at 890 °C for up to 48 hours. This surprising result may be explained by our observation that the Cu that diffuses into silver tends to form Cu2O precipitates in oxidizing atmosphere, instead of forming Ag-Cu solution alloy. We also measured the thermal conductivity and the magneto-resistivity of pure Ag and Ag-0.2 wt. % Mg from 4.2 K to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 14.8 T and summarized them using a Kohler plot.

  2. Nano Ag@AgBr surface-sensitized Bi2WO6 photocatalyst: oil-in-water synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Liang, Yinghua; Cui, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Nano Ag@AgBr decorated on the surface of flower-like Bi2WO6 (hereafter designated Ag@AgBr/Bi2WO6) were prepared via a facile oil-in-water self-assembly method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The characterization results indicated that nano Ag@AgBr was observed to be evenly dispersed on the surface of Bi2WO6, and was approximately 20 nm in size. Ag@AgBr/Bi2WO6 composites exhibited excellent UV-vis absorption, due to quantum dimension effect of Ag@AgBr, the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles and the special flower-like structure of Bi2WO6. The photoelectrochemical measurement verified that the suitable band potential of Ag@AgBr and Bi2WO6 and the existence of metal Ag resulted in the high efficiency in charge separation of the composite. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgBr/Bi2WO6 samples were examined under visible-light irradiation for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The composite presented excellent photocatalytic activity due to the synergetic effect of Bi2WO6, AgBr, and Ag nanoparticles. The Ag@AgBr(20 wt.%)/Bi2WO6 sample exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, degrading 95.03% MB after irradiation for 2 h, which was respectively 1.29 times and 1.28 times higher than that of Ag@AgBr and Bi2WO6 photocatalyst. Meanwhile, phenol and salicylic acid were degraded to further prove the degradation ability of Ag@AgBr/Bi2WO6. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O2-•, •OH and Br0 acted as the main reactive species. Based on above, a photocatalytic mechanism for organics degradation over Ag@AgBr/Bi2WO6 was proposed.

  3. Electronic spectrum of non-tetrahedral acceptors in CdTe:Cl and CdTe:Bi,Cl single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivobok, V. S.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Bagaev, V. S.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Kolosov, S. A.; Klevkov, Yu. V.; Skorikov, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    The electronic spectra of complex acceptors in compensated CdTe:Cl, CdTe:Ag,Cl, and CdTe:Bi,Cl single crystals are studied using low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements under both nonresonant and resonant excitation of distant donor-acceptor pairs (DAP). The wavelength modulation of the excitation source combined with the analysis of the differential PL signal is used to enhance narrow spectral features obscured because of inhomogeneous line broadening and/or excitation transfer for selectively excited DAPs. For the well-known tetrahedral (TD) AgCd acceptor, the energies of four excited states are measured, and the values obtained are shown to be in perfect agreement with the previous data. Moreover, splitting between the 2P3/2 (D8) and 2S3/2 (D8) states is clearly observed for AgCd centers located at a short distance (5-7 nm) from a hydrogen-like donor (ClTe). This splitting results from the reduction of the TD symmetry taking place when the acceptor is a member of a donor-acceptor pair. For the Cl-related complex acceptor with an activation energy of ˜121 meV (A-center), the energies of eight excited states are measured. It is shown that this defect produces low-symmetry central-cell correction responsible for the strong splitting of S-like TD shells. The energy spectrum of the Bi-related shallow acceptor with an activation energy of ˜36 meV is measured as well. The spectrum obtained differs drastically from the hydrogen-like set of levels, which indicates the existence of repulsive low-symmetry perturbation of the hydrogen-like Coulomb potential. It is also shown that the spectra of selectively excited PL recorded for a macroscopic ensemble of distant donor-acceptor pairs allow one to detect the low symmetry of acceptors of a given type caused by their complex nature or by the Jahn-Teller distortion. This method does not require any additional (external) field and is applicable to acceptors in diverse zinc-blende compound semiconductors.

  4. Extranuclear dynamics of 111Ag(→111Cd) doped in AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Komatsuda, S.; Kawata, S.; Taoka, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic behavior of the extranuclear field relative to the 111Ag(→111Cd) probe nucleus introduced in a superionic conductor silver iodide (AgI) was investigated by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. For poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgI nanoparticles, we observed nuclear spin relaxation of the probe at room temperature. This result signifies that Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated sample make hopping motion from site to site at this low temperature. The activation energy for the dynamic motion was successfully estimated to be 46(10) meV. The first atomic-level observation of the temperature-dependent dynamic behavior of Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated AgI is reported.

  5. Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernechea, María; Miller, Nichole Cates; Xercavins, Guillem; So, David; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-08-01

    Solution-processed inorganic solar cells are a promising low-cost alternative to first-generation solar cells. Solution processing at low temperatures combined with the use of non-toxic and abundant elements can help minimize fabrication costs and facilitate regulatory acceptance. However, at present, there is no material that exhibits all these features while demonstrating promising efficiencies. Many of the candidates being explored contain toxic elements such as lead or cadmium (perovskites, PbS, CdTe and CdS(Se)) or scarce elements such as tellurium or indium (CdTe and CIGS(Se)/CIS). Others require high-temperature processes such as selenization or sintering, or rely on vacuum deposition techniques (Sb2S(Se)3, SnS and CZTS(Se)). Here, we present AgBiS2 nanocrystals as a non-toxic, earth-abundant material for high-performance, solution-processed solar cells fabricated under ambient conditions at low temperatures (≤100 °C). We demonstrate devices with a certified power conversion efficiency of 6.3%, with no hysteresis and a short-circuit current density of ˜22 mA cm-2 for an active layer thickness of only ˜35 nm.

  6. Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernechea, María; Miller, Nichole Cates; Xercavins, Guillem; So, David; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-08-01

    Solution-processed inorganic solar cells are a promising low-cost alternative to first-generation solar cells. Solution processing at low temperatures combined with the use of non-toxic and abundant elements can help minimize fabrication costs and facilitate regulatory acceptance. However, at present, there is no material that exhibits all these features while demonstrating promising efficiencies. Many of the candidates being explored contain toxic elements such as lead or cadmium (perovskites, PbS, CdTe and CdS(Se)) or scarce elements such as tellurium or indium (CdTe and CIGS(Se)/CIS). Others require high-temperature processes such as selenization or sintering, or rely on vacuum deposition techniques (Sb2S(Se)3, SnS and CZTS(Se)). Here, we present AgBiS2 nanocrystals as a non-toxic, earth-abundant material for high-performance, solution-processed solar cells fabricated under ambient conditions at low temperatures (≤100 °C). We demonstrate devices with a certified power conversion efficiency of 6.3%, with no hysteresis and a short-circuit current density of ∼22 mA cm‑2 for an active layer thickness of only ∼35 nm.

  7. Cladding technique for development of Ag In Cd decoupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Kogawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2005-08-01

    To develop a Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between two plates of the Al alloy (A6061-T6). We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 1 h, respectively, for small test pieces ( ϕ 22 mm in diam. × 5 mm in height). Especially, a sandwich case (a Ag-In plate with thickness of 0.5 mm between two Ag-Cd plates with thickness of 1.25 mm) gave easier (or better) bonding results. Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, which is higher than the design stress in our application.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of CdS/BiPO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daimei Kuang, Zheng; Zhu, Qian; Du, Yue; Zhu, Honglei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A CdS/BiPO{sub 4} heterojunction was prepared by the solvothermal method. • The CdS/BiPO{sub 4} composite has the higher photocatalytic activity than the individual ones. • The optimal mass ratio of CdS to BiPO{sub 4} was 0.5. • The heterojunction structure of CdS/BiPO{sub 4} induces an effective electron–hole separation. - Abstract: A series of CdS/BiPO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts with the visible-light response were synthesized by the solvothermal method. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. CdS nanoparticles with the size at range of 5–7 nm were immobilized on the surface of BiPO{sub 4} nanorods. The CdS/BiPO{sub 4} composite exhibited much higher photodegradation rate of methylene blue under visible light irradation compared to the pure CdS and BiPO{sub 4}. The optimal mass ratio of CdS to BiPO{sub 4} was 0.5, the photodegradation rate of which is 2.1 times higher than that of CdS. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity is attributed to the heterojunction structure of CdS/BiPO{sub 4} composite which induced the effective electron–hole separation between CdS and BiPO{sub 4}.

  9. Phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of saturated solid solutions of BiTeI, Bi2TeI, and Bi4TeI1.25 compounds of the AgI-Bi-Bi2Te3-BiTeI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, M. V.; Prokhorenko, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    The phase equilibria of the Ag-Bi-Te-I system in the part AgI-Bi-Bi2Te3-BiTeI is studied in the interval of 500-540 K by means of physicochemical analysis. Thermodynamic properties of phases are determined via EMF. Potential-forming processes occur in electrochemical cells (ECCs) of the C|Ag|glass Ag3GeS3I|D|C structure (where C denotes inert (graphite) electrodes; Ag, D denotes ECC electrodes; D denotes four-phase alloys of the AgI-Bi-Bi2Te3-BiTeI system; and Ag3GeS3I glass is the selective Ag+ conducting membrane). Linear dependences of the EMFs of cells E(T) in the interval of 505-535 K are used to calculate the values of the thermodynamic functions of BiTeI, Bi2TeI, and Bi4TeI1.25 phases saturated over silver.

  10. RRR and thermal conductivity of Ag and Ag0.2wt%Mg alloy in Ag/Bi-2212 wires

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pei; Ye, L.; Jiang. J., Jiang. J.; Shen, T.

    2015-08-19

    The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) and thermal conductivity of metal matrix in metal/superconductor composite wires are important parameters for designing superconducting magnets. However, the resistivity of silver in reacted Ag/Bi-2212 wires has yet to be determined over temperature range from 4.2 K to 80 K because Bi-2212 filaments have a critical transition temperature Tc of ~ 80 K, and because it is unknown whether the RRR of Ag/Bi-2212 degrades with Cu diffusing from Bi-2212 filaments into silver sheathes at elevated temperatures and to what degree it varies with heat treatment. We measured the resistivity of stand-alone Ag and AgMg (Ag-0.2wt%Mg) wires as well as the resistivity of Ag and Ag- 0.2wt%Mg in the state-of-the-art Ag/Bi-2212 round wires reacted in 1 bar oxygen at 890 °C for 1, 8, 24 and 48 hours and quickly cooled to room temperature. The heat treatment was designed to reduce the critical current Ic of Bi-2212 wires to nearly zero while allowing Cu loss to fully manifest itself. We determined that pure silver exhibits a RRR of ~ 220 while the oxide-dispersion strengthened AgMg exhibits a RRR of ~ 5 in stand-alone samples. A surprising result is that the RRR of silver in the composite round wires doesn’t degrade with extended time at 890 °C for up to 48 hours. This surprising result may be explained by our observation that the Cu that diffuses into the silver tends to form Cu2O precipitates in oxidizing atmosphere, instead of forming Ag-Cu solution alloy. We also measured the thermal conductivity and the magneto-resistivity of pure Ag and Ag-0.2 wt%Mg from 4.2 K to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 14.8 T and summarized them using a Kohler plot.

  11. AgBiS2 single crystal grown using slow cooling method and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaru; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Takeo; Imura, Masataka; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Ohashi, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Silver bismuth sulfide (AgBiS2) single crystal was successfully grown using the slow cooling method. Characterization of a grown crystal using power X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a single AgBiS2 phase and a cubic structure with lattice parameter a=5.641 Å. The crystal was found to have a high-temperature phase with a cubic structure. XRD measurement and composition analysis showed that the stoichiometric composition of the AgBiS2 was equivalent to the congruent melt composition. The grown AgBiS2 crystal was confirmed to be single crystal by observing the Laue X-ray backscattering pattern. Differential thermal analysis showed that the melting point of the AgBiS2 was 805 °C. The grown crystal had n-type conductivity, a carrier concentration of 2.6×1018 cm-3, electrical resistivity of 2.1 Ω cm, and hole mobility of 1.1 cm2/V s at room temperature.

  12. Study of grain boundary properties in Ag-clad Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox tapes by multi-phase electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of grain boundaries within Ag-clad (Pb,Bi)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) tapes are studied by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The achieved high image quality of the Kikuchi patterns enables multi-phase EBSD scans including Bi-2223, Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212), Bi2Sr2CuOx (Bi-2201), (Sr,Ca)14Cu24O41 and Ag to be performed. For the EBSD scans a maximum spatial resolution of 30 nm was reached enabling a detailed orientation analysis. The nature of the grain boundaries is discussed on the base of the EBSD data. While the main orientation of the tape is in [0 0 1] direction, a large number of misorientations is detected. These misorientations are visualized using crystal direction (CD) maps. Furthermore, EBSD enables the spatially resolved mapping of the misorientation angles within each phase separately. The influence of these grain boundaries on the current transport properties is discussed.

  13. Lead-rich phases in partially processed Ag/Bi-2223 composite conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Merchant, N.; Maroni, V.A.

    1996-02-01

    The occurrence, composition, and melting behavior of lead-rich phases detected during the thermal processing of Ag/Bi-2223 composite conductors have been investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDS), x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. A (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O composition with {open_quotes}4112{close_quotes} metal atom stoichiometry and Pb{approx_equal}Bi was detected during TEM/EDS examinations of partially processed/quenched Ag/Bi-2223 composites. An as-synthesized oxide mix with this stoichiometry was found to melt at a temperature <700{degrees}C. The lead-rich {open_quotes}3221{close_quotes} phase was found to have a wide range of compositional stability in terms of Pb/Bi ratio and Bi + Pb stoichiometry. Evidence was seen for the co-existence of this phase with (Ca,Sr){sub 2}PbO{sub 4} in partially processed Ag/Bi-2223 composites that were cooled slowly through the 800 to 600{degrees}C range.

  14. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag/AgI/BiOI heteronanostructures supported on rectorite via a cation-exchange method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yunfang; Fang, Jianzhang; Lu, Shaoyou; Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan; Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Ximiao; Fang, Zhanqiang

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared by twice cation-exchange process. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite photocatalyst possessed SPR and adsorption capacity. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite exhibited highly photocatalytic activity. • Trapped holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} were formed active species in the photocatalytic system. - Abstract: In this work, a new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared via a cation exchange process. The photocatalyst had been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen sorption (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, was enhanced significantly by loading Ag/AgI/BiOI nanoparticles onto rectorite. The photogenerated holes and superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were both formed as active species for the photocatalytic reactions under visible light irradiation. The existence of metallic Ag particles, which possess the surface plasmon resonance effect, acted as an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction.

  15. High temperature phase equilibria studies in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O-Ag system

    SciTech Connect

    Margulies, Lawrence

    1999-11-08

    A variety of experimental techniques were utilized to examine the high temperature phase equilibria in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O-Ag system. Quenching studies were used to determine the liquid solubility of Ag in the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Bi2212) melt and the details of the peritectic decomposition pathway of Bi2212 as a function on Ag content and oxygen partial pressure (PO{sub 2}). A liquid immiscibility region between oxide and Ag liquids in the 8--98 at% range was found above 900 C. Two eutectics were found in the Bi2212-Ag pseudobinary. On the oxide rich side, a eutectic exists at approximately 4 at% Ag. On the Ag rich side, a eutectic exists at approximately 98 at% Ag at a temperature of 15 C below the melting point of pure Ag. Six distinct solid phases were found to be in equilibrium with the partial melt within the Ag content and PO{sub 2} range studied. The stability of these solid phases were found to be highly sensitive to PO{sub 2}, and to a much lesser extent Ag content. High temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies of this system are in conflict with these results. It is suggested that these discrepancies are due to experimental artifacts caused by the significant thermal gradients and lack of full bulk sampling which is inherent in conventional HTXRD designs. In part 2, a new furnace design compatible with synchrotron radiation sources is introduced to address these problems. This design allows for full bulk sampling in a low thermal gradient environment using Debye-Scherrer transmission geometry. Sample spinning is also introduced in the design to eliminate preferred orientation and incomplete powder averaging and allow for quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement. Studies on model systems are presented to demonstrate the capabilities for high resolution structural studies (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and time resolved phase transformation studies (SrCO{sub 3}). Finally, the Bi2212 system is examined to confirm the quenching results

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst CdBiYO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huiyang; Luan, Jingfei

    2012-09-01

    CdBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of CdBiYO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. CdBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure by space group I41/amd. The lattice parameters for CdBiYO4 were a = b = 14.519 Å and c = 9.442 Å. The band gap of CdBiYO4 was estimated to be 2.41 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was realized under visible light irradiation with CdBiYO4 as catalyst. The results showed that CdBiYO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB with CdBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed the first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.0137 or 0.0033 min-1. After visible light irradiation for 225 min with CdBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of MB were observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42- and NO3-, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of MB during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of MB was obtained under visible light irradiation. CdBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be utilized to resolve other environmental chemical pollution problems.

  17. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Deuterated Methylene Bi-Radical CD_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Bailleux, Stephane

    2015-06-01

    Methylene, the parent of the carbene compounds, plays a crucial role in many chemical reactions. This bi-radical is a known interstellar molecule that has been detected towards hot cores in dense interstellar clouds. CH_2 is also thought to be present in cometary atmospheres. In the gas phase chemical models of both dense and diffuse molecular clouds, CH_2 is a key intermediate in interstellar carbon chemistry which is produced primarily by dissociative recombination of the methyl ion, CH^+_3. Recently tentative detection of the mono-deuterated methyl ion, CH_2D^+ has been reported toward an infrared source in the vicinity of Orion. Deuterated methylene CHD and CD_2 can be produced from this ion or its counterpart CHD^+_2 by dissociative recombination with an electron: CH2D+ + e- → CHD+ H or {CH2 + D}, CHD2+ ~+ e- → CHD+ D or CD2 + H. Thus, both CHD and CD_2 can be observed in warm interstellar clouds, where the deuterium fractionation process is important. Precise laboratory reference data are desirable for radioastronomical observation of these molecules. Here we report on our high-resolution spectroscopic investigation on the deuterated methylene radical, CD_2 (X ^3B_1) up to 1.45 THz. At present time, eleven out of the twelve fine-structure components of four pure rotational transitions have been newly recorded, and these measurements double the number of previously observed transitions. CD_2 was generated in a discharge in CD_2CO which was obtained from the flash pyrolysis of acetic anhydride-d6 ((CD_3CO)_2O). Effort is currently made to measure the astronomically important 111 - 000 transition whose fine-structure components are predicted to occur at 1.224,1.228 and 1.234 THz. D. C. Lis, P. F. Goldsmith, E. A. Bergin et al. 2009, in Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology, ASP Conf. Ser., 417, 23. H. Ozeki and S. Saito J. Chem. Phys. 1996, 104, 2167.

  18. Effect of CIP process on superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag wires composite bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hirano, S.; Hishinuma, Y.; Nishimura, A.; Matsumoto, A.; Kumakura, H.

    2002-10-01

    In order to improve superconducting property of Bi-2223 superconductor bulk, Ag wires were composed in the bulk. The composite was made by stacking alternately Ag wires and the calcined powder. The sample was sintered at 840 °C for 50 h in air. After treatment with a cold isostatic press as an intermediate pressing, the sample was sintered again. The maximum Jc at 4.2 K and self-field of the sample composed with 24 Ag wires of 0.4 mm in diameter was obtained to be 2000 A/cm 2. Scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer observation results showed that highly c-axis oriented and densely structured Bi-2223 plate-like grains could be formed around the interfacial region between the superconducting oxide and the metal Ag.

  19. Synthesis and the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. Z.; Meng, Shan; Tan, Miao; Jia, L. J.; Zhou, Y. X.; Wu, Shuang; Huang, X. W.; Liang, Y. J.; Shi, H. L.

    2015-03-01

    BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures) have been prepared by a new strategy via combining a hydrothermal route with a polyol process, in which BiVO4 nanocrystals were first synthesized by a hydrothermal route, and then, Ag nanoparticles were grown on the surfaces of the presynthesized BiVO4 nanocrystals through a polyol process. The photocatalytic evaluations demonstrate that BiVO4 nanocrystals coupled with Ag nanoparticles exhibit the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The energy alignment and diffuse reflectance property of Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures demonstrate that Ag nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals play double roles for the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. First, the Ag nanoparticles grown on the surfaces of BiVO4 nanocrystals may act as electron sinks to retard the recombination of the photogenerated electrons and holes in BiVO4 so as to improve the charge separation on its surfaces. Second, the Ag nanoparticles increase the visible light absorption of the Ag-BiVO4 photocatalyst due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles. These double roles of Ag nanoparticles make Ag-BiVO4 heterogeneous nanostructures to exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity to decompose MB and RhB under visible light irradiation, compared to the pure BiVO4 nanocrystals. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the charge transfer from BiVO4 to the attached Ag nanoparticles as well as SPR absorption of Ag nanoparticles. The present work not only provides an efficient route to enhance visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of BiVO4, but also offers a new strategy for fabricating metal-semiconductor heterogeneous nanostructure photocatalysts, which are expected to show considerable potential applications in solar-driven wastewater treatment and water

  20. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates. PMID:25483981

  1. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates.

  2. Spin pumping and inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect in NiFe/Ag/Bi and NiFe/Ag/Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-05-07

    The Rashba effect is an interaction between the spin and the momentum of electrons induced by the spin-orbit coupling in surface or interface states. We measured the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect via spin pumping in Ag/Bi and Ag/Sb interfaces. The spin current is injected from the ferromagnetic resonance of a NiFe layer towards the Rashba interfaces, where it is further converted into a charge current. Using spin pumping theory, we quantify the conversion parameter of spin to charge current to be 0.11 ± 0.02 nm for Ag/Bi and a factor of ten smaller for Ag/Sb. The relative strength of the effect is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and first principles calculations. We also vary the interlayer materials to study the voltage output in relation to the change of the effective spin mixing conductance. The spin pumping experiment offers a straight-forward approach of using spin current as an efficient probe for detecting interface Rashba splitting.

  3. Microstructure and Thermal Analysis of As-Cast Ag-Bi-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fima, Przemyslaw; Garzel, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The calculated liquidus projection of the Ag-Bi-Ni ternary system has been experimentally examined. Alloys were prepared by induction melting, and their microstructure studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Of the primary solidification phases, (Ni) solidifies over the largest concentration range, although it was found to be narrower than calculated. The range in which Bi3Ni is the primary solidification phase was found to be broader than calculated. Also, the liquid miscibility gap is broader than predicted from assessed thermodynamic parameters. Differential thermal analysis was used to study temperatures of phase transitions of as-cast alloys, and recorded temperatures of melting of Bi3Ni and BiNi phases in ternary alloys agree well with those calculated.

  4. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity in visible-light-driven Ag/BiVO4 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Nan, Feng; Yang, Ying; Cao, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    BiVO4 photonic crystal inverse opals (io-BiVO4) with highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the nanosphere lithography method combining the pulsed current deposition method. The incorporation of the Ag NPs can significantly improve the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 inverse opals in the visible light region. The photocurrent density of the Ag/io-BiVO4 sample is 4.7 times higher than that of the disordered sample without the Ag NPs, while the enhancement factor of the corresponding kinetic constant in photocatalytic experiment is approximately 3. The improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity is benefited from two reasons: one is the enhanced light harvesting owing to the coupling between the slow light and localized surface plasmon resonance effect; the other is the efficient separation of charge carriers due to the Schottky barriers.

  5. Effect of SnO, MgO and Ag2O Mix-doping on the Formation and Superconducting Properties of Bi-2223 Ag/tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. Y.; Yi, D.; Chen, H.; Nagata, A.

    The Ag/tapes with the composition Bi1.8Pb0.4Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3.5Oy + x wt% SnO + y wt% MgO + z wt% Ag2O (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4; y = 0, 0.2; z = 0, 0.2) were prepared by sintering at 835°C for 120 h after partial-melting at 845°C for 1 h. The individual SnO doping, SnO and Ag2O mix-doping, and SnO and MgO mix-doping all decrease the conversion of Bi-2212 phase to Bi-2223 phase. The tape with individual 0.4 wt% SnO doping shows the lowest conversion and the lowest critical current density. However, the SnO, MgO and Ag2O mix-doping increase the conversion of Bi-2212 phase to Bi-2223 phase. The tape with 0.2 wt% SnO, 0.2 wt% MgO and 0.2 wt%Ag2O mix-doping shows the highest proportion of Bi-2223 phase and the highest critical current density.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of molten Bi2Te3, CuI, and AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    To achieve large figure of merit (ZT) and superior thermal durability at high temperatures, we have investigated thermoelectric properties of molten Bi2Te3, CuI, and AgI up to 1173 K. Molten Bi2Te3 was found to have large electrical conductivity between 1800 and 2000 (Ω ṡ cm)-1. Molten CuI and AgI, however, exhibited small electrical conductivity less than 1 (Ω ṡ cm)-1, nevertheless they show very large Seebeck coefficients over 800 μV/K. We estimated thermal conductivity using Wiedemann Franz law and the model established by Regel et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 5, 13 (1971)]. The evaluated ZT for CuI is over 0.1.

  7. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  8. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of AgI/AgBr/BiOBr(0.75)I(0.25) under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialiang; Deng, Jun; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2016-02-01

    The AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 nanocomposites were synthesized by a solvothermal process, followed by an in-situ ion exchange reaction. The disinfection activities of the as-synthesized photocatalyst to model cell type, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), were investigated under visible light irradiation condition (λ≥400 nm). Results showed that 80 mg/L AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 could completely inactivate 3×10(7) CFU mL(-1)E. coli cells within 30 min under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the bactericidal mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic disinfection process were systematically investigated. Ag(+) ions released from the nanocomposites negligibly contributed to the bactericidal activity, while active species including h(+), e(-) and ·O2(-) played important roles in the disinfection system. Direct contact of bacterial cells and nanoparticles was found to be the prerequisite for both the generation of ·O2(-) and the disinfection processes. The disruption of cell membrane and emission of cytoplasm directly inactivated E. coli cells. In addition, AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward E. coli even in four consecutive reused cycles. PMID:26674838

  9. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of AgI/AgBr/BiOBr(0.75)I(0.25) under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialiang; Deng, Jun; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2016-02-01

    The AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 nanocomposites were synthesized by a solvothermal process, followed by an in-situ ion exchange reaction. The disinfection activities of the as-synthesized photocatalyst to model cell type, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), were investigated under visible light irradiation condition (λ≥400 nm). Results showed that 80 mg/L AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 could completely inactivate 3×10(7) CFU mL(-1)E. coli cells within 30 min under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the bactericidal mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic disinfection process were systematically investigated. Ag(+) ions released from the nanocomposites negligibly contributed to the bactericidal activity, while active species including h(+), e(-) and ·O2(-) played important roles in the disinfection system. Direct contact of bacterial cells and nanoparticles was found to be the prerequisite for both the generation of ·O2(-) and the disinfection processes. The disruption of cell membrane and emission of cytoplasm directly inactivated E. coli cells. In addition, AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward E. coli even in four consecutive reused cycles.

  10. Dynamic fatigue behaviour of Ag-doped Bi-2212 textured thin rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madre, M. A.; Rasekh, Sh; Diez, J. C.; Sotelo, A.

    2009-03-01

    The flexural strength of 1 wt.% Ag-doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ thin rods textured by a laser heated floating zone was measured as a function of the environmental conditions (air versus water) at room temperature. Loading rates spanning three orders of magnitude (1, 10 and 100 μm/min) were used to explore their susceptibility to the environmental conditions. These mechanical tests were completed with electrical characterization (critical current at 77K and resistivity from 77 to 300 K) of samples submerged in distilled water for different time lengths (0, 12 and 120h). While Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ has been shown, in previous works, to be unstable during contact with water molecules, the Ag-doped Bi-2212 textured rods tested in this work are very inert to the water environment, with respect to their mechanical and electrical properties, due to the presence of a narrow (approx150 μm) low textured outer ring formed in the growth process.

  11. Low thermal conductive Bi-2223 tapes sheathed with Ag-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Ikebe, Manabu; Noto, Koshichi; Matsukawa, Michiaki,; Sasaoka, Takaaki; Nomura, Katsumi; Sato, Junichi; Kuma, Shoji,

    1994-07-01

    With the view of applying to power current leads for superconducting magnet systems and for other cryogenic power handling systems, low thermal conductive Bi-2223 superconducting tapes sheathed with Ag-Au alloy were measured from 12 to 260K. The critical current density (overall-J) was about 1,700A/cm{sup 2} at 77K, 0T and remained nearly constant irrespective of Au concentration up to 11 at %. The tape sheathed with Ag + 11at.% Au alloy, of which the superconductor cross-section ratio f{sub sc} was 0.65, had a thermal conductivity value about 0.2W/cmK at 77K. This value is as low as that of Cu-Zu. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the tape was close to the calculated one based on f{sub sc} and the independently measured thermal conductivities of the Ag-Au alloy and the Bi-2223 superconductor. The superconducting tapes sheathed with the alloy were confirmed to be suitable for the application as power current leads.

  12. Loading Ag nanoparticles on Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, De-Xiang; Chen, Shumei; Wen, Tian

    2016-05-01

    An amine-functionalized Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework (BIF-77) with three-dimensional open structure has been successfully synthesized, which can load Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB).

  13. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  14. Correlation between microstructure and hardness of a Bi-1.5wt%Ag lead-free solder alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, J. E.; Macedo, R. A.; Silva, B. L.; Garcia, A.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a hypoeutectic Bi-1.5wt%Ag alloy was directionally solidified under transient heat flow conditions and the microstructure was analysed. Bi-Ag alloys are considered as potential alternatives to replace Pb-based alloys as solder materials for metallic connections under high temperatures. However, a lack of understanding regarding the effects of solidification thermal parameters (growth rate - VL, the cooling rate - Ṫ) on microstructural aspects is reported in literature. Another challenge is to improve properties and reliability. The results of the present study include the determination of the tip growth rate and the cooling rate by cooling curves recorded by thermocouples positioned along the casting length, metallography, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Vickers hardness. The entire directionally solidified Bi-1.5Ag microstructure was arranged by faceted Bi-rich dendrites surrounded by a eutectic mixture (Bi+Ag). The primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing (λ1 and λ2), the interphase spacing (λ) and the diameter of Ag-rich particles were also measured along the casting length; and experimental growth laws. Relating these microstructural features to the experimental thermal parameters are proposed.

  15. Ag/BiOBr Film in a Rotating-Disk Reactor Containing Long-Afterglow Phosphor for Round-the-Clock Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haibo; Chen, Xiaofang; Hou, Rujing; Zhu, Huijuan; Li, Shiqing; Huo, Yuning; Li, Hexing

    2015-09-16

    Ag/BiOBr film coated on the glass substrate was synthesized by a solvothermal method and a subsequent photoreduction process. Such a Ag/BiOBr film was then adhered to a hollow rotating disk filled with long-afterglow phosphor inside the chamber. The Ag/BiOBr film exhibited high photocatalytic activity for organic pollutant degradation owing to the improved visible-light harvesting and the separation of photoinduced charges. The long-afterglow phosphor could absorb the excessive daylight and emit light around 488 nm, activating the Ag/BiOBr film to realize round-the-clock photocatalysis. Because the Ag nanoparticles could extend the light absorbance of the Ag/BiOBr film to wavelengths of around 500 nm via a surface plasma resonance effect, they played a key role in realizing photocatalysis induced by long-afterglow phosphor.

  16. Ag/BiOBr Film in a Rotating-Disk Reactor Containing Long-Afterglow Phosphor for Round-the-Clock Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haibo; Chen, Xiaofang; Hou, Rujing; Zhu, Huijuan; Li, Shiqing; Huo, Yuning; Li, Hexing

    2015-09-16

    Ag/BiOBr film coated on the glass substrate was synthesized by a solvothermal method and a subsequent photoreduction process. Such a Ag/BiOBr film was then adhered to a hollow rotating disk filled with long-afterglow phosphor inside the chamber. The Ag/BiOBr film exhibited high photocatalytic activity for organic pollutant degradation owing to the improved visible-light harvesting and the separation of photoinduced charges. The long-afterglow phosphor could absorb the excessive daylight and emit light around 488 nm, activating the Ag/BiOBr film to realize round-the-clock photocatalysis. Because the Ag nanoparticles could extend the light absorbance of the Ag/BiOBr film to wavelengths of around 500 nm via a surface plasma resonance effect, they played a key role in realizing photocatalysis induced by long-afterglow phosphor. PMID:26317239

  17. The anionic superconductor Bi[sub 3]BaO[sub 5. 5]: A bcc structure closely related to the perovskite. Relationships with anti [alpha]-AgI

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, C.; Pelloquin, D.; Hervieu, M.; Raveau, B. ); Abbattista, F.; Vallino, M. )

    1994-03-01

    The average bcc structure of Bi[sub 3]BaO[sub 5.5] (a = 4.3822(2) [angstrom]) has been determined by powder neutron diffraction. The calculations performed in the space group Im3m have shown that the Bi and Ba atoms are statistically distributed over the 2(a) sites (0,0,0), whereas oxygen and anionic vacancies are statistically distributed over the 6(b) sites (1/2,0,0). The cationic positions and the large anisotropic thermal factors of the oxygen atoms resemble the anti [alpha]-AgI structure. However, the anionic positions correspond to those observed in the perovskite. Thus, contrary to Cd[sub 0.79]Cd[sub 0.21]O[sub 1.39], this phase cannot be considered as an anti [alpha]-AgI structure. It can better be described as the coexistence of the two configurations of the perovskite inside the crystals. Ionic conductivity measurements show that this phase is an anionic conductor with an activation energy of 0.90 eV and T[sub 673 K] [approximately] 10[sup [minus]3] [Omega][sup [minus]1] cm[sup [minus]1].

  18. Investigation of the origin of deep levels in CdTe doped with Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Saucedo, E.; Franc, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Horodysky, P.; Ruiz, C. M.; Bermudez, V.; Sochinskii, N. V.

    2008-05-01

    Combining optical (low temperature photoluminescence), electrical (thermoelectric effect spectroscopy), and structural (synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction) methods, the defect structure of CdTe doped with Bi was studied in crystals with dopant concentration in the range of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 19} at./cm{sup 3}. The semi-insulating state observed in crystals with low Bi concentration is assigned to the formation of a shallow donor level and a deep donor recombination center. Studying the evolution of lattice parameter with temperature, we postulate that the deep center is formed by a Te-Te dimer and their formation is explained by a tetrahedral to octahedral distortion, due to the introduction of Bi in the CdTe lattice. We also shows that this model agrees with the electrical, optical, and transport charge properties of the samples.

  19. LED Die-Bonded on the Ag/Cu Substrate by a Sn-BiZn-Sn Bonding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Hsu, Y. C.; Lin, E. J.; Hu, Y. J.; Liu, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, light emitting diode (LED) chips were die-bonded on a Ag/Cu substrate by a Sn-BixZn-Sn bonding system. A high die-bonding strength is successfully achieved by using a Sn-BixZn-Sn ternary system. At the bonding interface, there is observed a Bi-segregation phenomenon. This Bi-segregation phenomenon solves the problems of the brittle layer-type Bi at the joint interface. Our shear test results show that the bonding interface with Bi-segregation enhances the shear strength of the LED die-bonding joints. The Bi-0.3Zn and Bi-0.5Zn die-bonding cases have the best shear strength among all die-bonding systems. In addition, we investigate the atomic depth profile of the deposited Bi-xZn layer by evaporating Bi-xZn E-gun alloy sources. The initial Zn content of the deposited Bi-Zn alloy layers are much higher than the average Zn content in the deposited Bi-Zn layers.

  20. Benefits of Carrier-Pocket Anisotropy to Thermoelectric Performance: The Case of p -Type AgBiSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Parker, David S.; May, Andrew F.; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-05

    Here we study theoretically the effects of anisotropy on the thermoelectric performance of p-type AgBiSe2. We present an apparent realization of the thermoelectric benefits of one-dimensional plate-like carrier pocket anisotropy in the valence band of this material. Based on first principles calculations we find a substantial anisotropy in the electronic structure, likely favorable for thermoelectric performance, in the valence bands of the hexagonal phase of the silver chalcogenide thermoelectric AgBiSe2, while the conduction bands are more isotropic, and in our experiments do not attain high performance. AgBiSe2 has already exhibited a ZT value of 1.5 in a high-temperature disordered fccmore » phase, but room-temperature performance has not been demonstrated. We develop a theory for the ability of anisotropy to decouple the density-of-states and conductivity effective masses, pointing out the influence of this effect in the high performance thermoelectrics Bi2Te3 and PbTe. From our first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations we find that p-type AgBiSe2 has substantial promise as a room temperature thermoelectric, and estimate its performance.« less

  1. Interfacial properties of the enhanced visible-light plasmonic Ag/Bi2WO6 (0 0 1) nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Cao, Kun; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Kun-Hao; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    First principle calculations are performed to study the interfacial photoelectric properties of Agn/Bi2WO6 (0 0 1) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) hybrid photocatalyst. The parallel adsorption of Ag cluster leads to more energetic favorable structures due to stronger interfacial interactions. The positive charged Ag cluster may act as excited electron traps and facilitate the electron-hole separation. In particular, hybridization between Ag 5s and O 2p leads to the formation of isolated energy levels above the valence bands, and they become more dispersed with broader bandwidth with the increment of silver cluster size, which is responsible for the enhanced absorption in visible-light region. In the deep valence region, Ag 4d orbital turns more delocalized and hybrid with O 2p states as the cluster size increases, which contributes to more covalent bond feature of Ag-O. Moreover, optical spectra demonstrate obvious red-shifts of the absorption edge with the increment of silver content, which enhances efficiently the visible-light photocatalytic activities of Bi2WO6 (0 0 1). The study provides insights into the enhanced photocatalyic mechanism of Ag/Bi2WO6 (0 0 1) and aids in the design of noble metal loaded visible-light plasmonic photocatalyst.

  2. Effects of Silver and Antimony Content in Lead-Free High-Temperature Solders of Bi-Ag and Bi-Sb on Copper Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahavandi, M.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah; Ismarrubie, Z. N.; Hajalilou, A.; Rohaizuan, R.; Fadzli, M. Z. Shahrul

    2014-02-01

    Replacing high-temperature leaded solders with lead-free alternatives is an important issue in the electronics industry. This study investigates the viability of lead-free Bi-Ag and Bi-Sb solder alloys, ranging in composition from 1.5 to 5 wt.% Ag and Sb. The effects of melting point, wetting angle, microstructure, and morphology were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The results showed that all tested alloys had suitable melting temperatures, ranging from 271 to 276°C. The wetting angle increased by raising the Sb content, but, in contrast, by increasing the wt.% of Ag, the wetting angle decreased. A Cu-rich phase was present in all Bi-Ag alloys, The Cu-rich phase was also present in decreasing amounts with increasing Sb, but, with 5Sb, there was no Cu-rich phase, and a Cu3Sb intermetallic compound was present in the interface and as precipitates in the solder. Grooving along Cu grain boundaries was observed at the interface for the rest of the alloys.

  3. Formation processes of Bi-2212 films prepared on Ag( 0 0 1 ) substrate by an atomization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanjing; Satoh, Yoshimasa; Arisawa, Shunichi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Akira; Hatano, Takeshi; Togano, Kazumasa

    2002-08-01

    We have studied in detail the growth of Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin film by melting Bi-2212 powders dispersed on flat, sputter-deposited Ag(0 0 1) films with order of tens of nm root-mean-square surface roughness. The formation processes of Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin films were studied by in situ high-temperature microscope observations. Because the powders melt incongruently, the liquid phase disperses with residual solid phases on the substrate. The residual solid phases act as the barrier for the melting phase to diffuse. Nearly monophasic Bi-2212 with excellent c-axis orientation in these thin films, proved by X-ray diffraction results, is the result of shortened diffusion length of the liquid phase. These techniques can be used especially to synthesize high quality Bi-based superconducting thin films for intrinsic Josephson junction devices.

  4. Pb-Bi-Ag-Cu-(Hg) chemistry of galena and some associated sulfosalts. A review and some new data from Colorado California and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, Eugene E.; Shawe, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Galena, associated with Pb-Bi-Ag sulfosalts and simple sulfides, contains varied amounts of Ag and Bi in the Dandy vein system, Idarado mine, Ouray, Colorado; the Jackass mine, Darwin District, California; and the Leadville district, Colorado. Silver- and bismuth-bearing galena associated with minor amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite occur at the Pequea mine, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Ag and Bi contents in the Dandy suite of galena range from about 1.4 to 3.4 and 2.5 to 6.5 wt.% respectively, and are comparable or lower in galena from the other localities. Exsolved matildite is present in galena from the Dandy, Jackass and Leadville localities. The presence in significant amounts of both Ag and Bi in a Pb-rich sulfide system is necessary for formation of PbSss (galena solid-solution). If Ag (especially) and Bi (to a lesser extent) are absent, the galena formed will be essentially pure PbS. Some minor Sb may substitute for Bi. Compositional data for all of the galena samples are in agreement with a previously proposed linear relationship between a and Ag-Bi(Sb) content. Matildite and seven additional Pb-Bi-Ag-Cu sulfosalts have been identified from the Dandy vein system, based on electron-microprobe analyses and some X-ray powder-diffraction data.

  5. Self-regulated route to ternary hybrid nanocrystals of Ag-Ag2S-CdS with near-infrared photoluminescence and enhanced photothermal conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoxing; Bao, Chunlin; Liu, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaoping; Xi, Chunyan; Xu, Zheng; Ji, Zhenyuan

    2014-09-01

    Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of heterointerfaces among the crystals. This work will not only advance the synthesis chemistry of multi-component hybrid nanocrystals but also provide a possible route for the design of advanced multi-model materials used in bio-related fields.Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of

  6. Performance of titanium oxide-polymer insulation in superconducting coils made of Bi-2212/Ag-alloy round wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Dalban-Canassy, Matthieu; Jiang, Jianyi; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Conductor insulation is one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212/Ag) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high field magnet applications, as dielectric standoff and high winding current densities (Jw) directly depend on it. In this study, a TiO2-polymer insulation coating developed by nGimat LLC was applied to test samples and a high field test coil. The insulation was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dielectric property measurement, and transport critical current (Ic) property measurement. About 29% of the insulation by weight is polymer. When the Bi-2212/Ag wire is fully heat treated, this decomposes with slow heating to 400 ° C in pure O2. After the full reaction, we found that the TiO2 did not degrade the critical current properties, adhered well to the conductor, and provided a breakdown voltage of more than 100 V, which allowed the test coil to survive quenching in 31.2 T background field, while providing a 2.6 T field increment. For Bi-2212/Ag RW with a typical diameter of 1.0-1.5 mm, this ˜15 μm thick insulation allows a very high coil packing factor of ˜0.74, whereas earlier alumino-silicate braid insulation only allows packing factors of 0.38-0.48.

  7. Facile Fabrication of Bi2WO6/Ag2S Heterostructure with Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rongfeng; Su, Huaifen; Sun, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xianxi; Li, Lei; Liu, Caihua; Wang, Bingquan; Zeng, Suyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2016-12-01

    In this report, a novel photocatalyst based on Bi2WO6/Ag2S heterostructures was prepared by a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-assisted route at room temperature. Compared to bare Bi2WO6 and Ag2S nanoparticles, the as-formed Bi2WO6/Ag2S heterostructures exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible-light irradiation. This kind of enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is considered to be the synergistic effects of both the effective electron-hole separation and expansion of the light-absorption range. The pH of the solution is of vital importance to the photocatalytic activity of the as-formed Bi2WO6/Ag2S heterostructures. Under low pH value, the photosensitization process is suppressed, while under higher pH value, the photosensitization process is favored. The mechanism of the photocatalytic process was proposed by the active-species-trapping experiments, indicating that the photogenerated holes (h(+)) play a crucial role in the degradation of Rh B under visible light. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of this heterostructure makes it a promising material for the treatment of dye-containing wastewater.

  8. The preparation of Ag-BiVO4 metal composite oxides and its application in efficient photocatalytic oxidative thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Hong

    2013-06-01

    A series of Ag-BiVO4 photocatalysts was synthesized by the hydrothemal synthesis method for different pH values. A strong correlation was found among the prepared processing, structure and property of the samples. With increasing pH value from 5 to 9, the crystallinity increases and the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample gradually disappeared from the nanostructures. The light absorption became higher in the UV and visible range, accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge. The competitive relations between crystallinity and surface area affecting photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 samples using thiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound was performed. It showed that the photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample at pH=7 can be up to 95%, which existed as various size particles and had significant high surface area of 13.768 m2 g-1.

  9. Conduction and magnetization improvement of BiFeO{sub 3} multiferroic nanoparticles by Ag{sup +} doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.A.; Mansour, S.F.; El-Dek, S.I.; Abu-Abdeen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM micrographs of the samples BiFeO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Flash auto combustion method was successful in the preparation of Ag doped BiFeO{sub 3} in nanosize. • Ag doping results in hexagonal platelet shapes up to x = 0.10, at x ≥ 0.15 needle shape predominates. • Mixed conduction is obtained in Ag doped samples. • This nanometric multiferroic could be recommended as attractive cathode for solid oxide fuel cell. - Abstract: Nanometric multiferroic namely Ag doped (BiFeO{sub 3}) was synthesized using flash auto combustion technique and glycine as a fuel. Single phase rhombohedral–hexagonal perovskite structure was obtained by annealing at 550 °C, as determined from XRD. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) clarifies the hexagonal platelet shape with size 17.9 nm. Maximum room temperature AC conductivity was obtained at Ag content of x = 0.10. The results of this study promote the use of such multiferroic in solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  10. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ~10-5 cm2/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications.

  11. Thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy-impregnated Bi-2212/Ag composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pei; Wang, Yang; Godeke, Arno; Ye, Liyang; Flanagan, Gene; Shen, Tengming

    2014-11-26

    In this study, knowledge of the thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy/superconductor/insulation composite is important for designing, fabricating, and operating epoxy impregnated high field superconducting magnets near their ultimate potentials. We report measurements of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, and the coefficient of thermal contraction of epoxy-impregnated composite made from the state-of-the-art powder-in-tube multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Stress-strain curves of samples made from single-strand and Rutherford cables were tested under both monotonic and cyclic compressive loads, with single strands insulated using a thin TiO2 insulation coating and the Rutherford cable insulated with a braided ceramic sleeve.

  12. Flux pinning in Bi-2212/Ag-based wires and coils

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbricatore, P.; Priano, C.; Sciutti, A.; Gemme, G.; Musenich, R.; Parodi, R.; Goemoery, F.; Thompson, J.R. |

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a study of pinning forces in Ag/Bi-based wires and small coils. The goal of this analysis is to characterize and to compare the main pinning mechanisms in wires (short samples) and prototype practical devices, e.g., coils (long samples). The effects of thermal activation were found to hinder the straightforward determination of the pinning parameters from the critical current data. However, we succeeded in extracting these parameters from the irreversibility line. The scaling law for the pinning force employing the irreversibility field in virtue of the scale for magnetic fields was derived theoretically. The best fit to the experimentally determined pinning forces gave the flux-creep model corresponding to the power-law current{emdash}voltage dependence {ital J}{proportional_to}{ital E}{sup {ital n}}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Thermal-mechanical Properties of Epoxy-impregnated Bi-2212/Ag Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pei; Wang, Yang; Godeke, Arno; Ye, Liyang; Flanagan, Gene; Shen, Tengming

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy/superconductor/insulation composite is important for designing, fabricating, and operating epoxy impregnated high field superconducting magnets near their ultimate potentials. We report measurements of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, and the coefficient of thermal contraction of epoxy-impregnated composite made from the state-of-the-art powder-in-tube multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Stress-strain curves of samples made from single-strand and Rutherford cables were tested under both monotonic and cyclic compressive loads, with single strands insulated using a thin TiO2 insulation coating and the Rutherford cable insulated with a braided ceramic sleeve.

  14. AC loss in stacks of Bi-2223/Ag tapes modified with ferromagnetic covers at the edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S.; Gömöry, F.; Gencer, Ali

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the magnetization loss of stacked Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a ferromagnetic cover on the edges. Such modification has been found recently to reduce the AC loss of a single tape; however, the behavior in a coil winding could be different. With experiments and numerical calculations we show that a ferromagnetic cover on the edges of a superconducting tape could reduce its magnetization loss also when the tapes are arranged in a stack. The effect is weaker for larger numbers of tapes but nevertheless remained significant in a stack of four tapes, which was the maximum number studied here. The effects observed experimentally are nicely explained by the results of numerical calculations.

  15. Thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy-impregnated Bi-2212/Ag composite

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Pei; Wang, Yang; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Godeke, Arno; National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL; Ye, Liyang; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Flanagan, Gene; Shen, Tengming

    2014-11-26

    In this study, knowledge of the thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy/superconductor/insulation composite is important for designing, fabricating, and operating epoxy impregnated high field superconducting magnets near their ultimate potentials. We report measurements of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, and the coefficient of thermal contraction of epoxy-impregnated composite made from the state-of-the-art powder-in-tube multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Stress-strain curves of samples made from single-strand and Rutherford cables were tested under both monotonic and cyclic compressive loads, with single strands insulated using a thin TiO2 insulation coating and the Rutherford cable insulated with a braided ceramicmore » sleeve.« less

  16. Understanding Processing, Microstructure and Transport Relationships of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/Ag Round Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Golsa

    Superconducting magnets generating magnetic fields above 25 T are needed for many scientific applications. Due to fundamental limitations to NbTi and Nb3Sn, such high-field superconducting magnets require alternative high-field conductors. One candidate conductor is round wire composites of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox sheathed in an Ag-alloy matrix (Bi2212/Ag). The performance of such wires is sensitive to the heat treatment, so improvements in the critical current density (Jc) require a thorough understanding of the processing-structureproperties relationships. Due to the complex microstructure-transport relationships, their performance is far from optimized, and the potential for further increase in Jc remains. In this research a new heat treatment approach, saw-tooth processing (STP) is introduced based upon previous results showing that Bi2212 nucleation is site-saturation limited. STP increases Jc by 120% and 70% relative to partial-melt processing at 5 T and self-field respectively. The effects of STP heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and transport properties are discussed. It is shown that wires with the highest transport critical current densities primarily have filaments with two types of microstructures, one comprised primarily highly textured Bi2212 grains, and another with a noticeable amount of Bi2Sr2CuOX with the Bi2212. After processing, multifilamentary Bi2212 round wires have complex microstructures. In melt processed Bi2212/Ag wires the primary impurity is Bi2Sr 2CuOx (Bi2201), which forms as mesoscopic grains and nanoscopic intergrowths. Microstructureproperties relationship studies are performed based on the hypothesis that Bi2201 plays critical roles in transport depending on the micron-size length scale. Mesoscopic microstructures are analyzed quantitatively using a statistical approach in which filaments are categorized based on the predominant phases observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). A Matlab program is created to analyze the

  17. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun; Yeom, Jong-taek; Kim, Jae-il; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (

  18. One-pot synthesis of Ag+ doped BiVO4 microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity via a facile hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shiwen; Li, Quanguo; Li, Feng; Cao, Wei; Li, Taohai

    2016-05-01

    The Ag+/BiVO4 photocatalyst was fabricated through a facile hydrothermal method by using K6V10O28·9H2O as the vanadium source. The impact of Ag+ on the product's structure and morphology was studied. It was shown that the amount of Ag+ has no effect on the product's crystal phases but plays an important role on the morphology of the nanoparticles that construct the shell of BiVO4 microspheres. In addition, the Ag+-doped photocatalysts have much higher photocatalytic activities in removing RhB and MB under the UV light illumination than the pure BiVO4. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed in photoexcitation of the BiVO4 electrons which subsequently captured by the dopant. The present work may offer a novel route to reach higher photocatalytic activity by doping the Ag+ in the semiconductor catalysts.

  19. Irreversibility behavior in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconducting wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C.; Wang, J.; Jin, X.J.; Hu, Q.Y.; Shi, D.L.; Salem-Sugui, S.; Wang, Z.

    1992-04-01

    Irreversibility lines for Ag/(Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}(2223) wires prepared through a phase formation- decomposition-recovery (PFDR) process and normal annealing process were determined using both AC susceptibility measurements under DC fields and magnetisation measurements. It was found that flux pinning was enhanced in the PFDR processed samples over the normal processed samples, in particular at temperature above 77 K. The PFDR process results in high mass density, grain alignment, uniform distribution of impurity precipitates and high density of defects. The irreversibility temperatures scaled with the applied field according to H{sup 1/3}, which is in contrast to H{sup 2/3} law for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and conventional superconductors. The irreversibility lines for PFDR processed tapes showed a crossover with those for normal processed tapes at temperature below {Tc} of the (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} (2212), suggesting that at temperature above {Tc} of the 2212 phase, the 2212 as nonsuperconducting region, may serve as effective pinning sites for fluxoids.

  20. Texture analysis of monofilamentary, Ag-sheathed (Pb,Bi) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tapes by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Qu, T.; Han, Z.; Mücklich, F.

    2008-02-01

    Using automated orientation imaging, the grain orientations and texture of monofilamentary, Ag-sheathed (Pb,Bi) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (Bi-2223) tape is analysed in detail by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The achieved high image quality of the Kikuchi patterns enables multi-phase scans including Bi-2223, Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x, Bi 2Sr 2CuO x, (Sr,Ca) 14Cu 24O 41 and Ag to be performed. Two areas are selected for the EBSD analysis, one close to the silver sheath, the other located in the center of the sample. The grain orientation maps are presented for each phase separately allowing a new insight into the microtexture of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes. Furthermore, the EBSD analysis provides the possibility for a misorientation angle analysis within each individual phase.

  1. Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x round wires with Ag/Al oxide dispersion strengthened sheaths: microstructure-properties relationships, enhanced mechanical behavior and reduced Cu depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajbafvala, Amir; Nachtrab, William; Wong, Terence; Schwartz, Justin

    2014-09-01

    Ag/Al alloys with various Al content (0.50 wt%, 0.75 wt%, 1.00 wt%, and 1.25 wt%) are made by powder metallurgy and used as the outer sheath material for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x (Bi2212)/Ag/AgAl multifilamentary round wires (RW). Bi2212/Ag/AgAl RW microstructural, mechanical and electrical properties are studied in various conditions, including as-drawn, after internal oxidation, and after partial melt processing (PMP). The results are compared with the behavior of a Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg wire of the same geometry. The grains in as-drawn Ag/Al alloys are found to be ˜25% smaller than those in the corresponding Ag/0.20 wt%Mg, but after PMP, the Ag/Al and Ag/0.20 wt%Mg grain sizes are comparable. Tensile tests show that Bi2212/Ag/AgAl green wires have yield strength (YS) of ˜115 MPa, nearly 65% higher than that of Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg. After PMP, the Bi2212/Ag/AgAl YS is about 35% greater than that of Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg. Furthermore, Bi2212/Ag/AgAl wires exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength and modulus and twice the elongation-to-failure. Atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrate the formation of nanosize MgO and Al2O3 precipitates via internal oxidation. Large spherical MgO precipitates are observed on the Ag grain boundaries of Ag/0.20 wt%Mg alloy, whereas the Al2O3 precipitates are distributed homogenously in the dispersion-strengthened (DS) Ag/Al alloy. Furthermore, it is found that less Cu diffused from the Bi2212 filaments in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.75Al wire during PMP than from the filaments in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg wire. These results show that DS Ag/Al alloy is a strong candidate for improved Bi2212 wire.

  2. In-situ preparation of Z-scheme AgI/Bi5O7I hybrid and its excellent photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Min; Yu, Jingxiong; Lin, Hongjun; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Leihong; He, Yiming

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Bi5O7I composite photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a simple one-step ionic reaction between Bi5O7I microrods and AgNO3 solutions, and was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The characterizations indicate that AgI particles were closely anchored on Bi5O7I micronods. During the photocataytic reaction, the composite was actually an Ag-AgI-Bi5O7I ternary system. The plasmonic effect of the formed Ag nanoparticles improved the visible light absorption performance, which benefits the photocatalytic reaction. However, more important was the formed heterojunction structure in the composite, which efficiently promoted the separation of electron-hole pairs by a plasmonic Z-scheme mechanism, and ultimately enhanced the photocatalytic activity. The optimal AgI/Bi5O7I composite showed a RhB degradation rate of 0.046 min-1, which was 3.83 and 6.57 times higher than those of Bi5O7I and AgI, respectively. This work may provide some insight into the design of novel and highly efficient Z-scheme visible-light photocatalysts.

  3. Tracer diffusion of Ag in Bi2Sr2Can - 1CunO2n + 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Routbort, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of Ag in the c direction of single crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (2212), and in dense polycrystalline Bi2Sr2CuOx (2201) and (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (2223) has been investigated. Concentration profiles were measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry and by a radiotracer serial-sectioning technique for the single and polycrystals, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of Ag in the c direction of 2212 at 500 and 600 °C at one atmosphere of oxygen are approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than those previously measured in 2212 polycrystals by [Y. Fang, S. Danyluk, K. C. Goretta, N. Chen, M. Runde, S. J. Rothman, and J. L. Routbort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2291 (1992)]. The volume diffusivity of 110Ag in 2223 is given by D=6.7×107 exp[(-334±12 kJ/mol/RT] cm2/s at temperatures from 600 to 817 °C, and is not very sensitive to oxygen partial pressure between 103 and 105 Pa at 760 °C. The diffusion coefficient of 110Ag in 2201 is described by D=155 exp[(-196±6 kJ/mol)/RT].

  4. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-10-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor—Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)—in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs fabricated by uniformly depositing the QDs into the TNTs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were synthesized, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results demonstrated that the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM and other films were successfully prepared. In comparison with the four films of TNTs, CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SILAR, the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM showed much better absorption capability and the highest photocurrent density in UV-vis range (320~800 nm). The cycles of local deposition have great influence on their photoelectric properties. The photocurrent density of Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SSM with optimum deposition cycles of 6 was about 37 times that of TNTs without modification, demonstrating their great prospective applications in solar energy utilization fields.

  5. Quench Behavior and Degradation Limit of Ag-sheathed Bi 2Sr2CaCu2Ox Round Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liyang

    High field superconducting magnets are important for scientific research in a variety of disciplines. With nearly field-independent critical current density over a wide range of magnetic field at 4.2 K up to 50 T, Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) round wires offer the possibility to generate magnetic fields of 30 T and above. One of the key issues in high field Bi-2212 magnet development is the quench detection and protection. A quench occurs when a part of a superconducting winding, after receiving a small disturbance, enters into the normal (resistive) state, and the event follows with significant temperature rise due to joule heating. An unprotected quench may degrade or even destruct an entire superconducting magnet system. This thesis focuses on experimentally investigating the quench behavior and degradation limit of the state-of-the-art multifilamentary Ag/Bi-2212 round wires to guide the development of Bi-2212 high field magnet, especially the quench detection and protection system. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag In Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Oikawa, K.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Naoe, T.; Koyama, T.; Ooi, T.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2006-09-01

    To develop Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between Al alloy (Al5083) and the ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy. We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 10 min. for small test pieces ( ϕ22 mm in dia. × 6 mm in height). Hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg 2 was found in the bonding layer, however, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200 × 200 × 30 mm 3), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength.

  7. High frequency of circulating HBcAg-specific CD8 T cells in hepatitis B infection: a flow cytometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, S; Yamamoto, K; Shimada, N; Okano, N; Okamoto, R; Suzuki, T; Hakoda, T; Mizuno, M; Higashi, T; Tsuji, T

    2001-01-01

    Viral antigen-specific T cells are important for virus elimination. We studied the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell response using flow cytometry. Three phases of HBV infection were studied: Group A, HBeAg (+) chronic hepatitis; Group B, HBeAb (+) HBV carrier after seroconversion; and Group C, HBsAb (+) phase. Peripheral T cells were incubated with recombinant HB core antigen (HBcAg), and intracytoplasmic cytokines were analysed by flow cytometry. HBcAg-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were identified in all three groups and the number of IFN-γpositive T cells was greater than TNF-α-positive T cells. The frequency of IFN-γ-positive CD4 and CD8 T cells was highest in Group C, compared with Groups A and B. No significant difference in the HBcAg-specific T cell response was observed between Group A and Group B. The HBcAg-specific CD8 T cell response was diminished by CD4 depletion, addition of antibody against human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I, class II or CD40L. Cytokine-positive CD8 T cells without HBcAg stimulation were present at a high frequency (7 of 13 cases) in Group B, but were rare in other groups. HBcAg-specific T cells can be detected at high frequency by a sensitive flow cytometric analysis, and these cells are important for controlling HBV replication. PMID:11472405

  8. Effective photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12 using AgBr-Ag-Bi2WO6 nanojunction system irradiated by visible light: the role of diffusing hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Wong, Kin-Hang; Yip, Ho-Yin; Hu, Chun; Yu, Jimmy C; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Wong, Po-Keung

    2010-02-15

    Urgent development of effective and low-cost disinfecting technologies is needed to address the problems caused by an outbreak of harmful microorganisms. In this work, we report an effective photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12 by using a AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction system as a catalyst under visible light (lambda >or= 400 nm) irradiation. The visible-light-driven (VLD) AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction could completely inactivate 5 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1) E. coli K-12 within 15 min, which was superior to other VLD photocatalysts such as Bi(2)WO(6) superstructure, Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) and AgBr-Ag-TiO(2) composite. Moreover, the photochemical mechanism of bactericidal action for the AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction was investigated by using different scavengers. It was found that the diffusing hydroxyl radicals generated both by the oxidative pathway and the reductive pathway play an important role in the photocatalytic disinfection. Moreover, direct contact between the AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction and bacterial cells was not necessary for the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12. Finally, the photocatalytic destruction of the bacterial cells was directly observed by TEM images and further confirmed by the determination of potassium ion (K(+)) leakage from the killed bacteria. This work provides a potential effective VLD photocatalyst to disinfect the bacterial cells, even to destruct the biofilm that can provide shelter and substratum for microorganisms and resist to disinfection.

  9. Effective photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12 using AgBr-Ag-Bi2WO6 nanojunction system irradiated by visible light: the role of diffusing hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Wong, Kin-Hang; Yip, Ho-Yin; Hu, Chun; Yu, Jimmy C; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Wong, Po-Keung

    2010-02-15

    Urgent development of effective and low-cost disinfecting technologies is needed to address the problems caused by an outbreak of harmful microorganisms. In this work, we report an effective photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12 by using a AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction system as a catalyst under visible light (lambda >or= 400 nm) irradiation. The visible-light-driven (VLD) AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction could completely inactivate 5 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1) E. coli K-12 within 15 min, which was superior to other VLD photocatalysts such as Bi(2)WO(6) superstructure, Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) and AgBr-Ag-TiO(2) composite. Moreover, the photochemical mechanism of bactericidal action for the AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction was investigated by using different scavengers. It was found that the diffusing hydroxyl radicals generated both by the oxidative pathway and the reductive pathway play an important role in the photocatalytic disinfection. Moreover, direct contact between the AgBr-Ag-Bi(2)WO(6) nanojunction and bacterial cells was not necessary for the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli K-12. Finally, the photocatalytic destruction of the bacterial cells was directly observed by TEM images and further confirmed by the determination of potassium ion (K(+)) leakage from the killed bacteria. This work provides a potential effective VLD photocatalyst to disinfect the bacterial cells, even to destruct the biofilm that can provide shelter and substratum for microorganisms and resist to disinfection. PMID:20085257

  10. Quench degradation limit of multifilamentary AgBi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wires

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Shen, Tengming; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-02-02

    Understanding safe operating limits of composite superconducting wires is important for the design of superconducting magnets. Here we report measurements of quench-induced critical current density Jc degradation in commercial Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) round wires using heater-induced quenches at 4.2 K in self magnetic field that reveal a general degradation behavior. Jc degradation strongly depends on the local hot spot temperature Tmax, and is nearly independent of operating current, the temperature gradient along the conductor dTmax/dx, and the temperature rising rate dTmax/dt. Both Jc and n value (where n is an index of the sharpness of the superconductor-to-normal transition) exhibit small butmore » irreversible degradation when Tmax exceeds 400-450 K, and large degradation occurs when Tmax exceeds 550 K. This behavior was consistently found for a series of Bi-2212 wires with widely variable wire architectures and porosity levels in the Bi-2212 filaments, including a wire processed using a standard partial melt processing and in which Bi-2212 filaments are porous, an overpressure processed wire in which Bi-2212 filaments are nearly porosity-free and that has a Jc(4.2 K, self field) exceeding 8000 A/mm2, and a wire that has nearly no filament to filament bridges after reaction. Microstructural observations of degraded wires reveal cracks in the Bi-2212 filaments perpendicular to the wire axis, indicating that the quench-induced Ic degradation is primarily driven by strain. These results further suggest that the quench degradation temperature limit depends on the strain state of Bi-2212 filaments and this dependence shall be carefully considered when engineering a high-field Bi-2212 magnet.« less

  11. Quench degradation limit of multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x round wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Shen, Tengming; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Understanding safe operating limits of composite superconducting wires is important for the design of superconducting magnets. Here we report measurements of quench-induced critical current density J c degradation in commercial Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi-2212) round wires using heater-induced quenches at 4.2 K in self magnetic field that reveal a general degradation behavior. J c degradation strongly depends on the local hot spot temperature T max, and is nearly independent of operating current, the temperature gradient along the conductor dT max/dx, and the temperature rising rate dT max/dt. Both J c and n value (where n is an index of the sharpness of the superconductor-to-normal transition) exhibit small but irreversible degradation when T max exceeds 400-450 K, and large degradation occurs when T max exceeds 550 K. This behavior was consistently found for a series of Bi-2212 wires with widely variable wire architectures and porosity levels in the Bi-2212 filaments, including a wire processed using a standard partial melt process and in which Bi-2212 filaments are porous, an overpressure processed wire in which Bi-2212 filaments are nearly porosity-free and that has a J c(4.2 K, self field) exceeding 8000 A mm-2, and a wire that has nearly no filament to filament bridges after reaction. Microstructural observations of degraded wires reveal cracks in the Bi-2212 filaments perpendicular to the wire axis, indicating that the quench-induced I c degradation is primarily driven by strain. These results further suggest that the quench degradation temperature limit depends on the strain state of Bi-2212 filaments and this dependence shall be carefully considered when engineering a high-field Bi-2212 magnet.

  12. Band Gaps of the Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskites Cs2BiAgCl6 and Cs2BiAgBr6 from Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Filip, Marina R; Hillman, Samuel; Haghighirad, Amir Abbas; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano

    2016-07-01

    The recent discovery of lead-free halide double perovskites with band gaps in the visible represents an important step forward in the design of environmentally friendly perovskite solar cells. Within this new family of semiconductors, Cs2BiAgCl6 and Cs2BiAgBr6 are stable compounds crystallizing in the elpasolite structure. Following the recent computational discovery and experimental synthesis of these compounds, a detailed investigation of their electronic properties is warranted in order to establish their potential as optoelectronic materials. In this work, we perform many-body perturbation theory calculations and obtain high accuracy band gaps for both compounds. In addition, we report on the synthesis of Cs2BiAgBr6 single crystals, which are stable in ambient conditions. From our complementary theoretical and experimental analysis, we are able to assign the indirect character of the band gaps and obtain both experimental and theoretical band gaps of these novel semiconductors that are in close agreement. PMID:27322413

  13. Preparation, characterization, and bacteriostasis of AgNP-coated β-CD grafting cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Bin; Lin, Li

    2013-03-01

    A novel functional material of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafting cellulose beads containing immobilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented in this paper. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Phenolphthalein probe molecule technique was used to detect the activity of the grafting β-CD, and the results demonstrated that the deposition of AgNPs had no influence on its encapsulation ability. Acid resistance of the AgNPs on the bead material was studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. The stability of the AgNPs was enhanced due to the grafting of β-CD. Tube dilution method was applied to study the bacteriostatic effect, and the minimal inhibitory doses of the novel material against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively. The minimal bactericidal doses for the two bacteria were 25 and 25 mg, respectively. PMID:23340866

  14. Tunable Visible Emission of Ag-Doped CdZnS Alloy Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Highly luminescent Ag-ion-doped Cd1−xZnxS (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloy nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a novel wet chemical precipitation method. Influence of dopant concentration and the Zn/Cd stoichiometric variations in doped alloy nanocrystals have been investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) to investigate the size and structure of the as prepared nanocrystals. A shift in LO phonon modes from micro-Raman investigations and the elemental analysis from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the stoichiometry of the final product. The average crystallite size was found increasing from 1.0 to 1.4 nm with gradual increase in Ag doping. It was observed that photoluminescence (PL) intensity corresponding to Ag impurity (570 nm), relative to the other two bands 480 and 520 nm that originates due to native defects, enhanced and showed slight red shift with increasing silver doping. In addition, decrease in the band gap energy of the doped nanocrystals indicates that the introduction of dopant ion in the host material influence the particle size of the nanocrystals. The composition dependent bandgap engineering in CdZnS:Ag was achieved to attain the deliberate color tunability and demonstrated successfully, which are potentially important for white light generation. PMID:20652135

  15. Effect of Indium Content on the Melting Point, Dross, and Oxidation Characteristics of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn Solders.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ae-Jeong; Kim, Seong-Jun; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of indium (In) content on the melting temperature, wettabililty, dross formation, and oxidation characteristics of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy. The melting temperature of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (2 ≤ x ≤ 6) was lower than 473 K. The melting range between the solidus and liquidus temperatures was approximately 20 K, irrespective of the indium content. As the indium content increased, the wetting time increased slightly and the maximum wetting force remained to be mostly constant. The dross formation decreased to approximately 50% when adding 1In to Sn-2Ag-3Bi, and no dross formation was observed in the case of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (x ≥ 1.5) at 523 K for 180 min. Upon approaching the inside of the oxidized solder of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In alloy from the surface, the O and In contents decreased and the Sn content increased based on depth profiling analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The mechanism for restraining dross (Sn oxidation) of Sn-2Ag-3Bi alloy with addition of indium may be due to surface segregation of indium. This is due to the lower formation energy of indium oxide than those of Sn oxidation. PMID:24891810

  16. Origin of the Order-Disorder Transition and the Associated Anomalous Change of Thermopower in AgBiS2 Nanocrystals: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Banerjee, Swastika; Sanyal, Dirtha; Pati, Swapan K; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-06-20

    Bulk AgBiS2 crystallizes in a trigonal crystal structure (space group, P3̅m1) at room temperature, which transforms to a cation disordered rock salt structure (space group, Fm3̅m) at ∼473 K. Surprisingly, at room temperature, a solution-grown nanocrystal of AgBiS2 crystallizes in a metastable Ag/Bi ordered cubic structure, which transforms to a thermodynamically stable disorded cubic structure at 610 K. Moreover, the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2 is associated with an unusual change in thermopower. Here, we shed light on the origin of a order-disorder phase transition and the associated anomalous change of thermopower in AgBiS2 nanocrystals by using a combined experimental, density functional theory based first-principles calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Positron-annilation spectroscopy indicates the presence of higher numbers of Ag vacancies in the nanocrystal compared to that of the bulk cubic counterpart at room temperature. Furthermore, temperature-dependent two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation (S parameter) indicate that the Ag vacancy concentration increases abruptly during the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2. At high temperature, a Ag atom shuttles between the vacancy and interstitial sites to form a locally disordered cation sublattice in the nanocrystal, which is facilitated by the formation of more Ag vacancies during the phase transition. This process increases the entropy of the system at higher vacancy concentration, which, in turn, results in the unusual rise in thermopower. PMID:27276279

  17. Origin of the Order-Disorder Transition and the Associated Anomalous Change of Thermopower in AgBiS2 Nanocrystals: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Banerjee, Swastika; Sanyal, Dirtha; Pati, Swapan K; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-06-20

    Bulk AgBiS2 crystallizes in a trigonal crystal structure (space group, P3̅m1) at room temperature, which transforms to a cation disordered rock salt structure (space group, Fm3̅m) at ∼473 K. Surprisingly, at room temperature, a solution-grown nanocrystal of AgBiS2 crystallizes in a metastable Ag/Bi ordered cubic structure, which transforms to a thermodynamically stable disorded cubic structure at 610 K. Moreover, the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2 is associated with an unusual change in thermopower. Here, we shed light on the origin of a order-disorder phase transition and the associated anomalous change of thermopower in AgBiS2 nanocrystals by using a combined experimental, density functional theory based first-principles calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Positron-annilation spectroscopy indicates the presence of higher numbers of Ag vacancies in the nanocrystal compared to that of the bulk cubic counterpart at room temperature. Furthermore, temperature-dependent two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation (S parameter) indicate that the Ag vacancy concentration increases abruptly during the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2. At high temperature, a Ag atom shuttles between the vacancy and interstitial sites to form a locally disordered cation sublattice in the nanocrystal, which is facilitated by the formation of more Ag vacancies during the phase transition. This process increases the entropy of the system at higher vacancy concentration, which, in turn, results in the unusual rise in thermopower.

  18. An Evaluation of Prototype Circuit Boards Assembled with a Sn-Ag Bi Solder

    SciTech Connect

    ARTAKI,I.; RAY,U.; REJENT,JEROME A.; VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-09-01

    An evaluation was performed which examined the aging of surface mount solder joints assembled with 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder. Defect analysis of the as-fabricated test vehicles revealed excellent solderability, good package alignment, and a minimum number of voids. Continuous DC electrical monitoring of the solder joints did not reveal opens during as many as 10,000 thermal cycles (0 C, 100 C). The solder joints exhibited no significant degradation through 2500 cycles, based upon an absence of microstructural damage and sustained shear and pull strengths of chip capacitors and J-leaded solder joints, respectively. Thermal cycles of 5000 and 10,000 resulted in some surface cracking of the solder fillets and coatings. In a few cases, deeper cracks were observed in the thinner reaches of several solder fillets. There was no deformation or cracking in the solder located in the gap between the package I/O and the circuit board pad nor in the interior of the fillets, both locations that would raise concerns of joint mechanical integrity. A drop in the chip capacitor shear strength was attributed to crack growth near the top of the fillet.

  19. ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite for visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of industrial textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Mansoob Khan, M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Mosquera, E; Gracia, F; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2015-08-15

    A ternary ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was synthesized using thermal decomposition method. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue compared with binary ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CdO nanocomposites. The ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite was also used for the degradation of the industrial textile effluent (real sample analysis) and degraded more than 90% in 210 min under visible light irradiation. The small size, high surface area and synergistic effect in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite is responsible for high photocatalytic activity. These results also showed that the Ag nanoparticles induced visible light activity and facilitated efficient charge separation in the ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite, thereby improving the photocatalytic performance.

  20. Formation mechanism and properties of CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Demchenko, Denis O.; Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Erdonmez, Can K.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2008-08-11

    The mechanism of formation of recently fabricated CdS-Ag{sub 2}S nanorod superlattices is considered and their elastic properties are predicted theoretically based on experimental structural data. We consider different possible mechanisms for the spontaneous ordering observed in these 1D nanostructures, such as diffusion-limited growth and ordering due to epitaxial strain. A simplified model suggests that diffusion-limited growth partially contributes to the observed ordering, but cannot account for the full extent of the ordering alone. The elastic properties of bulk Ag{sub 2}S are predicted using a first principles method and are fed into a classical valence force field (VFF) model of the nanostructure. The VFF results show significant repulsion between Ag{sub 2}S segments, strongly suggesting that the interplay between the chemical interface energy and strain due to the lattice mismatch between the two materials drives the spontaneous pattern formation.

  1. Three-dimensional Dirac cone carrier dynamics in Na3Bi and Cd3As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, G. S.; Lane, C.; Barbiellini, B.; Sushkov, A. B.; Carey, R. L.; Liu, Fengguang; Krizan, J. W.; Kushwaha, S. K.; Gibson, Q.; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Cava, R. J.; Bansil, A.; Drew, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    Optical measurements and band structure calculations are reported on three-dimensional Dirac materials. The electronic properties associated with the Dirac cone are identified in the reflectivity spectra of Cd3As2 and Na3Bi single crystals. In Na3Bi , the plasma edge is found to be strongly temperature dependent due to thermally excited free carriers in the Dirac cone. The thermal behavior provides an estimate of the Fermi level EF=25 meV and the z -axis Fermi velocity vz=0.3 eV Å associated with the heavy bismuth Dirac band. At high energies above the Γ -point Lifshitz gap energy, a frequency- and temperature-independent ɛ2 indicative of Dirac cone interband transitions translates into an ab-plane Fermi velocity of 3 eV Å. The observed number of IR phonons rules out the P 63/m m c space-group symmetry but is consistent with the P 3 ¯c 1 candidate symmetry. A plasmaron excitation is discovered near the plasmon energy that persists over a broad range of temperature. The optical signature of the large joint density of states arising from saddle points at Γ is strongly suppressed in Na3Bi , consistent with band structure calculations that show the dipole transition-matrix elements to be weak due to the very small s -orbital character of the Dirac bands. In Cd3As2 , a distinctive peak in reflectivity due to the logarithmic divergence in ɛ1 expected at the onset of Dirac cone interband transitions is identified. The center frequency of the peak shifts with temperature quantitatively consistent with a linear dispersion and a carrier density of n =1.3 ×1017cm-3 . The peak width gives a measure of the Fermi-velocity anisotropy of 10 % , indicating a nearly spherical Fermi surface. The line shape gives an upper bound estimate of 7 meV for the potential fluctuation energy scale.

  2. α-Radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-CD38 immunoconjugates is effective in a mouse model of human multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Birgit; Gaertner, Florian C.; Gilbertz, Klaus-Peter; Fernandez, Vanesa; Bassermann, Florian; Endell, Jan; Boxhammer, Rainer; Leclair, Stephane; Vallon, Mario; Aichler, Michaela; Feuchtinger, Annette; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In spite of development of molecular therapeutics, multiple myeloma (MM) is fatal in most cases. CD38 is a promising target for selective treatment of MM. We tested radioimmunoconjugates consisting of the α-emitter 213Bi coupled to an anti-CD38 MAb in preclinical treatment of MM. Efficacy of 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb was assayed towards different MM cell lines with regard to induction of DNA double-strand breaks, induction of apoptosis and initiation of cell cycle arrest. Moreover, mice bearing luciferase-expressing MM xenografts were treated with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by bioluminescence imaging, overall survival and histology. 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb treatment induced DNA damage which did not result in activation of the G2 DNA-damage-response checkpoint, but instead in mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic catastrophe. The anti-tumor effect of 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb correlated with the expression level of CD38 in each MM cell line. In myeloma xenografts, treatment with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptosis in tumor tissue and significantly prolonged survival compared to controls. The major organ systems did not show any signs of 213Bi-induced toxicity. Preclinical treatment of MM with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb turned out as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:25576914

  3. The visible light photocatalytic activity enhancement of cotton cellulose nanofibers/In2S3/Ag-CdS nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiaqi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiufang; Zheng, Yingying; Cui, Can; Zhu, Zhiyan; Li, Chaorong

    2016-07-01

    Cotton cellulose nanofibers (CCNFs)/In2S3/Ag-CdS nanocomposites were prepared by a typical technical route which combined electrospinning and a chemical method. The results showed that the CCNFs/In2S3/Ag-CdS nanocomposites had a remarkable visible light photocatalytic property and cycling stability, which displayed a significant enhancement compared with that of pure In2S3. Through analysis, this enhancement could be mainly attributed to the multilevel structure of the composites.

  4. Fast preparation of Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes via a microwave-hydrothermal process and enhanced photocatalytic activity after loading with Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Lin, Xin-Shan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted solution-phase approach. ► Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. ► Catalytic activity of the Ag/Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanocomposite in the photo-degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was much higher than that of pure Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. -- Abstract: In this work, a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed to prepare Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes. Ag nanoparticles were subsequently deposited on the Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. The phases and morphologies of the products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Ag/Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} nanocomposite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under UV light irradiation in comparison to pure Bi{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. The amount of Ag in the nanocomposite affects the catalytic activity, and 3 wt% Ag showed the highest photodegradation efficiency. Moreover, the catalyst remains active after four consecutive tests. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  5. The bi-specific CD3 x NCAM antibody: a model to preactivate T cells prior to tumour cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M; Ernestus, K; Kemshead, J; Klehr, M; Von Bergwelt-Baildon, M S; Schinköthe, T; Schultze, J L; Berthold, F

    2003-11-01

    To target the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56) on neuroblastoma by T cell-based immunotherapy we have generated a bi-specific CD3 x NCAM antibody (OE-1). This antibody can be used to redirect T cells to NCAM+ cells. Expectedly, the antibody binds specifically to NCAM+ neuroblastoma cells and CD3+ T cells. OE-1 induces T cell activation, expansion and effector function in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. T cell activation was shown to depend on the presence of normal natural killer (NK) cells in the culture. Interestingly, while PBMC- derived T cells were activated by OE-1, NK cells were almost completely depleted, suggesting that T cells activated by OE-1 deleted the NK cells. Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differentiate into a larger CCR7+ central memory and a smaller CCR7- effector memory cell population. Most importantly, preactivated T cells were highly cytotoxic for neuroblastoma cells. In eight of 11 experiments tumour-directed cytotoxicity was enhanced when NK cells were present during preactivation with OE-1. These data strongly support a bi-phasic therapeutic concept of primarily stimulating T cells with the bi-specific antibody in the presence of normal NCAM+ cells to induce T cell activation, migratory capacity and finally tumour cell lysis.

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of n-type transformable AgBiSe2 polymorphs by indium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaocun; Jin, Dou; Liang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the improved thermoelectric properties of n-type lead-free transformable AgBiSe2 polymorphs by indium doping on silver sites. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that complete solid solutions are well formed up to [In] = 0.02. Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient behave in a routinely opposite manner due to the dominant role of the carrier concentration adjusted by the localized indium impurity levels, as also suggested by our density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As indium concentration increases, we observe a drastic variation of the thermoelectric transport properties with temperature, in the range of 450 to 580 K. By performing the isothermal electrical measurements, we attribute this interesting behavior to the ongoing α to β phase transformation process. The In 5s lone pair electrons, as indicated from our DFT calculations, increase the anharmonicity of the chemical bonds and enhance the phonon-phonon scattering. This, together with the introduced InAg .. point defects, further brings down the lattice thermal conductivity. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit Z T is achieved at 773 K and increases from 0.3 for pristine AgBiSe2 to 0.7 for an optimal [In] = 0.015 doping, a more than two times enhancement.

  7. Tuning the ground state of the Kondo lattice in UT Bi2 (T = Ag, Au) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Priscila; Luo, Yongkang; Pagliuso, Pascoal; Bauer, Eric; Thompson, Joe; Fisk, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the interesting magnetic anisotropy found in the Ce-based heavy fermion family Ce TX2 (T = transition metal, X = pnictogen), here we study the novel U-based parent compounds U TBi2 (T = Ag, Au) by combining magnetization, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. The single crystals, synthesized by the self-flux method, also crystallize in the tetragonal HfCuSi2-type structure (space group P4/nmm). Interestingly, although UAgBi2 is a low- γ antiferromagnet below TN = 181 K, UAuBi2 is a moderately heavy uniaxial ferromagnet below Tc = 22 K. Nevertheless, both compounds display the easy-magnetization direction along the c-axis and a large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our results point out to an incoherent Kondo behaviour in the paramagnetic state and an intricate competition between crystal field effects and two anisotropic exchange interactions, which lead to the remarkable difference in the observed ground states.

  8. Improved Bi-2212/Ag performance as a competitor to Bi-2223/Ag in high-T{sub c} superconductor wire applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ionescu, M.H.; Dou, S.X.; Babic, E.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of Bi-2212 monofilament tape, produced by the powder-in-tube technique and a decomposition - recovery melt process, was significantly improved by employing an optimum dual atmosphere heat treatment. The atmosphere consists of nitrogen and oxygen applied alternatively at various stages during the process and results in oxygen vacancies within the well aligned crystallites. The investigation was carried out on short (50mm) samples, having a cross-section area of the ceramic core in the range 2x 10{sup 4} {mu}m{sup 2} - 5x10{sup 4} {mu}m{sup 2}. An increase in the transport critical current I{sub c} of up to 11A at 77K and up to 68A at 4.2K in zero field (1{mu}V/cm electric field criterion) has been achieved, yielding a current caring capacity J{sub c} in the range (2-4)x 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K and (1-3)x 10{sup 5}A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K. The pinning energy is weaker than in the Bi-2223 tapes, but almost identical to the Bi-2212 epitaxial films. This, combined with a {open_quotes}one deformation - one heat treatment ({approximately}30 h){close_quotes} procedure, makes 2212 a strong competitor for low temperature wire applications.

  9. Approaching the N=82 shell closure with mass measurements of Ag and Cd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenfeldt, M.; Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Borgmann, Ch.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Naimi, S.; Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Delahaye, P.

    2010-03-15

    Mass measurements of neutron-rich Cd and Ag isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The masses of {sup 112,114-124}Ag and {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd, determined with relative uncertainties between 2x10{sup -8} and 2x10{sup -7}, resulted in significant corrections and improvements of the mass surface. In particular, the mass of {sup 124}Ag was previously unknown. In addition, other masses that had to be inferred from Q values of nuclear decays and reactions have now been measured directly. The analysis includes various mass differences, namely the two-neutron separation energies, the applicability of the Garvey-Kelson relations, double differences of masses deltaV{sub pn}, which give empirical proton-neutron interaction strengths, as well as a comparison with recent microscopic calculations. The deltaV{sub pn} results reveal that for even-even nuclides around {sup 132}Sn the trends are similar to those in the {sup 208}Pb region.

  10. An analysis model of torque dependence of critical current in a Bi2223/Ag composite concentric cylinder.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Jin, J; Feng, W J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a model of torque dependence of critical current in a Bi2223/Ag composite concentric cylinder is analyzed. Based on the hypothesis of planar section and elastic linear strengthening constitutive theory, the relation between torque and shear strain is firstly obtained. Then a linear weakening relation between critical current density and shear strain are put forward. Finally the effects of the applied torque together with the mechanical properties of superconducting core on the degradation behavior of critical current are calculated and discussed. The results and conclusions should be helpful to the application of superconducting materials subjected to elastic-plastic torsional deformation. PMID:27652090

  11. Decorating CdTe QD-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres with Ag NPs to Prevent Bacteria Invasion for Enhanced Anticounterfeit Applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangyang; Dong, Qigeqi; Lan, Shi; Cai, Qian; Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhang, Shiqi; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dots (QDs) as potent candidates possess advantageous superiority in fluorescence imaging applications, but they are susceptible to the biological circumstances (e.g., bacterial environment), leading to fluorescence quenching or lose of fluorescent properties. In this work, CdTe QDs were embedded into mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2 NSs) for preventing QD agglomeration, and then CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs (m-SiO2/CdTe NSs) were modified with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to prevent bacteria invasion for enhanced anticounterfeit applications. The m-SiO2 NSs, which serve as intermediate layers to combine CdTe QDs with Ag NPs, help us establish a highly fluorescent and long-term antibacterial system (i.e., m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs). More importantly, CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs showed fluorescence quenching when they encounter bacteria, which was avoided by attaching Ag NPs outside. Ag NPs are superior to CdTe QDs for preventing bacteria invasion because of the structure (well-dispersed Ag NPs), size (small diameter), and surface charge (positive zeta potentials) of Ag NPs. The plausible antibacterial mechanisms of m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were established. As for potential applications, m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs were developed as fluorescent anticounterfeiting ink for enhanced imaging applications.

  12. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10−7 M to 10−2 M with a low detection limit of 10−8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors. PMID:27184729

  13. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10-7 M to 10-2 M with a low detection limit of 10-8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors.

  14. Decitabine enhances anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody BI 836858–mediated natural killer ADCC against AML blasts

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Sumithira; He, Shun; Cheney, Carolyn; Gopalakrishnan, Bhavani; Mani, Rajeswaran; Lozanski, Gerard; Mo, Xiaokui; Groh, Veronica; Whitman, Susan P.; Konopitzky, Renate; Kössl, Christian; Bucci, Donna; Lucas, David M.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Blum, William; Adam, Paul J.; Borges, Eric; Rueter, Bjoern; Heider, Karl-Heinz; Marcucci, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia, affecting older individuals at a median age of 67 years. Resistance to intensive induction chemotherapy is the major cause of death in elderly AML; hence, novel treatment strategies are warranted. CD33-directed antibody-drug conjugates (gemtuzumab ozogamicin) have been shown to improve overall survival, validating CD33 as a target for antibody-based therapy of AML. Here, we report the in vitro efficacy of BI 836858, a fully human, Fc-engineered, anti-CD33 antibody using AML cell lines and primary AML blasts as targets. BI 836858–opsonized AML cells significantly induced both autologous and allogeneic natural killer (NK)-cell degranulation and NK-cell–mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In vitro treatment of AML blasts with decitabine (DAC) or 5-azacytidine, 2 hypomethylating agents that show efficacy in older patients, did not compromise BI 836858–induced NK-cell–mediated ADCC. Evaluation of BI 836858–mediated ADCC in serial marrow AML aspirates in patients who received a 10-day course of DAC (pre-DAC, days 4, 11, and 28 post-DAC) revealed significantly higher ADCC in samples at day 28 post-DAC when compared with pre-DAC treatment. Analysis of ligands to activating receptors (NKG2D) showed significantly increased NKG2D ligand [NKG2DL] expression in day 28 post-DAC samples compared with pre-DAC samples; when NKG2DL receptor was blocked using antibodies, BI 836858–mediated ADCC was significantly decreased, suggesting that DAC enhances AML blast susceptibility to BI 836858 by upregulating NKG2DL. These data provide a rationale for combination therapy of Fc-engineered antibodies such as BI 836858 with azanucleosides in elderly patients with AML. PMID:27013443

  15. Epitaxial growth of high mobility Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films on CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, X. F.; He, L.; Xiu, F. X.; Lang, M. R.; Yu, X. X.; Tang, J. S.; Huang, G.; Jiang, X. W.; Zhu, J. F.; Wang, K. L.; Liao, Z. M.; Zou, J.; Wang, Y.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2011-06-13

    We report the experiment of high quality epitaxial growth of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films on hexagonal CdS (0001) substrates using a solid source molecular-beam epitaxy system. Layer-by-layer growth of single crystal Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been observed from the first quintuple layer. The size of surface triangular terraces has exceeded 1 {mu}m. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy clearly reveals the presence of Dirac-cone-shape surface states. Magneto-transport measurements demonstrate a high Hall mobility of {approx}6000 cm{sup 2}/V s for the as-grown Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films at temperatures below 30 K. These characteristics of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films promise a variety of potential applications in ultrafast, low-power dissipation devices.

  16. New chalcogenide glasses in the CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Boidin, R.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the total conductivity of CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between the selenide and telluride equivalent systems. -- Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system were synthesized and the glass-forming range was determined. The maximum content of CdTe in this glass system was found to be equal to 15 mol.%. The macroscopic characterizations of samples have consisted in Differential Scanning Calorimetry, density, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The cadmium telluride addition does not generate any significant change in the glass transition temperature but the resistance of binary AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses towards crystallisation is estimated to be decreasing on the base of {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} parameter. The total electrical conductivity {sigma} was measured by complex impedance spectroscopy. First, the CdTe additions in the (AgI){sub 0.5}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5} host glass, (CdTe){sub x}(AgI){sub 0.5-x/2}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5-x/2} lead to a conductivity decrease at x {<=} 0.05. Then, the behaviour is reversed at 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.15. The obtained results are discussed by comparison with the equivalent selenide system.

  17. In situ crystallization for fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS heterostructure with excellent visible-light-responsive photoreactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuxi; Huang, Hongwei; He, Ying; Tian, Na; Zhang, Tierui; Chu, Paul K.; An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst with highly efficient photocatalytic reactivity via a facile in situ crystallization approach at room temperature. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results reveal that the BiOBr flakes are surrounded by CdS particles. The coverage of the satellites on the surface of the BiOBr nanosheets could be controlled by changing the content of the CdS, which contributes to the enhanced level of photocatalytic performance. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra demonstrate that the visible light absorption of the BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst is also enhanced by the CdS loaded. The excellent structural and spectral properties endow the BiOBr-CdS heterojunctions with improved photocatalytic performance pertaining to bisphenol A (BPA) degradation and photocurrent generation. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of BiOBr-CdS at a molar ratio of 1 : 5 (CdS/BiOBr) is almost 2.8 times and 24.6 times as high as that of pure BiOBr and CdS. The remarkably enhanced photoreactivity should be attributed to the match in the energy levels and close core-satellite structural coupling between the CdS and BiOBr, which greatly facilitates the separation and transfer of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, as confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The present work sheds new light on the construction of highly efficient core-satellite heterojunctional photocatalysts for practical applications.We demonstrate the fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst with highly efficient photocatalytic reactivity via a facile in situ crystallization approach at room temperature. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results reveal that the BiOBr flakes are surrounded by CdS particles. The coverage of

  18. Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color surface plasmon resonance biosensor with enhanced sensitivity, color contrast and great linearity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Tien; Lo, Kun-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Ho, Jennifer H; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In wavelength surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, the manipulation of SPR dispersion relation by Ag/Au bi-metallic film was first time implemented. Due to the enhanced resonant wavelength shift and the sharper SPR slope of using Ag/Au bi-metallic film, the illuminated color of reflection shows one order of magnitude greater contrast than conventional SPR biosensors. Such an Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color SPR biosensor (CSPRB) allows the detail bio-interactions, for example 100 nM streptavidin, to be distinguished by directly observing the color change of reflection through naked eyes rather than the analysis of spectrometer. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity and color contrast, this CSPRB also possesses a great linear detection range up to 0.0254 RIU, which leading to the application of point-of-care tests. PMID:22560104

  19. Optical properties of Bi 12TiO 20 doped with Al, P, Ag, Cu, Co and co-doped with Al+P single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, V.

    2000-11-01

    Large optically homogeneous photorefractive Bi 12TiO 20 (BTO) single crystals doped with Al, P, Ag, Cu, Co and Al+P-co-doping were obtained by the Top Seeded Solution Growth Method (TSSG) in a Bi 2O 3 solution. A strong bleaching effect was observed for the Al, P, Ag and Al+P-doped crystals, whereas doping with Cu and Co induced a strong photochromic effect and increased the absorption coefficients in the red spectral region. Al, P, Al+P-doped crystals increased the values of optical rotator power, while Cu and Ag-doped crystals exhibited a strong decrease in optical activity in comparison with non-doped BTO. The influences of doping elements on the optical rotation power are discussed on the basis of two structural elementary cell units - MO 4 tetrahedra and BiO n polyhedra.

  20. Pure Cubic-Phase Hybrid Iodobismuthates AgBi2 I7 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yang, Zhenyu; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Min; Quan, Li Na; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Comin, Riccardo; Fan, James Z; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-08-01

    Bismuth-based hybrid perovskites are candidates for lead-free and air-stable photovoltaics, but poor surface morphologies and a high band-gap energy have previously limited these hybrid perovskites. A new materials processing strategy to produce enhanced bismuth-based thin-film photovoltaic absorbers by incorporation of monovalent silver cations into iodobismuthates is presented. Solution-processed AgBi2 I7 thin films are prepared by spin-coating silver and bismuth precursors dissolved in n-butylamine and annealing under an N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the pure cubic structure (Fd3m) with lattice parameters of a=b=c=12.223 Å. The resultant AgBi2 I7 thin films exhibit dense and pinhole-free surface morphologies with grains ranging in size from 200-800 nm and a low band gap of 1.87 eV suitable for photovoltaic applications. Initial studies produce solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.22 % and excellent stability over at least 10 days under ambient conditions. PMID:27355567

  1. Pure Cubic-Phase Hybrid Iodobismuthates AgBi2 I7 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yang, Zhenyu; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Min; Quan, Li Na; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Comin, Riccardo; Fan, James Z; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-08-01

    Bismuth-based hybrid perovskites are candidates for lead-free and air-stable photovoltaics, but poor surface morphologies and a high band-gap energy have previously limited these hybrid perovskites. A new materials processing strategy to produce enhanced bismuth-based thin-film photovoltaic absorbers by incorporation of monovalent silver cations into iodobismuthates is presented. Solution-processed AgBi2 I7 thin films are prepared by spin-coating silver and bismuth precursors dissolved in n-butylamine and annealing under an N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the pure cubic structure (Fd3m) with lattice parameters of a=b=c=12.223 Å. The resultant AgBi2 I7 thin films exhibit dense and pinhole-free surface morphologies with grains ranging in size from 200-800 nm and a low band gap of 1.87 eV suitable for photovoltaic applications. Initial studies produce solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.22 % and excellent stability over at least 10 days under ambient conditions.

  2. Reduced-graphene-oxide-wrapped BiOI-AgI heterostructured nanocomposite as a high-performance photocatalyst for dye degradation under solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Jahurul; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Ma, Rory; Kim, Yujin; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-11-01

    Solar photocatalytic water treatment has emerged as a promising way to provide clean water. However, most traditional photocatalysts (TiO2, ZnO, etc.) are active only under ultraviolet light and have high recombination rates of photoinduced electron-hole pairs; therefore, they are not sufficient to fulfill all of the demands of practical applications. This problem could be overcome by developing highly solar-light-active and durable heterostructured photocatalysts. In this study, a new solar-light-active heterostructured reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/BiOI/AgI photocatalyst was successfully fabricated through a simple precipitation method. The resultant heterostructured RGO/BiOI/AgI nanocomposite exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic performance in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The measured rate constant of the RGO/BiOI/AgI nanocomposite was six times higher than that of bare BiOI nanostructures. Its extraordinary capacity for harvesting full-spectrum light and long-term stability makes the RGO/BiOI/AgI nanocomposite a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  3. Fabrication of a Ag/Bi3TaO7 Plasmonic Photocatalyst with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bifu; Xu, Dongbo; Li, Di; Wu, Guoling; Wu, Miaomiao; Shi, Weidong; Chen, Min

    2015-08-12

    A novel Ag/Bi3TaO7 plasmonic photocatalyst has been prepared by a simple photoreduction process. The as-prepared Ag/Bi3TaO7 photocatalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline (TC) compared to that of a bare Bi3TaO7 catalyst. The 1 wt % Ag-loaded Bi3TaO7 sample showed the highest photocatalytic efficiency for TC degradation (85.42%) compared with those of the other samples. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the synergistic effect of the surface plasmon resonance caused by Ag nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles onto the Bi3TaO7 surface promoted the separation of photogenerated carriers. In addition, an electron spin resonance (ESR) and trapping experiment revealed that the photoinduced active species hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical were the main active species in the photocatalytic process of TC degradation. The photocatalytic reaction mechanism was discussed by active species trapping and ESR analysis. PMID:26167624

  4. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  5. Availability of sediment-bound Cd, Co, and Ag to mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, C.; Fisher, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ingested sediment is one potentially important source of metals for benthic organisms. The influence of physical and chemical properties of oxidized sediments on the bioavailability of metals to marine filter feeders is largely unknown. The authors examined the relative importance of specific sedimentary components that may exert control on the uptake of Cd, Co, and Ag in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Iron and manganese oxides, montmorillonite clay, silica, and natural sediment particles were triple labeled with the gamma emitters {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, and {sup 110m}Ag. Some particles were also coated with fulvic acid (FA) to simulate the influence of organic coating on metal bioavailability. Metals associated with FA-coated particles were generally absorbed by mussels to a greater extent than metals associated with uncoated particles. Desorption experiments with labeled particles at pH 5 were performed in parallel to simulate the behavior of food-bound metals in the acidic gut of bivalves. High correlations (r > 0.97) between the amount of desorbed metal under these conditions and the assimilation efficiency for metals from FA-coated particles were noted among coated particles but not uncoated particles (r < 0.6). These results suggest that the relation between metal partitioning to sediments and biological availability of the metal is not obvious, since the organic coatings and the acidic digestion process influence assimilation of sediment-bound metals.

  6. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg), selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, C; Suzuki, K T

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between transition metals (Ag+, Cd2+ and Hg2+) and selenium (Se) in the bloodstream was studied in vitro by means of the HPLC--inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method. Transition metal ions and selenide (produced in vitro from selenite in the presence of glutathione) or sulfide (Na2S) formed a (metal-Se/S) complex, which then bound to a plasma protein, selenoprotein P (Sel P), to form a ternary complex, (metal-Se/S)-Sel P. The molar ratios of metals to Se were 1:1 for Hg/Se and Cd/Se, but either 1:1 or 2:1 for Ag/Se, depending on the ratio of their doses. The results indicate that the interaction between transition metals and Se occurs through the general mechanism, i.e., transition metal ions and selenide form the unit complex (metal-Se)n, and then the complex binds to selenoprotein P to form the ternary complex ¿(metal-Se)n¿m--seleno-protein P in the bloodstream. PMID:9833321

  7. Facile electrochemical synthesis of CeO2@Ag@CdS nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mi; Li, Haohua; Shen, Xiaoping; Ji, Zhenyuan; Xu, Keqiang

    2015-12-14

    In this work, for the first time, three-component CeO2@Ag@CdS heterostructured nanotube arrays with remarkable photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance have been synthesized by an electrodeposition method. In this configuration, the modification with Ag nanoparticles can significantly strengthen light absorption and provide an interior direct pathway to facilitate the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, the CeO2@Ag@CdS heterostructured nanotubes generate a remarkable photocurrent density of 2.14 mA cm(-2) at a potential of -0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is 9.8 and 2.4 times higher than that of the two-component CeO2@Ag system (0.218 mA cm(-2)) and the CeO2@CdS system (0.879 mA cm(-2)), respectively. It also gives efficiency as high as 69% around 360 nm in the incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum. Moreover, the stability of the photoelectrode was tested over 16 min. Furthermore, these results provide a valuable insight for the further development of such materials for PEC water splitting.

  8. A highly sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of perfluorooctanic acid with molecularly imprined polymer-functionalized nanoarchitectured hybrid of AgI-BiOI composite.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingming; Fang, Tian; Peng, Dinghua; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-11-15

    A rapid and ultrasensitive signal-off photoelectrochemical sensor has been developed under visible-light irradiation, for the detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), especially low level PFOA present in environment, whereby a novel nanostructured probe made of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified AgI nanoparticles-BiOI nanoflake arrays (AgI-BiOINFs) is designed as the photoactive electrode (denoted as MIP@AgI-BiOINFs). Here, the unique nanoarchitectured hybrid of AgI-BiOINFs was first in situ synthesized via a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) approach and then employed as a matrix to graft the recognition element of MIP. Such a newly designed PEC sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of PFOA. The PEC analysis is highly linear over the PFOA concentration ranging from 0.02 to 1000.0 ppb with a detection limit of 0.01 ppb (S/N=3). This value obtained by using the facile PEC sensor is comparable to the results obtained by using well-established liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Toward practical applications, this low-cost and sensitive assay was successfully applied to measure PFOA in real water samples. PMID:26092130

  9. The Broad Anti-AML Activity of the CD33/CD3 BiTE Antibody Construct, AMG 330, Is Impacted by Disease Stage and Risk.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kimberly H; Gudgeon, Chelsea J; Laszlo, George S; Newhall, Kathryn J; Sinclair, Angus M; Frankel, Stanley R; Kischel, Roman; Chen, Guang; Walter, Roland B

    2015-01-01

    The CD33/CD3-bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody construct, AMG 330, potently lyses CD33+ leukemic cells in vitro. Using specimens from 41 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we studied the factors that might contribute to clinical response or resistance. For this purpose, thawed aliquots of primary AML samples were immunophenotypically characterized and subjected to various doses of AMG 330 in the presence or absence of healthy donor T-cells. After 48 hours, drug-specific cytotoxicity was quantified and correlated with CD33 expression levels, amounts of T-cells present, and other disease characteristics. AMG 330 caused modest cytotoxicity that was correlated with the amount of autologous T-cells (P = 0.0001) but not CD33 expression, as AMG 330 exerted marked cytotoxic effects in several specimens with minimal CD33 expression. With healthy donor T-cells added, AMG 330 cytotoxicity depended on the drug dose and effector:target (E:T) cell ratio. High cytotoxic activity was observed even with minimal CD33 expression, and AMG 330 cytotoxicity and CD33 expression correlated only at high E:T cell ratio and high AMG 330 doses (P<0.003). AMG 330 resulted in significantly higher cytotoxicity in specimens from patients with newly diagnosed AML than those with relapsed/refractory disease despite similar levels of CD33 on myeloblasts. AMG 330 cytotoxicity also appeared greater in specimens from patients with favorable-risk disease as compared to other specimens. Together, our data demonstrate that AMG 330 is highly active in primary AML specimens across the entire disease spectrum, while suggesting the presence of yet undefined, CD33-independent, relative resistance mechanisms in specific patient subsets.

  10. The Broad Anti-AML Activity of the CD33/CD3 BiTE Antibody Construct, AMG 330, Is Impacted by Disease Stage and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, George S.; Newhall, Kathryn J.; Sinclair, Angus M.; Frankel, Stanley R.; Kischel, Roman; Chen, Guang; Walter, Roland B.

    2015-01-01

    The CD33/CD3-bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody construct, AMG 330, potently lyses CD33+ leukemic cells in vitro. Using specimens from 41 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we studied the factors that might contribute to clinical response or resistance. For this purpose, thawed aliquots of primary AML samples were immunophenotypically characterized and subjected to various doses of AMG 330 in the presence or absence of healthy donor T-cells. After 48 hours, drug-specific cytotoxicity was quantified and correlated with CD33 expression levels, amounts of T-cells present, and other disease characteristics. AMG 330 caused modest cytotoxicity that was correlated with the amount of autologous T-cells (P = 0.0001) but not CD33 expression, as AMG 330 exerted marked cytotoxic effects in several specimens with minimal CD33 expression. With healthy donor T-cells added, AMG 330 cytotoxicity depended on the drug dose and effector:target (E:T) cell ratio. High cytotoxic activity was observed even with minimal CD33 expression, and AMG 330 cytotoxicity and CD33 expression correlated only at high E:T cell ratio and high AMG 330 doses (P<0.003). AMG 330 resulted in significantly higher cytotoxicity in specimens from patients with newly diagnosed AML than those with relapsed/refractory disease despite similar levels of CD33 on myeloblasts. AMG 330 cytotoxicity also appeared greater in specimens from patients with favorable-risk disease as compared to other specimens. Together, our data demonstrate that AMG 330 is highly active in primary AML specimens across the entire disease spectrum, while suggesting the presence of yet undefined, CD33-independent, relative resistance mechanisms in specific patient subsets. PMID:26305211

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies of Ag doped Bi2WO6 and their photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumrongrojthanath, Phattharanit; Thongtem, Titipun; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-12-01

    In this research, 0-3 mol% Ag doped Bi2WO6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h. The XRD, FE-SEM, FTIR and Raman analyses revealed the presence of flower-like Russellite Bi2WO6 structures which were constructed from a large number of orderly arranged 2D layers of interconnected nanoplates. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under Xe visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The 3 mol% Ag doped Bi2WO6 showed the highest photocatalytic activities of 98.20% within 180 min.

  12. Effects of low-level Ag doping on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x}

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, T.A.; Eror, N.G.; Krishnaraj, P.; Prorok, B.C.; Lelovic, M.; Balachandran, U.

    1995-07-01

    Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} has been doped with silver, up to 10,000 ppm, in three ways: excess additions, substitution of Ag for Bi, and substitution of Ag for Sr. Effects of doping on the c-axis lattice parameter and critical temperature ({Tc}) were measured. Effects from doing were only observed in slow-cooled [10{degree}/hr] oxygen equilibrated samples. Doping by excess additions caused a small decrease in {Tc} and an increase in the c-axis length of the lattice. Doping by substitution, compared to excess Ag additions, caused a larger decrease in {Tc} and higher c-axis values for doping levels up to 1,000 ppm. Doping by substitution at higher levels (1,000--10,000 ppm) caused {Tc} to increase and the c-axis to decrease. Samples with similar substitutional doping levels exhibited comparable {Tc} values and samples with Ag substituted for Sr consistently exhibited higher c-axis values than samples that had equivalent amounts of Ag substituted for Bi.

  13. Photo-reduction of bromate in drinking water by metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) jointly modified BiVO4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Yang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zhao, Jianwei; Xie, Ting; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-09-15

    Bromate (BrO3(-)), an oxyhalide disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic and genotoxic. In the current work, metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) co-modified BiVO4 was successfully synthesized by a stepwise chemical method coupling with a photo-deposition process and applied in the photo-reduction of BrO3(-) under visible light irradiation. In this composite, metallic Ag acted as an electron donor or mediator and RGO enhanced the BrO3(-) adsorption onto the surface of catalysts as well as an electron acceptor to restrict the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The Ag@BiVO4@RGO composite exhibited greater photo-reduction BrO3(-) performance than pure BiVO4, Ag@BiVO4 and RGO@BiVO4 under identical experimental conditions: initial BrO3(-) concentration 150 μg/L, catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, pH 7.0 and visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoluminescence spectra (PL), electron-spin resonance (ESR), photocurrent density (PC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that the modified BiVO4 enhanced the photo-generated electrons and separated the electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic reduction efficiency for BrO3(-) removal decreased with the addition of electron quencher K2S2O8, suggesting that electrons were the primary factor in this photo-reduction process. The declining photo-reduction efficiency of BrO3(-) in tap water should attribute to the consumption of photo-generated electrons by coexisting anions and the adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on graphene surface. The overall results indicate a promising application potential for photo-reduction in the DBPs removal from drinking water.

  14. Photo-reduction of bromate in drinking water by metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) jointly modified BiVO4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Yang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; An, Hongxue; Zhao, Jianwei; Xie, Ting; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-09-15

    Bromate (BrO3(-)), an oxyhalide disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic and genotoxic. In the current work, metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) co-modified BiVO4 was successfully synthesized by a stepwise chemical method coupling with a photo-deposition process and applied in the photo-reduction of BrO3(-) under visible light irradiation. In this composite, metallic Ag acted as an electron donor or mediator and RGO enhanced the BrO3(-) adsorption onto the surface of catalysts as well as an electron acceptor to restrict the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The Ag@BiVO4@RGO composite exhibited greater photo-reduction BrO3(-) performance than pure BiVO4, Ag@BiVO4 and RGO@BiVO4 under identical experimental conditions: initial BrO3(-) concentration 150 μg/L, catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, pH 7.0 and visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoluminescence spectra (PL), electron-spin resonance (ESR), photocurrent density (PC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that the modified BiVO4 enhanced the photo-generated electrons and separated the electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic reduction efficiency for BrO3(-) removal decreased with the addition of electron quencher K2S2O8, suggesting that electrons were the primary factor in this photo-reduction process. The declining photo-reduction efficiency of BrO3(-) in tap water should attribute to the consumption of photo-generated electrons by coexisting anions and the adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on graphene surface. The overall results indicate a promising application potential for photo-reduction in the DBPs removal from drinking water. PMID:27311108

  15. High critical current density Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x /Ag wire containing oxide precursor synthesized from nano-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Johnson, Stephen; Naderi, Golsa; Chaubal, Manasi; Hunt, Andrew; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi2212)/Ag-alloy wires are manufactured via the oxide-powder-in-tube route by filling Ag/Ag-alloy tubes with Bi2212 oxide precursor, deforming into wire, restacking and heat treating using partial-melt processing (PMP). Recent studies propose several requirements on precursor properties, including stoichiometry, chemical homogeneity, carbon content and phase purity. Here, nanosize oxides produced by nGimat’s proprietary NanoSpray CombustionTM process are used as starting materials to synthesize Bi2212 oxide precursors via solid-state calcination. Oxide powders for wire fill (precursor powder) with precisely controlled stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity containing over 99 vol% of single Bi2212-phase are synthesized. Alkaline-earth cuprate are found to be the only impurity phase in the precursor powders. Phase transformation, carbon release and grain growth during calcination are studied through a series of quench studies. Effects of particle size, surface area, stoichiometry, chemical homogeneity and microstructures of the starting materials on Bi2212 formation and wire transport properties are discussed. Small particle size, high surface area and short diffusion length of the starting materials result in a rapid and homogeneous phase transformation to Bi2212, along with an early and rapid carbon release. The residual carbon in the precursor powder is between 50 and 90 ppm. The strong dependence of transport J c on precursor stoichiometry indicates that compositional variations within precursor powders should be less than 1.5 mol%. Two Bi-rich and Ca-deficient stoichiometries give higher wire transport critical current density, with the highest being 2520 A mm-2 (4.2 K, 5 T) after 1 bar PMP and 4560 A mm-2 (4.2 K, 5 T) after 100 bar overpressure (OP) processing. The low residual carbon content results in smaller and fewer voids within an OP-processed wire filament. Bi-rich and Ca-deficient stoichiometries and small compositional variations

  16. High critical current density Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x /Ag wire containing oxide precursor synthesized from nano-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Johnson, Stephen; Naderi, Golsa; Chaubal, Manasi; Hunt, Andrew; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi2212)/Ag-alloy wires are manufactured via the oxide-powder-in-tube route by filling Ag/Ag-alloy tubes with Bi2212 oxide precursor, deforming into wire, restacking and heat treating using partial-melt processing (PMP). Recent studies propose several requirements on precursor properties, including stoichiometry, chemical homogeneity, carbon content and phase purity. Here, nanosize oxides produced by nGimat’s proprietary NanoSpray CombustionTM process are used as starting materials to synthesize Bi2212 oxide precursors via solid-state calcination. Oxide powders for wire fill (precursor powder) with precisely controlled stoichiometry and chemical homogeneity containing over 99 vol% of single Bi2212-phase are synthesized. Alkaline-earth cuprate are found to be the only impurity phase in the precursor powders. Phase transformation, carbon release and grain growth during calcination are studied through a series of quench studies. Effects of particle size, surface area, stoichiometry, chemical homogeneity and microstructures of the starting materials on Bi2212 formation and wire transport properties are discussed. Small particle size, high surface area and short diffusion length of the starting materials result in a rapid and homogeneous phase transformation to Bi2212, along with an early and rapid carbon release. The residual carbon in the precursor powder is between 50 and 90 ppm. The strong dependence of transport J c on precursor stoichiometry indicates that compositional variations within precursor powders should be less than 1.5 mol%. Two Bi-rich and Ca-deficient stoichiometries give higher wire transport critical current density, with the highest being 2520 A mm‑2 (4.2 K, 5 T) after 1 bar PMP and 4560 A mm‑2 (4.2 K, 5 T) after 100 bar overpressure (OP) processing. The low residual carbon content results in smaller and fewer voids within an OP-processed wire filament. Bi-rich and Ca-deficient stoichiometries and small compositional variations

  17. Photocatalytic activity of CdS and Ag2S quantum dots deposited on poly(amidoamine) functionalized carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi

    2011-01-01

    Two novel ternary nanocatalysts, f-MWCNTs-CdS and f-MWCNTs-Ag2S were successfully constructed by covalent grafting of fourth generation (G4) hyperbranched, crosslinked poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) to carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) and subsequent deposition of CdS or Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). The structural transformation, surface potential, and morphology of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) and nanocatalysts were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the effective anchoring of QDs on f-MWCNTs. The catalytic activity of nanocatalysts was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange under illumination of UV light. The coupling of MWCNTs, PAMAM and CdS or Ag2S QDs significantly enhanced the catalytic efficiency of nanocatalysts. The rate constants for degradation of methyl orange in presence of nanocatalysts were calculated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Overall, the excellence in photodegradation was accomplished by hybridizing f-MWCNTs with CdS or Ag2S PMID:22267895

  18. Band bending at Al, In, Ag, and Pt interfaces with CdTe and ZnTe (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Wahi, A.K.; Miyano, K.; Carey, G.P.; Chiang, T.T.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Band bending behavior and interfacial chemistry for Al, In, Ag, and Pt overlayers on vacuum-cleaved {ital p}-CdTe and {ital p}-ZnTe (110) have been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These metals provide a range of metal--substrate reactivities: Al reacts strongly with Te, Ag moderately, and In minimally, with no evidence seen for In reaction on ZnTe. Pt exhibits strong alloying behavior with both Cd and Zn. All four metals are found to yield Schottky barriers on CdTe and ZnTe, with a narrow range of final Fermi level positions, {ital E}{sub {ital fi}}={ital E}{sub {ital f}}{minus}{ital E}{sub VBM}, observed on CdTe, from 0.9 to 1.05{plus minus}0.1 eV, and on ZnTe from 0.65 to 1.0{plus minus}0.1 eV. The prediction of the MIGS model that a difference in barrier height exists for two semiconductors dependent upon their band lineup (valence band offset) is examined and found to agree with experiment for Ag, Pt, and Al, but not for In. For the highly reactive Al, no evidence for the overlayer metallicity required for metal-induced gap states (MIGS) to operate is seen on CdTe or ZnTe until after band bending has stabilized. Reaction and intermixing for Al, Ag, and Pt overlayers on CdTe and ZnTe indicate these interfaces are not ideal. The possible role of defects at these four metal/CdTe and metal/ZnTe interfaces is considered, and provides a consistent explanation for the final Fermi level positions observed.

  19. Understanding processing-microstructure-properties relationships in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/Ag round wires and enhanced transport through saw-tooth processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Golsa; Liu, Xiaotao; Nachtrab, William; Schwartz, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Superconducting magnets generating magnetic fields above 25 T are needed for many scientific applications. Due to fundamental limitations in NbTi and Nb3Sn, such high-field superconducting magnets require alternative high-field conductors. One candidate conductor is round wire composites of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox sheathed in a Ag-alloy matrix (Bi2212/Ag). The performance of such wires is sensitive to the heat treatment, so improvements in the critical current density (Jc) require a thorough understanding of the processing-structure-properties relationships. Here we present a two-part study. In part I, a new heat treatment approach, saw-tooth processing (STP), is introduced based upon previous results showing that Bi2212 nucleation is site-saturation limited. The microstructural evolution of Bi2212 filaments during processing is discussed and results from STP are compared with those from other processes. STP is shown to increase Jc by 120% and 70% relative to partial-melt processing at 5 T and self-field respectively, and by 65% and 34% relative to split-melt processing. Yet STP also complicates the heat treatment by introducing a number of new heat treatment variables that affect the grain morphology, phase assemblage and oxygen content of the Bi2212 filaments and thus the transport properties. In part II, the effects of STP heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and transport properties are discussed. It is shown that wires with the highest transport critical current densities primarily have filaments with two types of microstructures, one comprised primarily of highly textured Bi2212 grains, and another with a noticeable amount of Bi2Sr2CuOx with the Bi2212.

  20. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E.

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. {yields} Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. {yields} Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. {yields} Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallisation (T{sub x}), and melting (T{sub m}) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} and their Hruby, H{sub r} = (T{sub x} - T{sub g})/(T{sub m} - T{sub x}), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity {sigma} and the room temperature conductivity {sigma}{sub 298} was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm{sup -1} region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  1. Effect of axial strain on the critical current of Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconductors in magnetic fields up to 25 T

    SciTech Connect

    Ekin, J.W. ); Finnemore, D.K.; Li, Q. ); Tenbrink, J. ); Carter, W. )

    1992-08-17

    The irreversible strain limit {epsilon}{sub irrev} for the onset of permanent axial strain damage to Ag-sheathed Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{ital x}} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+{ital x}} superconductors has been measured to be in the range of 0.2%--0.35%. This strain damage onset is about an order of magnitude higher than for {ital bulk} {ital sintered} Y-, Bi-, or Tl-based superconductors and is approaching practical values for magnet design. The measurements show that the value of {epsilon}{sub irrev} is not dependent on magnetic field, nor does the critical current depend on strain below {epsilon}{sub irrev} at least up to 25 T at 4.2 K. Both of these factors indicate that the observed strain effect in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconductors is not intrinsic to the superconductor material. Rather, the effect is extrinsic and arises from superconductor fracture. Thus, the damage onset is amenable to further enhancement. Indeed, the data suggest that subdividing the superconductor into fine filaments or adding Ag to the superconductor powder prior to processing significantly enhances the damage threshold {epsilon}{sub irrev} to above 0.6%.

  2. Growth kinetics study of the (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 grains in Ag/Ni composite-sheathed tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingpin; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingpeng; Li, Mingya; Sun, Haibo; Liu, Qing

    2011-12-01

    The growth kinetics of the (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 (Bi-2223) grains in Ag/Ni sheathed tapes have been investigated by the means of XRD and SEM. Samples were sintered at 837 °C for various time under low oxygen partial pressure. Monofilament tape after sintered for 50 h has a critical current ( I c) of 3.6 A. An analysis of the Bi-2223 phase evolution using Avrami relation reveals a three-stage process with obvious changes of the n-exponent during the Bi-2223 formation after about 3 and 20 h sintering. Secondary electron images show that the Bi-2223 grains nucleate at the initial stage and grow within a-b plane until their edges impinge each other. The thicknesses of Bi-2223 grains are measured statistically after various sintering time. The data denote that the thickness increase with the extension of sintering time and become more rapidly after 10 h sintering. A detailed process describing the growth of Bi-2223 grains is presented basing on the n-exponent and microstructural observation.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanotubes arrays modified with Cu, AgCu and Bi nanoparticles obtained via radiolytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nischk, Michał; Mazierski, Paweł; Wei, Zhishun; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Kouame, Natalie Amoin; Kowalska, Ewa; Remita, Hynd; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    TiO2 nanotubes arrays (NTs), obtained via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, were modified with monometallic (Cu, Bi) and bimetallic (AgCu) nanoparticles. Different amounts of metals' precursors were deposited on the surface of NTs by the spin-coating technique, and the reduction of metals was performed via gamma radiolysis. Surface modification of titania was studied by EDS and XPS analysis. The results show that AgCu nanoparticles exist in a Agcore-Cushell form. Photocatalytic activity was examined under UV irradiation and phenol was used as a model pollutant of water. Over 95% of phenol degradation was achieved after 60 min of irradiation for almost all examined samples, but only slight difference in degradation efficiency (about 3%) between modified and bare NTs was observed. However, the initial phenol degradation rate and TOC removal efficiency was significantly enhanced for the samples modified with 0.31 and 0.63 mol% of Bi as well as for all the samples modified with Cu and AgCu nanoparticles in comparison with bare titania nanotubes. The saturated photocurrent, under the influence of simulated solar light irradiation, for the most active Bi- and AgCu-modified samples, was over two times higher than for pristine NTs. All the examined materials were resistant towards photocorrosion processes that enables their application for long term processes induced by light.

  4. MRP1-CD28 bi-specific oligonucleotide aptamers: target costimulation to drug-resistant melanoma cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Soldevilla, Mario Martínez; Villanueva, Helena; Casares, Noelia; Lasarte, Juan Jose; Bendandi, Maurizio; Inoges, Susana; de Cerio, Ascensión López-Díaz; Pastor, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this work we show a clinically feasible strategy to convert in situ the own tumor into an endogenous vaccine by coating the melanoma cancerous cells with CD28 costimulatory ligands. This therapeutic approach is aimed at targeting T-cell costimulation to chemotherapy-resistant tumors which are refractory and been considered as untreatable cancers. These tumors are usually defined by an enrichment of cancer stem cells and characterized by the higher expression of chemotherapy-resistant proteins. In this work we develop the first aptamer that targets chemotherapy-resistant tumors expressing MRP1 through a novel combinatorial peptide-cell SELEX. With the use of the MRP1 aptamer we engineer a MRP1-CD28 bivalent aptamer that is able to bind MRP1-expressing tumors and deliver the CD28 costimulatory signal to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The bi-specific aptamer is able to enhance costimulation in chemotherapy-resistant tumors. Melanoma-bearing mice systemically treated with MRP1-CD28 bivalent aptamer show reduced growth, thus proving an improved mice survival. Besides, we have designed a technically feasible and translational whole-cell vaccine (Aptvax). Disaggregated cells from tumors can be directly decorated with costimulatory ligand aptamers to generate the vaccine Aptvax. CD28Aptvax made of irradiated tumor cells coated with the CD28-agonistic aptamer attached to MRP1 elicits a strong tumor- cell immune response against melanoma tumors reducing tumor growth. PMID:26992239

  5. Multiscale studies of processing-microstructure-transport relationships in over- pressure processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/Ag multifilamentary round wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, G.; Schwartz, J.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, significantly improved transport properties in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/Ag (Bi2212/Ag) multifilamentary round wire (RW) has been achieved by applying 100 atm over-pressure (OP) during partial melt processing (PMP). Despite this significant progress, the microstructural details and phase evolution during the high pressure partial melt processing are poorly understood, and previous studies have focused solely on densification. Here we investigate the processing-microstructure-transport relationships of OP-PMP RWs by comparing the filament microstructure of a PMP wire with that of an OP-PMP wire on multiple length scales. OP affects the microstructure differently in each stage of PMP: it causes grain growth during pre-annealing, increases the peritectic melting temperature in the partial melt, improves oxygen uptake during solidification, and enhances grain connectivity during sintering. It is also found that the increase in transport of OP-PMP wire is related to increase in Bi2212 filament density on multiple length scales. Yet OP-PMP wire shows higher area fraction of filaments with large Bi2201 grains. Thus, to further improve transport, optimization of OP-PMP is essential; in particular the maximum heat treatment temperature should be increased, consistent with the increase in peritectic melt temperature, such that less Bi2201 grains form during processing.

  6. Photophysical and photochemical aspects of coupled semiconductors. Charge-transfer processes in colloidal CdS-TiO sub 2 and CdS-AgI systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopidas, K.R.; Bohorquez, M.; Kamat, P.V. )

    1990-08-09

    The mechanistic and kinetic details of the charge injection from excited CdS into a large bandgap semiconductor such as AgI and TiO{sub 2} have been investigated by coupling the two semiconductor systems in the colloidal form. The interaction between the two colloids led to the quenching of CdS emission. The rate constants for the charge injection from excited CdS into the conduction band of AgI and TiO{sub 2} colloids were determined to be 2.2 {times} 10{sup 7} and >5 {times} 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic analysis indicated the possibility of several CdS colloidal particles interacting with a single particle of TiO{sub 2} and participating in the charge injection process. Primary photochemical events in the CdS-TiO{sub 2} system were investigated by picosecond laser flash photolysis. The charge injected into the TiO{sub 2} colloid and trapped at the Ti{sup 4+} site was characterized from its broad absorption in the region of 500-760 nm. The extended lifetime of these trapped charge carriers indicated an improved charge separation in the coupled semiconductor system.

  7. Ultrahigh mobility and giant magnetoresistance in the Dirac Semimetals Cd3As2 and Na3Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, N. Phuan

    2015-03-01

    Dirac semimetals and Weyl semimetals are 3D analogs of graphene in which crystalline symmetry protects the nodes against gap formation. Na3Bi and Cd3As2 were predicted to be Dirac semimetals, and recently confirmed to be so by photoemission. Several novel transport properties in a magnetic field H have been proposed for Dirac semimetals. Here we report an interesting property in Cd3As2 that was unpredicted, namely a remarkable protection mechanism that strongly suppresses back-scattering in zero H. In single crystals, the protection results in a very high mobility, 107 cm2/Vs at 5 K. Suppression of backscattering results in a transport lifetime 104longer than the quantum lifetime. The lifting of this protection by H leads to very large magnetoresistance with a striking H-linear profile. I will also report transport results on Na3Bi and compare them with results in Cd3As2. I discuss how this may relate to changes to the Fermi surface induced by H. Research supported by the Army Research Office (W911NF-11-1-0379), MURI grant (ARO W911NF-12-1-0461) and NSF (DMR 0819860).

  8. Influence of magnesium oxide nanoparticles embedded in Bi-2212/Ag tapes on their superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushechkin, A. Yu.; Agranovskii, I. E.; Altman, I. S.; Zagainov, V. A.; Choi, M.

    2012-04-01

    A MgO-doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O y (Bi-2212) high-temperature superconductor is investigated experimentally. The influence of the MgO particle concentration and size on the high-temperature superconductivity parameters is studied. It is shown that, when incorporated into the superconductor, MgO particles do not change their structure. The optimal parameters of the particles exerting the strongest effect on the material are found. The optimal size of the particle is in the range 40-50 nm for a cubic structure. Measures should be taken against clustering. Ways of particle preparation and incorporation into the superconductor are considered. The superconductivity of the material with embedded MgO particles is investigated. At temperatures close to 20 K, the magnetic field of doped tapes exceeds that of undoped ones by a factor of 2.5-10.0 depending on the MgO concentration. The temperature dependences of the superconducting properties of the doped tapes at different magnetic fields are presented.

  9. Conceptual design of a 20-kA current lead using forced-flow cooling and Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Reinhard; Hull, John R.

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS's), consisting of Bi-2223 HTS tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are proposed for a 20-kA current lead for the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-flow He cooling is used, and 4-K He cooling of the whole lead as well as 60-K He cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. Power consumption and behavior in case of loss of He flow are given.

  10. Plasmonic enhancement of the optical absorption and catalytic efficiency of BiVO₄ photoanodes decorated with Ag@SiO₂ core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Fatwa F; Dabirian, Ali; Dam, Bernard; van de Krol, Roel

    2014-08-01

    Recent progress in the development of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes has firmly established it as a promising material for solar water splitting applications. Performance limitations due to intrinsically poor catalytic activity and slow electron transport have been successfully addressed through the application of water oxidation co-catalysts and novel doping strategies. The next bottleneck to tackle is the modest optical absorption in BiVO4, particularly close to its absorption edge of 2.4 eV. Here, we explore the modification of the BiVO4 surface with Ag@SiO2 core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles. A photocurrent enhancement by a factor of ~2.5 is found under 1 sun illumination (AM1.5). We show that this enhancement consists of two contributions: optical absorption and catalysis. The optical absorption enhancement is induced by the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances in the Ag nanoparticles, and agrees well with our full-field electromagnetic simulations. Far-field effects (scattering) are found to be dominant, with a smaller contribution from near-field plasmonic enhancement. In addition, a significant catalytic enhancement is observed, which is tentatively attributed to the electrocatalytic activity of the Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:24942363

  11. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity by band alignment in mesoporous ternary polyoxometalate-Ag2S-CdS semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornarakis, I.; Lykakis, I. N.; Vordos, N.; Armatas, G. S.

    2014-07-01

    Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster anions with different reduction potentials, such as PW12O403-, SiW12O404- and PMo12O403-, were employed as electron acceptors in these ternary heterojunction photocatalysts. Characterization by small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 physisorption measurements showed hexagonal arrays of POM-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanorods with large internal BET surface areas and uniform mesopores. The Keggin structure of the incorporated POM clusters was also verified by elemental X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis, infrared and diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. These new porous materials were implemented as visible-light-driven photocatalysts, displaying exceptional high activity in aerobic oxidation of various para-substituted benzyl alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Our experiments show that the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes at CdS through the potential gradient along the CdS-Ag2S-POM interfaces is responsible for the increased photocatalytic activity.Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster

  12. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    PubMed

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi ) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX (= Σ αi νi ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2 ) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish).

  13. Frequency of SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 in a population from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, P N; Ferreira-Fernandes, H; de Oliveira, J S; Pereira, A C T C; Pinto, G R; Ferreira, G P

    2015-08-14

    Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the initiation of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. The DC-SIGN receptor is encoded by the gene CD209 and is expressed on the surface of DCs. It binds to mannose-rich carbohydrates and enables the recognition of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 influences the expression of the DC-SIGN receptor. Several studies have associated this SNP with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and the development of more severe forms of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SNP -336A/G in a population from northeastern Brazil. We analyzed 181 individuals from the general population of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, of which 37% were men and 63% were women. SNP -336A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction and treatment with the restriction enzyme MscI and visualized by electrophoresis on an 8% polyacrylamide gel stained with silver nitrate. Of the individuals analyzed, 116 (64.1%) were homozygous AA, 57 (31.5%) were heterozygous (AG), and 8 (4.4%) were homozygous GG. The allele frequency of -336G was 20.2%. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the frequency of the CD209 SNP -336A/G in a population in the State of Piauí. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between this SNP and the vulnerability of this population to major infectious diseases.

  14. Magnetic properties and irreversibility behavior in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconducting wires fabricated using a controlled melt procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C. . School of Materials Science and Engineering); Shi, D.L. ); Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W. )

    1992-12-01

    A significant enhancement of the in-field J[sub c] of Ag-clad (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 (BPSCCO:2223) wires has been achieved using a controlled melt procedure. The greatly reduced weak linking has resulted in an extended plateau regime in the J[sub c]-H curve. J[sub c]s of 40,000 A/cm[sup 2] at 77 K (self field) and 9,000 A/cm[sup 2] at 77 K (1 T) have been achieved. The improved J. H characteristics may be attributed to microstructures consisting of uniform grain alignment throughout the entire cross section, intimate connection between grains, impurities within the grains, and an optimal level of dispersed 2212 phase. Irreversibility line measurements using both AC susceptibility in DC fields (reported elsewhere), and magnetization measurements, have indicated that flux pinning can be enhanced in the melt-processed samples over the results of normal solid-state processing with its less-than optimal 2212-phase content. But sufficiently long annealing times during the normal'' route may achieve 2212-phase content and J[sub c]s which are comparable to those of melt-processed samples.

  15. Magnetic properties and irreversibility behavior in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconducting wires fabricated using a controlled melt procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C.; Shi, D.L.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.

    1992-12-01

    A significant enhancement of the in-field J{sub c} of Ag-clad (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 (BPSCCO:2223) wires has been achieved using a controlled melt procedure. The greatly reduced weak linking has resulted in an extended plateau regime in the J{sub c}-H curve. J{sub c}s of 40,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K (self field) and 9,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K (1 T) have been achieved. The improved J. H characteristics may be attributed to microstructures consisting of uniform grain alignment throughout the entire cross section, intimate connection between grains, impurities within the grains, and an optimal level of dispersed 2212 phase. Irreversibility line measurements using both AC susceptibility in DC fields (reported elsewhere), and magnetization measurements, have indicated that flux pinning can be enhanced in the melt-processed samples over the results of normal solid-state processing with its less-than optimal 2212-phase content. But sufficiently long annealing times during the ``normal`` route may achieve 2212-phase content and J{sub c}s which are comparable to those of melt-processed samples.

  16. Encapsulation of Ln(III) ions/Ag nanoparticles within Cd(ii) boron imidazolate frameworks for tuning luminescence emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Chen, Shumei; Wen, Tian; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-30

    Two Cd(ii) boron imidazolate frameworks (/) with different topologies have been synthesized by the targeted assembly of aromatic carboxylate, tetradentate imidazolate ligands, possessing tunable luminescence emission properties. Hydroxy-functional neutral shows an obvious blue shift of luminescence after loading Ag nanoparticles (NPs) while the first reported anionic in the BIF system with blue emission can tune the white-light emission via doping mixed Ln(3+) in an appropriate ratio (Ln = Eu and Tb). PMID:27321108

  17. Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Qifei; Li, Ting; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Guo, Xingming; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2015-08-15

    A few studies have focused on release of valuable/toxic metals from Pb/Zn smelting slag by heterotrophic bioleaching using expensive yeast extract as an energy source. The high leaching cost greatly limits the practical potential of the method. In this work, autotrophic bioleaching using cheap sulfur or/and pyrite as energy matter was firstly applied to tackle the smelting slag and the bioleaching mechanisms were explained. The results indicated autotrophic bioleaching can solubilize valuable/toxic metals from slag, yielding maximum extraction efficiencies of 90% for Zn, 86% for Cd and 71% for In, although the extraction efficiencies of Pb, As and Ag were poor. The bioleaching performance of Zn, Cd and Pb was independent of leaching system, and leaching mechanism was acid dissolution. A maximum efficiency of 25% for As was achieved by acid dissolution in sulfursulfur oxidizing bacteria (S-SOB), but the formation of FeAsO4 reduced extraction efficiency in mixed energy source - mixed culture (MS-MC). Combined works of acid dissolution and Fe(3+) oxidation in MS-MC was responsible for the highest extraction efficiency of 71% for In. Ag was present in the slag as refractory AgPb4(AsO4)3 and AgFe2S3, so extraction did not occur.

  18. Metal-Silicate Partitioning of Bi, In, and Cd as a Function of Temperature and Melt Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marin, Nicole; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of volatile elements in the Earth, Moon and Mars is not known; however, several theories have been proposed based on volatile elements such as In, As, Se, Te and Zn which are in lower concentration in the Earth, Moon, and Mars than in chondrites. Explanations for these low concentrations are based on two contrasting theories for the origin of Earth: equilibrium core formation versus late accretion. One idea is that the volatiles were added during growth of the planets and Moon, and some mobilized into the metallic core while others stayed in the mantle (e.g., [1]). The competing idea is that they were added to the mantles after core formation had completed (e.g., [2]). Testing these ideas involves quantitative modeling which can only be performed after data is obtained on the systematic metal-silicate partitioning behavior of volatile elements with temperature, pressure and melt composition. Until now, such data for Bi, In, and Cd has been lacking. After conducting a series of high pressure, high temperature experiments, the metal-silicate partition coefficients of Bi, In, and Cd as a function of temperature and melt composition can be used to evaluate potential conditions under which terrestrial planets differentiated into core and mantle, and how they acquired volatiles.

  19. Effects of morphology, diameter and periodic distance of the Ag nanoparticle periodic arrays on the enhancement of the plasmonic field absorption in the CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Eskandari, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Yousefirad, Mansooreh; Nabavi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the numerical calculations of plasmonic field absorption of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) periodic arrays in the CdSe quantum dot (QD) film are investigated by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD). Diameter (D), periodic distance (P), and morphology effects of Ag NPs are investigated on the improvement of the plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film. Results show that plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is enhanced with reduction of D of Ag NPs until 5 nm and reduces thereafter. It is observed that with raising D of Ag NPs, optimum plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is shifted toward the higher P. Moreover, with varying morphology of Ag NPs from spherical to cylindrical, cubic, ringing and pyramid, the plasmonic field absorption is considerably enhanced in CdSe QD film and position of quadrupole plasmon mode (QPPM) is shifted toward further wavelength. For cylindrical Ag NPs, the QPPM intensity increased with raising height (H) until 15 nm and reduces thereafter.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the photocatalytic performance of Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven plasmonic photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Malla, Shova; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven photocatalyst was successfully synthesized. • Photocatalyst exhibited strong absorption in the visible region. • Photocatalytic activity was significantly enhanced. • Enhanced activity was caused by the SPR effect induced by Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized in ethanol/water mixture by photo assisted co-precipitation method at room temperature. As synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by performing the degradation experiment over methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) as model dyes under simulated solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} showed the higher photocatalytic performance as compared to CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles. Dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over the surface of CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles causes the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enhances the broad absorption in the entire visible region of the solar spectrum. Hence, dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles could be the better alternative to enhance the absorption of visible light by scheelite crystal family for effective photocatalysis.

  1. Structural features of AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, two new compounds with the alluaudite-type structure, and their catalytic activity in butan-2-ol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kacimi, Mohammed; Ziyad, Mahfoud; Hatert, Frederic . E-mail: fhatert@ulg.ac.be

    2005-04-20

    AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, two new compounds with the alluaudite-type structure, were synthesized by a solid state reaction in air at 750 deg. C. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} indicates the presence of small amounts of (Ca, Mg){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} with the whitlockite structure, as impurity, whereas AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is constituted by pure alluaudite. The Rietveld refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate an ordered cationic distribution for AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, with Ag on A(2)', Cd on A(1) and M(1), and Mg on M(2), whereas a disordered distribution of Cd and Ca between the A(1) and M(1) sites is observed for AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The catalytic properties of these compounds has been measured in reaction of butan-2-ol dehydrogenation. In the absence of oxygen, both samples exhibit poor dehydrogenation activity. All samples displayed no dehydration activity. Introduction of oxygen into the feed changed totally the catalytic behavior of the catalysts. The production of methyl ethyl ketone increases with time on stream and the reaction temperature. AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is more efficient than AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  2. Protection associated with a TB vaccine is linked to increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells but no increase in avidity for Ag85A.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Steinbach, Sabine; Jones, Gareth J; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, W Ivan; Vordermeier, Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2016-08-31

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis in humans and cattle. Previously, we found boosting BCG-primed cows with recombinant human type 5 adenovirus expressing antigen 85A (Ad5-85A) increased protection against Mycobacterium bovis infection compared to BCG vaccination alone. The aim of this study was to decipher aspects of the immune response associated with this enhanced protection. We compared BCG-primed Ad5-85A-boosted cattle with BCG-vaccinated cattle. Polyclonal CD4(+) T cell libraries were generated from pre-boost and post-boost peripheral blood mononuclear cells - using a method adapted from Geiger et al. (2009) - and screened for antigen 85A (Ag85A) specificity. Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell lines were analysed for their avidity for Ag85A and their Ag85A epitope specificity was defined. Boosting BCG with Ad5-85A increased the frequencies of post-boost Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells which correlated with protection (reduced pathology). Boosting Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell responses did not increase their avidity. The epitope specificity was variable between animals and we found no clear evidence for a post-boost epitope spreading. In conclusion, the protection associated with boosting BCG with Ad5-85A is linked with increased frequencies of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells without increasing avidity or widening of the Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell repertoire.

  3. Hall effect anomaly and low-temperature metamagnetism in the Kondo compound CeAgBi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Lee, S. B.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Fisk, Z.; Xia, J.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy fermion (HF) materials exhibit a rich array of phenomena due to the strong Kondo coupling between their localized moments and itinerant electrons. A central question in their study is to understand the interplay between magnetic order and charge transport, and its role in stabilizing new quantum phases of matter. Particularly promising in this regard is a family of tetragonal intermetallic compounds Ce T X2 (where T denotes transition metal and X denotes pnictogen), which includes a variety of HF compounds showing T -linear electronic specific heat Ce˜γ T , with γ ˜20 -500 mJ mol-1K-2 , reflecting an effective-mass enhancement ranging from small to modest. Here, we study the low-temperature field-tuned phase diagram of high-quality CeAgBi2 using magnetometry and transport measurements. We find an antiferromagnetic transition at TN=6.4 K with weak magnetic anisotropy and the easy axis along the c axis, similar to previous reports (TN=6.1 K ). This scenario, along with the presence of two anisotropic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions, leads to a rich field-tuned magnetic phase diagram, consisting of five metamagnetic transitions of both first and second order. In addition, we unveil an anomalous Hall contribution for fields H <54 kOe , which is drastically altered when H is tuned through a trio of transitions at 57, 78, and 84 kOe, suggesting that the Fermi surface is reconstructed in a subset of the metamagnetic transitions.

  4. Effect of adherent bacteria and bacterial extracellular polymers upon assimilation by Macoma balthica of sediment-bound Cd, Zn and Ag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of adherent bacteria and bacterial extracellular polymer (exopolymer) upon uptake of particle-bound Cd, Zn and Ag by the deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica were studied in the laboratory. Amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and unaltered and alkaline-extracted sediments were used as model particulates in separate, controlled deposit-feeding experiments. In general, amounts of metal taken up from ingested particles varied dramatically with the nature of the particle surface. Ingestion of contaminated iron oxide particles did not contribute to overall uptake of Cd and Ag in feeding clams, but accounted for 89 to 99% of total Zn uptake. Exopolymer adsorbed on iron oxide particles caused an increase in the biological availability of particle-bound metals in the order Ag>Cd>Zn, whereas adherent bacteria up to 3.2 X 1011 g-1 had no effect upon amounts of metal taken up from ingested particulates. At the higher Cd and Ag concentrations employed (3.6 X 10-7M), feeding rates declined with increasing amounts of iron oxide-bound exopolymer, suggesting behavioral avoidance due to increased metal availability. Much of the Cd (57 %) taken up by clams feeding on unaltered estuarine sediments originated from particulates, even though particle/solute distribution of Cd (86%) was similar to that in experiments with iron oxide particles. Uptake of Cd from alkalineextracted sediments was insignificant, as it was from unamended iron oxide. However, addition of exopolymer (10 mgg-1 sediment) caused a restoration nn bioavailability of sediment-bound Cd.

  5. New dielectric ceramics Pb(Cd)BiM/sup IV/SbO/sub 7/ (M/sup IV/ = Ti, Zr, Sn) with the pyrochlore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lambachri, A.; Monier, M.; Mercurio, J.P.; Frit, B.

    1988-04-01

    Dielectric ceramics have been obtained by natural sintering of pyrochlore phases with general formula Pb(Cd)BiM/sup IV/SbO/sub 7/ (M/sup IV/ = Ti, Zr, Sn). Low frequency dielectric characteristics have been studied with respect to the processing conditions: sintering without additive and in the presence of some low melting compounds (PbO, Pb/sub 5/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 11/, Bi/sub 12/PbO/sub 19/ and Bi/sub 12/CdO/sub 19/). The dielectric constants of these ceramics lie between 30 and 60, the dielectric losses range from 10 to 30.10/sup -4/ and the temperature coefficient of the dielectric constants (20 - 100/sup 0/C) can be tailored by means of additives in the +- 30 ppm K/sup -1/ range.

  6. A mechanism for resistive dissipation in Ag sheathed Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect

    Suenaga, M.; Li, Q.; Sabatini, R.L.; Shibutani, K.; Hayoashi, S.; Ogawa, R.; Kawate, Y.; Motowidlo, L.

    1993-11-01

    Detailed measurements of the V-I curves for a number of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10}/Ag composite tapes were made at 4.2, 27, and 64-77 K as a function of applied magnetic field as well as the angle between the tape face and the direction of applied field. Results suggest that the weak vortex-pinning strength, and the amount of the weakly coupled grain boundaries and of the non-superconducting volume are primary limiting factors for critical current densities in Bi(2212)/Ag and Bi(2223)/Ag, respectively. Furthermore, in both cases, the dissipative voltages arise from the interior of the gains.

  7. Modeling of the bending strain dependence of the critical current in Bi2223/Ag composite tapes based on the damage stress of the superconducting filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Xiaofan; Shen, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    An analysis model of the bending strain dependence of the critical current in multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag composite tapes is presented. To investigate the effect of the mechanical properties of the Bi2223 superconducting filament, the actual part for carrying current, its damage stress and elastic modulus are introduced. The calculated result of the variation of the critical current with the bending strain is well agreed with the experimental one. The further studies find that the mechanical properties of the filament have a remarkable effect on the bending strain dependence of the critical current. Specifically, the larger the damage stress and elastic modulus of the filament are, the higher the critical current is, when the bending strain increases to a larger value beyond the critical one.

  8. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A C

    2015-02-20

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL(-1) Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  9. SiO2/bi-layer GZO/Ag structures for near-infrared broadband wide-angle perfect absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chaoting; Li, Jia; Yang, Ye; Huang, Jinhua; Lu, Yuehui; Zhao, Xunna; Tan, Ruiqin; Dai, Ning; Song, Weijie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, near-infrared (NIR) perfect absorbers with a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO)/silver (Ag) multi-layer structure were designed and experimentally demonstrated. The results show that a broadband perfect absorption (PA) from 1.24 µm to 1.49 µm was achieved by adopting bi-layer GZO thin films with different carrier concentrations. This absorption remained higher than 97% for incident angles up to 60°. The perfect NIR absorber reported here has a simple structure as well as broadband and wide-angle absorption features, which is promising for practical applications.

  10. Thermomechanical processing of Ag-clad Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.T.; Goretta, K.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Biondo, A.C.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (2212) powders were synthesized by solid-state reaction, loaded into Ag tubes, and processed into tapes by various combinations of drawing, rolling, and heat treatment. Critical current densities at 4.2 K of greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} were achieved from microstructures consisting of large, highly textured 2212 grains. Optimal microstructures were produced by specific mechanical-working conditions and heat-treatment schedules that incorporated solid-state and partial-melt sintering. The relationships between processing, microstructure, and critical current density will be discussed.

  11. Bright white-light emission from Ag/SiO2/CdS-ZnS core/shell/shell plasmon couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chen; Tang, Luping; Gao, Xiaoqin; Xu, Ruilin; Zhang, Huichao; Yu, Yongya; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2015-12-01

    Well-defined plasmon couplers (PCs) that comprise a Ag core overcoated with a SiO2 shell with controlled thickness, followed by a monolayer of CdS-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized to modify the emission from trap-rich CdS-ZnS QDs by adjusting the distance between the QDs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs). When the thickness of the SiO2 shell was 10 nm, because the shell could effectively suppress the non-radiative energy transfer from the semiconductor QDs to the metal NPs and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NPs spectrally matched the emission peak of the CdS-ZnS QDs to bring about strong plasmon coupling, optimum enhancements of the surface state emission (SSE) (17 times) and band-edge emission (BEE) (4 times) were simultaneously realized and the SSE to BEE intensity ratio was increased to 55%. As a result, a bright white-light source with 1931 Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.32, 0.34) was realized by the superposition of the two emissions. The experimental results from Ag/SiO2/CdSe-ZnS and the Ag/SiO2/CdS:Mn-ZnS core/shell/shell PCs indicated that suppressing the non-radiative decay rate (knr) was the underlying mechanism for plasmon coupling fluorescence enhancement.

  12. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances.

  13. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances. PMID:26899726

  14. ZnO/CdS bi-layer nanostructures photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Paresh V.; Deshpande, Milind P.; Solanki, Bharat G.; Soni, Saurabh S.

    2016-05-01

    Simple chemical deposition method for the synthesis of ZnO/CdS bilayer photoelectrode on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate in aqueous medium at low temperature (< 373K) is described. The different preparative parameters such as deposition time, bath temperature, concentration of precursor solution and, pH of the bath etc. were optimized. Nanograined ZnO was deposited on FTO coated glass substrates by dip-coating method, whereas CdS nanorods were successfully synthesized on pre-deposited ZnO film by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method. The Photovoltaic properties of FTO/ZnO/CdS bilayer photo electrodes were also studied. A maximum short circuit current density of 9.1 mA cm-2 and conversion efficiency 1.05% are observed for ZnO/CdS_10min. Layer, which supports fast electron injection kinetics due to hetero structured nanorod, while minimum values of 0.53mA cm-2 and 0.01% respectively are observed for only ZnO deposited layer.

  15. The non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile CD37 protects mice against infection with a BI/NAP1/027 type of C. difficile strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keshan; Zhao, Song; Wang, Yuankai; Zhu, Xuejun; Shen, Hong; Chen, Yugen; Sun, Xingmin

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile CD37, a clinical isolate from the USA, does not produce toxin A, B or binary toxin. The aim of this study was to determine whether strain CD37 can protect mice against infection from a challenge with a toxigenic C. difficile strain. Three groups of mice (n = 10) were pretreated with a antibiotics cocktail for 5 days, switched to sterile water for 2 days, and given one dose of clindamycin (10 mg/kg) one day (day-1) before challenge (day 0) with a toxigenic C. difficile strain. Group 1 (CD37 + UK6) was given 10(7)C. difficile CD37 vegetative cells by gavage twice a day on days -1 and -2, followed by challenge with 10(6) spores of the toxigenic C. difficile UK6 (BI/NAPI/027) on day 0; Group 2 (UK6) was infected with 10(6)C. difficile UK6 spores on day 0; Group 3 (CD37) was challenged with 10(6) CD37 vegetative cells on day 0. Our data show that pre-inoculation of strain CD37 provided mice significant protection (survival, p < 0.001 between groups CD37 + UK6 and UK6) against subsequent infection with the strain UK6, while mice infected with CD37 only did not develop any symptoms of C. difficile infection (CDI). Our results highlight the potential use of CD37 as a therapeutic strain for the prevention of primary and recurrent CDI in humans.

  16. Low-energy transitions in ^112Cd identified in the beta-decays of ^112Ag and ^112In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, K. L.; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Grinyer, G. F.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D. S.; Hackman, G.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Austin, R. A. E.; Colosimo, S.; Cross, D.; Wood, J. L.; Kulp, W. D.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-10-01

    The Cd isotopes, especially ^112Cd, have been considered exceptional examples of vibrational nuclei. While many level lifetimes are known in ^112Cd, previous measurements lacked sensitivity to weak, low-energy branches that are often the most important transitions to establish collectivity. We have sought these branches through a high-statistics measurement of the β decay of ^112Ag and ^112In to ^112Cd using the 8π spectrometer at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The data were collected in scaled-down γ singles and γγ coincidence mode, and ˜100x10^6 events were sorted into a random-background-subtracted γγ matrix. New branches from levels below 2.5 MeV were observed, and a higher precision on several branching ratios, especially the 4^+ and 0^+ doublet of states at 1871 keV, has been achieved. Details of the analysis to date will be reported. Work supported in part by NSERC and the US DOE under grant DE-FG02-96ER40958.

  17. High-Performance Fully Nanostructured Photodetector with Single-Crystalline CdS Nanotubes as Active Layer and Very Long Ag Nanowires as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    An, Qinwei; Meng, Xianquan; Sun, Pan

    2015-10-21

    Long and single-crystalline CdS nanotubes (NTs) have been prepared via a physical evaporation process. A metal-semiconductor-metal full-nanostructured photodetector with CdS NTs as active layer and Ag nanowires (NWs) of low resistivity and high transmissivity as electrodes has been fabricated and characterized. The CdS NTs-based photodetectors exhibit high performance, such as lowest dark currents (0.19 nA) and high photoresponse ratio (Ilight/Idark ≈ 4016) (among CdS nanostructure network photodetectors and NTs netwok photodetectors reported so far) and very low operation voltages (0.5 V). The photoconduction mechanism, including the formation of a Schottky barrier at the interface of Ag NW and CdS NTs and the effect of oxygen adsorption process on the Schottky barrier has also been provided in detail based on the studies of CdS NTs photodetector in air and vacuum. Furthermore, CdS NTs photodetector exhibits an enhanced photosensitivity as compared with CdS NWs photodetector. The enhancement in performance is dependent on the larger surface area of NTs adsorbing more oxygen in air and the microcavity structure of NTs with higher light absorption efficiency and external quantum efficiency. It is believed that CdS NTs can potentially be useful in the designs of 1D CdS-based optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  18. Microstructural, wetting, and mechanical characteristics of Sn-57.6Bi-0.4Ag alloys doped with metal-organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Tag; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The metallurgical and mechanical properties of the commercial low-temperature solder alloy, Sn-57.6Bi-0.4Ag (wt. %), were altered by doping with each of Pd, Co, Zn, and Ni, through reactive reflow processing by using the appropriate metal-organic compound. The use of metal-acetates resulted in appropriate doping concentrations, while the use of metal-acetylacetonates and -stearates resulted in insufficient doping concentrations. This indicates that the degree of doping is strongly dependent on the nature of the metal-organic compound used in the reactive reflow process. Notably, a concurrent decrease in the melting point and the degree of undercooling were observed only in the case of the Pd-doped alloy. In addition, the Pd-doped alloy exhibited an increase in the fraction of the primary β-Sn phase in its microstructure, and greater wettability as tested on a Cu plate. Meanwhile, the Co-doped alloy exhibited a notable increase in the size and spacing of its lamellar structure, and the Ni-doped alloy showed a refinement of its lamellar structure. Accordingly, doping with Pd and Co mitigated the brittleness of the parent Sn-57.6Bi-0.4Ag alloy, which thereby showed a pronounced increase in its plastic displacement during shear tests. Considering the increase in wettability and reduction in brittleness of the original alloy, Pd is considered to be the most suitable dopant, among all the different doping elements analyzed in this study.

  19. Phase Structures and Piezoelectric Properties of (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Sb)O3-(Bi,Ag)ZrO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, ZhiPeng; Zhang, Yang; Li, LingYu; Li, JianKang; Zhai, JiWei

    2016-06-01

    Samples in the pseudoternary lead-free piezoelectric ceramic system 0.94KNN-(0.06 - x)LiSbO3- x(Bi0.5Ag0.5)ZrO3 were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique and their phase transition behavior and electrical properties studied. Results showed that BAZ diffuses into KNN-LS to form a new solid solution, and induces a phase transition from tetragonal to rhombohedral phase with increase of x. At 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.03, coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases is observed, and enhanced piezoelectric properties are achieved in this composition range due to the polymorphic phase transition near room temperature. Doping with (Bi0.5Ag0.5)ZrO3 effectively promotes densification and further enhances the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of of the ceramics. Moreover, the ceramic with x = 0.025 possesses excellent electrical properties of k p = 42.3%, {d_{33}^{*}} = 320 pm/V and d 33 = 235 pC/N, tan δ = 0.039, and T c = 326°C. This result indicates that 0.94KNN-0.035LS-0.025BAZ ceramic is a promising lead-free material for practical applications.

  20. AGS67E, an Anti-CD37 Monomethyl Auristatin E Antibody–Drug Conjugate as a Potential Therapeutic for B/T-Cell Malignancies and AML: A New Role for CD37 in AML

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel S.; Guevara, Claudia I.; Jin, Liqing; Mbong, Nathan; Verlinsky, Alla; Hsu, Ssucheng J.; Aviña, Hector; Karki, Sher; Abad, Joseph D.; Yang, Peng; Moon, Sung-Ju; Malik, Faisal; Choi, Michael Y.; An, Zili; Morrison, Kendall; Challita-Eid, Pia M.; Doñate, Fernando; Joseph, Ingrid B.J.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Dick, John E.; Stover, David R.

    2015-01-01

    CD37 is a tetraspanin expressed on malignant B cells. Recently, CD37 has gained interest as a therapeutic target. We developed AGS67E, an antibody–drug conjugate that targets CD37 for the potential treatment of B/T-cell malignancies. It is a fully human monoclonal IgG2 antibody (AGS67C) conjugated, via a protease-cleavable linker, to the microtubule-disrupting agent mono-methyl auristatin E (MMAE). AGS67E induces potent cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell-cycle alterations in many non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell lines and patient-derived samples in vitro. It also shows potent antitumor activity in NHL and CLL xenografts, including Rituxan-refractory models. During profiling studies to confirm the reported expression of CD37 in normal tissues and B-cell malignancies, we made the novel discovery that the CD37 protein was expressed in T-cell lymphomas and in AML. AGS67E bound to >80% of NHL and T-cell lymphomas, 100% of CLL and 100% of AML patient-derived samples, including CD34+CD38− leukemic stem cells. It also induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell-cycle alterations in AML cell lines and antitumor efficacy in orthotopic AML xenografts. Taken together, this study shows not only that AGS67E may serve as a potential therapeutic for B/T-cell malignancies, but it also demonstrates, for the first time, that CD37 is well expressed and a potential drug target in AML. PMID:25934707

  1. Ag nanoclusters could efficiently quench the photoresponse of CdS quantum dots for novel energy transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yue; Liang, Yan-Yu; He, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Herein the influence of ultrasmall Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) against CdS quantum dots (QDs) in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) nanosystem was exploited for the first time, based on which a novel PEC bioanalysis was successfully developed via the efficient quenching effect of Ag NCs against the CdS QDs. In a model system, DNA assay was achieved by using molecular beacon (MB) probes anchored on a CdS QDs modified electrode, and the MB probes contain two segments that can hybridize with both target DNA sequence and the label of DNA encapsulated Ag NCs. After the MB probe was unfolded by the target DNA sequence, the labels of oligonucleotide encapsulated Ag NCs would be brought in close proximity to the CdS QDs electrode surface, and efficient photocurrent quenching of QDs could be resulted from an energy transfer process that originated from NCs. Thus, by monitoring the attenuation in the photocurrent signal, an elegant and sensitive PEC DNA bioanalysis could be accomplished. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0pM to 10nM and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3pM. This work presents a feasible signaling principle that could act as a common basis for general PEC bioanalysis development. PMID:27315518

  2. Bioconcentration of Ag, Cd, Co, Mn and Zn in the Mangrove Oyster (Crassostrea gasar) and Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment: A Radiotracer Study.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Tumnoi, Yutthana; Pouil, Simon; Warnau, Michel; Metian, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Bioaccumulation kinetics of five dissolved metals were determined in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar, using corresponding radiotracers ((54)Mn, (57)Co, (65)Zn, (109)Cd and (110m)Ag). Additionally, their bioaccessibility to human consumers was estimated. Results indicated that over a 14-day exposure (54)Mn and (57)Co were linearly concentrated in oysters whereas (109)Cd, (65)Zn and (110m)Ag were starting to saturate (steady-state not reached). Whole-body concentration factors at 14 days (CF14d in toto) ranged from 187 ± 65 to 629 ± 179 with the lowest bioconcentration capacity for Co and the highest for Ag. Depuration kinetics were best described by a double-exponential model with associated biological half-lives ranging from 26 days (Ag) to almost 8 months (Zn and Cd). Bioaccessible fraction of the studied elements was estimated using in vitro digestions, which suggested that oysters consumed seasoned with lemon enhanced the accessibility of Cd, Mn and Zn to human consumers, but not Ag and Co. PMID:27194421

  3. Ag nanoclusters could efficiently quench the photoresponse of CdS quantum dots for novel energy transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yue; Liang, Yan-Yu; He, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Herein the influence of ultrasmall Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) against CdS quantum dots (QDs) in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) nanosystem was exploited for the first time, based on which a novel PEC bioanalysis was successfully developed via the efficient quenching effect of Ag NCs against the CdS QDs. In a model system, DNA assay was achieved by using molecular beacon (MB) probes anchored on a CdS QDs modified electrode, and the MB probes contain two segments that can hybridize with both target DNA sequence and the label of DNA encapsulated Ag NCs. After the MB probe was unfolded by the target DNA sequence, the labels of oligonucleotide encapsulated Ag NCs would be brought in close proximity to the CdS QDs electrode surface, and efficient photocurrent quenching of QDs could be resulted from an energy transfer process that originated from NCs. Thus, by monitoring the attenuation in the photocurrent signal, an elegant and sensitive PEC DNA bioanalysis could be accomplished. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0pM to 10nM and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3pM. This work presents a feasible signaling principle that could act as a common basis for general PEC bioanalysis development.

  4. Photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into H2 and O2 on porous BiVO4 thin-film electrodes under visible light and significant effect of Ag ion treatment.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Atsushi; Arai, Takeo; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Ryu; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Oi, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yasukazu; Abe, Yoshimoto; Sugihara, Hideki

    2006-06-15

    The photoelectrochemical properties of porous BiVO4 thin-film electrodes on conducting glass for H2 production from water under visible light were investigated. BiVO4 films were prepared by the metal-organic decomposition method, and particles were 90-150 nm in diameter. Under visible-light irradiation, H2 and O2 evolved in a stoichiometric ratio (H2/O2 = 2) from an aqueous solution of Na2SO4 with an external bias. The photocurrent increased with addition of methanol. The band structure of BiVO4 was investigated by open-circuit potential, flat-band potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and calculations based on density functional theory. The top of the valence-band potential of BiVO4 was shifted negatively compared to the potentials of the conventional oxide semiconductors without Bi. We surmise that hybridization between the O-2p and Bi-6s orbitals might contribute to the negative shift of the BiVO4 valence band. Treatment with an aqueous solution of AgNO3 improved the photocurrent of the BiVO4 electrode significantly. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency at 420 nm was 44%. This value was the highest among mixed-oxide semiconductor electrodes under visible light irradiation. AgNO3 treatment also improved the stability of the photocurrent. The Ag+ ion in/on the BiVO4 catalyzed the intrinsic photogeneration of oxygen with the holes.

  5. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  6. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free-modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells.

  7. A study of the magnetic field distribution in an Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tape using scanning Hall sensor and magneto-optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, K.; Abell, J. S.; Ohtake, A.; Oota, A.

    2000-09-01

    Using both magneto-optical (MO) and scanning Hall sensor techniques, magnetic field distributions have been observed in a superconducting Ag-sheathed Bi2223 monofilamentary tape in the presence of an external magnetic field. Application of the inversion scheme to the MO contrast has allowed the two-dimensional current distribution to be determined. The Hall sensor measurements indicate that the current distribution in the core depends on the applied external field, and the current flows mainly at the edge of the core in a high external field. The magnetic line profiles across the width of the tape have been analysed by a numerical calculation by modelling the current loops based on the two-dimensional current distribution from the MO image. The analysis shows that an increase in the external field limits and narrows the current flow region from the whole of the core to the edge.

  8. Effect of lead content on phase evolution and microstructural development in Ag-clad Bi-2223 composite conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, N.N.; Maroni, V.A.; Fischer, A.K.; Dorris, S.E.; Zhong, W.; Ashcom, N.

    1997-02-01

    A two powder process was used to prepare silver-sheathed monofilamentary Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 1.98}Ca{sub 1.97}Cu{sub 3.08}O{sub y} (Bi-2223) tapes with varying lead contents, x, from 0.2 to 0.5. The resulting tapes were subjected to thermomechanical processing and then characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). Layered phase texture was accessed using image analysis software on scanned SEM micrographs. Transport currents were measured at 77 K and zero field by the four-probe method. It was found that tapes with low lead content (X = 0.2 and 0.25) showed incomplete conversion to Bi-2223, had small grain size and poor c-axis texture. Tapes having higher lead content (x = 0.4 and 0.5) also showed incomplete conversion and the presence of lead-rich secondary phases. Tapes with lead content x = 0.3 and 0.35 showed complete conversion to Bi-2223, and had the least amount of secondary phases, the best c-axis texture, and the highest transport current (j{sub c}). The carbon content of the precursor powder also had a strong influence on secondary-phase chemistry.

  9. International round robin test of the retained critical current after double bending at room temperature of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Nishijima, G.; Osamura, K.; Shin, H. S.; Goldacker, W.; Breschi, M.; Ribani, P.

    2016-02-01

    An international round robin test was carried out in order to establish a test method for retained critical current after double bending at room temperature of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting wires. Tests for commercial Bi-2223 tape were conducted by six laboratories using the same guidelines. The standard uncertainties (SUs) of measurands were evaluated for these four quantities: I C0, I C/I C080, I C/I C060, I C/I C050, where, I C0 is initial critical current and I C /I C0XX is critical current after XX mm bending. Using an F test to determine where the most scatter was generated in the test results it was found that the greatest scatter in the normalized critical current measurements came from inter-laboratory scatter. In a type-B uncertainty evaluation, the major contribution was from the bending diameter and measuring temperature. The relative SU tended to increase as the bending diameter decreased. A specific mandrel diameter corresponding to a retained critical current of 95% could be determined with a relative SU of 1.3%. In order to reduce the overall scatter, the temperature difference between the critical current measurements before and after bending should be small.

  10. Conceptual design of a forced-flow-cooled 20-kA current lead using Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in current leads to reduce refrigeration power has been investigated by many groups in the past. Most used YBCO and Bi-2212 bulk superconductors, although their critical current density is not very high. In this paper, BI-2223 HTSC tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are used in the design of a 20-kA current lead because of their higher critical current in medium magnetic fields. The lead current of 20 kA is related to the coil current of the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-now helium cooling has been used in the design, allowing position-independent and well-controlled operation. The design characteristics of the lead are presented and 4-K helium cooling of the whole lead, as well as 60-K helium cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. The power consumption at zero current, and the lead`s behaviour in case of loss of coolant flow, are given, The results of the design allow extrapolation to current leads of the 50-kA range.

  11. Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Reng; Liu, Ji

    2015-06-15

    We report the first demonstration of a diode pumped passively Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser near 2μm wavelength with Bi-doped or undoped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber. For Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber, stable Q-switched pulses with duration of 63.3ns under a repetition rate of 132.7 kHz and pulse energy of 5.51μJ are generated. In comparison to the passively Q-switched laser with undoped GaAs saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs can produce shorter pulses and higher peak power at almost the same incident pump power. The results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be an attractive candidate of saturable absorber for Q-switched laser near 2μm wavelength.

  12. Core-shell Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX (X = Cl, Br and I) microspheres: a family of hetero-structured catalysts with adjustable bandgaps, enhanced stability and photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yannan; Wen, Ting; Chang, Binbin; Yang, Baocheng; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-09-21

    Heterostructures consisting of two semiconductors have merited considerable attention in photocatalytic applications due to synergistic effects in complex redox processes. The incorporation of solid solutions into such architectures can further offer extra variability to control the bandgap. In this study, we report the fabrication of a series of core-shell Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX (X = Cl, Br and I) microspheres via a solvothermal route that lead to enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. By optimizing the synthesis conditions, uniform and porous Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX microspheres were achieved. The products were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction studies, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence studies, absorption measurements and the photodegradation of RhB. Remarkably, the electronic structures of Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX composites can be continuously tuned by varying the composition of BiOX to achieve the best catalytic performance under visible light irradiation. Finally, this greatly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency was observed in the optimized Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOI composites when compared to their single-component counterparts, which may be attributed to increased light absorption and improved electron-hole separation. The photocatalytic mechanism has also been proposed based on the experimental evidences and the theoretical band positions of Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOI. PMID:27510184

  13. Cluster formation in Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CdCl{sub 2} glass system

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.S.; Singh, N.B.

    2008-11-03

    Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20 wt% CdCl{sub 2} glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized with the help of several experimental techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction study indicated that the glasses are amorphous in nature. DSC studies showed that CdCl{sub 2} doped glass is chemically more durable. Electrical conductivity and ionic transference number measurements have shown that both the glasses are ionic conductors with Ag{sup +} ions as the charge carriers. The electrical conductivity of the doped glass is found to be higher than the undoped one. Structures of the glasses have been proposed on the basis of IR spectral analysis. From SEM studies it has been inferred that addition of 20 wt% CdCl{sub 2} modifies the morphology of Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass and in its presence formation of clusters composed of nanofibers occur.

  14. Application of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nanocrystals for sensitive sensing of Cu2+ and Ag+ ions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Ma, Qian; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A new ion sensor based on hybrid SiO2 -coated CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) was prepared and applied for sensitive sensing of Cu(2+) and Ag(+) for the selective quenching of photoluminescence (PL) of NCs in the presence of ions. As shown by ion detection experiments conducted in pure water rather than buffer solution, PL responses of NCs were linearly proportional to concentrations of Cu(2+) and Ag(+) ions < 3 and 7 uM, respectively. Much lower detection limits of 42.37 nM for Cu(2+) and 39.40 nM for Ag(+) were also observed. In addition, the NC quenching mechanism was discussed in terms of the characterization of static and transient optical spectra. The transfer and trapping of photoinduced charges in NCs by surface energy levels of CuS and Ag2 S clusters as well as surface defects generated by the exchange of Cu(2+) and Ag(+) ions with Cd(2+) ion in NCs, resulted in PL quenching and other optical spectra changes, including steady-state absorption and transient PL spectra. It is our hope that these results will be helpful in the future preparation of new ion sensors. PMID:23427119

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigation of doping M in ZnSe (M = Cd, Mn, Ag, Cu) clusters: optical and bonding characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhong; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Chunlei; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2016-03-01

    The optical and bonding characteristics of doping ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated. Cd-, Mn-, Ag- and Cu-doped ZnSe were synthesized in aqueous solution. Theoretically, the intensity of the Cd-Se bond was similar to that of the Zn-Se bond, which illustrates that Cd can be doped into ZnSe materials at any ratio. We found that Mn-Se bonding was stronger than Zn-Se bonding. Ag-doped ZnSe nanoclusters show the same bonding and configuration as Cu-doped ZnSe. Moreover, Cd can be doped into ZnSe using both the substitution- and vacancy-doping method. For Mn-doped ZnSe clusters, small amounts of Mn impurity lead to stronger bonding with Se, but larger amounts of Mn impurity led to the formation of a Mn-Mn metal bond. The theoretical results show that it is difficult to form a vacancy-doping cluster for Mn-doped ZnSe materials. In experiments, the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectral wavelengths of Mn-doped ZnSe nanocrystals were the same as those of pure ZnSe nanocrystals, showing that the Mn impurity is not doped into ZnSe nanocrystals. Ag- and Cu-doped ZnSe nanocrystals have the same PL characteristics. The doping of an impurity is related to the solubility product, and not the bonding intensity.

  16. Molecular layer-by-layer engineering of superconducting and superionic materials in the (AgI)Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} system

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, J.H.; Park, N.G.; Kim, Y.I.; Hwang, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Yoo, H.I.

    1995-05-18

    We have developed a new interstratified system consisting of a superconducting layer alternating with a superionic conducting one, which is the AgI intercalated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} with well-defined 2-dimensional heterostructure. Before and after the intercalation of AgI, the superconducting properties remained unchanged with the T{sub c}`s of 76 K for the pristine and 63 K for the intercalate. From the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis, it is found that the intercalated AgI is formed as the {beta}-like intracrystalline structure in the 2-dimensional interlayer space of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y}. According to the ac impedance and dc relaxation measurements, the ionic transference number (t{sub i} = {sigma}{sub i}/{sigma}{sub r}) has been estimated to be 0.27 (at 167{degree}C), indicating that the substantial ionic conductivity ({sigma}{sub 1}) contributes to the total electrical one ({sigma}{sub T}). In comparison of the ionic conductivity for (AgI)Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} ({sigma}{sub i} = 10{sup -3}-10{sup -23} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) with those for the well-known superionic conductors of cation-substituted {beta}-aluminas, the ionic transport in (AgI)Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} turned out to be significant, even comparable with the superionic conductors. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS/Bi2MoO6 heterojunction photocatalysts with excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi; Yan, Xu; Liu, Chunbo; Hong, Yuanzhi; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Mingjun; Shi, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    A novel CdS/Bi2MoO6 heterojunction photocatalysts were successfully prepared via two-step hydrothermal methods. The prepared samples were characterized by various physicochemical techniques, such as XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis and PL. The obtained samples exhibited highly photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of the different kinds of organic dyes and tetracycline in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The optimum photocatalytic efficiency of CdS-2 sample for the degradation rhodamine B (RhB) was about 25.3 and 3.7 times higher than that of individual CdS and Bi2MoO6, respectively. In addition, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was analyzed by different active species trapping experiments. The results indicated that the h+ and rad O2- were the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. Moreover, the prepared sample shows good stability and recyclability properties which are beneficial for its practical application.

  18. Performance of LaBaCo 2O 5+ δ-Ag with B 2O 3-Bi 2O 3-PbO frit composite cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruifeng; Gao, Lei; Ge, Lin; Zheng, Yifeng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Han; Guo, Lucun

    The composite cathodes LaBaCo 2O 5+ δ- x wt.% Ag (LBCO- xAg, x = 20, 30, 40, 50) were prepared by mechanical mixing method for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The experiment results indicated that the addition of a small amount of B 2O 3-Bi 2O 3-PbO (BBP) frit to LBCO- xAg can effectively improve the adhesion and strength of cathode membrane without damaging its porous structure. The BBP frit was proved effective for lowering the sintering temperature of LBCO- xAg to 900 °C. According to the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cathodic polarization analysis, the LBCO-30Ag exhibited the best performance and the optimal BBP frit content was 2.5 wt.%. For LBCO-30Ag with 2.5 wt.% BBP frit, the area-specific resistance based on Sm 0.2Ce 0.8O 1.9 (SDC) electrolyte decreased by about 57.6% at 700 °C, 60.5% at 750 °C and 75.9% at 800 °C compared to LBCO, and its cathodic overpotential was 10.7 mV at a current density of 0.2 A cm -2 at 700 °C, while the corresponding value for LBCO was 51.0 mV. The addition of Ag and BBP frit to LBCO had no significant effect on the thermal expansion.

  19. Structure, phase evolution, and microwave dielectric properties of (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 ceramic with ultralow sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Li, Wen-Bo; Guo, Jing; Pang, Li-Xia; Qi, Ze-Ming; Shao, Tao; Xie, Hui-Dong; Yue, Zhen-Xing; Yao, Xi

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the microwave dielectric ceramic (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was prepared by using the solid-state reaction method. (Ag0.5Bi0.5)(Mo0.5W0.5)O4 was found to crystallize in the scheelite structure, in which Ag(+) and Bi(3+) occupy the A site randomly with 8-coordination while Mo(6+) and W(6+) occupy the B site with 4-coordination, at a sintering temperature above 500 °C, with lattice parameters a = b = 5.29469(2) Å and c = 11.62114(0) Å, space group I4(1)/a (No. 88), and acceptable Rp = 9.38, Rwp = 11.2, and Rexp = 5.86. High-performance microwave dielectric properties, with permittivity ∼26.3, Qf value ∼10,000 GHz, and temperature coefficient ∼+20 ppm/°C, were obtained in the sample sintered at 580 °C. Its chemical compatibility with aluminum at its sintering temperature was revealed and confirmed by both X-ray and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. This ceramic could be a good candidate for ultralow-temperature cofired ceramics. PMID:24848200

  20. Identification and quantification of phases formed during the processing of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}/Ag composite conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, N.N.; Fischer, A.K.; Maroni, V.A.; Carter, W.L.; Parrella, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, (including x-ray dot mapping), x-ray diffraction and computer based image analysis have been used to study non-superconducting secondary phases that evolve during the processing of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}/Ag composite superconductors. These investigations have provided new information and insights about specific alkaline earth cuprates (AECs) and lead-rich phases. We can conclusively identify (Ca,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 3}, (Ca,Sr){sub 14}(Cu{sub 24})O{sub 41}, and CuO phases, the alkaline earth plumbates, and a (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O 3221 phase with a wide range of Pb/Bi ratios. These techniques also help in differentiating voids from secondary phases and alkaline earth plumbates from the lead-rich 3221 phase.

  1. Effect of preparation procedure and nanostructuring on the thermoelectric properties of the lead telluride-based material system AgPbmBiTe2+m (BLST-m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenbach, Oliver; Schmitz, Andreas; Hartung, David; Dankwort, Torben; Koch, Guenter; Kienle, Lorenz; Klar, Peter J.; Mueller, Eckhard; Schlecht, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    We report on the preparation and thermoelectric properties of the quaternary system AgPbmBiTe2+m (Bismuth-Lead-Silver-Tellurium, BLST-m) that were nanostructured by mechanical alloying. Nanopowders of various compositions were compacted by three different methods: cold pressing/annealing, hot pressing, and short term sintering. The products are compared with respect to microstructure and sample density. The thermoelectric properties were measured: thermal conductivity in the temperature range from 300 K to 800 K and electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient between 100 K and 800 K. The compacting method and the composition had a substantial impact on carrier concentration and mobility as well as on the thermoelectric parameters. Room temperature Hall measurements yielded carrier concentrations in the order of 1019 cm-3, slightly increasing with increasing content of the additive silver bismuth telluride to the lead telluride base. ZT values close to the ones of bulk samples were achieved. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed macroscopically homogeneous distributions of the constituting elements inside the nanopowders ensembles, indicating a solid solution. However, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed disorder on the nanoscale inside individual nanopowders grains.

  2. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  3. Reduced Magnetization and Loss in Ag-Mg Sheathed Bi2212 Wires: Systematics With Sample Twist Pitch and Length

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C. S.; Susner, M. A.; Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2014-11-20

    Suppression of magnetization and effective filament diameter (deff) with twisting was investigated for a series of recent Bi2212 strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technologies. We measured magnetization as a function of field (out to 14 T), at 5.1 K, of twisted and nontwisted 37 × 18 double restack design strands. The samples were helical coils 5-6 mm in height and approximately 5 mm in diameter. The strand diameter was 0.8 mm. The magnetization of samples having twist pitches of 25.4, 12.7, and 6.35 mm were examined and compared to nontwisted samples of the same filament configuration. The critical state model was used to extract the 12-T deff from magnetization data for comparison. Twisting the samples reduced deff by a factor of 1.5-3. The deff was shown to increase both with L and Lp. Mathematical expressions, based upon the anisotropic continuum model, were fit to the data, and a parameter γ2, which quantifies the electrical connectivity perpendicular to the filament axis, was extracted. The bundle-to-bundle connectivity along the radial axis was found to be approximately 0.2%. The deff was substantially reduced with Lp. In addition, the importance of understanding sample length dependence for quantitative measurements is discussed.

  4. Reduced Magnetization and Loss in Ag-Mg Sheathed Bi2212 Wires: Systematics With Sample Twist Pitch and Length

    DOE PAGES

    Myers, C. S.; Susner, M. A.; Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2014-11-20

    Suppression of magnetization and effective filament diameter (deff) with twisting was investigated for a series of recent Bi2212 strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technologies. We measured magnetization as a function of field (out to 14 T), at 5.1 K, of twisted and nontwisted 37 × 18 double restack design strands. The samples were helical coils 5-6 mm in height and approximately 5 mm in diameter. The strand diameter was 0.8 mm. The magnetization of samples having twist pitches of 25.4, 12.7, and 6.35 mm were examined and compared to nontwisted samples of the same filament configuration. The critical state modelmore » was used to extract the 12-T deff from magnetization data for comparison. Twisting the samples reduced deff by a factor of 1.5-3. The deff was shown to increase both with L and Lp. Mathematical expressions, based upon the anisotropic continuum model, were fit to the data, and a parameter γ2, which quantifies the electrical connectivity perpendicular to the filament axis, was extracted. The bundle-to-bundle connectivity along the radial axis was found to be approximately 0.2%. The deff was substantially reduced with Lp. In addition, the importance of understanding sample length dependence for quantitative measurements is discussed.« less

  5. Partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between sulfide phases and hydrous basanite melt at upper mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    The partitioning of 15 major to trace metals between monosulfide solid solution (MSS), sulfide liquid (SL) and mafic silicate melt (SM) was determined in piston-cylinder experiments performed at 1175-1300 °C, 1.5-3.0 GPa and oxygen fugacities ranging from 3.1 log units below to 1.0 log units above the quartz-fayalite-magnetite fO2 buffer, which conditions are representative of partial melting in the upper mantle in different tectonic settings. The silicate melt was produced by partial melting of a natural, amphibole-rich mantle source rock, resulting in hydrous (˜5 wt% H2O) basanitic melts similar to low-degree partial melts of metasomatized mantle, whereas the major element composition of the starting sulfide (˜52 wt% Fe; 39 wt% S; 7 wt% Ni; 2 wt% Cu) was similar to the average composition of sulfides in this environment. SL/SM partition coefficients are high (≥100) for Au, Ni, Cu, Ag, Bi, intermediate (1-100) for Co, Pb, Sn, Sb (±As, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. MSS/SM partition coefficients are generally lower than SL/SM partition coefficients and are high (≥100) for Ni, Cu, Au, intermediate (1-100) for Co, AgBi, Mo), and low (≤1) for the remaining elements. Most sulfide-silicate melt partition coefficients vary as a function of fO2, with Mo, Bi, As (±W) varying by a factor >10 over the investigated fO2 range, Sb, Ag, Sn (±V) varying by a factor of 3-10, and Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Au, Zn, Mn varying by a factor of 3-10. The partitioning data were used to model the behavior of Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi during partial melting of upper mantle and during fractional crystallization of primitive MORB and arc magmas. Sulfide phase relationships and comparison of the modeling results with reported Cu, Au, Ag, and Bi concentrations from MORB and arc magmas suggest that: (i) MSS is the dominant sulfide in the source region of arc magmas, and thus that Au/Cu ratios in the silicate melt and residual sulfides may decrease with increasing degree of

  6. Studies of the spin Hamiltonian parameters and defect structures for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Shao-Yi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Xian-Fen; He, Jia-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g//, g⊥, hyperfine structure constants A//, A⊥ and superhyperfine parameters Az‧, Ax‧ and Ay‧) and defect structures for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3 crystals are theoretically studied using the improved perturbation formulas of these quantities for a 4d9 ion in a tetragonally elongated octahedron. The contributions from both the crystal-field and charge transfer mechanisms are taken into account, and the relevant model parameters are quantitatively obtained from the cluster approach in a consistent way. The impurity centers are found to undergo the relative tetragonal elongations of about 9.4% and 8.2% for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3, respectively, along the C4 axis due to the Jahn-Teller effect. By employing the few adjustable parameters, the calculated spin Hamiltonian parameters based on the above uniform formulas and the local tetragonal elongation distortions agree well with the experimental data. Despite dominant ionicity of the hosts, the charge transfer contributions are actually important to the spin Hamiltonian parameters (e.g., about 20% for the g-shifts) due to strong covalency of impurity Ag2+.

  7. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2-polymer coating insulation (thickness of ˜20 μm versus ˜100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm-2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ˜80 K to ˜140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.

  8. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-07-01

    For this study, small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2– polymer coating insulation (thickness in ~20 μm versus ~100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A/mm-2 in a background field 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normalmore » zones propagate slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in a strong contrast to a coil we previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with the mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ~80 K to ~140 K while increasing from the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. Finally, this work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.« less

  9. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2–polymer coating insulation (thickness of ∼20 μm versus ∼100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm‑2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ∼80 K to ∼140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.

  10. Design and loss calculations of a 100-kVA transformer employing multi-filamentary Bi-2223 Ag sheathed superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmann, Frank

    2001-09-01

    A dimensional analysis for the design of a 100 kVA, 3 phase, iron core, 6.6 kV/240 V, Wye-Wye connected transformer employing Ag sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) multi-filament tapes has been carried out. The mass, volume and tape length requirements were calculated over a range of core cross-sectional areas. The objective of this exercise was to minimise the overall transformer volume. A range of suitable designs was then selected. Finite element methods software was used to map the magnetic fields throughout the winding volume of each design, and to estimate the hysteretic loss at full load. The analysis of mass and volume with core area variation showed the presence of distinct points, which would minimise these quantities. However, it was found that these designs were impractical in reality due to the significant length and cost of tape that they would entail. It was also shown that the coil electrical losses in these designs were too high due to the length of tape required and from the higher hysteretic loss. By considering the factors of mass, volume, hysteretic loss, and tape length and cost, a suitable design was found which was a compromise between all the factors involved. Assuming HTSC tape available with a modest Je of 5000 A/cm2, it was found that the mass and volume of the transformer could be reduced significantly compared to that of a conventional transformer. The volume decreased from 206 to 129 dm3 and the dry mass decreased from 400 to 214 kg. The overall hysterises loss at full load was calculated to be 1290 W and the total length of tape required per phase is 1500 m. The minimum possible volume of the transformer for the given rating and engineering current density was found to be 83.8 dm3 requiring 3508 m of HTSC tape.

  11. Effects of metal-bearing nanoparticles (Ag, Au, CdS, ZnO, SiO2) on developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lacave, José María; Retuerto, Ander; Vicario-Parés, Unai; Gilliland, Douglas; Oron, Miriam; Cajaraville, Miren P; Orbea, Amaia

    2016-08-12

    Due to the increasing commercialization of consumer and industrial products containing nanoparticles (NPs), an increase in the introduction of these materials into the environment is expected. NP toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on multiple biotic and abiotic factors, resulting in an unlimited number of combinations impossible to test in practice. The zebrafish embryo model offers a useful screening tool to test and rank the toxicity of nanomaterials according to those diverse factors. This work aims to study the acute and sublethal toxicity of a set of metal-bearing NPs displaying different properties, in comparison to that of the ionic and bulk forms of the metals, in order to establish a toxicity ranking. Soluble NPs (Ag, CdS and ZnO) showed the highest acute and sublethal toxicity, with LC50 values as low as 0.529 mg Ag l(-1) for Ag NPs of 20 nm, and a significant increase in the malformation prevalence in embryos exposed to 0.1 mg Cd l(-1) of CdS NPs of ∼4 nm. For insoluble NPs, like SiO2 NPs, acute effects were not observed during early embryo development due to the protective effect of the chorion. But effects on larvae could be expected, since deposition of fluorescent SiO2 NPs over the gill lamella and excretion through the intestine were observed after hatching. In other cases, such as for gold NPs, the toxicity could be attributed to the presence of additives (sodium citrate) in the NP suspension, as they displayed a similar toxicity when tested separately. Overall, the results indicated that toxicity to zebrafish embryos depends primarily on the chemical composition and, thus, the solubility of the NPs. Other characteristics, such as size, played a secondary role. This was supported by the observation that ionic forms of the metals were always more toxic than the nano forms, and bulk forms were the least toxic to the developing zebrafish embryos. PMID:27363512

  12. Effects of metal-bearing nanoparticles (Ag, Au, CdS, ZnO, SiO2) on developing zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Lacave, José; Retuerto, Ander; Vicario-Parés, Unai; Gilliland, Douglas; Oron, Miriam; Cajaraville, Miren P.; Orbea, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing commercialization of consumer and industrial products containing nanoparticles (NPs), an increase in the introduction of these materials into the environment is expected. NP toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on multiple biotic and abiotic factors, resulting in an unlimited number of combinations impossible to test in practice. The zebrafish embryo model offers a useful screening tool to test and rank the toxicity of nanomaterials according to those diverse factors. This work aims to study the acute and sublethal toxicity of a set of metal-bearing NPs displaying different properties, in comparison to that of the ionic and bulk forms of the metals, in order to establish a toxicity ranking. Soluble NPs (Ag, CdS and ZnO) showed the highest acute and sublethal toxicity, with LC50 values as low as 0.529 mg Ag l‑1 for Ag NPs of 20 nm, and a significant increase in the malformation prevalence in embryos exposed to 0.1 mg Cd l‑1 of CdS NPs of ∼4 nm. For insoluble NPs, like SiO2 NPs, acute effects were not observed during early embryo development due to the protective effect of the chorion. But effects on larvae could be expected, since deposition of fluorescent SiO2 NPs over the gill lamella and excretion through the intestine were observed after hatching. In other cases, such as for gold NPs, the toxicity could be attributed to the presence of additives (sodium citrate) in the NP suspension, as they displayed a similar toxicity when tested separately. Overall, the results indicated that toxicity to zebrafish embryos depends primarily on the chemical composition and, thus, the solubility of the NPs. Other characteristics, such as size, played a secondary role. This was supported by the observation that ionic forms of the metals were always more toxic than the nano forms, and bulk forms were the least toxic to the developing zebrafish embryos.

  13. Effects of metal-bearing nanoparticles (Ag, Au, CdS, ZnO, SiO2) on developing zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Lacave, José; Retuerto, Ander; Vicario-Parés, Unai; Gilliland, Douglas; Oron, Miriam; Cajaraville, Miren P.; Orbea, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing commercialization of consumer and industrial products containing nanoparticles (NPs), an increase in the introduction of these materials into the environment is expected. NP toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on multiple biotic and abiotic factors, resulting in an unlimited number of combinations impossible to test in practice. The zebrafish embryo model offers a useful screening tool to test and rank the toxicity of nanomaterials according to those diverse factors. This work aims to study the acute and sublethal toxicity of a set of metal-bearing NPs displaying different properties, in comparison to that of the ionic and bulk forms of the metals, in order to establish a toxicity ranking. Soluble NPs (Ag, CdS and ZnO) showed the highest acute and sublethal toxicity, with LC50 values as low as 0.529 mg Ag l-1 for Ag NPs of 20 nm, and a significant increase in the malformation prevalence in embryos exposed to 0.1 mg Cd l-1 of CdS NPs of ˜4 nm. For insoluble NPs, like SiO2 NPs, acute effects were not observed during early embryo development due to the protective effect of the chorion. But effects on larvae could be expected, since deposition of fluorescent SiO2 NPs over the gill lamella and excretion through the intestine were observed after hatching. In other cases, such as for gold NPs, the toxicity could be attributed to the presence of additives (sodium citrate) in the NP suspension, as they displayed a similar toxicity when tested separately. Overall, the results indicated that toxicity to zebrafish embryos depends primarily on the chemical composition and, thus, the solubility of the NPs. Other characteristics, such as size, played a secondary role. This was supported by the observation that ionic forms of the metals were always more toxic than the nano forms, and bulk forms were the least toxic to the developing zebrafish embryos.

  14. Unbiased photoelectrochemical water splitting in Z-scheme device using W/Mo-doped BiVO4 and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun S; Lee, Heung Chan; Leonard, Kevin C; Liu, Guanjie; Bard, Allen J

    2013-07-22

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting to generate H2 and O2 using only photon energy (with no added electrical energy) has been demonstrated with dual n-type-semiconductor (or Z-scheme) systems. Here we investigated two different Z-scheme systems; one is comprised of two cells with the same metal-oxide semiconductor (W- and Mo-doped bismuth vanadate), that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4, and the other is comprised of the metal oxide and a chalcogenide semiconductor, that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4 and Zn(0.2)Cd(0.8)Se. The redox couples utilized in these Z-scheme configurations were I(-)/IO3(-) or S(2-)/S(n)(2-), respectively. An electrochemical analysis of the system in terms of cell components is shown to illustrate the behavior of the complete photoelectrochemical Z-scheme water-splitting system. H2 gas from the unbiased photolysis of water was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and using a membrane-electrode assembly. The electrode configuration to achieve the maximum conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy with the given materials and the Z-scheme is discussed. Here, the possibilities and challenges of Z-scheme unbiased photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices and the materials to achieve practical solar-fuel generation are discussed.

  15. Diffusion coefficients for Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolite at 100-200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlo, Kim; Brooker, Richard; Wilke, Max

    2014-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to determine the diffusivities of Tl, Pb, Cd, In, Zn, Bi, As, Mo and Sb in hydrous rhyolitic melt. Diffusion experiments used two adjoining glass cylinder of the same hydrous composition, one doped with the elements of interest at ~ 100 ppm. These couples were rapidly heated to 850, 1000 and 1150°C at 100-200 MPa for a few hours. After quenching the sectioned charges were analyzed by both synchrotron XRF (The Diamond Light Source) and LA-ICP-MS (University of Oxford). The data shows excellent correlation between these two techniques. The diffusion profiles were fitted to a 1-D diffusion couple equation to determine the diffusivities and fitting to the different temperature runs defined the Arrhenius parameters. We find that for 850°C the diffusion coefficients follow the trend Tl>Pb>Cd>Zn>In>Bi>As>Sb>Mo. Additional experiments were performed with either S or Cl added (to both sides of the diffusion couple). In general S increases the diffusion rate of all metals except Mo and Sb, which diffuse slower in the presence of S. Chlorine also speeds up the diffusion of metals with the exception of In, Mo and Sb. The systematic change in diffusivities of these metals and their different behaviour in the presence of the ligands that are also observed to be significant in volcanic gases, are important in determining the distribution of these metals during degassing (e.g. MacKenzie and Canil, 2008). This is particularly important in a dynamic environment such as a volcanic conduit. There are also implications for economic exploration and well as hazard mitigation.

  16. The effect of TiO{sub 2} and Ag nanoparticles on reproduction and development of Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Philbrook, Nicola A.; Winn, Louise M.; Afrooz, A.R.M. Nabiul; Saleh, Navid B.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2011-12-15

    In the last two decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and silver (Ag) NPs are both found in cosmetics and foods, but their increasing use is of concern due to their ability to be taken up by biological systems. While there are some reports of TiO{sub 2} and Ag NPs affecting complex organisms, their effects on reproduction and development have been largely understudied. Here, the effects of orally administered TiO{sub 2} or Ag NPs on reproduction and development in two different model organisms were investigated. TiO{sub 2} NPs reduced the developmental success of CD-1 mice after a single oral dose of 100 or 1000 mg/kg to dams, resulting in a statistically significant increase in fetal deformities and mortality. Similarly, TiO{sub 2} NP addition to food led to a significant progeny loss in the fruit fly, Drosophila, as shown by a decline in female fecundity. Ag NP administration resulted in an increase in the mortality of fetal mice. Similarly in Drosophila, Ag NP feeding led to a significant decrease in developmental success, but unlike TiO{sub 2} NP treatment, there was no decline in fecundity. The distinct response associated with each type of NP likely reflects differences in NP administration as well as the biology of the particular model. Taken together, however, this study warns that these common NPs could be detrimental to the reproductive and developmental health of both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  17. Bi ˜3.785Cd ˜3.575Cu ˜1.5(PO 4) 3.5O 5.5, a new arrangement of double ( n=2) and triple ( n=3) [ M4Bi 2n-2O 2n] x+ polycationic ribbons in the bismuth-transition metal oxy-phosphate series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmont, Marie; Huvé, Marielle; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2004-11-01

    This work is dedicated to investigation of new disordered bismuth-containing oxy-phosphates compounds with an original structure type. As previously observed in this series, they are formed of [M 4Bi 2n-2O 2n] x+ polycationic ribbons of width n O(Bi,M) 4 tetrahedra, surrounded by PO 4 groups. In the new crystal structure type, double (= D), triple (= T) and tunnels (= t) alternate along a common axis obeying the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence in respect to a nomenclature previously described and recalled in this work. The existence this new polymorph has first been detected by electron diffraction in a multi-phased sample. Then, the crystal structure type, i.e., the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence, has been deduced from HREM images help to a contrast-interpreting code available for these series of polycations-formed compounds. The subsequent compounds formulation leads to a number of new materials that verify the general formula: [Bi 2(Bi, M) 4O 4] 2 [Bi 4(Bi, M) 4O 6] 6 (PO 4) 28M x, with x⩽12 and M=Cu 2+, Cd 2+ cations. Single crystals of the nominal [O6Bi 4.57Cd 3.43] 4+8.57 [O 6Bi 4Cd 4] 2+8 [O 4Bi 2Cd 3.56Cu 0.44] 2+6 (PO 4) 28 Cu 10.86 have been prepared in a further stage and confirms the predicted crystal structure, Bi ˜3.785Cd ˜3.575Cu ˜1.5(PO 4) 3.5O 5.5, a=11.506(8) Å, b=5.416(4) Å, c=53.94 (4) Å, β=90.10(1)°, R=0.0835, R=0.0993, SG= A2/m, Z=8. As already observed for other elements of this family such as Bi ˜1.2M˜1.2O 1.5(PO 4), Bi ˜6.2Cu ˜6.2O 8(PO 4) 5 or Bi ˜3Cd ˜3.72M˜1.28O 5(PO 4) 3 ( M=Cu, Co, Zn), this compound shows an additional example of PO 4 disorder due to the presence of mixed Bi 3+/M 2+ sites at the edges of ribbons. The origin and consequence of this so-called disorder mostly occurring on PO 4 configurations is intensively discussed and has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy and by neutron diffraction on similar compounds. It is noticeable that the great number of antagonist PO 4 configurations may order along the b

  18. Photocatalytic performance of the SiO2 sphere/ n-type TiO2/ p-type CuBiS2 composite catalysts coated with different contents of Ag nanoparticles under ultraviolet and visible light irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2016-08-01

    Photocatalytic performance of the SiO2 sphere/ n-type TiO2/ p-type CuBiS2 composite catalysts with different contents of silver nanoparticles (abbreviated as SiO2/ n-TiO2/ p-CuBiS2/Ag) toward the photodegradation of Acid Black 1 ( AB 1) dye under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light was investigated. The composite catalyst spheres were analyzed their crystal structure, microstructure, optical absorbance capabilities, and photodegradation capabilities of AB 1 dye. The best photodegradation performances of the 20 mg composite powder with only ~5 mg photoactive catalysts showed the degradation of AB 1 dye in 5 min under UV and 60 min under visible light irradiations. The concept of composite catalyst with numerous nano p- n diodes and its photodegradation mechanism were proposed.

  19. Effects of 200-MeV Ag-ion irradiation on magnetization in a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{ital y}} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, A.K.; Roy, S.B.; Chaddah, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Chen, C.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1996-02-01

    We report a dramatic change in the magnetization double peak anomaly and irreversibility line of a Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} [BSCCO(2212)] single crystal after irradiation with 200-MeV Ag ions. We found that the partial destruction and ineffectiveness of dislocation networks in the CuO{sub 2} planes of the BSCCO crystal after irradiation are responsible for the disappearance of the double peak anomaly. Ag irradiation induces damage in the form of columnar defects which cause an enhancement of flux pinning and a shift in the irreversibility line towards higher temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. New experiments elucidating the current limiting mechanisms of Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Babcock, S.E.; Cai, X.Y.; Dorris, S.E.; Feldmann, M.; Jiang, J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Li, Q.; Parrell, J.A.; Parrella, R.; Polak, M.; Polyanskii, A.; Riley, G.N. Jr.; Rupich, M.; Wu, Y.

    1999-01-15

    Multiple current limiting mechanisms exist from the nanometer to millimeter scale in Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb)-2223 tapes. Recent studies of the zero-field critical current density (J{sub c} (0T, 77K)), the irreversibility field (H*) and the crack microstructure elucidate these properties. We show that H*(77K) can vary significantly over the range {approximately}120-260 mT, independently of J{sub c} (0T, 77K). Cracks, actual or incipient, exist on the sub to several hundred micron scale. Surface magneto optical imaging of whole tapes, correlated to subsequent ultrasonic fracture analysis of. the bare 2223 filaments extracted by dissolving away the Ag shows that even composites having J{sub c} (0T, 77K) values of 60 kA/cm{sup 2} exhibit strong signs of unhealed rolling damage. These combined studies show that today's very best 2223 tapes are still far from full optimization.

  1. Use of ZnO:Tb down-conversion phosphor for Ag nanoparticle plasmon absorption using a He-Cd ultraviolet laser.

    PubMed

    Abbass, A E; Swart, H C; Kroon, R E

    2016-09-01

    Although noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted some attention for potentially enhancing the luminescence of rare earth ions for phosphor lighting applications, the absorption of energy by NPs can also be beneficial in biological and polymer applications where local heating is desired, e.g. photothermal applications. Strong interaction between incident laser light and NPs occurs only when the laser wavelength matches the NP plasmon resonance. Although lasers with different wavelengths are available and the NP plasmon resonance can be tuned by changing its size and shape or the dielectric medium (host material), in this work, we consider exciting the plasmon resonance of Ag NPs indirectly with a He-Cd UV laser using the down-conversion properties of Tb(3+) ions in ZnO. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance measurements. Radiative energy transfer from the Tb(3+) ions to the Ag NPs resulted in quenching of the green luminescence of ZnO:Tb and was studied by means of spectral overlap and lifetime measurements. The use of a down-converting phosphor, possibly with other rare earth ions, to indirectly couple a laser to the plasmon resonance wavelength of metal NPs is therefore successfully demonstrated and adds to the flexibility of such systems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Crystallization kinetics, optical and dielectric properties of Li2OṡCdOṡBi2O3ṡSiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Saroj; Sanghi, Sujata; Ahlawat, Neetu; Agarwal, Ashish

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization kinetics, optical absorption and electrical behavior of lithium cadmium silicate glasses with different amount of bismuth oxide were investigated using non-isothermal crystallization approach, UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. These glasses were synthesized by normal melt quenching technique. Variation in physical properties, viz. density, molar volume with Bi2O3:SiO2 ratio were related to the structural changes occurring in the glasses. The glass transition temperature (Tg), crystalline peak temperature (Tp) and melting temperature (Tm) of these glasses were determined using differential scanning calorimeter at various heating rates. The dependence of Tg and Tp on heating rate has been used for the determination of the activation energy of glass transition and crystallization. Thermal stability parameters have revealed high stability of the glass prepared with 40 mol% of Bi2O3 content. The crystallization kinetics for the glasses was studied by using the Kissinger and modified Ozawa equations. Appearance of a sharp cut-off and a wide and reasonable transmission in VIS-NIR region makes these glasses suitable for IR transmission window. The cut-off wavelength, optical band gap and Urbach's energy have been analyzed and discussed in terms of changes in the glass structure. By analyzing the impedance spectra, the ac and dc conductivities, activation energy for dc conduction (Edc) and for relaxation (EM″) were calculated. The results obtained from dc conductivity confirm the network forming role of Cd2+ ion in the glasses. The scaling of the conductivity spectra has been used to interpret the temperature dependence of the relaxation dynamics. The observed conductivity spectra follows power law with exponent 's' which decreases with temperature and satisfies the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The perfect overlying of normalized plots of electrical modulus on a single 'master curve' depicts temperature as well as

  3. Benefits of Carrier-Pocket Anisotropy to Thermoelectric Performance: The Case of p -Type AgBiSe2

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, David S.; May, Andrew F.; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-05

    Here we study theoretically the effects of anisotropy on the thermoelectric performance of p-type AgBiSe2. We present an apparent realization of the thermoelectric benefits of one-dimensional plate-like carrier pocket anisotropy in the valence band of this material. Based on first principles calculations we find a substantial anisotropy in the electronic structure, likely favorable for thermoelectric performance, in the valence bands of the hexagonal phase of the silver chalcogenide thermoelectric AgBiSe2, while the conduction bands are more isotropic, and in our experiments do not attain high performance. AgBiSe2 has already exhibited a ZT value of 1.5 in a high-temperature disordered fcc phase, but room-temperature performance has not been demonstrated. We develop a theory for the ability of anisotropy to decouple the density-of-states and conductivity effective masses, pointing out the influence of this effect in the high performance thermoelectrics Bi2Te3 and PbTe. From our first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations we find that p-type AgBiSe2 has substantial promise as a room temperature thermoelectric, and estimate its performance.

  4. FAS -670 A/G polymorphism may be associated with the depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Renata Bezerra; Santana, Bárbara Brasil; Lima, Sandra Souza; Neris Martins Feitosa, Rosimar; de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes was investigated in a sample of 198 HIV-1-seropositive individuals and 191 seronegative controls to evaluate a possible association between polymorphisms and the infection. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -670 polymorphism was accomplished through polymerase chain reaction assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme MvaI. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -124 polymorphism and the T and delT alleles of the FAS -169 polymorphism were performed using the amplification-created restriction site method followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism reactions. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the groups did not reveal any significant differences. However, the quantitative analysis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes suggests that the G allele of the FAS -670 A/G polymorphism can be a protective factor against the depletion of these cells in the course of an HIV-1 infection. Polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes were not associated with the number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes or the plasma viral load. Our findings suggest that the FAS -670 polymorphism may be associated with apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes after infection by HIV-1. PMID:26429326

  5. FAS -670 A/G polymorphism may be associated with the depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Renata Bezerra; Santana, Bárbara Brasil; Lima, Sandra Souza; Neris Martins Feitosa, Rosimar; de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes was investigated in a sample of 198 HIV-1-seropositive individuals and 191 seronegative controls to evaluate a possible association between polymorphisms and the infection. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -670 polymorphism was accomplished through polymerase chain reaction assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme MvaI. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -124 polymorphism and the T and delT alleles of the FAS -169 polymorphism were performed using the amplification-created restriction site method followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism reactions. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the groups did not reveal any significant differences. However, the quantitative analysis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes suggests that the G allele of the FAS -670 A/G polymorphism can be a protective factor against the depletion of these cells in the course of an HIV-1 infection. Polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes were not associated with the number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes or the plasma viral load. Our findings suggest that the FAS -670 polymorphism may be associated with apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes after infection by HIV-1.

  6. Flowing Liquid Anode Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge as an Excitation Source for Optical Emission Spectrometry with the Improved Detectability of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Greda, Krzysztof; Swiderski, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with a flowing liquid anode (FLA-APGD) was developed as the efficient excitation source for the optical emission spectrometry (OES) detection. Differences in the appearance and the electrical characteristic of the FLA-APGD and a conventional system operated with a flowing liquid cathode (FLC-APGD) were studied in detail and discussed. Under the optimal operating conditions for the FLA-APGD, the emission from the analytes (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was from 20 to 120 times higher as compared to the FLC-APGD. Limits of detections (LODs) established with a novel FLA-APGD system were on average 20 times better than those obtained for the FLC-APGD. A further improvement of the LODs was achieved by reducing the background shift interferences and, as a result, the LODs for Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn were 0.004, 0.040, 0.70, 1.7, 0.035, and 0.45 μg L(-1), respectively. The precision of the FLA-APGD-OES method was evaluated to be within 2-5% (as the relative standard deviation of the repeated measurements). The method found its application in the determination of the content of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn in a certified reference material (CRM) of Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2), four brass samples as well as mineral water and tea leaves samples spiked with the analytes. In the case of brass samples, a reference method, i.e., inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used. A good agreement between the results obtained with FLA-APGD-OES and the certified values for the CRM TORT-2 as well as the reference values obtained with ICP-OES for the brass samples was revealed, indicating the good accuracy of the proposed method. The recoveries obtained for the spiked samples of mineral water and tea leaves were within the range of 97.5-102%. PMID:27476678

  7. Modeling effects of gas bubbles on the mechanical behaviors of Ag/Bi-2212 round wires using a double cantilever beam bridge model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yurong; Wang, Zhongtong; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-07-01

    Due to the larger current-carrying property, Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) superconductors have a great potential application in high field magnet. Bi2212 superconducting material can be fabricated as an isotropic round wire. However, there is 30% void space in the wire, such as gas bubbles. The void space has a larger influence on the property of the wire. In this paper, we will study the effect of gas bubble on the fracture behavior. Based on the double cantilever beam model and critical state theory, the mechanical behavior of Bi2212 wire is studied for decreasing field. Two different damage mechanisms are discussed using the strain energy release rate and strain of bridge. The results show that the large gas bubble can increase the strain of bridge. The central filaments with gas bubble are easier to be damaged than the edge filaments with gas bubble.

  8. Metal-controlled assembly tuning the topology and dimensionality of coordination polymers of Ag(I), Cd(II) and Zn(II) with the flexible 2-(1 H-imidazole-1-yl)acetic acid (Hima)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Tao; Tang, Gui-Mei; Wu, Yue; Qin, Xu-Yan; Qin, Da-Wei

    2007-04-01

    Three new, inorganic-organic coordination polymers based on a versatile linking unit 2-(1 H-imidazole-1-yl)acetate (ima) and Ag I, Cd II and Zn II ions, exhibiting one to three dimensionalities and different topology structures, have been prepared in water medium and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Reaction of AgNO 3 with Hima afforded a neutral one-dimensional (1-D) chains [Ag(ima)] n ( 1) which exhibits a pseudo two-dimensional (2-D) layered architecture through π-π stacking interaction between imidazole rings and intermolecular Ag⋯Ag interactions. Reaction of CdCl 2 with Hima yielded neutral 2-D coordination polymers [Cd(ima) 2] n ( 2) possessing (6, 3) topology structures, which further stack into 3-D supramolecular networks through C-H⋯O weak interactions. While Zn(NO 3) 2 was used, a non-centric 3-D coordination polymer [Zn(ima) 2] n ( 3) featuring a 3-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net was isolated. Among these polymers, the building block ima anion exhibits different coordination modes. These results indicate that the versatile nature of this flexible ligand, together with the coordination preferences of the metal ions, play a critical role in construction of these novel coordination polymers. The spectral, thermal and SHG (second-harmonic generation) properties of these new materials have also been investigated.

  9. Collective and noncollective states in Cd116 studied via the β decays of Ag116m1,m2,gs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, J. C.; Wood, J. L.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Bingham, C. R.; Carter, H. K.; Fong, D.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hartley, D. J.; Hwang, J. K.; Krolas, W.; Kulp, W. D.; Larochelle, Y.; Piechaczek, A.; Ramayya, A. V.; Spejewski, E. H.; Stracener, D. W.; Tantawy, M. N.; Winger, J. A.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-11-01

    We have reinvestigated the β decay of the three isomers of Ag116 at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Through the use of half-life information, we have been able to construct individual decay schemes for each isomer and correct what was a puzzling inconsistency with the published data, namely the β feeding of 2+ states by a 5+ isomer. Our results indicate that the feeding of these levels arises from a 3+ isomer in Ag116. A total of 271γ-ray transitions (159 new) were assigned to 148 levels (94 new) from the β decay of Ag116m1,m2,gs. Significant deviations are observed from IBM-2 calculations for the decay of the 0+ and 2+ members of the previously assigned three-phonon quintuplet. Candidate states for the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet states and πg9/2-πp1/2, πg9/2-πp3/2, νh11/2-νs1/2, νh11/2-νd3/2, and νh11/2-νd5/2 broken-pair states are assigned.

  10. Fluorometric selective detection of fluoride ions in aqueous media using Ag doped CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-14

    The presence of fluoride ions in drinking water plays an important role in human health. For that reason, maintaining the optimum concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential, as both low and excess (above the permissible level) concentrations can cause different health problems, such as fluorosis, urolithiasis, kidney failure, cancer, and can even lead to death. So, development of a simple and low cost method for the detection of fluoride ions in water is highly desirable. In this study, a fluorometric method based on Ag-CdS/Ag-ZnS core/shell nanoparticles is developed for fluoride ion detection. The method was tested in aqueous solution at different pH values. The selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence probe was checked in the presence of other anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-) SO4(2-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-), CH3COO(-), and H2PO4(-)) and found there is no significant interference of these associated ions. The fluoride ion concentration was varied in the range 190-22 800 μg L(-1) and a lower detection limit was obtained as 99.7 μg L(-1).

  11. Fluorometric selective detection of fluoride ions in aqueous media using Ag doped CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-14

    The presence of fluoride ions in drinking water plays an important role in human health. For that reason, maintaining the optimum concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential, as both low and excess (above the permissible level) concentrations can cause different health problems, such as fluorosis, urolithiasis, kidney failure, cancer, and can even lead to death. So, development of a simple and low cost method for the detection of fluoride ions in water is highly desirable. In this study, a fluorometric method based on Ag-CdS/Ag-ZnS core/shell nanoparticles is developed for fluoride ion detection. The method was tested in aqueous solution at different pH values. The selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence probe was checked in the presence of other anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-) SO4(2-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-), CH3COO(-), and H2PO4(-)) and found there is no significant interference of these associated ions. The fluoride ion concentration was varied in the range 190-22 800 μg L(-1) and a lower detection limit was obtained as 99.7 μg L(-1). PMID:26645767

  12. Identification of complexes containing glutathione with As(III), Sb(III), Cd(II), Hg(II), Tl(I), Pb(II) or Bi(III) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burford, Neil; Eelman, Melanie D; Groom, Katherine

    2005-10-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of mixtures containing glutathione (GSH) and nitrates, oxides or chlorides of the heavy metals, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, mercury, thallium, lead or bismuth allows for definitive identification of complexes in the gas phase. In the positive ion mode, spectra show prominent m/z peaks that are assigned to monocations of general formulae [E(GSH)-xH]+ (E = Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb, As, Sb or Bi; x = 0, 1 or 2), [E(GSH)2-xH]+ (E = Hg, As, Sb, or Bi; x = 1 or 2), [E(GSH)3-xH]+ (E = As, Sb or Bi; x = 2), [E2(GSH)-xH]+ (E = Tl or Pb; x = 1 or 3), [E2(GSH)2-xH]+ (E = Bi; x = 5), [E2(GSH)3-xH]+ (E = Bi; x = 5), and/or [E3(GSH)-xH]+ (E = Tl; x = 2). Spectra obtained in the negative ion mode give m/z peaks observed in assigned to monoanionic species that correspond to some of the monocationic species listed above with two protons removed. The results demonstrate the potential application of ESI-MS as a versatile and efficient approach to study toxic heavy metals in biological systems. In addition, the observations provide a foundation database to understand the chemistry of these heavy metals with bio-molecules.

  13. Effects of temperature, silicate melt composition, and oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between sulfide phases and silicate melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the role of sulfide in controlling the ore metal budgets and fractionation during magmatic genesis and differentiation, the partition coefficients (D) of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between sulfide liquid (SL), monosulfide solid solution (MSS), and basaltic to rhyolitic melts (SM) were determined at 900-1200 °C, 0.5-1.5 GPa, and oxygen fugacity (fO2) ranging from ∼FMQ-2 to FMQ+3, in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The DSL/SM values range from 0.4 to 2 for V, 0.5 to 3 for Mn, 80 to 580 for Co, 2300 to 18,000 for Ni, 800 to 4600 for Cu, 1 to 11 for Zn, 20 to 180 for As, 4 to 230 for Mo, 450 to 1600 for Ag, 5 to 24 for Sn, 10 to 80 for Sb, 0.03 to 0.16 for W, 2000 to 29,000 for Au, 24 to 170 for Pb, and 830 to 11,000 for Bi; whereas the DMSS/SM values range from 0.04 to 10 for V, 0.5 to 10 for Mn, 70 to 2500 for Co, 650 to 18,000 for Ni, 280 to 42,000 for Cu, 0.1 to 80 for Zn, 0.2 to 30 for As, 1 to 820 for Mo, 20 to 500 for Ag, 0.2 to 220 for Sn, 0.1 to 40 for Sb, 0.01 to 24 for W, 10 to 2000 for Au, 0.03 to 6 for Pb, and 1 to 350 for Bi. Both DMSS/SM and DSL/SM values generally increase with decreasing temperature or decreasing FeOtot content in silicate melt, except for Mo, DMSS/SM and DSL/SM of which show a clear decrease with decreasing temperature. At given temperature and FeOtot content, high oxygen fugacity appears to lead to a significant decrease in DMSS/SM of Au, Bi, Mo, and potentially As. The partitioning data obtained experimentally in this study and previous studies were fitted to an empirical equation that expresses the DMSS/SM and/or DSL/SM of a given element as a function of temperature, oxygen fugacity, and FeOtot content of the silicate melt: log (DSL/SMorDMSS/SM = d + a · 10, 000 / T + b · (ΔFMQ) + c · log (FeOmelt) in which T is temperature in K, FeOmelt denotes wt% FeOtot in silicate melt, and ΔFMQ denotes log fO2 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. The

  14. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels.

    PubMed

    Rosabal, Maikel; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Hare, Landis; Campbell, Peter G C

    2015-03-01

    We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative "sensitive" fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes+lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in "sensitive" subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes+lysosomes. Among these "sensitive" fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in "sensitive" fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments.

  15. Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} ternary glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Feifei; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Nie, Qiuhua; Wang, Xunsi

    2010-10-15

    Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} ternary glasses embedded with Ag nanoparticles were prepared by introducing AgCl into the bismuthate glasses using conventional melt quenching method and characterized by several experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated the formation of Ag contained nanoclusters which crack and become regular with increase of AgCl content in these composites. Optical absorption spectra of the nanocomposites showed the presence of absorption band of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) due to Ag nanoparticles at {approx}600 nm. Z-scan measurement with femtosecond laser was used to investigate third-order optical nonlinearities of the nanocomposites. The results show that the nonlinear refraction {gamma} was dramatically increased up to 30 times by the appearance of Ag nanoparticles when excited within its SPR region, while nonlinear absorption due to two-photon absorption exhibited opposite tendency or even saturated behavior. The calculation of figure of merit suggests that the Ag particle embedded Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass composites are promising candidates for optoelectronic devices.

  16. Processing and characterization of superconducting solenoids made of Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilament round wire for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng

    As the only high temperature superconductor with round wire (RW) geometry, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting wire has the advantages of being multi-filamentary, macroscopically isotropic and twistable. With overpressure (OP) processing techniques recently developed by our group at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), the engineering current density (Je) of Bi-2212 RW can be dramatically increased. For example, Je of more than 600 A/mm 2 (4.2 K and 20 T) is achieved after 100 bar OP processing. With these intrinsically beneficial properties and recent processing progress, Bi-2212 RW has become very attractive for high field magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnets and accelerator magnets etc. This thesis summarizes my graduate study on Bi-2212 solenoids for high field and high homogeneity NMR magnet applications, which mainly includes performance study of Bi-2212 RW insulations, 1 bar and OP processing study of Bi-2212 solenoids, and development of superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RW conductors. Electrical insulation is one of the key components of Bi-2212 coils to provide sufficient electrical standoff within coil winding pack. A TiO 2/polymer insulation offered by nGimat LLC was systematically investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dielectric property measurements, and transport critical current (Ic) property measurements. About 29% of the insulation by weight is polymer. When the Bi-2212 wire is fully heat treated, this decomposes with slow heating to 400 °C in flowing O2. After the full reaction, we found that the TiO2 did not degrade the critical current properties, adhered well to the conductor, and provided a breakdown voltage of more than 100 V. A Bi-2212 RW wound solenoid coil was built using this insulation being offered by nGimat LLC. The coil resistance was constant through coil winding, polymer burn

  17. Atomic-level observation of Ag-ion hopping motion in AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Kawata, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of the 111mCd(→111Cd) and 111In(→111Cd) probes to the study of dynamics in polycrystalline silver iodide (AgI) was examined by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. It was found that the 111mCd(→111Cd) probe occupies a unique site in γ-AgI and exhibits nuclear relaxation caused by dynamic perturbation arising from Ag + hopping motion in α-AgI; while the residential sites of 111In(→111Cd) vary, suggesting that 111In ions can not settle themselves in a fixed site in the AgI crystal structure. We here demonstrate that 111mCd(→111Cd) can be a potential nucleus to probe the Ag +-ion dynamic motion in α-AgI.

  18. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La3Ga1.67S7, La3Ag0.6GaCh7 (Ch=S, Se), and La3MGaSe7 (M=Zn, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Yin, Wenlong; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Nilges, Tom; Mar, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7, La3ZnGaSe7, and La3CdGaSe7, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La3Ga1.67S7, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P63, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La3M1-xGaCh7 (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced.

  19. Screening on binary Zr-1X (X = Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Li, H F; Huang, T; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic susceptibility of Zr-1X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi, were systematically investigated to explore their potential use in biomedical applications. The experimental results indicated that annealed Zr-1X alloys consisted entirely or primarily of α phase. The alloying elements significantly increased the strength and hardness of pure Zr and had a relatively slight influence on elastic modulus. Ru was the most effective enhancing element and Zr-1Ru alloy had the largest elongation. The results of electrochemical corrosion indicated that adding various elements to Zr improved its corrosion resistance, as indicated by the reduced corrosion current density. The extracts of the studied Zr-1X alloys produced no significant deleterious effects on osteoblast-like cells (MG 63), indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. All except for Zr-1Ag alloy showed decreased magnetic susceptibility compared to pure Zr, and Zr-1Ru alloy had the lowest magnetic susceptibility value, being comparable to that of α' phase Zr-Mo alloy and Zr-Nb alloy and far lower than that of Co-Cr alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Among the experimental Zr-1X alloys, Zr-1Ru alloy possessing high strength coupled with good ductility, good in vitro cytocompatibility and low magnetic susceptibility may be a good candidate alloy for medical devices within a magnetic resonance imaging environment.

  20. Microstructural characterization of Ag-sheathed Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting tapes by analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.G.; Miller, D.J.; Goretta, K.C.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    The microstructures of Tl(1223) and Pb-doped Bi(2223) silver tapes produced by the powder-in-tube (PM) method have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The Tl tapes annealed below the melting point exhibited fine grains and a high density of pores while tapes subjected to partial melting prior to solid state annealing were fully dense with large grains. However, these tapes also showed an increase in the size and density of impurity particles, particularly CaO and a Ba-Cu rich phase. Silver powders added to the precursors tended to promote the growth of Tl(1223) at lower temperatures but also interfered with the development of texture by providing nucleation sites of random orientations. In contrast, the Bi(2223) tape exhibited a high degree of texture and alignment. The incorporation of silver within the superconducting phase was found to be negligible for both the Tl(1223) and Bi(2223) tapes.

  1. Direct detection of Pb in urine and Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in natural waters using electrochemical sensors immobilized with DMSA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Choi, Daiwon; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    Urine is universally recognized as one of the best non-invasive matrices for biomonitoring exposure to a broad range of xenobiotics including toxic metals. For direct, simple, and field-deployable monitoring of urinary Pb, electrochemical sensors employing superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a surface functionalization of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been developed. The metal detection involves rapid collection of dispersed metal-bound nanoparticles from a sample solution at a magnetic or electromagnetic electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetry of the metal in acidic medium. The sensors were evaluated as a function of solution pH, the binding affinity of Pb to DMSA-Fe3O4, the ratio of nanoparticles per sample volume, preconcentration time, and Pb concentrations. The effect of binding competitions between the DMSA-Fe3O4 and urine constituents for Pb on the sensor responses was studied. After 90s of preconcentration in samples containing 25 vol.% of rat urine and 0.1 g/L of DMSA-Fe3O4, the sensor could detect background level of Pb (< 1 ppb) and yielded linear responses from 0 to 50 ppb of Pb, excellent reproducibility (%R.S.D of 5.3 for seven measurements of 30 ppb Pb), and Pb concentrations comparable to those measured by ICP-MS. The sensor could also simultaneously detect background levels (< 1 ppb) of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in river and seawater.

  2. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-05-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  3. Ion conduction in the Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} systems doped with Cd{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Na{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.M.; Yahya, A.I.; Ahmad, A.

    1996-03-01

    Ion conductivities of face centered cubic Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} systems doped with Cd{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Na{sup +} were measured. In 67 mol% Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} solid solution doped with Cd{sup 2+} ions, the phase transition occurs at a lower temperature than in the parent compounds and the system shows higher conductivity. The increase in conductivity is discussed in terms of vacancies produced. K{sup +} doped Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} exhibits higher conductivity prior to the phase transition, which is attributed to lattice loosening. A decrease in conductivity is observed above 140{degrees}C. This is interpreted in terms of anion framework collapse. Na{sup +} doped Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} shows high conductivity for the high temperature phase because of the small size of Na{sup +} ions. The activation energy for ionic motion for all the samples is calculated from the graph of log({delta}T) versus 1/T.

  4. Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, Tl) from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Gröting, Melanie Albe, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of enhancing chemical order in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} upon substitution of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations M{sup +} using total energy calculations based on density functional theory. All chemically available monovalent cations M{sup +}, which are Li, Na, Ag, K, Tl, Rb and Cs, are considered and an analysis of the structurally relaxed structures in terms of symmetry-adapted distortion modes is given in order to quantify the chemically induced structural distortions. We demonstrate that the replacement of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations can hardly alter the tendency of chemical order with respect to Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Only Tl{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} show enhanced tendency for chemical ordering. Both heavy metals behave similar to the light alkali metals in terms of structural relaxations and relative stabilities of the ordered configurations. Although a comparison of the Goldschmidt factors of components (M TiO{sub 3}){sup −} reveals for Tl a value above the upper stability limit for perovskites, the additional lone-pair effect of Tl{sup +} stabilizes the ordered structure. - Graphical abstract: Amplitudes of chemically induced distortion modes in different ordered perovskites M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and visualisation of atomic displacements associated with distortion mode X{sup +}{sub 1} in the 001-ordered compounds Li{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Cs{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Due to a substantial size mismatch between bismuth (green) and caesium (dark blue), incorporation of the latter leads to enhanced displacements of oxygen atoms (red) and suppresses displacements of titanium (silver) as compared to lithium (light blue) or other smaller monovalent cations. - Highlights: • Lead-free A-site mixed bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} are studied by first-principles calculations. • Investigation

  5. The -5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Olszewski, Jurek; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Bryś, Magdalena

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the -5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region -5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the -5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that -5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer.

  6. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-11-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

  7. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  8. Syntheses, crystal structures and fluorescent properties of Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) coordination polymers constructed from 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Degang; Xie Lixia; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei; Xu Yan

    2009-06-15

    Three new d{sup 10} coordination polymers, namely [Cd(taa)Cl]{sub n}1, [Hg(taa)Cl]{sub n}2, and [Ag{sub 1.5}(taa)(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}]{sub n}3 (taa=1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acatate anion) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of two-dimensional layers constructed by carboxyl-linked helical chains, which are further linked through carboxyl group to generate a unique 3D open framework. Topological analysis reveals that the structure of 1 can be classified as an unprecedented (3,8)-connected network with the Schlaefli symbol (4.5{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.5{sup 8}.6{sup 14}.7{sup 3}.8). Compound 2 manifests a doubly interpenetrated decorated alpha-polonium cubic network with the Schlaefli symbol of (4{sup 10}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 3}). Compound 3 consists of 2D puckered layers made up of Ag centers and taa{sup -} bridges. In addition, all of these compounds are photoluminescent in the solid state with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid and Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) salts display luminescent properties and may be potential candidates for luminescent materials.

  9. The High Field Magnetic Dependence of Critical Current Density at 4.2 K for Ag-Sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy Superconducting Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Uno, Naoki; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Togano, Kazumasa; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1990-03-01

    Critical current density (Jc) at 4.2 K and its dependence on applied magnetic field was measured for Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting tape. The specimen showed a strong grain alignment which could be attained by adjusting the conditions of heat treatment. The degree of crystal orientation (F) was evaluated to be up to 95% by XRD for this specimen. In the case of magnetic field applied in a direction parallel to the tape, the Jc initially decreased with the magnetic field from 1.2× 105 A/cm2 at 1 T to 5× 104 A/cm2 at 10T and then remained almost constant up to 23 T. As the F value decreased from 95%, Jc also decreased. The pinning force (Fp) of the 95%-F-value tape was estimated to be about 1× 1010 N/m3 at 23 T. This value is larger than those of conventional low-Tc superconductors.

  10. Complexation of Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ metal ions with 4,13-didecyl-l,7,10,16-tetraoxa-4,13-diazacyclooctadecane in acetonitrile-ethylacetate binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadyar, M.; Rounaghi, G. H.; Tarahomi, S.; Mohajeri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Conductometric titrations have been performed in acetonitrile-ethylacetate (AN-EtOAc) binary solutions at 288, 298, 308, and 318 K to obtain the stoichiometry, the complex stability constants and the standard thermodynamic parameters for the complexation of Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ cations with 4,13-didecyl-1,7,10,16-tetraoxa-4,13-diazacyclooctadecane (cryptand 22DD). The stability constants of the resulting 1: 1 complexes formed between the metal cations and the ligand were determined by computer fitting of the conductance-mole ratio data. There is a non-linear relationship between the log K f values of complexes and the mole fraction of ethylacetate in the mixed solvent system. In addition, the conductometric data show that the stoichiometry of the complexes formed between the Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ cations with the ligand changes with the nature of the solvent. The standard enthalpy and entropy values for the 1: 1 [ML] complexation reactions were evaluated from the temperature dependence of the formation constants. Thermodynamically, the complexation processes of the metal cations with the C22DD, is mainly entropy governed and the values of thermodynamic parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvent solutions.

  11. A first-principles study on the negative thermal expansion material: Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A=Cu, Zn, Ag, or Cd; B=Si, Ge, or Sn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bingyan; He, Haiyan; Pan, Bicai

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the first-principles calculations, we systemically study the magnetic and the negative thermal expansion (NTE) properties of Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A = Cu, Zn, Ag, or Cd; B = Si, Ge, or Sn). From the calculated results, except Mn3(Cu0.5Si0.5)N, all the doped compounds considered would exhibit the NTE. For the dopants at B sites, the working temperature of the NTE shifts to higher temperature range from Si to Sn, and among the compounds with these dopants, Mn3(A0.5Ge0.5)N has the largest amplitude of the NTE coefficient. As to the dopants at A sites, compared to Mn3(Cu0.5B0.5)N, Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A = Ag or Cd) exhibit the NTE with higher temperature ranges and lower coefficient of the thermal expansion. In a word, these compounds would have different working temperatures and coefficients of the NTE, which is important for the applications in different conditions.

  12. From Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} to Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7}: Investigations on an anion-deficient to ideal pyrochlore solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Laurita, Geneva; Vielma, Jason; Winter, Florian; Berthelot, Romain; Largeteau, Alain; Pöttgen, Rainer; Schneider, G.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2014-02-15

    A complete solid solution between the anion-deficient pyrochlore Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and the ideal pyrochlore Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized through the standard solid state ceramic method. Each composition has been characterized by various different techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and {sup 121}Sb Mössbauer spectroscopy. Computational methods based on density functional theory complement this investigation. Photocatalytic activity has been studied, and transport properties have been measured on pellets densified by spark plasma sintering. The analysis of the data collected from these various techniques enables a comprehensive characterization of the complete solid solution and revealed an anomalous behavior in the Cd-rich end of the solid solution, which has been proposed to arise from a possible radical O{sup −} species in small concentrations. - Graphical abstract: A complete solid solution between the anion-deficient pyrochlore Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and the ideal pyrochlore Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized and investigated through various techniques including X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, and {sup 121}Sb-Mössbauer spectroscopy. Optical and electrical measurements have been performed, and computational methods have been applied to determine the density of states. Photocatalytic activity was monitored by the degradation of Methylene Blue, and upon cadmium substitution, the degradation amount decreased, which is attributed primarily to the changing optical and electrical properties of the solid solution. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A complete solid solution between Ag{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized. • XRD reveals a relatively constant lattice parameter as the series progresses. • Optical and electrical properties have been measured for the solid solution.

  13. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 μg/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 μg/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro

  14. Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi2WO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Gong, Ming; Liu, Wangping; Mao, Yulin; Le, Shukun; Ju, Shang; Long, Fei; Liu, Xiufang; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Tingshun

    2015-03-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was prepared by hard template method using SBA-15 as template, sucrose as carbon source. Flower/sphere-like Bi2WO6 and CMK-3/Bi2WO6 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and then Ag/Bi2WO6 and Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 composite photocatalysts were prepared via a photoreduction process. The samples were characterized by XRD, UV-vis, TEM (HR-TEM), SEM, N2 physical adsorption and PL and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that both incorporating of CMK-3 and Ag loading greatly improved the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6, and the content of CMK-3 and silver have an impact on the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 photocatalyst is superior to the activities of CMK-3/Bi2WO6 and Ag/Bi2WO6 under comparable conditions, and Ag/Bi2WO6/CMK-3 photocatalyst has high stability and is easy to be recycled. Also, the mechanism for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of CMK-3 and Ag co-modified Bi2WO6 was also investigated.

  15. Collective and noncollective states in {sup 116}Cd studied via the {beta} decays of {sup 116}Ag{sup m1,m2,gs}

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J. C.; Carter, H. K.; Spejewski, E. H.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Stracener, D. W.; Bingham, C. R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Grzywacz, R.; Larochelle, Y.; Tantawy, M. N.; Hartley, D. J.; Krolas, W.

    2009-11-15

    We have reinvestigated the {beta} decay of the three isomers of {sup 116}Ag at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Through the use of half-life information, we have been able to construct individual decay schemes for each isomer and correct what was a puzzling inconsistency with the published data, namely the {beta} feeding of 2{sup +} states by a 5{sup +} isomer. Our results indicate that the feeding of these levels arises from a 3{sup +} isomer in {sup 116}Ag. A total of 271{gamma}-ray transitions (159 new) were assigned to 148 levels (94 new) from the {beta} decay of {sup 116}Ag{sup m1,m2,gs}. Significant deviations are observed from IBM-2 calculations for the decay of the 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} members of the previously assigned three-phonon quintuplet. Candidate states for the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet states and {pi}g{sub 9/2}-{pi}p{sub 1/2}, {pi}g{sub 9/2}-{pi}p{sub 3/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2}-{nu}s{sub 1/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2}-{nu}d{sub 3/2}, and {nu}h{sub 11/2}-{nu}d{sub 5/2} broken-pair states are assigned.

  16. Syntheses, crystal structures and fluorescent properties of Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) coordination polymers constructed from 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, De-Gang; Xie, Li-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2009-06-01

    Three new d10 coordination polymers, namely [Cd(taa)Cl] n1, [Hg(taa)Cl] n2, and [Ag 1.5(taa)(NO 3) 0.5] n3 (taa=1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acatate anion) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of two-dimensional layers constructed by carboxyl-linked helical chains, which are further linked through carboxyl group to generate a unique 3D open framework. Topological analysis reveals that the structure of 1 can be classified as an unprecedented (3,8)-connected network with the Schläfli symbol (4.5 2) 2(4 2.5 8.6 14.7 3.8). Compound 2 manifests a doubly interpenetrated decorated α-polonium cubic network with the Schläfli symbol of (4 10.6 2.8 3). Compound 3 consists of 2D puckered layers made up of Ag centers and taa - bridges. In addition, all of these compounds are photoluminescent in the solid state with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor.

  17. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3-Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Chen, Jianguo; Wang, Chun-Ming; Yu, Yang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-07-01

    (0.95-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3-0.05Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d33 = 505pC/N, kp = 55.9%, kt = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and Pr = 39.7 μC/cm2. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature Tc was found to increase from 371 °C to 414 °C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  18. Bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters presenting GlcNAc/GalNAc as inhibitors: from plant agglutinins to human macrophage galactose-type lectin (CD301) and galectins.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; O'Sullivan, Shane; Koller, Christiane; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-14

    Emerging insights into the functional spectrum of tissue lectins leads to identification of new targets for the custom-made design of potent inhibitors, providing a challenge for synthetic chemistry. The affinity and selectivity of a carbohydrate ligand for a lectin may immensely be increased by a number of approaches, which includes varying geometrical or topological features. This perspective leads to the design and synthesis of glycoclusters and their testing using assays of physiological relevance. Herein, hydroquinone, resorcinol, benzene-1,3,5-triol and tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethene have been employed as scaffolds and propargyl derivatives obtained. The triazole-containing linker to the α/β-O/S-glycosides of GlcNAc/GalNAc presented on these scaffolds was generated by copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This strategy was used to give a panel of nine glycoclusters with bi-, tri- and tetravalency. Maintained activity for lectin binding after conjugation was ascertained for both sugars in solid-phase assays with the plant agglutinins WGA (GlcNAc) and DBA (GalNAc). Absence of cross-reactivity excluded any carbohydrate-independent reactivity of the bivalent compounds, allowing us to proceed to further testing with a biomedically relevant lectin specific for GalNAc. Macrophage galactose(-binding C)-type lectin, involved in immune defence by dendritic cells and in virus uptake, was produced as a soluble protein without/with its α-helical coiled-coil stalk region. Binding to ligands presented on a matrix and on cell surfaces was highly susceptible to the presence of the tetravalent inhibitor derived from the tetraphenylethene-containing scaffold, and presentation of GalNAc with an α-thioglycosidic linkage proved favorable. Cross-reactivity of this glycocluster to human galectins-3 and -4, which interact with Tn-antigen-presenting mucins, was rather small. Evidently, the valency and spatial display of α-GalNAc residues is a key factor to design potent and

  19. Bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters presenting GlcNAc/GalNAc as inhibitors: from plant agglutinins to human macrophage galactose-type lectin (CD301) and galectins.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; O'Sullivan, Shane; Koller, Christiane; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-14

    Emerging insights into the functional spectrum of tissue lectins leads to identification of new targets for the custom-made design of potent inhibitors, providing a challenge for synthetic chemistry. The affinity and selectivity of a carbohydrate ligand for a lectin may immensely be increased by a number of approaches, which includes varying geometrical or topological features. This perspective leads to the design and synthesis of glycoclusters and their testing using assays of physiological relevance. Herein, hydroquinone, resorcinol, benzene-1,3,5-triol and tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethene have been employed as scaffolds and propargyl derivatives obtained. The triazole-containing linker to the α/β-O/S-glycosides of GlcNAc/GalNAc presented on these scaffolds was generated by copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This strategy was used to give a panel of nine glycoclusters with bi-, tri- and tetravalency. Maintained activity for lectin binding after conjugation was ascertained for both sugars in solid-phase assays with the plant agglutinins WGA (GlcNAc) and DBA (GalNAc). Absence of cross-reactivity excluded any carbohydrate-independent reactivity of the bivalent compounds, allowing us to proceed to further testing with a biomedically relevant lectin specific for GalNAc. Macrophage galactose(-binding C)-type lectin, involved in immune defence by dendritic cells and in virus uptake, was produced as a soluble protein without/with its α-helical coiled-coil stalk region. Binding to ligands presented on a matrix and on cell surfaces was highly susceptible to the presence of the tetravalent inhibitor derived from the tetraphenylethene-containing scaffold, and presentation of GalNAc with an α-thioglycosidic linkage proved favorable. Cross-reactivity of this glycocluster to human galectins-3 and -4, which interact with Tn-antigen-presenting mucins, was rather small. Evidently, the valency and spatial display of α-GalNAc residues is a key factor to design potent and

  20. Bi-specific TCR-anti CD3 redirected T-cell targeting of NY-ESO-1- and LAGE-1-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Emmet; Adams, Katherine J; Hassan, Namir J; Kotian, Akhil; Lissin, Nikolai M; Sami, Malkit; Mujić, Maja; Osdal, Tereza; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Baker, Deborah; Powlesland, Alex S; Aleksic, Milos; Vuidepot, Annelise; Morteau, Olivier; Sutton, Deborah H; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Ashfield, Rebecca; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2013-04-01

    NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 are cancer testis antigens with an ideal profile for tumor immunotherapy, combining up-regulation in many cancer types with highly restricted expression in normal tissues and sharing a common HLA-A*0201 epitope, 157-165. Here, we present data to describe the specificity and anti-tumor activity of a bifunctional ImmTAC, comprising a soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for NY-ESO-1157-165 fused to an anti-CD3 scFv. This reagent, ImmTAC-NYE, is shown to kill HLA-A2, antigen-positive tumor cell lines, and freshly isolated HLA-A2- and LAGE-1-positive NSCLC cells. Employing time-domain optical imaging, we demonstrate in vivo targeting of fluorescently labelled high-affinity NYESO-specific TCRs to HLA-A2-, NY-ESO-1157-165-positive tumors in xenografted mice. In vivo ImmTAC-NYE efficacy was tested in a tumor model in which human lymphocytes were stably co-engrafted into NSG mice harboring tumor xenografts; efficacy was observed in both tumor prevention and established tumor models using a GFP fluorescence readout. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of both NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 antigens in 15 normal tissues, 5 cancer cell lines, 10 NSCLC, and 10 ovarian cancer samples. Overall, LAGE-1 RNA was expressed at a greater frequency and at higher levels than NY-ESO-1 in the tumor samples. These data support the clinical utility of ImmTAC-NYE as an immunotherapeutic agent for a variety of cancers.

  1. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3}-Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tianlong; Chen Jianguo; Dong Shuxiang; Wang Chunming; Yu Yang

    2013-07-14

    (0.95-x)BiScO{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3}-0.05Pb(Cd{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d{sub 33} = 505pC/N, k{sub p} = 55.9%, k{sub t} = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and P{sub r} = 39.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature T{sub c} was found to increase from 371 Degree-Sign C to 414 Degree-Sign C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  2. A subpopulation of large granular von Willebrand Ag negative and CD105 positive endothelial cells, isolated from abdominal aortic aneurysms, overexpress ICAM-1 and Fas antigen.

    PubMed

    Páez, Araceli; Archundia, Abel; Méndez Cruz, René; Rodríguez, Emma; López Marure, Rebeca; Masso, Felipe; Aceves, José Luis; Flores, Leopoldo; Montaño, Luis F

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether there is a pre-established basal condition of the endothelial cells isolated from aortic abdominal aneurysm that might augment immune effector mechanisms and thus provide us an insight into the possible causes of aneurysm rupture. Endothelial cells isolated from saccular aortic aneurysm fragments were analyzed by cytofluorometry for the expression of different immune response-related molecules. Our results showed that there is a subpopulation of granule-rich, CD105 positive and von Willebrand antigen negative endothelial cells that have an enhanced basal expression of ICAM-1, and Fas antigen, but, interestingly, no apoptotic bodies were detected. Control endothelial cells derived from healthy areas of the same abdominal aortas did not show such enhanced expression. We conclude that in the endothelium that lines abdominal aorta aneurysms there is, at least, one endothelial cell subpopulation with an apparent inhibition of programmed cell death and in a proinflammatory activation status.

  3. Studies on structural & optical properties of CdS0.2Se0.8: Ag nanocomposite thin film for photosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, J. B.; Patil, R. S.; Patil, I. J.; Jagtap, P. P.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2012-06-01

    Silver doped CdS0.2Se0.8 thin films of different concentrations were grown by simple and economical chemical bath deposition technique and later on characterized for optoelectronic and physicochemical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of undoped and doped sample indicates polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed uniform morphology with cabbage type structure for undoped film and leaf-like structure for doped films over the entire glass substrate. Room temperature absorbance for 1 wt% doping concentration of silver showed an excitonic peak which confirms the size quantization of the particle. I-V characteristic for undoped and doped film shows ohmic and Schottky junction behavior.

  4. Cu-Ag sulfides as indicators of pre-porphyritic epithermal Au-Ag deposits in Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Volkov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Au-Ag mineralization of the Olcha and Teploe epithermal deposits underwent thermal metamorphism due to porphyritic intrusions. The presence of Bi-bearing galena and matildite in the ores (Teploe), Cu-Te-bearing naumannite (Olcha), the occurrence of middle- and high-temperature facies of metasomatic rocks (epidote and actinolite), and temperature formation conditions are related, firstly, to the influence of granitoids on the ore process, which supplied not only Cu and Mo, but also Bi, Te, and, secondly, to the heating of host rocks containing pre-porphyritic epithermal Au-Ag mineralization. The abundance of Cu-Ag sulfides and Cu-acanthite resulted from the enrichment of later mineral phases in Cu and Ag under the substance redistribution with the formation of Ag-acanthite ores. The data considered in the paper are of practical importance for regional forecasting of metallogenic constructions, exploration, and evaluation of the epithermal Au-Ag deposits.

  5. In situ formed Bi/BiOBrxI1-x heterojunction of hierarchical microspheres for efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunrui; Cao, Chuanbao; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2015-05-28

    Bi nanoparticles deposited in situ in BiOBrxI1-x hierarchical microspheres (Bi/BiOBrxI1-x heterojunction) were synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized via XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The hierarchical microspheres were composed of numerous nanosheets aggregated together compactly to form a spherical geometry. Results indicated that Bi nanoparticles were generated on the surface of BiOBrxI1-x microspheres via the in situ reduction of Bi(3+) by ethylene glycol. BiOBrxI1-x microspheres with deposited Bi nanoparticles were employed for the degradation of RhB under visible-light irradiation and the samples exhibited exceptionally enhanced photocatalytic activity. This immense enhancement in photocatalytic activity was attributed to the contribution of Bi nanoparticles to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and prolongation of the lifetime of charge carriers. The behavior of Bi nanoparticles as a cocatalyst for enhancing photocatalytic activity is similar to that of noble metals in photocatalysis. The as-prepared Bi/BiOBr0.266I0.734 sample exhibited highest photocatalytic activity, which exceeded those of other types of visible-light photocatalysts such as N-TiO2, Eu(3+)-BiOI, BiOBr, BiOBr0.2I0.8/graphene and even Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. The Bi/BiOBr0.266I0.734 sample displayed high photochemical stability under repeated visible-light irradiation, which is especially important for its practical application. The active species produced from Bi/BiOBrxI1-x under visible light were hydroxyl radicals. Bi/BiOBrxI1-x could generate more hydroxyl radicals due to the Bi nanoparticles, contributing to the enhance oxidation ability. This study demonstrated the high feasibility of utilizing low-cost Bi nanoparticles as a substitute for noble metals to enhance visible-light photocatalysis.

  6. Bi2CdO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Kuprysyuk, V.; Savysyuk, I.

    This document is part of Subvolume A9 `Structure Types. Part 9: Space Groups (148) R-3 - (141) I41' of Volume 43 `Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'.

  7. Luminescence efficiency growth in wide band gap semiconducting Bi2O3 doped Cd0.4Pb0.1B0.5 glasses and effect of γ-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Hamdy, Y. M.

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium lead borate glasses together with other glasses containing different Bi2O3-doping concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt annealing method. The density and molar volume values were calculated to obtain some insight on the packing density and arrangement in the network. Also their optical and structural properties have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Optical measurements have been used to determine the optical band gap (Eg), Urbach energy (ΔE) and the refractive index (n). The results demonstrate the effective rule of Bi2O3 on the studied glasses. The undoped and Bi2O3 doped - glass show strong extended UV-near visible absorption bands which are attributed to the collective presence of both trace iron impurities from raw materials and also the sharing of bismuth Bi+3 ions. Furthermore, the luminescence intensity strongly increases with increasing Bi2O3 content which may be attributed to transfer of energy from transitions in its energy levels. It has been revealed that the decreasing values of optical band gap and band tail can be understood and related in terms of the structural changes that are taking place in the glass samples. The infrared absorption spectra of the prepared glasses show characteristic absorption bands related to the borate network (BO3, BO4 groups) together with vibrational modes due to Bi-O groups upon the introduction of Bi2O3. The prepared samples reveal a very limited response towards of gamma irradiation which reflects its shielding behavior towards the effect of such type of irradiation.

  8. Visible-light driven degradation of ibuprofen using abundant metal-loaded BiVO₄ photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhao-Yong; Zhu, Ya-Qi; Zhang, Jun-Xiao; Ding, Ai-Zhong; Wang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for the degradation of ibuprofen as an aqueous contaminant was developed under visible-light irradiation with as-prepared bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) catalysts. The metal-loaded catalysts Cu-BiVO4 and Ag-BiVO4 were synthesized using a hydrothermal process and then a wet-impregnation method. All of the materials were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and BET surface area. The results indicated that all of the prepared samples had monoclinic scheelite structures. In the metal-loaded catalysts, silver existed as a mixture of Ag and Ag2O on the surface of the catalysts. However, copper existed as Cu2O and CuO. Additionally, the band gap values of BiVO4, Ag-BiVO4, and Cu-BiVO4 were 2.38, 2.31, and 2.30eV, respectively. Compared to the BiVO4 catalyst, the metal-loaded BiVO4 catalysts showed superior photocatalytic properties for the degradation of ibuprofen. PMID:25268078

  9. All screen printed CdS/CdTe solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Nakano, A.; Ikegami, S.

    Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells were prepared on a glass substrate by successively repeating screen printing and heating in a belt furnace of each paste of CdS, Cd+Te, C, Ag+In and Ag. The photovoltaic performance of the cell is influenced generally by the preparation condition of each film. The sintering temperature of CdTe film gave a strong effect on the spectral response of the cell. The cell sintered at a higher temperature showed a poor response in the short wavelength. This is due to a formation of CdS(x)Te(1-x) solid solution layer at the CdS/CdTe interface. It was attempted to prepare solar cells, taking CdTe sintering temperature of 620 C, on a borosilicate glass substrate of 10 x 10 sq cm and an intrinsic efficiency of 9.0 percent was obtained. Twenty-four watt modules consisting of 48 element cells have been fabricated.

  10. CD27 costimulation contributes substantially to the expansion of functional memory CD8(+) T cells after peptide immunization.

    PubMed

    Taraban, Vadim Y; Rowley, Tania F; Kerr, Jonathan P; Willoughby, Jane E; Johnson, Peter M W; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Buchan, Sarah L

    2013-12-01

    Naive T cells require signals from multiple costimulatory receptors to acquire full effector function and differentiate to long-lived memory cells. The costimulatory receptor, CD27, is essential for optimal T-cell priming and memory differentiation in a variety of settings, although whether CD27 is similarly required during memory CD8(+) T-cell reactivation remains controversial. We have used OVA and anti-CD40 to establish a memory CD8(+) T-cell population and report here that their secondary expansion, driven by peptide and anti-CD40, polyI:C, or LPS, requires CD27. Furthermore, antigenic peptide and a soluble form of the CD27 ligand, CD70 (soluble recombinant CD70 (sCD70)), is sufficient for secondary memory CD8(+) T-cell accumulation at multiple anatomical sites, dependent on CD80/86. Prior to boost, resting effector- and central-memory CD8(+) T cells both expressed CD27 with greater expression on central memory cells. Nonetheless, both populations upregulated CD27 after TCR engagement and accumulated in proportion after boosting with Ag and sCD70. Mechanistically, sCD70 increased the frequency of divided and cytolytic memory T cells, conferred resistance to apoptosis and enabled retardation of tumor growth in vivo. These data demonstrate the central role played by CD27/70 during secondary CD8(+) T-cell activation to a peptide Ag, and identify sCD70 as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant for antitumor immunity.

  11. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Spin relaxation characteristics in Ag nanowire covered with various oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, S.; Idzuchi, H.; Otani, Y.; Kondou, K.; Fukuma, Y.

    2015-09-21

    We have studied spin relaxation characteristics in a Ag nanowire covered with various oxide layers of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, MgO, or AgO{sub x} by using non-local spin valve structures. The spin-flip probability, a ratio of momentum relaxation time to spin relaxation time at 10 K, exhibits a gradual increase with an atomic number of the oxide constituent elements, Mg, Al, Ag, and Hf. Surprisingly, the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} capping was found to increase the probability by an order of magnitude compared with other oxide layers. This finding suggests the presence of an additional spin relaxation mechanism such as Rashba effect at the Ag/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, which cannot be explained by the simple Elliott-Yafet mechanism via phonon, impurity, and surface scatterings. The Ag/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface may provide functionality as a spin to charge interconversion layer.

  13. LcBiP, a endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein gene from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation is very toxic to plants. The presence of Cd may lead to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and then cause inhibition of plant growth. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein (BiP) is an important functional protein, which has been shown to function as a sensor of alterations in the ER environment. BiP overexpression in plants was shown to increase drought tolerance through inhibition of ROS accumulation. Due to the above relationships, it is likely that there may be a link between Cd stress tolerance, ROS accumulation and the BiP transcript expression in plants. In this study, a BiP gene, LcBiP, from L. chinense was isolated and characterized. Overexpression of LcBiP in tobacco conferred Cd tolerance. Under Cd stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco lines exhibited better chlorophyll retention, less accumulation of ROS, longer root length, more glutathione (GSH) content, and less antioxidant enzyme activity than the wild type. These data demonstrated that LcBiP act as a positive regulator in Cd stress tolerance. It is hypothesized that the improved Cd tolerance of the transgenic tobacco plants may be due to the enhanced ROS scavenging capacity. The enhancement of GSH content might contribute to this ROS scavenging capacity in the transgenic plants. However, the underlying mechanism for BiP-mediated increase in Cd stress tolerance need to be further clarified. PMID:25589446

  14. Partical Melting of bulk Bi-2212

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeb, B.; Gauckler, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dense and textured Bi-2212 bulk samples have been produced by the partial melting process. The appropriate amount of liquid phase necessary for complete densification has been adjusted by controlling the maximum processing temperature. The maximum temperature itself has to be adapted to several parameters as powder stoichiometry, silver addition and oxygen partial pressure. Prolonged annealing at 850 and 820 C and cooling in N2 atmosphere led to nearly single phase material with T(sub c) = 92 K. Critical current densities j(sub c) of 2'200 A/sq cm at 77 K/0 T have been achieved in samples of more than 1 mm thickness. Reducing the thickness below 0.4 mm enhances j(sub c) considerably to values is greater than 4'000 A/sq cm. The addition of 2 wt% Ag decreases the solidus temperature of the Bi-2212 powder by 21 C. Therefore, the maximum heat treatment temperature of Ag containing samples can be markedly lowered leading to a reduction of the amount of secondary phases. In addition, Ag enhances slightly the texture over the entire cross section and as a result j(sub c) at 77 K/0 T.

  15. Levels of human platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand depend on haplotypes of CD40LG-CD40-ITGA2.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Chaker; Prigent, Antoine; Tariket, Sofiane; Sut, Caroline; Fagan, Jocelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Chakroun, Tahar; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Increased circulating soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is commonly associated with inflammatory disorders. We aimed to investigate whether gene polymorphisms in CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 are associated with a propensity to secrete sCD40L; thus, we examined this issue at the level of human platelets, the principal source of sCD40L. We performed single polymorphism and haplotype analyses to test for the effect of twelve polymorphisms across the CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 genes in blood donors. ITGA2 presented a positive association with rs1126643, with a significant modification in sCD40L secretion (carriers of C allele, P =  0.02), unlike the investigated CD40LG and CD40 polymorphisms. One CD40LG haplotype (TGGC) showing rs975379 (C/T), rs3092952 (A/G), rs3092933 (A/G) and rs3092929 (A/C) was associated with increased sCD40L levels (1.906 μg/L (95% CI: 1.060 to 2.751); P = 0.000009). The sCD40L level was associated with the inter-chromosomal CD40LG/CD40/ITGA2 haplotype (ATC), displaying rs3092952 (A/G), rs1883832 (C/T) and rs1126643 (C/T), with increased sCD40L levels (P = 0.0135). Our results help to decipher the genetic role of CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 with regard to sCD40L levels found in platelet components. Given the crucial role of sCD40L, this haplotype study in a transfusion model may be helpful to further determine the role of haplotypes in inflammatory clinical settings. PMID:27094978

  16. Levels of human platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand depend on haplotypes of CD40LG-CD40-ITGA2

    PubMed Central

    Aloui, Chaker; Prigent, Antoine; Tariket, Sofiane; Sut, Caroline; Fagan, Jocelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Chakroun, Tahar; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Increased circulating soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is commonly associated with inflammatory disorders. We aimed to investigate whether gene polymorphisms in CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 are associated with a propensity to secrete sCD40L; thus, we examined this issue at the level of human platelets, the principal source of sCD40L. We performed single polymorphism and haplotype analyses to test for the effect of twelve polymorphisms across the CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 genes in blood donors. ITGA2 presented a positive association with rs1126643, with a significant modification in sCD40L secretion (carriers of C allele, P = 0.02), unlike the investigated CD40LG and CD40 polymorphisms. One CD40LG haplotype (TGGC) showing rs975379 (C/T), rs3092952 (A/G), rs3092933 (A/G) and rs3092929 (A/C) was associated with increased sCD40L levels (1.906 μg/L (95% CI: 1.060 to 2.751); P = 0.000009). The sCD40L level was associated with the inter-chromosomal CD40LG/CD40/ITGA2 haplotype (ATC), displaying rs3092952 (A/G), rs1883832 (C/T) and rs1126643 (C/T), with increased sCD40L levels (P = 0.0135). Our results help to decipher the genetic role of CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 with regard to sCD40L levels found in platelet components. Given the crucial role of sCD40L, this haplotype study in a transfusion model may be helpful to further determine the role of haplotypes in inflammatory clinical settings. PMID:27094978

  17. Cellular and molecular requirements for the recall of IL-4-producing memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(-) T cells during protection induced by attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Dupeh R; Krzych, Urszula

    2002-03-01

    The requirements for maintenance of antigen (Ag)-specific memory T cells in protection to malaria is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated a recall of IL-4-producing memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells with parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) in persons protected by radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (gamma-spz). Using the CD27 marker, we have now identified two subsets of CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells: CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells representing an early memory and CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27() T cells representing a terminally differentiated memory cells. A small subset of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(-) T cells also expressed CD70, the CD27 ligand. The addition of anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to pRBC-stimulated cultures significantly inhibited the conversion of CD27(+) to CD27(-) subset without profoundly affecting IL-4 production. In contrast, the inclusion of anti-CD27 mAb in parallel cultures abrogated IL-4 production without interfering with conscription of T cells into the CD27(-) T cell set. We propose that the persistence of memory CD4(+) T cells depends on Ag-driven conscription of a mature memory phenotype through co-ligation of CD27 and CD70 expressed, respectively, on CD27(+) and CD27(-) T cells. Hence, protracted protection in malaria depends in part on memory CD4(+) T cells that require specific Ag presumably from the repositories of liver-and blood-stage antigens and the delivery of a second signal from the CD27:CD70 interaction.

  18. Temperature driven reactant solubilization synthesis of BiCuOSe.

    PubMed

    Stampler, Evan S; Sheets, William C; Bertoni, Mariana I; Prellier, Wilfrid; Mason, Thomas O; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2008-11-01

    Phase-pure BiCuOSe, which is isostructural to the layered p-type transparent conductor LaCuOS, has been synthesized in high yield by a single-step hydrothermal reaction at low temperature (250 degrees C) and pressure (<20 atm). A moderate reaction temperature of 250 degrees C was sufficiently high to solubilize both Bi2O3 and Cu2O and stabilize monovalent copper and low enough to impede the oxidation of dianionic selenium. BiCuOSe exhibits a relatively high electrical conductivity (sigma approximately 3.3 S cm(-1)) and a reduced band gap (E(g) = 0.75 eV), which compare favorably with the optoelectronic properties of BiCuOS and the cerium-based oxysulfides, CeAgOS and CeCuOS. PMID:18831580

  19. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Seo, Won-Seon; Cheong, Dong-Ik

    2012-11-01

    Cu- or Ag-dispersed Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanocomposites were prepared by using metal-acetate decomposition and hot pressing. Cu or Ag nanoparticles were well-dispersed in the Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 matrix, and thereby the power factor was greatly increased due to the increase in the effective mass of a carrier. However, Cu or Ag dispersion did not affect the carrier concentration and could not reduce the lattice thermal conductivity because Cu or Ag nanoparticles did not act as phonon scattering centers effectively. The thermoelectric figure of merit was enhanced remarkably over a wide temperature range of 323-523 K due to the high power factor. Compared to Ag dispersion, Cu dispersion was much more effective in enhancing the thermoelectric performance.

  20. Ag(I)-binding to phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R K; Tran, K; Scott, G W; Mulchandani, P; Saini, S S

    1996-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)nGly, where n varies from 2 to 11. A variety of metal ions such as Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) induce PC synthesis in plants and some yeasts. It has generally been assumed that the inducer metals also bind PCs. However, very little information is available on the binding of metals other than Cu(I) and Cd(II) to PCs. In this paper, we describe the Ag(I)-binding characteristics of PCs with the structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly. The Ag(I)-binding stoichiometries of these three peptides were determined by (i) UV/VIS spectrophotometry, (ii) luminescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and (iii) reverse-phase HPLC. The three techniques yielded similar results. ApoPCs exhibit featureless absorption in the 220-340 nm range. The binding of Ag(I) to PCs induced the appearance of specific absorption shoulders. The titration end point was indicated by the flattening of the characteristic absorption shoulders. Similarly, luminescence at 77 K due to Ag(I)-thiolate clusters increased with the addition of graded Ag(I) equivalents. The luminescence declined when Ag(I) equivalents in excess of the saturating amounts were added to the peptides. At neutral pH, (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly bind 1.0, 1.5, and 4.0 equivalents of Ag(I), respectively. The Ag(I)-binding capacity of (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly and (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly was increased at pH 5.0 and below so that Ag(I)/-SH ratio approached 1.0. A similar pH-dependent binding of Ag(I) to glutathione was also observed. The increased Ag(I)-binding to PCs at lower pH is of physiological significance as these peptides accumulate in acidic vacuoles. We also report lifetime data on Ag(I)-PCs. The relatively long decay-times (approximately 0.1-0.3 msec) accompanied with a large Stokes shift in the emission band are indicative of spin-forbidden phosphorescence. PMID

  1. The Role of Crop Cd Bioavailability in Potential for Transfer of Soil Cd Risk to Humans and Wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cd is a common contaminant in soils affected by mining and smelting of Zn, Pb, Cu and Ag ores and where biosolids, composts and manures are applied. Zn is usually present at 100-200 times higher concentrations than Cd. Because of this relationship of Cd and Zn in ores and contaminated soils, Zn is...

  2. Strategic BI for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2008-01-01

    Implementing a complex business intelligence (BI) system at a small school or one with limited resources can seem daunting. For small to midsize schools and community colleges, a strategic BI initiative may still be an elusive goal. This article discusses how schools with limited resources are making the dream a reality.

  3. Modification of carbon screen-printed electrodes by adsorption of chemically synthesized Bi nanoparticles for the voltammetric stripping detection of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Rico, Ma Angeles Granado; Olivares-Marín, Mara; Gil, Eduardo Pinilla

    2009-12-15

    A simple procedure for the chemical synthesis of bismuth nanoparticles and subsequent adsorption on commercial screen-printed carbon electrodes offer reliable quantitation of trace zinc, cadmium and lead by anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry in nondeareated water samples. The influence of two hydrodynamic configurations (convective cell and flow cell) and the effect of various experimental variables upon the stripping signals at the bismuth-coated sensor are explored. The square-wave peak current signal is linear over the low ng mL(-1) range (120 s deposition), with detections limits ranging from 0.9 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and good precision. Applicability to waste water certified reference material and drinking water samples is demonstrated. The attractive behaviour of the new disposable Bi nanoparticles modified carbon strip electrodes, coupled with the negligible toxicity of bismuth, hold great promise for decentralized heavy metal testing in environmental and industrial effluents waters.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  5. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  6. Sintering of bulk high-{Tc} superconductors: Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Kaufman, D.Y.; Biondo, A.C.; Wu, C.T.; Loomans, M.E.; Cheesman, M.R.; Poeppel, R.B.; Nash, A.S.

    1992-05-01

    Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (2212) and (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) superconductors have orthorhombic crystal structures. They form platelike grains that at high temperatures grow primarily in the a-b planes and not in the c direction. The diffusional properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are so anisotropic that 2212 and 2223 cannot, in general, be densified by solid-state sintering. Improved densification can be achieved by application of pressure or by use of transient liquid phases. Most useful bulk Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are composites that contain Ag. The Ag lowers the melting points of the superconductors, which has significant effects on microstructural development. The results of disparate sintering studies are presented and discussed.

  7. Sintering of bulk high- Tc superconductors: Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K.C.; Lanagan, M.T.; Kaufman, D.Y.; Biondo, A.C.; Wu, C.T.; Loomans, M.E.; Cheesman, M.R.; Poeppel, R.B. ); Nash, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (2212) and (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) superconductors have orthorhombic crystal structures. They form platelike grains that at high temperatures grow primarily in the a-b planes and not in the c direction. The diffusional properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are so anisotropic that 2212 and 2223 cannot, in general, be densified by solid-state sintering. Improved densification can be achieved by application of pressure or by use of transient liquid phases. Most useful bulk Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are composites that contain Ag. The Ag lowers the melting points of the superconductors, which has significant effects on microstructural development. The results of disparate sintering studies are presented and discussed.

  8. Collective and Non-Collective States in 116Cd Studied via the Beta-Decays of 116Agm1,m2,gs

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, Jon Charles; Wood, John L; Garrett, Paul; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Bingham, Carrol R; Carter, H Kennon; Fong, Dennis; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, Joseph; Hartley, D J; Hwang, J. K.; Krolas, W; Kulp, David; Larochelle, Y; Piechzczek, A; Ramayya, A. V.; Spejewski, E.H.; Stracener, Dan; Tantawy, M.N.; Winger, J. A.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-investigated the beta decay of the three isomers of $^{116}$Ag at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Through the use of half-life information, we have been able to construct individual decay schemes for each isomer, and correct what was a puzzling inconsistency with the published data, namely the beta feeding of 2$^+$ states by a 5$^+$ isomer. Our results indicate that the feeding of these levels arises from a 3$^+$ isomer in $^{116}$Ag. A total of 271 gamma-ray transitions (159 new) were assigned to 148 levels (94 new) from the beta-decay of $^{116m1,m2,gs}$Ag. Significant deviations are observed from expected U(5) symmetry in the 0$^+$ and 2$^+$ members of the previously assigned three-phonon quintuplet. Candidate states for the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet states and $\\pi$g$_{9/2}-\\pi$p$_{1/2}$, $\\pi$g$_{9/2}-\\pi$p$_{3/2}$, $\

  9. Liver-resident CD103+ dendritic cells prime antiviral CD8+ T cells in situ.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Peter D; Kim, Taeg S; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Braciale, Thomas J; Hahn, Young S

    2015-04-01

    The liver maintains a tolerogenic environment to avoid unwarranted activation of its resident immune cells upon continuous exposure to food and bacterially derived Ags. However, in response to hepatotropic viral infection, the liver's ability to switch from a hyporesponsive to a proinflammatory environment is mediated by select sentinels within the parenchyma. To determine the contribution of hepatic dendritic cells (DCs) in the activation of naive CD8(+) T cells, we first characterized resident DC subsets in the murine liver. Liver DCs exhibit unique properties, including the expression of CD8α (traditionally lymphoid tissue specific), CD11b, and CD103 markers. In both the steady-state and following viral infection, liver CD103(+) DCs express high levels of MHC class II, CD80, and CD86 and contribute to the high number of activated CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, viral infection in the Batf3(-/-) mouse, which lacks CD8α(+) and CD103(+) DCs in the liver, results in a 3-fold reduction in the proliferative response of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Limiting DC migration out of the liver does not significantly alter CD8(+) T cell responsiveness, indicating that CD103(+) DCs initiate the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses in situ. Collectively, these data suggest that liver-resident CD103(+) DCs are highly immunogenic in response to hepatotropic viral infection and serve as a major APC to support the local CD8(+) T cell response. It also implies that CD103(+) DCs present a promising cellular target for vaccination strategies to resolve chronic liver infections.

  10. Fabrication of a microfluidic Ag/AgCl reference electrode and its application for portable and disposable electrochemical microchips.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhua; Ren, Kangning; Zheng, Yizhe; Su, Jing; Zhao, Yihua; Ryan, Declan; Wu, Hongkai

    2010-09-01

    This report describes a convenient method for the fabrication of a miniaturized, reliable Ag/AgCl reference electrode with nanofluidic channels acting as a salt bridge that can be easily integrated into microfluidic chips. The Ag/AgCl reference electrode shows high stability with millivolt variations. We demonstrated the application of this reference electrode in a portable microfluidic chip that is connected to a USB-port microelectrochemical station and to a computer for data collection and analysis. The low fabrication cost of the chip with the potential for mass production makes it disposable and an excellent candidate for real-world analysis and measurement. We used the chip to quantitatively analyze the concentrations of heavy metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) in sea water. We believe that the Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode and the portable electrochemical system will be of interest to people in microfluidics, environmental science, clinical diagnostics, and food research.

  11. Contrasting the Role of Mg and Ba Doping on the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type AgSbSe2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zihang; Shuai, Jing; Geng, Huiyuan; Mao, Jun; Feng, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Meng, Xianfu; He, Ran; Cai, Wei; Sui, Jiehe

    2015-10-21

    Microstructure has a critical influence on the mechanical and functional properties. For thermoelectric materials, deep understanding of the relationship of microstructure and thermoelectric properties will enable the rational optimization of the ZT value and efficiency. Herein, taking AgSbSe2 as an example, we first report a different role of alkaline-earth metal ions (Mg(2+) and Ba(2+)) doping in the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of p-type AgSbSe2. For Mg doping, it monotonously increases the carrier concentration and then reduces the electrical resistivity, leading to a substantially enhanced power factor in comparison to those of other dopant elements (Bi(3+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), and Cd(2+)) in the AgSbSe2 system. Meanwhile, the lattice thermal conductivity is gradually suppressed by point defects scattering. In contrast, the electrical resistivity first decreases and then slightly rises with the increased Ba-doping concentrations due to the presence of BaSe3 nanoprecipitates, exhibiting a different variation tendency compared with the corresponding Mg-doped samples. More significantly, the total thermal conductivity is obviously reduced with the increased Ba-doping concentrations partially because of the strong scattering of medium and long wavelength phonons via the nanoprecipitates, consistent with the theoretical calculation and analysis. Collectively, ZT value ∼1 at 673 K and calculated leg efficiency ∼8.5% with Tc = 300 K and Th = 673 K are obtained for both AgSb0.98Mg0.02Se2 and AgSb0.98Ba0.02Se2 samples.

  12. Mechanism of visible light photocatalytic NO(x) oxidation with plasmonic Bi cocatalyst-enhanced (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjuan; Zhao, Zaiwang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-28

    Semimetal bismuth (Bi), as an emerging non-noble metal-based cocatalyst and plasmonic photocatalyst, has attracted significant attention. In this work, a one-pot solvent-controlled synthesis strategy was utilized for the in situ-deposition of plasmonic Bi nanoparticles onto the surfaces of (BiO)2CO3 microspheres (BOC-WE) using bismuth citrate, sodium carbonate, and ethylene glycol as precursors. The introduction of the Bi nanoparticles has a pivotal effect on the morphology, optical and photocatalytic performance of the pristine (BiO)2CO3. The results indicated that the Bi nanoparticles were generated on the surface of (BiO)2CO3 microspheres via the in situ reduction of Bi(3+) by ethylene glycol. The Bi-deposited (BiO)2CO3 microspheres were used for the photocatalytic purification of NOx in air under visible light irradiation. Significantly, the BOC-WE samples exhibited a drastically promoted photocatalytic performance with a NOx removal ratio (η) of 37.2%, superior to pristine (BiO)2CO3 (η = 19.1%), outperforming other well-known visible light photocatalysts, such as C-doped TiO2 (η = 21.8%), BiOBr (η = 21.3%), BiOI (η = 14.9%) and C3N4 (η = 25.5%). The conspicuously enhanced photocatalytic capability can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, increased visible light absorption and the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs induced by the Bi nanoparticles. The Bi nanoparticles can act as a non-noble metal-based cocatalyst for strengthening photocatalytic performance, which is similar to the behavior of noble metals (Au, Ag) in enhancing photocatalysis. The mechanism of visible light photocatalytic NOx oxidation was investigated. DMPO-ESR spin-trapping results demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were confirmed to be the main active species for NOx photo-oxidation. Due to the SPR effect of Bi, the BOC-WE could produce more hydroxyl radicals than BOC, which was responsible for the enhanced NO photo

  13. Selection of an antibody library identifies a pathway to induce immunity by targeting CD36 on steady-state CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Tagliani, Elisa; Guermonprez, Pierre; Sepúlveda, Jorge; López-Bravo, María; Ardavín, Carlos; Amigorena, Sebastian; Benvenuti, Federica; Burrone, Oscar R

    2008-03-01

    Improvement of the strategy to target tumor Ags to dendritic cells (DCs) for immunotherapy requires the identification of the most appropriate ligand/receptor pairing. We screened a library of Ab fragments on mouse DCs to isolate new potential Abs capable of inducing protective immune responses. The screening identified a high-affinity Ab against CD36, a multi-ligand scavenger receptor primarily expressed by the CD8alpha+ subset of conventional DCs. The Ab variable regions were genetically linked to the model Ag OVA and tested in Ag presentation assays in vitro and in vivo. Anti-CD36-OVA was capable of delivering exogenous Ags to the MHC class I and MHC class II processing pathways. In vivo, immunization with anti-CD36-OVA induced robust activation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ Ag-specific T lymphocytes and the differentiation of primed CD8+ T cells into long-term effector CTLs. Vaccination with anti-CD36-OVA elicited humoral and cell-mediated protection from the growth of an Ag-specific tumor. Notably, the relative efficacy of targeting CD11c/CD8alpha+ via CD36 or DEC205 was qualitatively different. Anti-DEC205-OVA was more efficient than anti-CD36-OVA in inducing early events of naive CD8+ T cell activation. In contrast, long-term persistence of effector CTLs was stronger following immunization with anti-CD36-OVA and did not require the addition of exogenous maturation stimuli. The results identify CD36 as a novel potential target for immunotherapy and indicate that the outcome of the immune responses vary by targeting different receptors on CD8alpha+ DCs.

  14. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity, little is known about CD1 protein expression in dogs, notably due to lack of isoform-specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only recognized canine CD1a8 and CD1a9 isoforms, and Fe1.5F4 mAb solely recognized canine CD1a6. Anti-CD1b mAbs recognized the canine CD1b protein, but also bound CD1a2, CD1a8, and CD1a9. Interestingly, Ca9.AG5 showed allele specificity based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 321. Our findings have refined the structure of the canine CD1 locus and available antibody specificity against canine CD1 proteins. These are important fundamentals for future investigation of the role of canine CD1 in lipid immunity. PMID:26687789

  15. Crystal Structure of Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Stefan; Svensson, Goeran

    2001-02-15

    The room temperature structures of the two-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2.5}Me{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (Me=Na, K) have been refined with the Rietveld method from powder neutron diffraction data ({lambda}=1.470 {angstrom}). They consist of (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers interleaved with perovskite (Bi{sub 0.5}Me{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 2-} (Me=Na, K) slabs. The structures were refined in the orthorhombic space group A2{sub 1}am, Z=4, and the unit cell parameters of the two oxides are a= 5.4937(3), b=5.4571(4), c=24.9169(14) {angstrom} and a=5.5005(8), b=5.4958(8), c=25.2524(16) {angstrom}, respectively. The orthorhombic distortion increases with decreasing Me+ cation size in the perovskite layer (Bi/Me){sup 2+} site and the lone pair electrons from the Bi{sup 3+} cation are influencing the site distortion. This is in agreement with other two-layer Aurivillius phases and originates from bonding requirements depending on size and electronic environment.

  16. Identification of CD13+CD36+ cells as a common progenitor for erythroid and myeloid lineages in human bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Gao, Zhigang; Zhu, Jianqiong; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify bi-potential precursor cells of erythroid and myeloid development in human bone marrow. Materials and Methods Cells co-expressing CD13 and CD36 (CD13+CD36+) were investigated by analyzing cell surface marker expression during erythroid development (induced with a combination of cytokines plus erythropoietin [EPO]), or myeloid development (induced with the same cocktail of cytokines plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [G-CSF]) of bone marrow derived CD133 cells in liquid cultures. CD13+CD36+ subsets were also isolated on the 14th day of cultures and further evaluated for their hematopoietic clonogenic capacity in methylcellulose. Results Colony-forming analysis of sorted CD13+CD36+ cells of committed erythroid and myeloid lineages demonstrated that these cells were able to generate erythroid, granulocyte, and mixed erythroid –granulocyte colonies. In contrast, CD13+CD36− or CD13−CD36+ cells exclusively committed to granulocyte/monocyte or erythroid colonies, respectively, but failed to form mixed erythroid –granulocyte colonies; no colonies were detected in CD13−CD36− cells with lineage-supporting cytokines. In addition, our data confirmed that EPO induced both erythroid and myeloid commitment, while G-CSF only supported the differentiation of the myeloid lineage. Conclusions The present data identify some CD13+CD36+ cells as bi-potential precursors of erythroid and myeloid commitment in normal hematopoiesis. They provide a physiological explanation for the cell identification of myeloid and erythroid lineages observed in hematopoietic diseases. This unique fraction of CD13+CD36+ cells may be useful for further studies on regulating erythroid and myeloid differentiation during normal and malignant hematopoiesis. PMID:17588473

  17. Tumor-Unrelated CD4 T Cell Help Augments CD134 plus CD137 Dual Costimulation Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Payal; St Rose, Marie-Clare; Wang, Xi; Ryan, Joseph M; Wasser, Jeffrey S; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    The ability of immune-based cancer therapies to elicit beneficial CD8(+) CTLs is limited by tolerance pathways that inactivate tumor-specific CD4 Th cells. A strategy to bypass this problem is to engage tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells. Thus, CD4 T cells, regardless of their specificity per se, can boost CD8(+) CTL priming as long as the cognate epitopes are linked via presentation on the same dendritic cell. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic impact of engaging tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells during dual costimulation with CD134 plus CD137 that provide help via the above-mentioned classical linked pathway, as well as provide nonlinked help that facilitates CTL function in T cells not directly responding to cognate Ag. We found that engagement of tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells dramatically boosted the ability of dual costimulation to control the growth of established B16 melanomas. Surprisingly, this effect depended upon a CD134-dependent component that was extrinsic to the tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells, suggesting that the dual costimulated helper cells are themselves helped by a CD134(+) cell(s). Nevertheless, the delivery of therapeutic help tracked with an increased frequency of tumor-infiltrating granzyme B(+) effector CD8 T cells and a reciprocal decrease in Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cell frequency. Notably, the tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells also infiltrated the tumors, and their deletion several days following initial T cell priming negated their therapeutic impact. Taken together, dual costimulation programs tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells to deliver therapeutic help during both the priming and effector stages of the antitumor response.

  18. Tumor-Unrelated CD4 T Cell Help Augments CD134 plus CD137 Dual Costimulation Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Payal; St Rose, Marie-Clare; Wang, Xi; Ryan, Joseph M; Wasser, Jeffrey S; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    The ability of immune-based cancer therapies to elicit beneficial CD8(+) CTLs is limited by tolerance pathways that inactivate tumor-specific CD4 Th cells. A strategy to bypass this problem is to engage tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells. Thus, CD4 T cells, regardless of their specificity per se, can boost CD8(+) CTL priming as long as the cognate epitopes are linked via presentation on the same dendritic cell. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic impact of engaging tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells during dual costimulation with CD134 plus CD137 that provide help via the above-mentioned classical linked pathway, as well as provide nonlinked help that facilitates CTL function in T cells not directly responding to cognate Ag. We found that engagement of tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells dramatically boosted the ability of dual costimulation to control the growth of established B16 melanomas. Surprisingly, this effect depended upon a CD134-dependent component that was extrinsic to the tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells, suggesting that the dual costimulated helper cells are themselves helped by a CD134(+) cell(s). Nevertheless, the delivery of therapeutic help tracked with an increased frequency of tumor-infiltrating granzyme B(+) effector CD8 T cells and a reciprocal decrease in Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cell frequency. Notably, the tumor-unrelated CD4 Th cells also infiltrated the tumors, and their deletion several days following initial T cell priming negated their therapeutic impact. Taken together, dual costimulation programs tumor-unrelated CD4 T cells to deliver therapeutic help during both the priming and effector stages of the antitumor response. PMID:26561553

  19. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  20. CD Rainbows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Several papers have been published on the use of a CD as a grating for undergraduate laboratories and/or for high school and college class demonstrations. Four years ago "The Physics Teacher" had a spectacular cover picture showing emission spectrum as viewed through a CD with no coating. That picture gave the impetus to develop a system that can…

  1. Hydride generation-resonance Rayleigh scattering and SERS spectral determination of trace Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaojing; Wen, Guiqing; Liu, Qingye; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-09-01

    In acidic solutions, Bi(III) was reduced by NaBH4 to form BiH3 gas. Using I3- graphene oxide (GO) as absorption solution, the BiH3 gas reacted with I3- to form I- that resulted in the I3- concentration decreasing. In the absence of BiH3, the I3- concentration was high, and as receptors it was closed to the surfaces of GO which was as donors. Then the surface plasmon resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) energy of GO transfers to I3- heavily, and results in the RRS quenching severely. With the increase of the Bi(III) concentration, the receptors and the RRS energy transfer (RRS-ET) decreased, so the RRS intensity enhanced linearly at 370 nm. The RRS intensity was linear to the Bi(III) concentration in 0.05-5.5 μmol/L, with a detection limit of 4 ng/mL Bi. A new RRS-ET spectral method was developed for the determination of trace Bi(III). Using I3- as the absorption solution, silver nanorod (AgNR) as sol substrate and Vitoria blue B (VBB) as molecular probe, a SERS method was developed for detection of Bi.

  2. Resistive switching properties in CdZnTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Gangqiang; Lin, Yun; Tan, Tingting; Jie, Wanqi; Zeng, Dongmei

    2015-02-09

    The ternary II–VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) has bi-stable conduction characteristics. In this letter, CdZnTe films are grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The current-voltage characteristics show that there is resistive switching in a structure consisting of an 800-nm-thick CdZnTe film, an Au Schottky contact, and an ITO bottom electrode. The electroresistance in Au/CdZnTe/ITO may be related to the polarization of the CdZnTe film and the Schottky contact.

  3. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  4. Anti-CD8 antibodies can trigger CD8+ T cell effector function in the absence of TCR engagement and improve peptide-MHCI tetramer staining.

    PubMed

    Clement, Mathew; Ladell, Kristin; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Miles, John J; Edwards, Emily S J; Dolton, Garry; Williams, Tamsin; Schauenburg, Andrea J A; Cole, David K; Lauder, Sarah N; Gallimore, Awen M; Godkin, Andrew J; Burrows, Scott R; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K; Wooldridge, Linda

    2011-07-15

    CD8(+) T cells recognize immunogenic peptides presented at the cell surface bound to MHCI molecules. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to the same peptide-MHCI (pMHCI) ligand. Specificity is determined by the TCR, whereas CD8 mediates effects on Ag sensitivity. Anti-CD8 Abs have been used extensively to examine the role of CD8 in CD8(+) T cell activation. However, as previous studies have yielded conflicting results, it is unclear from the literature whether anti-CD8 Abs per se are capable of inducing effector function. In this article, we report on the ability of seven monoclonal anti-human CD8 Abs to activate six human CD8(+) T cell clones with a total of five different specificities. Six of seven anti-human CD8 Abs tested did not activate CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, one anti-human CD8 Ab, OKT8, induced effector function in all CD8(+) T cells examined. Moreover, OKT8 was found to enhance TCR/pMHCI on-rates and, as a consequence, could be used to improve pMHCI tetramer staining and the visualization of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. The anti-mouse CD8 Abs, CT-CD8a and CT-CD8b, also activated CD8(+) T cells despite opposing effects on pMHCI tetramer staining. The observed heterogeneity in the ability of anti-CD8 Abs to trigger T cell effector function provides an explanation for the apparent incongruity observed in previous studies and should be taken into consideration when interpreting results generated with these reagents. Furthermore, the ability of Ab-mediated CD8 engagement to deliver an activation signal underscores the importance of CD8 in CD8(+) T cell signaling.

  5. BI Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Graham; Riha, James

    2009-01-01

    Managing business intelligence (BI) projects in higher education is a formidable responsibility that challenges even the most experienced technical project managers. Data source dependencies, uncertain data quality, changing information requirements, and urgency for actionable information are but a few examples among the multitude of challenges.…

  6. Targeting CLEC9A delivers antigen to human CD141+ DC for CD4+ and CD8+T cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tullett, Kirsteen M.; Leal Rojas, Ingrid M.; Minoda, Yoshihito; Tan, Peck S.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Smith, Corey; Shortman, Ken; Caminschi, Irina; Lahoud, Mireille H.; Radford, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    DC-based vaccines that initiate T cell responses are well tolerated and have demonstrated efficacy for tumor immunotherapy, with the potential to be combined with other therapies. Targeting vaccine antigens (Ag) directly to the DCs in vivo is more effective than cell-based therapies in mouse models and is therefore a promising strategy to translate to humans. The human CD141+ DCs are considered the most clinically relevant for initiating CD8+ T cell responses critical for killing tumors or infected cells, and they specifically express the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC9A that facilitates presentation of Ag by these DCs. We have therefore developed a human chimeric Ab that specifically targets CLEC9A on CD141+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. These human chimeric Abs are highly effective at delivering Ag to DCs for recognition by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Given the importance of these cellular responses for antitumor or antiviral immunity, and the superior specificity of anti-CLEC9A Abs for this DC subset, this approach warrants further development for vaccines.

  7. Targeting CLEC9A delivers antigen to human CD141+ DC for CD4+ and CD8+T cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tullett, Kirsteen M.; Leal Rojas, Ingrid M.; Minoda, Yoshihito; Tan, Peck S.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Smith, Corey; Shortman, Ken; Caminschi, Irina; Lahoud, Mireille H.; Radford, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    DC-based vaccines that initiate T cell responses are well tolerated and have demonstrated efficacy for tumor immunotherapy, with the potential to be combined with other therapies. Targeting vaccine antigens (Ag) directly to the DCs in vivo is more effective than cell-based therapies in mouse models and is therefore a promising strategy to translate to humans. The human CD141+ DCs are considered the most clinically relevant for initiating CD8+ T cell responses critical for killing tumors or infected cells, and they specifically express the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC9A that facilitates presentation of Ag by these DCs. We have therefore developed a human chimeric Ab that specifically targets CLEC9A on CD141+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. These human chimeric Abs are highly effective at delivering Ag to DCs for recognition by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Given the importance of these cellular responses for antitumor or antiviral immunity, and the superior specificity of anti-CLEC9A Abs for this DC subset, this approach warrants further development for vaccines. PMID:27699265

  8. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  9. A tetravalent bispecific TandAb (CD19/CD3), AFM11, efficiently recruits T cells for the potent lysis of CD19+ tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Reusch, Uwe; Duell, Johannes; Ellwanger, Kristina; Herbrecht, Carmen; Knackmuss, Stefan HJ; Fucek, Ivica; Eser, Markus; McAleese, Fionnuala; Molkenthin, Vera; Le Gall, Fabrice; Topp, Max; Little, Melvyn; Zhukovsky, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    To harness the potent tumor-killing capacity of T cells for the treatment of CD19+ malignancies, we constructed AFM11, a humanized tetravalent bispecific CD19/CD3 tandem diabody (TandAb) consisting solely of Fv domains. The molecule exhibits good manufacturability and stability properties. AFM11 has 2 binding sites for CD3 and 2 for CD19, an antigen that is expressed from early B cell development through differentiation into plasma cells, and is an attractive alternative to CD20 as a target for the development of therapeutic antibodies to treat B cell malignancies. Comparison of the binding and cytotoxicity of AFM11 with those of a tandem scFv bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) molecule targeting the same antigens revealed that AFM11 elicited more potent in vitro B cell lysis. Though possessing high affinity to CD3, the TandAb mediates serial-killing of CD19+ cells with little dependence of potency or efficacy upon effector:target ratio, unlike the BiTE. The advantage of the TandAb over the BiTE was most pronounced at lower effector:target ratios. AFM11 mediated strictly target-dependent T cell activation evidenced by CD25 and CD69 induction, proliferation, and cytokine release, notwithstanding bivalent CD3 engagement. In a NOD/scid xenograft model, AFM11 induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of Raji tumors in vivo, and radiolabeled TandAb exhibited excellent localization to tumor but not to normal tissue. After intravenous administration in mice, half-life ranged from 18.4 to 22.9 h. In a human ex vivo B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia study, AFM11 exhibited substantial cytotoxic activity in an autologous setting. Thus, AFM11 may represent a promising therapeutic for treatment of CD19+ malignancies with an advantageous safety risk profile and anticipated dosing regimen. PMID:25875246

  10. CD Rom.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    A new CD-Rom has been launched by Guy's and St Thomas' Trust's poisonous unit to help health professionals discover which species have been involved in cases of plant poisoning. The unit says thousands of people are poisoned every year by eating or touching plants - the majority of those people affected being under the age of seven. The CD-Rom covers several thousand species of plant, and has been jointly researched with Kew Gardens.

  11. The Synthesis of Ag-Doped Mesoporous TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-04-15

    Ag-doped mesoporous titanium oxide was prepared using non-ionic surfactants and easily handled titanium precursors, under mild reaction conditions. In contrast to the stabilizing effect of Cd-doping on mesoporous TiO2, Ag-doping was found to significantly destabilize the mesoporous structure.

  12. Tuning the composition of Bi x W y O nanorods towards zero bias PEC water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Steven; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-06-01

    A unique co-oblique angle deposition method was used to create nanorod arrays of mixed phase Bi2O3/WO3/Bi2WO6 with varying atomic ratios of Bi to W. The effect of the tuning on the resulting nanostructures was characterized by EDX, SEM, XRD, optical transmission, specular reflection, and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Samples with different Bi:W atomic ratio had a wide range of morphology and composition due to the surface mobility of deposited bismuth and its volume expansion during oxidation. Their photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties were investigated by methylene blue degradation and photo-generated current respectively. The sample with 38 at.% Bi showed the highest photodecay rates as well as the maximum photocurrent density, 4.3 μA cm‑2, at a bias potential of 600 mV versus Ag/AgCl (3M KCl); while the sample with 50 at.% Bi exhibited a high photocurrent density of 0.35 μA cm‑2 at zero bias potential, which indicates that varying the composition and mixed crystal phases of different oxides with appropriate band gaps and locations could hold the key to a visible light driven, zero bias potential, photoelectrochemical cell.

  13. Tuning the composition of Bi x W y O nanorods towards zero bias PEC water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Steven; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-06-01

    A unique co-oblique angle deposition method was used to create nanorod arrays of mixed phase Bi2O3/WO3/Bi2WO6 with varying atomic ratios of Bi to W. The effect of the tuning on the resulting nanostructures was characterized by EDX, SEM, XRD, optical transmission, specular reflection, and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Samples with different Bi:W atomic ratio had a wide range of morphology and composition due to the surface mobility of deposited bismuth and its volume expansion during oxidation. Their photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties were investigated by methylene blue degradation and photo-generated current respectively. The sample with 38 at.% Bi showed the highest photodecay rates as well as the maximum photocurrent density, 4.3 μA cm-2, at a bias potential of 600 mV versus Ag/AgCl (3M KCl); while the sample with 50 at.% Bi exhibited a high photocurrent density of 0.35 μA cm-2 at zero bias potential, which indicates that varying the composition and mixed crystal phases of different oxides with appropriate band gaps and locations could hold the key to a visible light driven, zero bias potential, photoelectrochemical cell.

  14. Monodispersed spherical colloids of Se@CdSe: synthesis and use as building blocks in fabricating photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Jong-Uk; Xia, Younan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    Monodispersed spherical core-shell colloids of Se@Ag(2)Se have been exploited as a chemical template to synthesize Se@CdSe core-shell particles using a cation-exchange reaction. A small amount of tributylphosphine could facilitate the replacement of Ag(+) by Cd(2+) in methanol at 50 degrees C to complete the conversion within 150 min. The orthorhombic structure of beta-Ag(2)Se changed to a well-defined wurtzite lattice for CdSe. The CdSe shells could be converted back to beta-Ag(2)Se by reacting with AgNO(3) in methanol at room temperature. Because of the uniformity in size and high refractive index associated with the Se@CdSe core-shell colloids, they could serve as a new class of building blocks to fabricate photonic crystals with wide and strong stop bands.

  15. CD40-induced aggregation of MHC class II and CD80 on the cell surface leads to an early enhancement in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Clatza, Abigail; Bonifaz, Laura C; Vignali, Dario A A; Moreno, José

    2003-12-15

    Ligation of CD40 on B cells increases their ability to present Ag and to activate MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted T cells. How this occurs is not entirely clear. In this study we demonstrate that CD40 ligation on Ag-presenting B cells (APC) for a short period between 30 min and 3 h has a rapid, augmenting effect on the ability of a B cell line and normal B cells to activate T cells. This is not due to alterations in Ag processing or to an increase in surface expression of CD80, CD86, ICAM-1, or MHC-II. This effect is particularly evident with naive, resting T lymphocytes and appears to be more pronounced under limiting Ag concentrations. Shortly after CD40 ligation on a B cell line, MHC-II and CD80 progressively accumulated in cholesterol-enriched microdomains on the cell surface, which correlated with an initial enhancement in their Ag presentation ability. Moreover, CD40 ligation induced a second, late, more sustained enhancement of Ag presentation, which correlates with a significant increase in CD80 expression by APC. Thus, CD40 signaling enhances the efficiency with which APC activate T cells by at least two related, but distinct, mechanisms: an early stage characterized by aggregation of MHC-II and CD80 clusters, and a late stage in which a significant increase in CD80 expression is observed. These results raise the possibility that one important role of CD40 is to contribute to the formation of the immunological synapse on the APC side.

  16. Pirquitasite, Ag2ZnSnS4

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Benjamin N.; Downs, Robert T.; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Andrade, Marcelo B; Origlieri, Marcus J.

    2013-01-01

    Pirquitasite, ideally Ag2ZnSnS4 (disilver zinc tin tetra­sulfide), exhibits tetra­gonal symmetry and is a member of the stannite group that has the general formula A2BCX 4, with A = Ag, Cu; B = Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Hg; C = Sn, Ge, Sb, As; and X = S, Se. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are used to determine the structure of pirquitasite from a twinned crystal from the type locality, the Pirquitas deposit, Jujuy Province, Argentina, with anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms, and a measured composition of (Ag1.87Cu0.13)(Zn0.61Fe0.36Cd0.03)SnS4. One Ag atom is located on Wyckoff site Wyckoff 2a (symmetry -4..), the other Ag atom is statistically disordered with minor amounts of Cu and is located on 2c (-4..), the (Zn, Fe, Cd) site on 2d (-4..), Sn on 2b (-4..), and S on general site 8g. This is the first determination of the crystal structure of pirquitasite, and our data indicate that the space group of pirquitasite is I-4, rather than I-42m as previously suggested. The structure was refined under consideration of twinning by inversion [twin ratio of the components 0.91 (6):0.09 (6)]. PMID:23424398

  17. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  18. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  19. Liquidus Projections of Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te Ternary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-han; Chen, Sinn-wen; Hwang, Jenn-dong; Chu, Hsu-shen

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the liquidus projections of both Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te ternary systems which are constituent ternary systems of promising Bi-Se-Te-Ga thermoelectric materials. Ternary Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te alloys are prepared. Their primary solidification phases are experimentally determined, and thermal analysis experiments are carried out. The liquidus projections are determined based on the ternary experimental results and phase diagrams of constituent binary systems. The Bi-Se-Ga system includes seven primary solidification phases, Bi, Ga, GaSe, Ga2Se3, Se, Bi2Se3, and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. In the Bi-Se-Te system, there are five primary solidification phases, Bi, (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m, Bi2(Se,Te)3, (Se,Te), and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. Both the (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m phases are not a single phase, but a collection of series undetermined phases. Large miscibility gaps are observed in the Bi-Se-Ga system. The temperatures of the invariant reactions, Liquid + Bi + GaSe = Ga and Liquid + Ga2Se3 = Bi + GaSe, are at 495 K (222 °C) and 533 K (260 °C), respectively.

  20. High strength oxide dispersion strengthened silver aluminum alloys optimized for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x round wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajbafvala, Amir; Nachtrab, William; Kumar, Raj; Hunte, Frank; Wong, Terence; Schwartz, Justin

    2013-12-01

    High strength dispersion strengthened (DS) Ag/Al alloys with various Al content are studied as candidates for sheathing Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi2212) wire. The Ag/Al alloys are fabricated by powder metallurgy and internally oxidized in pure oxygen. The time and temperature of the internal oxidation heat treatment is varied to maximize the strength after undergoing the Bi2212 partial melt process (PMP). Vickers micro-hardness number (HVN), room temperature tensile behavior, optical and scanning electron microscopy, ion channeling contrast imaging using a focused ion beam and electrical resistivity measurements are used to characterize the alloys. An Ag/0.2wt%Mg (Ag/Mg) alloy is used for comparison. Results show that internal oxidation at 650-700  ° C for 4 h produces the highest HVN for the DS Ag/Al alloy; when oxidized at 675 ° C for 4 h the HVN, yield strength and tensile strength of the DS Ag/Al are 50% higher than the corresponding values of Ag/Mg. Microstructural observations show that Al2O3 precipitates play the main role in strengthening the DS Ag/Al alloy. The alloy retains its fine grain structure and strength after PMP heat treatment.

  1. High strength kiloampere Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox cables for high-field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Jiang, Jianyi; Cooley, Lance; Tompkins, John; McRae, Dustin; Walsh, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multifilamentary Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) wire can carry sufficient critical current density Jc for the development of powerful superconducting magnets. However, the range of its applications is limited by the low mechanical strength of the Ag/Bi-2212 strand. A potential solution is to cable Ag/Bi-2212 wire with high-strength materials that are compatible with the Bi-2212 heat treatment in an oxygen atmosphere. Past attempts have not always been successful, because the high-strength materials reacted with Bi-2212 wires, significantly reducing their Jc. We examined the nature of reactions occurring when Ag/Bi-2212 wires are heat-treated in direct contact with several commonly used high-strength alloys and a new Fe-Cr-Al alloy. INCONEL X750 and INCONEL 600 resulted in significant Jc loss, whereas Ni80-Cr caused little or no Jc loss; however, all of them formed chromium oxide that subsequently reacted with silver, creating cracks in the silver sheath. We found that Fe-Cr-Al did not show significant reactions with Ag/Bi-2212 strands. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) examinations revealed that the Fe-Cr-Al alloy benefits from the formation of a uniform, crack-free, continuous alumina layer on its surface that does not react with Ag and that helps minimize the Cu loss found with INCONEL X750 and INCONEL 600. We fabricated prototype 6-around-1 cables with six Bi-2212 strands twisted and transposed around an Fe-Cr-Al alloy core coated with TiO2. After standard 1 bar melt processing, the cable retained 100% of the total current-carrying capability of its strands, and, after a 10 bar overpressure processing, the cable reached a total current of 1025 A at 4.2 K and 10 T. Tensile tests showed that Fe-Cr-Al becomes brittle after being cooled to 4.2 K, whereas INCONEL X750 remains ductile and retains a modulus of 183 GPa. We proposed new cable designs that take advantage of the chemical compatibility of Fe-Cr-Al and high strength of

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Salmonid CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Sandino, Ana María; Zou, Jun; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Imarai, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the isolation and functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CD4-1(+) T cells and the establishment of an IL-15-dependent CD4-1(+) T cell line. By using Abs specific for CD4-1 and CD3ε it was possible to isolate the double-positive T cells in spleen and head kidney. The morphology and the presence of transcripts for T cell markers in the sorted CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) cells were studied next. Cells were found to express TCRα, TCRβ, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (CD40L), T-bet, GATA-3, and STAT-1. The sorted CD4-1(+) T cells also had a distinctive functional attribute of mammalian T lymphocytes, namely they could undergo Ag-specific proliferation, using OVA as a model Ag. The OVA-stimulated cells showed increased expression of several cytokines, including IFN-γ1, IL-4/13A, IL-15, IL-17D, IL-10, and TGF-β1, perhaps indicating that T cell proliferation led to differentiation into distinct effector phenotypes. Using IL-15 as a growth factor, we have selected a lymphoid cell line derived from rainbow trout head kidney cells. The morphology, cell surface expression of CD4-1, and the presence of transcripts of T cell cytokines and transcription factors indicated that this is a CD4-1(+) T cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) T cells in salmonids. As in mammals, CD4-1(+) T cells may be the master regulators of immune responses in fish, and therefore these findings and the new model T cell line developed will contribute to a greater understanding of T cell function and immune responses in teleost fish. PMID:27053758

  3. Electronic structures of efficient MBiO3 (M = Li, Na, K, Ag) photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Liu, Zhou; Zong-Yan, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    In order to deepen the understanding of the relationship between fundamental properties (including: microstructure and composition) and photocatalytic performance, four bismuthate compounds, including: LiBiO3, NaBiO3, KBiO3, and AgBiO3, are regarded as research examples in the present work, because they have particular crystal structures and similar compositions. Using density functional theory calculations, their structural, electronic, and optical properties are investigated and compared systematically. First of all, the calculated results of crystal structures and optical properties are in agreement with available published experimental data. Based on the calculated results, it is found that the tunneled or layered micro-structural properties lead to the stronger interaction between bismuth and oxygen, and the weaker interaction between alkaline-earth metal and [BiO6] octahedron, resulting in the feature of multi-band gaps in the cases of LiBiO3, NaBiO3, and KBiO3. This conclusion is supported by the case of AgBiO3, in which the feature of multi-band gaps disappears, due to the stronger interaction between the noble metal and [BiO6] octahedron. These properties have significant advantages in the photocatalytic performance: absorbing low energy photons, rapidly transferring energy carriers. Furthermore, the features of electronic structures of bismuthate compounds are well reflected by the absorption spectra, which could be confirmed by experimental measurements in practice. Combined with the calculated results, it could be considered that the crystal structures and compositions of the photocatalyst determine the electronic structures and optical properties, and subsequently determine the corresponding photocatalytic performance. Thus, a novel Bi-based photocatalyst driven by visible-light could be designed by utilizing specific compositions to form favorable electronic structures or specific micro-structures to form a beneficial channel for energy carriers

  4. Tetravalent anti-CD20/CD3 bispecific antibody for the treatment of B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Yen; Chen, Gregory J; Tai, Pei-Han; Yang, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Yu-Shen; Chang, Mingi; Hsu, Chuan-Lung

    2016-05-13

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are second generation antibodies for therapeutic application in immunotherapy. One of the major strategies of the bsAb platform is the recruitment of immune effector T cells by incorporating an anti-CD3 domain. A bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE), with one end having an affinity for CD3 and the other end with affinity for CD19, has been approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, due to their small size and lack of Fc region, these single-chain variable fragment (scFv) bsAbs have short half-lives in vivo. Additionally, poor solubility, structural instability, and low production yields have also become major challenges in the bulk production process. To overcome these challenges, we have engineered a tetravalent bsAb with bivalent binding specificity for the CD20 and CD3 antigen in an immunoglobulin G (IgG) format. The fusion of the anti-CD3 scFvs to the CD20 antibody via a linker-hinge domain (LHD) results in improved antibody stabilization and properties. Here we demonstrate this antibody's highly efficient cancer cell elimination in a dose-dependent manner in a CD20-expressing B lymphoblastoid cell line in vitro. Our data suggest the potential clinical application of this bsAb for the treatment of CD20-expressing B cell malignancies. PMID:27040766

  5. Estimated Prevalence of Cryptococcus Antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-Infected Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression in Namibia Justifies Routine Screening and Preemptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Makumbi, Boniface; Purfield, Anne; Ndjavera, Christophine; Mutandi, Gram; Maher, Andrew; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Kaplan, Jonathan E.; Park, Benjamin J.; Lowrance, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies. Methods The study design was cross-sectional. De-identified plasma specimens collected for routine CD4+ testing from HIV-infected adults enrolled in HIV care at 181 public health facilities from November 2013 to January 2014 were identified at the national reference laboratory. Remnant plasma from specimens with CD4+ counts <200 cells/μL were sampled and tested for CrAg using the IMMY® Lateral Flow Assay. CrAg prevalence was estimated and assessed for associations with age, sex, and CD4+ count. Results A total of 825 specimens were tested for CrAg. The median (IQR) age of patients from whom specimens were collected was 38 (32–46) years, 45.9% were female and 62.9% of the specimens had CD4 <100 cells/μL. CrAg prevalence was 3.3% overall and 3.9% and 2.3% among samples with CD4+ counts of CD4+<100 cells/μL and 100–200 cells/μL, respectively. CrAg positivity was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ cells/μL < 50 (7.2%, P = 0.001) relative to those with CD4 cells/μL 50–200 (2.2%). Conclusion This is the first study to estimate CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Namibia. CrAg prevalence of ≥3.0% among patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL justifies routine CrAg screening and preemptive treatment among HIV-infected in Namibia in line with WHO recommendations. Patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL have a significantly greater risk for CrAg positivity. Revised guidelines for ART in

  6. Impedance studies of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag. Technical report No. 15, August 1987-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, M.W.; Drstak, H.; Maly-Schreiber, M.

    1988-07-01

    The construction of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag is described. The impedance of this cell was measured between .001 and 10000 Hz at temperatures between 20 and 550 C. At temperatures below 100 C the cell impedance is determined to a large extent by the bulk resistance of the AgI layer and to a smaller extent by the impedance of the interface Ag/Agi. At temperatures between 160 and 350 C the impedance is controlled by the bulk resistance of the Ag beta alumina and an impedance due to contact problems between Ag and AgI. The bulk resistance of the beta' alumina becomes predominant between 350 and 550 C. A hindrance due to the transfer of silver ions from AgI to Ag beta' alumina was not observable in the whole temperature range.

  7. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  8. Development and fabrication of a Bi-2223 racetrack coil for generator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Herd, K.G.; Salasoo, L.; Laskaris, E.T.; Ranze, R.A.; King, C.G.; Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The development and fabrication of a layer-wound, epoxy-impregnated Bi-2223 high-temperature superconducting (HTS) racetrack coil which generates 40,000 ampere-turns of magnetomotive force (MMF) at 25 K is described. The coil was wound using Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tape conductor laminated with copper foils for strength enhancement and insulated using a paper-wrap method. After epoxy impregnation, the coil was tested over a range of 16--25 K in a vacuum dewar using a closed-cycle helium refrigeration system. Descriptions of the tape lamination and insulation processing, the coil winding and impregnation, and the experimental test setup are given.

  9. Colorimetric detection of Bi (III) in water and drug samples using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid modified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Khayatian, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    A new selective, simple, fast and sensitive method is developed for sensing assay of Bi (III) using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or dipicolinic acid (DPA) modified silver nanoparticles (DPA-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of DPA. Bismuth detection is based on color change of nanoparticle solution from yellow to red that is induced in the presence of Bi (III). Aggregation of DPA-AgNPs has been confirmed with UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Under the optimized conditions, a good linear relationship (correlation coefficient r=0.995) is obtained between the absorbance ratio (A525/A390) and the concentration of Bi (III) in the 0.40-8.00 μM range. This colorimetric probe allows Bi (III) to be rapidly quantified with a 0.01 μM limit of detection. The present method successfully applied to determine bismuth in real water and drug samples. Recoveries of water samples were in the range of 91.2-99.6%. PMID:25919329

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of New Photocatalyst ZnBiSbO4 under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jingfei; Chen, Mengjing; Hu, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnBiSbO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiSbO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectrometer. ZnBiSbO4 crystallized with a pyrochlore-type structure and a tetragonal crystal system. The band gap of ZnBiSbO4 was estimated to be 2.49 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine was realized under visible light irradiation with ZnBiSbO4 as a catalyst compared with nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and CdBiYO4. The results showed that ZnBiSbO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with N-TiO2 or CdBiYO4 for the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine under visible light irradiation. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42− and NO3−, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of indigo carmine during the photocatalytic process. One possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of indigo carmine was obtained. The phytotoxicity of the photocatalytic-treated indigo carmine (IC) wastewater was detected by examining its effect on seed germination and growth. PMID:24879521

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst ZnBiSbO4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingfei; Chen, Mengjing; Hu, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnBiSbO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiSbO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectrometer. ZnBiSbO4 crystallized with a pyrochlore-type structure and a tetragonal crystal system. The band gap of ZnBiSbO4 was estimated to be 2.49 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine was realized under visible light irradiation with ZnBiSbO4 as a catalyst compared with nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and CdBiYO4. The results showed that ZnBiSbO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with N-TiO2 or CdBiYO4 for the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine under visible light irradiation. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of indigo carmine during the photocatalytic process. One possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of indigo carmine was obtained. The phytotoxicity of the photocatalytic-treated indigo carmine (IC) wastewater was detected by examining its effect on seed germination and growth. PMID:24879521

  12. Cross-linking of CD4 in a TCR/CD3-juxtaposed inhibitory state: a pFRET study.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, G; Weaver, J L; Pine, P S; Rao, P E; Aszalos, A

    1995-01-01

    Instances when T cell activation via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex is suppressed by anti-CD4 Abs are generally attributed either to the topological separation of CD4-p56lck from CD3, or their improper apposition. Photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements permitted direct analysis of these alternatives on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Distinction between changes of relative antigen densities or positioning was made possible by simultaneously recording donor and acceptor fluorescence in the energy transfer experiment performed on homogeneous populations of flow-sorted cells. We show here that CD4 stays in the molecular vicinity of CD3, while anti-CD3 stimulation is suppressed by anti-CD4 or cross-linked HIV gp120. Our data suggest that cross-linking of CD4 through particular epitopes is capable of inhibiting activation driven by Abs binding to specific sites on CD3 without major topological sequestration of the Ags, in such a way that additional positive signals will also be affected. Thus, these and other related cases of negative signaling via CD4 may be interpreted in terms of functional uncoupling rather than a wide physical separation of CD4 from the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. PMID:7538802

  13. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. IV. Analysis of surface expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) molecule.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Ercolani, R; Bistoni, O; Tognellini, R; Mariggió, M A; Spinozzi, F; Bertotto, A

    1994-04-15

    A role for CD26 surface antigen (Ag) in both CD3- and CD2-mediated T cell activation has been previously demonstrated. To analyze the functional role of CD26 in the CD3- and CD2-induced activation pathways of cord T cells, which represent the most reliable source of Ag-unprimed T cells, we employed a newly developed anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, termed anti-1F7, anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 in activating T lymphocytes. The results showed that CD26 Ag is expressed on the surface of almost all resting cord T cells and that its fluorescence intensity is enhanced by activation. The binding of anti-1F7 induced a decrease in CD26 membrane expression, with no detectable effect on the surface expression of other cord T cell-related molecules. Moreover, the modulation of CD26 resulted in an increase in anti-CD3-mediated cord T cell activation through an enhancement in intracellular calcium levels, IL-2 receptor expression, and IL-2 synthesis, whereas it had no effect on cord T cell activation induced by anti-CD2 or anti-CD2 plus exogenous IL-2. The fact that the selective involvement of CD26 in the activation pathway triggered by anti-CD3, but not anti-CD2, could be reversed by prior stimulation of cord T cells with anti-CD3 suggests that this functional feature, which resembles that of mature thymocytes, may be linked to the Ag-unprimed cell phenotype of cord T lymphocytes. PMID:7909498

  14. CD38+CD8+ and CD38+CD4+ T Cells and IFN Gamma (+874) Polymorphism Are Associated with a Poor Virological Outcome.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Paulo Germano; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Raphael; Ribeiro da Silva, Silvia Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; de Miranda Lucena, Herene Barros; Martins, Lilian Roberta Costa; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; de Arruda, Érico Antônio Gomes; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the work was to evaluate the use of CD38 on T lymphocytes, IFNγ (+874 A/T), and IL-10 (-1082 A/G) polymorphisms in HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Sixty-one patients were selected at the outpatient clinic for HIV infection at the Hospital São José de Doenças Infecciosas, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The patients were classified into two groups, according to viral load after one year of ARV therapy. In the aviremic group (group I), a reduction of 35.5% of CD38+CD4+ T cells was observed (p = 0.02) and 49.3% of CD38+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001). In the viremic group (group II), a reduction of 37.2% of CD38+CD4+ T cells (p = 0.067), and 21.4% of CD38+CD8+ T cells (p = 0.60) occurred. No association was found between IL-10 (-1082) polymorphism and the type of response to ARV therapy. Regarding the gene polymorphism on IFNγ (+874 T/A), 73.34% of group I and 33.3% of group II presented the AA genotype. The relative risk of the individuals carrying AA genotype or the A allele and not being able to suppress the viral load level after one year of ARV therapy was 3.44 (1.25-9.45; p = 0.014) or 2.35 (1.05-5.26; p = 0.027), respectively. Our data suggested that an augmented frequency of activated CD38+CD8+ T cells as well as the presence of the A allele of IFNγ polymorphism could contribute to a reduced virological suppression in patients under antiretroviral therapy.

  15. Type I IFNs control antigen retention and survival of CD8α(+) dendritic cells after uptake of tumor apoptotic cells leading to cross-priming.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Silvia; Mattei, Fabrizio; Sistigu, Antonella; Bracci, Laura; Spadaro, Francesca; Sanchez, Massimo; Spada, Massimo; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia; Schiavoni, Giovanna

    2011-05-01

    Cross-presentation is a crucial mechanism for generating CD8 T cell responses against exogenous Ags, such as dead cell-derived Ag, and is mainly fulfilled by CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DC). Apoptotic cell death occurring in steady-state conditions is largely tolerogenic, thus hampering the onset of effector CD8 T cell responses. Type I IFNs (IFN-I) have been shown to promote cross-priming of CD8 T cells against soluble or viral Ags, partly through stimulation of DC. By using UV-irradiated OVA-expressing mouse EG7 thymoma cells, we show that IFN-I promote intracellular Ag persistence in CD8α(+) DC that have engulfed apoptotic EG7 cells, regulating intracellular pH, thus enhancing cross-presentation of apoptotic EG7-derived OVA Ag by CD8α(+) DC. Notably, IFN-I also sustain the survival of Ag-bearing CD8α(+) DC by selective upmodulation of antiapoptotic genes and stimulate the activation of cross-presenting DC. The ensemble of these effects results in the induction of CD8 T cell effector response in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our data indicate that IFN-I cross-prime CD8 T cells against apoptotic cell-derived Ag both by licensing DC and by enhancing cross-presentation. PMID:21441457

  16. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α− conventional dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)+ B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c+ cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c+ cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α− conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4+ T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α+ cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α− cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:27306570

  17. Facile synthesis of straight and branched CdTe nanowires using CdO as precursor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Yang, Chunyan; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can

    2011-12-01

    High-quality colloidal CdTe nanowires (NWs) containing both straight and branched ones were controllably prepared via a solution-based approach, using a low melting Bi nanoparticles as catalysts, CdO and tributylphosphine telluride (TBP-Te) as precursors, and a tri-n-octylphosphine oxide/tri-n-octylphosphine (TOPO/TOP) mixture as solvent. The resulting straight CdTe NWs have typical diameters below 20 nm accompanying with lengths exceeding 10 microm. In the case of branched CdTe NWs, tripod, V-shaped and y-shaped morphologies are obtained by decreasing the apparent Cd/Te molar ratio. It is found that, as the surface capping ligands, di-n-octylphosphinic acid (DOPA) is superior to decylphosphonic acid (DPA) in the reproducible growth of high-quality CdTe NWs. Since highly toxic dimethylcadmium, a cadmium precursor widely used in literatures, is replaced by CdO and the amount of the TOPO/TOP solvent mixture is significantly reduced, a relative safe and economical synthetic approach of high-quality colloidal CdTe NWs with controllable morphology is thus presented.

  18. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-09-01

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields.Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se

  19. The microstructure of MnBi/Bi eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravishankar, P. S.; Wilcox, W. R.; Larson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Directionally solidified eutectic alloys of the system MnBi/Bi have been investigated with reference to the dependence of the fiber spacing on the growth rate and the interfacial temperature gradient. It is found that the fiber spacing varies as the inverse square root of the growth rate and does not depend on the temperature gradient in contrast to the claims that all faceted/non-faceted eutectics should show a temperature gradient influence.

  20. Defective CD8+ T cell peripheral tolerance in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kreuwel, H T; Biggs, J A; Pilip, I M; Pamer, E G; Lo, D; Sherman, L A

    2001-07-15

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice develop spontaneous autoimmune diabetes that involves participation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated spontaneous reactivity to self-Ags within the CD4+ T cell compartment in this strain. Whether CD8+ T cells in NOD mice achieve and maintain tolerance to self-Ags has not previously been evaluated. To investigate this issue, we have assessed the extent of tolerance to a model pancreatic Ag, the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule of influenza virus, that is transgenically expressed by pancreatic islet beta cells in InsHA mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that BALB/c and B10.D2 mice that express this transgene exhibit tolerance of HA and retain only low-avidity CD8+ T cells specific for the dominant peptide epitope of HA. In this study, we present data that demonstrate a deficiency in peripheral tolerance within the CD8+ T cell repertoire of NOD-InsHA mice. CD8+ T cells can be obtained from NOD-InsHA mice that exhibit high avidity for HA, as measured by tetramer (K(d)HA) binding and dose titration analysis. Significantly, these autoreactive CD8+ T cells can cause diabetes very rapidly upon adoptive transfer into NOD-InsHA recipient mice. The data presented demonstrate a retention in the repertoire of CD8+ T cells with high avidity for islet Ags that could contribute to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

  1. Facile fabrication of an efficient BiVO4 thin film electrode for water splitting under visible light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qingxin; Iwashina, Katsuya; Kudo, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    An efficient BiVO4 thin film electrode for overall water splitting was prepared by dipping an F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrate electrode in an aqueous nitric acid solution of Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3, and subsequently calcining it. X-ray diffraction of the BiVO4 thin film revealed that a photocatalytically active phase of scheelite-monoclinic BiVO4 was obtained. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surface of an FTO substrate was uniformly coated with the BiVO4 film with 300–400 nm of the thickness. The BiVO4 thin film electrode gave an excellent anodic photocurrent with 73% of an IPCE at 420 nm at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Modification with CoO on the BiVO4 electrode improved the photoelectrochemical property. A photoelectrochemical cell consisting of the BiVO4 thin film electrode with and without CoO, and a Pt counter electrode was constructed for water splitting under visible light irradiation and simulated sunlight irradiation. Photocurrent due to water splitting to form H2 and O2 was confirmed with applying an external bias smaller than 1.23 V that is a theoretical voltage for electrolysis of water. Water splitting without applying external bias under visible light irradiation was demonstrated using a SrTiO3∶Rh photocathode and the BiVO4 photoanode. PMID:22699499

  2. Antibody-targeted NY-ESO-1 to mannose receptor or DEC-205 in vitro elicits dual human CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses with broad antigen specificity.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takemasa; Matsuzaki, Junko; Kelly, Marcus P; Ramakrishna, Venky; Vitale, Laura; He, Li-Zhen; Keler, Tibor; Odunsi, Kunle; Old, Lloyd J; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2011-01-15

    Immunization of cancer patients with vaccines containing full-length tumor Ags aims to elicit specific Abs and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination with protein Ags, however, often elicits only CD4(+) T cell responses without inducing Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, as exogenous protein is primarily presented to CD4(+) T cells. Recent data revealed that Ab-mediated targeting of protein Ags to cell surface receptors on dendritic cells could enhance the induction of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. We investigated in this study if these observations were applicable to NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis Ag widely used in clinical cancer vaccine trials. We generated two novel targeting proteins consisting of the full-length NY-ESO-1 fused to the C terminus of two human mAbs against the human mannose receptor and DEC-205, both internalizing molecules expressed on APC. These targeting proteins were evaluated for their ability to activate NY-ESO-1-specific human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Both targeted NY-ESO-1 proteins rapidly bound to their respective targets on APC. Whereas nontargeted and Ab-targeted NY-ESO-1 proteins similarly activated CD4(+) T cells, cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells was only efficiently induced by targeted NY-ESO-1. In addition, both mannose receptor and DEC-205 targeting elicited specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from PBLs of cancer patients. Receptor-specific delivery of NY-ESO-1 to APC appears to be a promising vaccination strategy to efficiently generate integrated and broad Ag-specific immune responses against NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients.

  3. Shortened Intervals during Heterologous Boosting Preserve Memory CD8 T Cell Function but Compromise Longevity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily A; Beura, Lalit K; Nelson, Christine E; Anderson, Kristin G; Vezys, Vaiva

    2016-04-01

    Developing vaccine strategies to generate high numbers of Ag-specific CD8 T cells may be necessary for protection against recalcitrant pathogens. Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunization has been shown to result in large quantities of functional memory CD8 T cells with protective capacities and long-term stability. Completing the serial immunization steps for heterologous prime-boost-boost can be lengthy, leaving the host vulnerable for an extensive period of time during the vaccination process. We show in this study that shortening the intervals between boosting events to 2 wk results in high numbers of functional and protective Ag-specific CD8 T cells. This protection is comparable to that achieved with long-term boosting intervals. Short-boosted Ag-specific CD8 T cells display a canonical memory T cell signature associated with long-lived memory and have identical proliferative potential to long-boosted T cells Both populations robustly respond to antigenic re-exposure. Despite this, short-boosted Ag-specific CD8 T cells continue to contract gradually over time, which correlates to metabolic differences between short- and long-boosted CD8 T cells at early memory time points. Our studies indicate that shortening the interval between boosts can yield abundant, functional Ag-specific CD8 T cells that are poised for immediate protection; however, this is at the expense of forming stable long-term memory. PMID:26903479

  4. Bi-resampled data study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, R.; Young, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an experimental study conducted to determine the geometric and radiometric effects of double resampling (bi-resampling) performed on image data in the process of performing map projection transformations are reported.

  5. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  6. LiBi3S5-A lithium bismuth sulfide with strong cation disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhal, Suliman; Wiedemann, Dennis; Stanje, Bernhard; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Wilkening, Martin; Lerch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Among chalcogenide semiconductors for thermoelectric applications, alkali-metal bismuth compounds occur in many complex compositions favorable for high performance. Although LiBi3S5 had been announced in 1977, the potential 1D lithium-ion conductor has hitherto eluded selective synthesis and structure determination. In this study, we present a solid-state route to phase-pure LiBi3S5 powder starting from LiBiS2 and Bi2S3. Neutron diffractograms and lithium NMR spectra reveal its crystal structure to be a cation-disordered variety of the AgBi3S5 type (synthetic pavonite; monoclinic, C2/m). Topological analyses and lithium NMR relaxometry suggest that correlated lithium-ion diffusion with activation energies up to 0.66(2) eV occurs along the channels in b direction including tetrahedral voids. Because of cation disorder, immobile bismuth(III) ions clog these pathways, making LiBi3S5 a moderate to poor ionic conductor. The synthesis route reported is nonetheless promising for new lithium bismuth sulfides with, possibly ordered, structure types of the pavonite homologous series.

  7. Induction of a VLA-2 (CD49b)-expressing effector T cell population by a cell-based neuroblastoma vaccine expressing CD137L.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaocai; Johnson, Bryon D; Orentas, Rimas J

    2008-10-01

    In malignancies where no universally expressed dominant Ag exists, the use of tumor cell-based vaccines has been proposed. We have modified a mouse neuroblastoma cell line to express either CD80 (B7.1), CD137L (4-1BBL), or both receptors on the tumor cell surface. Vaccines expressing both induce a strong T cell response that is unique in that among responding CD8 T cells, a T effector memory cell (T(EM)) response arises in which a large number of the T(EM) express the alpha-chain of VLA-2, CD49b. We demonstrate using both in vitro and in vivo assays that the CD49b(+) CD8 T cell population is a far more potent antitumor effector cell population than nonfractionated CD8 or CD49b(-) CD8 T cells and that CD49b on vaccine-induced CD8 T cells mediates invasion of a collagen matrix. In in vivo rechallenge studies, CD49b(+) T cells no longer expanded, indicating that CD49b T(EM) expansion is restricted to the initial response to vaccine. To demonstrate a mechanistic link between the expression of costimulatory molecules on the vaccine and CD49b on responding T cells, we stimulated naive T cells in vitro with artificial APC expressing different combinations of anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and CD137L. Although some mRNA encoding CD49b was induced by combining anti-CD3 with anti-CD28 or CD137L, the highest level was induced when all three signals were present. This indicates that CD49b expression results from additive costimulation and that the level of CD49b message serves as an indicator of the effectiveness of T cell activation by a cell-based vaccine.

  8. ABiO2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = halogen) Sillen X1 Series: Polymorphism Versus Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Olchowka, Jacob; Kabbour, Houria; Colmont, Marie; Adlung, Matthias; Wickleder, Claudia; Mentré, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The Sillen X1 series of Bi(3+)A(2+)O2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = Cl, Br, I) compounds is composed of three main crystallographic types, namely, the tetragonal form (space group (S.G.) I4/mmm), the orthorhombic form (S.G. Cmcm), and the monoclinic form (S.G. P21/m). Because of Bi(3+)/A(2+) disorder the Bi(3+) based photoluminescence (PL) of the tetragonal polytypes is quenched at room temperature (RT). In the two other ordered forms, the Bi-O-Bi connectivity is different but limited, such that bluish/greenish emission occurs at RT in the monoclinic CdBiO2Cl and CaBiO2Cl and orthorhombic SrBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Cl phases. The crystal structure of BaBiO2Br was refined in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group and also shows RT emission. Focusing on the RT luminescent activity as a key parameter, the PL active compounds were investigated by means of density functional theory calculations and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy. The influence of A and X ions on the excitation energy is discussed by analyzing the A-O-Bi and Bi-X bonding schemes and gives some insights for rational tuning of both the excitation and emission energies. PMID:27414069

  9. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. III. Role of LFA-1/ICAM-1 and CD2/LFA-3 adhesion molecules in CD3-induced proliferative response.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Tognellini, R; Fiorucci, G; Spinozzi, F; Cernetti, C; Bertotto, A

    1993-04-15

    As cord T cells, a model of antigen (Ag)-unprimed cell, display a functional defect when stimulated through the CD3 molecule, the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1(LFA-1)/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) receptor-ligand pairs in cord CD3-triggered T-cell activation was analyzed using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against each adhesion molecule. The addition of anti-CD11a, anti-CD18, or anti-CD2 to both adult and cord peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultures led to a decrease in CD3-induced proliferation. In contrast, CD3-stimulated cord, but not adult, PBMC proliferation was markedly enhanced when anti-CD54 or anti-CD58 were added. Despite the fact that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 molecules were virtually absent on cord resting T cells, mAb against these two molecules boosted both mitogenesis of and interleukin (IL)-2 production by purified cord T cells stimulated with plastic immobilized anti-CD3. Cord T-cell supernatant levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were undetectable with CD3 stimulation, slightly raised with CD58/CD3 costimulation, but normal when T cells were preincubated with IL-2 for 24 hr before being costimulated with anti-CD3/CD58. Evidence that IL-2 and IFN-gamma play a pivotal role in fully activating cord T cells came from the demonstration that IL-2 and IFN-gamma are able to bypass the CD3-proliferative defect through differential up-regulation of the adhesion molecules. It would, therefore, seem that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 molecules are crucially implicated in the CD3-activation pathway of Ag-unprimed T cells. PMID:7684326

  10. Contents of Ag and other metals in food-contact plastics with nanosilver or Ag ion and their migration into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Asako; Kishi, Eri; Ooshima, Tomoko; Hase, Atsushi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-09-01

    Six nanosilver-labelled products and five silver ion (Ag(+))-labelled products were investigated to measure the migration of Ag from food-contact plastics, including nanosilver into various food simulants. The products were obtained in Japanese markets in 2012. Zinc (Zn), another major antimicrobial agent, and three harmful metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), were also examined. Ag and Zn were detected in all six nanosilver products at concentrations of 21-200 and 8.4-140 mg kg(-1), respectively. These metals were also detected in all five Ag(+) products at the same level as nanosilver products. Cd, Pb and As were not detected in any sample. Migrations of Ag and Zn were highest in 4% acetic acid, but also observed in water and 20% ethanol. Big differences were not observed in the migration ratio between nanosilver products and Ag(+) products. The ultrafiltration experiments suggested that the Ag that migrated from nanosilver products into 4% acetic acid was in its ionic form, while that into water and 20% ethanol was in its nanoparticle form.

  11. Contents of Ag and other metals in food-contact plastics with nanosilver or Ag ion and their migration into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Asako; Kishi, Eri; Ooshima, Tomoko; Hase, Atsushi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-09-01

    Six nanosilver-labelled products and five silver ion (Ag(+))-labelled products were investigated to measure the migration of Ag from food-contact plastics, including nanosilver into various food simulants. The products were obtained in Japanese markets in 2012. Zinc (Zn), another major antimicrobial agent, and three harmful metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), were also examined. Ag and Zn were detected in all six nanosilver products at concentrations of 21-200 and 8.4-140 mg kg(-1), respectively. These metals were also detected in all five Ag(+) products at the same level as nanosilver products. Cd, Pb and As were not detected in any sample. Migrations of Ag and Zn were highest in 4% acetic acid, but also observed in water and 20% ethanol. Big differences were not observed in the migration ratio between nanosilver products and Ag(+) products. The ultrafiltration experiments suggested that the Ag that migrated from nanosilver products into 4% acetic acid was in its ionic form, while that into water and 20% ethanol was in its nanoparticle form. PMID:27484099

  12. CD30 on stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes in newborns regarding atopic heredity.

    PubMed

    Stencel-Gabriel, Krystyna; Gabriel, Iwona; Czuba, Zbigniew; Mazur, Bogdan; Paul, Marek; Górski, Paweł

    2007-12-01

    CD30 was initially described as Ki-1 Ag on Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma and its and CD30L(+) expression on T cells in placenta were equally frequent in the atopic and non-atopic women. In this article we present a study of CD30 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on CB T CD4(+) cells. We tested the hypothesis that in newborns with atopy family history there is a changed CB T cells response after antigen stimulation comparing with those without atopy family history. The study population consisted of 31 newborn babies (29-breastfed, two non-breastfed) and their mothers. Eleven of them had positive and 20 had negative atopy family history. Performed tests included cord blood, which was a subject to flowcytometry analysis and was cultured for 24 h, cytokine production was measured (IFN- gamma, IL-4 and IL-12). Secondly, we measured total maternal and cord blood IgE levels. We studied CD30 MFI as in our studies in larger group of newborns, CD30 expression on CD4(+) T cells appeared to be very low. MFI of CD4(+) CD30(+) after PHA-stimulation (213.55: range: 41.77-434.51) was significantly increased compared to MFI of CD4(+) CD30(+) before PHA-stimulation (43.63: range 28.67-134.67)(p CD4(+) CD30(+) on non-stimulated T cells in non-atopic (43.80: range 28.66-134.66) and atopic (43.30: range 29.12-80.92) (p > 0.05). After PHA stimulation MFI of CD4(+) CD30(+) in non-atopic (273.05 (range: 42.9-434.51) was significantly increased compared with the atopic newborns to MFI of 87.1 (range: 41.78-241.42) (p = 0.00). We have not found any correlation between MFI of CD4(+) CD30(+) and total maternal and total CB IgE levels. The role of CD30 in immunological response needs further research studies.

  13. Properties of cathodic arc deposited high-temperature superconducting composite thin films on Ag substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, M. S.; Simnad, M. T.; Maple, M. B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Brown, I. G.

    1996-02-01

    High temperature superconducting composite thin films on Ag substrates were prepared by cathodic arc deposition of alloy precursors. The deposition technique employed a cathode comprised of a precursor alloy for the vacuum arc plasma source. The precursor alloy was prepared by multiple arc-melting of mixed metallic constituents of the high-temperature superconducting material Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O y (Bi2212) and 50 wt.% of Ag. The presence of silver in the precursor alloy film was expected to allow accommodation of the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch between the oxidized film and the silver substrate. The as-deposited film could be formed to practically any desirable shape before being subjected to heat treatments. Following deposition, controlled oxidation of the precursor alloy thin film on the Ag substrate was performed to produce the superconducting composite on the silver substrate. After the heat treatment, the composite film consisted of Bi2212 highly c-axis oriented normal to the Ag substrate.

  14. Hyperfine fields at the (001) Fe/Ag interface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, C. O.; Peltzer Y Blanca, E. L.; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. V.; Petersen, M.

    2000-03-01

    First principles studies within local spin density functional theory have been performed to calculate and investigate the microscopic origin of Hyperfine Fields (HFF's) of a Cd impurity in bulk Fe and at the (001) interface of Fe/Ag. Monolayer resolved HFF's at this interface have recently been studied using ^111In/^111Cd probe atoms in PAC ( B.U.Runge, M.Dippel, G.Fillebock, K. Jacobs, U. Kohl and G. Schatz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 3054 (1997) determinations. The reduction of the symmetry and the changes in the chemical environment of Cd at each side of the interface as compared to Cd in Fe bulk can be linked to the interpretation of the HFF's.

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells with CD47 high expression via the signal transducer and activators of transcription signaling pathway preventing myocardial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Chen, Qing-Wei; Li, Xing-Sheng; Yuan, Zhong-Ming; Li, Gui-Qiong; Ke, Da-Zhi; Wang, Li; Wu, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Shi-Lan

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the efficacy of myocardial fibrosis intervention via signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling using bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in which being over-expressed with the aid of bispecific antibody (BiAb) and ultrasound-mediated microbubbles (MB). BiAb was prepared and combined with isolated MSC with CD47 overexpression from male mice and trans-fused into female mice with isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis via the tail vein, followed by MB. This study included five groups. Five weeks after treatment, expression levels of the sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in myocardium were detected by fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT 3 was detected by Western blot. Results: The highest homing number of MSC was in the CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB group, second highest in the CD47 + MSC + BiAb group, and lowest in MSC alone. Compared with the Control group, CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB, CD47 + MSC + BiAb, CD47 + MSC and MSC groups had decreased levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, STAT 1 and collagen deposition, and increased levels of STAT 3. Up regulated STAT 3 and down regulated TIMP-1 were significantly different in CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB compared with CD47 + MSC or CD47 + MSC + BiAb. Conclusion: CD47 can enhance the homing rate and repairing efficacy of MSC. MSC can improve MMP-TIMP expression in injured myocardium and interfere with myocardial fibrosis after homing, a mechanism that may be related to the STAT-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:26617765

  16. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  17. Differential impact of CD27 and 4-1BB costimulation on effector and memory CD8 T cell generation following peptide immunization.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jane E; Kerr, Jonathan P; Rogel, Anne; Taraban, Vadim Y; Buchan, Sarah L; Johnson, Peter W M; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen

    2014-07-01

    The factors that determine differentiation of naive CD8 T cells into memory cells are not well understood. A greater understanding of how memory cells are generated will inform of ways to improve vaccination strategies. In this study, we analyzed the CD8 T cell response elicited by two experimental vaccines comprising a peptide/protein Ag and an agonist that delivers a costimulatory signal via CD27 or 4-1BB. Both agonists increased expansion of Ag-specific CD8 T cells compared with Ag alone. However, their capacity to stimulate differentiation into effector and memory cells differed. CD27 agonists promoted increased expression of perforin and the generation of short-lived memory cells, whereas stimulation with 4-1BB agonists favored generation of stable memory. The memory-promoting effects of 4-1BB were independent of CD4 T cells and were the result of programing within the first 2 d of priming. Consistent with this conclusion, CD27 and 4-1BB-stimulated CD8 T cells expressed disparate amounts of IL-2, IFN-γ, CD25, CD71, and Gp49b as early as 3 d after in vivo activation. In addition, memory CD8 T cells, generated through priming with CD27 agonists, proliferated more extensively than did 4-1BB-generated memory cells, but these cells failed to persist. These data demonstrate a previously unanticipated link between the rates of homeostatic proliferation and memory cell attrition. Our study highlights a role for these receptors in skewing CD8 T cell differentiation into effector and memory cells and provides an approach to optimize vaccines that elicit CD8 T cell responses.

  18. The use of a directional solidification technique to investigate the interrelationship of thermal parameters, microstructure and microhardness of Bi–Ag solder alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Spinelli, José Eduardo; Silva, Bismarck Luiz; Cheung, Noé; Garcia, Amauri

    2014-10-15

    Bi–Ag alloys have been stressed as possible alternatives to replace Pb-based solder alloys. Although acceptable melting temperatures and suitable mechanical properties may characterize such alloys, as referenced in literature, there is a lack of comprehension regarding their microstructures (morphologies and sizes of the phases) considering a composition range from 1.5 to 4.0 wt.%Ag. In order to better comprehend such aspects and their correlations with solidification thermal parameters (growth rate, v and cooling rate, T-dot), directional solidification experiments were carried out under transient heat flow conditions. The effects of Ag content on both cooling rate and growth rate during solidification are examined. Microstructure parameters such as eutectic/dendritic spacing, interphase spacing and diameter of the Ag-rich phase were determined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The competition between eutectic cells and dendrites in the range from 1.5 to 4.0 wt.%Ag is explained by the coupled zone concept. Microhardness was determined for different microstructures and alloy Ag contents with a view to permitting correlations with microstructure parameters to be established. Hardness is shown to be directly affected by both solute macrosegregation and morphologies of the phases forming the Bi–Ag alloys, with higher hardness being associated with the cellular morphology of the Bi-2.5 and 4.0 wt.%Ag alloys. - Highlights: • Asymmetric zone of coupled growth for Bi–Ag is demonstrated. • Faceted Bi-rich dendrites have been characterized for Bi–1.5 wt.%Ag alloy. • Eutectic cells were shown for the Bi-2.5 and 4.0 wt.%Ag solder alloys. • Interphase spacing relations with G × v are able to represent the experimental scatters. • Hall-Petch type equations are proposed relating microstructural spacings to hardness.

  19. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B‐cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G. F.; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez‐Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169+ macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood‐borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype‐switched, high‐affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long‐term persistence of Ag‐specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169+ macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B‐cell responses. Our results identify CD169+ macrophages as promoters of high‐affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  20. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  1. Immediate Dysfunction of Vaccine-Elicited CD8+ T Cells Primed in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Aid, Malika; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Borducchi, Erica N.; Yates, Kathleen B.; Abbink, Peter; Kirilova, Marinela; Ng’ang’a, David; Bramson, Jonathan; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help is critical for optimal CD8+ T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. In addition, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of CD4+ T cell help, which often coincides with reduced Ag or pathogen clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that absence of CD4+ T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8+ T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 d of immunization. Unhelped CD8+ T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4+ T cell–deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4+ T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8+ T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction. PMID:27448585

  2. Rational Design of Bi Nanoparticles for Efficient Electrochemical CO2 Reduction: The Elucidation of Size and Surface Condition Effects

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Chi, Miaofang; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zhang, Pengfei; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel; Overbury, Steven H.; Dai, Sheng; Zhu, Huiyuan

    2016-08-08

    Here we report an efficient electrochemical conversion of CO2 to CO on surface-activated bismuth nanoparticles (NPs) in acetonitrile (MeCN) under ambient conditions, with the assistance of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim][OTf]). Through the comparison between electrodeposited Bi films (Bi-ED) and different types of Bi NPs, we, for the first time, demonstrate the effects of catalyst’s size and surface condition on organic phase electrochemical CO2 reduction. Our study reveals that the surface inhibiting layer (hydrophobic surfactants and Bi3+ species) formed during the synthesis and purification process hinders the CO2 reduction, leading to a 20% drop in Faradaic efficiency for CO evolution (FECO). Bimore » particle size showed a significant effect on FECO when the surface of Bi was air-oxidized, but this effect of size on FECO became negligible on surface-activated Bi NPs. After the surface activation (hydrazine treatment) that effectively removed the native inhibiting layer, activated 36-nm Bi NPs exhibited an almost-quantitative conversion of CO2 to CO (96.1% FECO), and a mass activity for CO evolution (MACO) of 15.6 mA mg–1, which is three-fold higher than the conventional Bi-ED, at ₋2.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). Ultimately, this work elucidates the importance of the surface activation for an efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion on metal NPs and paves the way for understanding the CO2 electrochemical reduction mechanism in nonaqueous media.« less

  3. Improved Bi Film Wrapped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Cr(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shilin; Xue, Zi-Ling; Xu, Lina; Gu, Yingying; Miao, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    We report here the successful fabrication of an improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi/SWNTs/GCE) as a highly sensitive platform for ultratrace Cr(VI) detection through catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV). The introduction of negatively charged SWNTs extraordinarily decreased the size of Bi particles to nanoscale due to electrostatic interaction which made Bi(III) cations easily attracted onto the surface of SWNTs in good order, leading to higher quality of Bi film deposition. The obtained Bi/SWNTs composite was well characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the static water contact angle and the voltammetric measurements. The results demonstrates the improvements in the quality of Bi film deposited on the surface of SWNTs such as faster speed of electron transfer, more uniform and smoother morphology, better hydrophilicity and higher stripping signal. Using diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as complexing ligand, the fabricated electrode displays a well-defined and highly sensitive peak for the reduction of Cr(III)-DTPA complex at −1.06 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a linear concentration range of 0–25 nM and a fairly low detection limit of 0.036 nM. No interference was found in the presence of coexisting ions, and good recoveries were achieved for the analysis of a river sample. In comparison to previous approaches using Bi film modified GCE, the newly designed electrode exhibits better reproducibility and repeatability towards aqueous detection of trace Cr(VI) and appears to be very promising as the basis of a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure for Cr(VI) detection at trace level in real samples. PMID:24771881

  4. Improved Bi Film Wrapped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Trace Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Zhang, Wangyao; Zhou, Shilin; Xue, Zi-Ling; Xu, Lina; Gu, Yingying; Miao, Yuqing

    2013-12-15

    We report here the successful fabrication of an improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi/SWNTs/GCE) as a highly sensitive platform for ultratrace Cr(VI) detection through catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV). The introduction of negatively charged SWNTs extraordinarily decreased the size of Bi particles to nanoscale due to electrostatic interaction which made Bi(III) cations easily attracted onto the surface of SWNTs in good order, leading to higher quality of Bi film deposition. The obtained Bi/SWNTs composite was well characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the static water contact angle and the voltammetric measurements. The results demonstrates the improvements in the quality of Bi film deposited on the surface of SWNTs such as faster speed of electron transfer, more uniform and smoother morphology, better hydrophilicity and higher stripping signal. Using diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as complexing ligand, the fabricated electrode displays a well-defined and highly sensitive peak for the reduction of Cr(III)-DTPA complex at -1.06 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a linear concentration range of 0-25 nM and a fairly low detection limit of 0.036 nM. No interference was found in the presence of coexisting ions, and good recoveries were achieved for the analysis of a river sample. In comparison to previous approaches using Bi film modified GCE, the newly designed electrode exhibits better reproducibility and repeatability towards aqueous detection of trace Cr(VI) and appears to be very promising as the basis of a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure for Cr(VI) detection at trace level in real samples.

  5. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  6. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  7. A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide as a fluorescent probe for Ag+ in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanmei; Zhou, Hua; Ma, Tongsen; Zhang, Junli; Niu, Jingyang

    2012-03-01

    A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide was designed and synthesized as fluorescent probe. The probe showed high selectivity for Ag+ over other metal ions such as Pb2+, Na+, K+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution. A new fluorescence emission was observed at 682 nm in the presence of Ag+ ion. The fluorescence intensity quenched with increasing the concentration of Ag+ at 682 nm. The method of job's plot confirmed the 1:2 complex between Ag+ and probe, and the mechanism was proposed.

  8. Mechanisms of droplet formation and Bi incorporation during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAsBi

    SciTech Connect

    Vardar, G.; Warren, M. V.; Kang, M.; Jeon, S.; Goldman, R. S.; Paleg, S. W.

    2013-01-28

    We have examined the mechanisms of droplet formation and Bi incorporation during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAsBi. We consider the role of the transition from group-V-rich to group-III-rich conditions, i.e., the stoichiometry threshold, in the presence of Bi. For As-rich GaAsBi growth, Bi acts as a surfactant, leading to the formation of droplet-free GaAsBi films. For films within 10% of the stoichiometric GaAsBi growth regime, surface Ga droplets are observed. However, for Ga-rich GaAsBi growth, Bi acts as an anti-surfactant, inducing Ga-Bi droplet formation. We propose a growth mechanism based upon the growth-rate-dependence of the stoichiometry threshold for GaAsBi.

  9. NSOM/QD-Based Direct Visualization of CD3-Induced and CD28-Enhanced Nanospatial Coclustering of TCR and Coreceptor in Nanodomains in T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C.; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W.

    2009-01-01

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2–4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and ∼6–10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70–110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200–500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3–CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289

  10. Photoluminescence enhancement of quantum dots on Ag nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Noble metal nanostructure allows us to tune optical and electrical properties, which has high utility for real-world application. We studied surface plasmon-induced emission of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) on engineered metallic nanostructures. Highly passive organic ZnS-capped CdSe QDs were spin-coated on poly-(methyl methacrylate)-covered Ag films, which brought QDs near the metallic surface. We obtained the enhanced electromagnetic field and reduced fluorescence lifetimes from CdSe/ZnS QDs due to the strong coupling of emitter wave function with the Ag plasmon resonance. Observed changes include a six-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity and striking reduction in fluorescence lifetimes of CdSe/ZnS QDs on rough Ag nanoneedle compared to the case of smooth surfaces. The advantages of using those nanocomposites are expected for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes, platform fabrication of biological and environmental monitoring, and high-contrast imaging. PMID:22866992

  11. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  12. Quaternary heterostructured Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite: Synthesis and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xue; Guo, Xiaoyu; Shi, Weilong; Zhai, Hongju; Yan, Yongsheng; Wang, Qingwei

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel quaternary heterostructured Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite was fabricated through a low-temperature solution-phase route. The XRD, SEM, EDX and XPS results indicated the as-prepared sample is a four-phase composite of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, and Ag. The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized samples were evaluated towards the degradation of phenol red aqueous solution. The results showed that the as-synthesized Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities in comparison with pure Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}, pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, and Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite. Among them, the 2.5% Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} sample performed the best. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite photocatalyst was attributed predominantly to the efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes. In addition, Ag nanoparticles were photodeposited on the surface of the composite to increase visible-light absorption via the surface plasmon resonance, which is also beneficial to the enhancement of photocatalytic performance. The possible photocatalytic mechanism of the quaternary heterostructure was also discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: Quaternary heterostructured Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} were fabricated. The as-synthesized Ag–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities in comparison with pure Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}, pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, and Bi{sub 3.64}Mo{sub 0.36}O{sub 6.55}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite

  13. Isolation of human CD4/CD8 double-positive, graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor histocompatibility antigen-specific regulatory T cells and of a novel HLA-DR7-restricted HY-specific CD4 clone.

    PubMed

    Eljaafari, Assia; Yuruker, Ozel; Ferrand, Christophe; Farre, Annie; Addey, Caroline; Tartelin, Marie-Laure; Thomas, Xavier; Tiberghien, Pierre; Simpson, Elizabeth; Rigal, Dominique; Scott, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility (H) Ags are classically described as self-peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are expressed at the cell surface by MHC class I and class II molecules and that induce T cell alloresponses. We have isolated three different T cell populations from a skin biopsy of a patient suffering from acute graft-versus-host disease following sex-mismatched HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation. The first population was: 1) CD4(+)/CD8(+) double-positive; 2) specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomal Ag; 3) expressed a Tr1 profile with high levels of IL-10, but low IL-2 and IFN-γ; and 4) exerted regulatory function in the presence of recipient APCs. The second was CD8 positive, specific for an HLA class I-restricted autosomally encoded minor H Ag, but was only weakly cytotoxic. The third was CD4 single positive, specific for an HLA-DR7-restricted HY epitope and exerted both proliferative and cytotoxic functions. Identification of the peptide recognized by these latter cells revealed a new human HY epitope, TGKIINFIKFDTGNL, encoded by RPS4Y and restricted by HLA-DR7. In this paper, we show human CD4/CD8 double-positive, acute graft-versus-host disease-protective, minor H Ag-specific regulatory T cells and identify a novel HLA-DR7/ HY T cell epitope, encoded by RPS4Y, a potential new therapeutic target.

  14. Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Younghun; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun; Chun, Seungju; Kim, Donghwan

    2013-12-02

    CdTe thin films grown on bi-layer graphene were demonstrated by using the close-spaced sublimation method, where CdTe was selectively grown on the graphene. The density of the CdTe domains was increased with increasing the number of the defective sites in the graphene, which was controlled by the duration of UV exposure. The CdTe growth rate on the bi-layer graphene electrodes was 400 nm/min with a bandgap energy of 1.45–1.49 eV. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction technique were used to confirm the high quality of the CdTe thin films grown on the graphene electrodes.

  15. Microstructural behavior of iron and bismuth added Sn-1Ag-Cu solder under elevated temperature aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2016-07-01

    An extensive study was done to investigate the microstructural behavior of iron (Fe) and bismuth (Bi) added Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) under severe thermal aging conditions. The isothermal aging was done at 200 °C for 100 h, 200 h, and 300 h. Optical microscopy with cross-polarized light revealed that the grain size significantly reduces with Fe/Bi addition to the base alloy SAC105 and remains literally the same after thermal aging. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with backscattered electron detector and their further analysis via imageJ software indicated that Fe/Bi added SAC105 showed a significant reduction in the IMCs size (Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5), especially the Cu6Sn5 IMCs, as well as β-Sn matrix and a refinement in the microstructure, which is due to the presence of Bi in the alloys. Moreover, their microstructure remains much more stable under severe thermal aging conditions, which is because of the presence of both Fe and Bi in the alloy. The microstructural behavior suggests that Fe/Bi modified SAC105 would have much improved reliability under severe thermal environments. These modified alloys also have relatively low melting temperature and low cost.

  16. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  17. Microstructure and optical properties of CdI{sub 2} doped silver vanadate glass-nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kabi, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph for 0.20CdI{sub 2}–0.80(0.60Ag{sub 2}O–0.40V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and SAED pattern (shown right inset) from the selected area. High resolution image for a particle along with its FFT pattern is also shown in left inset. Highlights: ► CdI{sub 2} doped silver vanadate glass nanocomposites have been prepared. ► Microstructure of the compositions has been investigated. ► Nanocrystalline phases (β-AgI, Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}, etc.) are distributed in the glass matrix. ► Volume fraction of these crystalline phases increases with increase of CdI{sub 2} content. ► Formation of Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} and β-AgI phase confirms the Cd–Ag exchange in the samples. -- Abstract: Microstructure and optical properties of glass-nanocomposites of compositions xCdI{sub 2}–(1 − x)(0.60Ag{sub 2}O–0.40V{sub 2}O{sub 5})(x = 0.0–0.20) have been reported in this paper. X-ray diffraction patterns show the amorphous nature for the compositions x = 0 and 0.05. However, nanocrystalline phases have been observed in these compositions in electron microscopic studies. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies reveal formation of different nanocrystalline phases such as β-AgI, Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Ag{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} distributed within the amorphous matrix for the compositions x = 0.05–0.20. The presence of Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} and β-AgI phase for x = 0.05–0.20 confirms the exchange of coordination between Cd and Ag in these samples. The crystalline volume fraction increases with the increase of CdI{sub 2} content in these compositions. The average size of the nanocrystalline phases was estimated from the transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies. The network structure of the glass nanocomposites has been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetric results show that the embedded nanocrystals decrease the glass transition temperature.

  18. Origin of the Distinct Diffusion Behaviors of Cu and Ag in Covalent and Ionic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui-Xiong; Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that Cu diffuses faster than Ag in covalent semiconductors such as Si, which has prevented the replacement of Ag by Cu as a contact material in Si solar cells for reducing the cost. Surprisingly, in more ionic materials such as CdTe, Ag diffuses faster than Cu despite that it is larger than Cu, which has prevented the replacement of Cu by Ag in CdTe solar cells to improve the performance. But, so far, the mechanisms behind these distinct diffusion behaviors of Cu and Ag in covalent and ionic semiconductors have not been addressed. Here we reveal the underlying mechanisms by combining the first-principles calculations and group theory analysis. We find that the symmetry controlled s -d coupling plays a critical role in determining the diffusion behaviors. The s -d coupling is absent in pure covalent semiconductors but increases with the ionicity of the zinc blende semiconductors, and is larger for Cu than for Ag, owing to its higher d orbital energy. In conjunction with Coulomb interaction and strain energy, the s -d coupling is able to explain all the diffusion behaviors from Cu to Ag and from covalent to ionic hosts. This in-depth understanding enables us to engineer the diffusion of impurities in various semiconductors.

  19. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S.O.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2015-02-15

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6} adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra, ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 12} dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, a new structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation.

  20. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jun; Zhang Dongming; Zhao Jie

    2011-09-15

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu-Ag) core-shell powders. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of fabricating Cu-Ag particles with good dispersibility using {beta}-CDs as a protective agent was studied because of its special structure. Highlights: > Green supramolecular {beta}-CD used as a protective agent and ascorbic acid(Vc) as a reducing agent to fabricate Cu-Ag powders. > Particles are monodisperse and the diameter is close to nanoscale(100-150 nm). > Resistance of Cu particles to oxidation was higher. > Formation mechanism explained.

  1. Enhanced fluorescence from CdTe quantum dots self-assembled on the surface of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    An, L M; Yang, Y Q; Su, W H; Yi, J; Liu, C X; Chao, K F; Zeng, Q H

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the fluorescent properties of semiconductor CdTe quantum dots (QDs) self-assembled on the surface of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) by the ligand field effect. A significant 2.5-fold enhancement in the integrated fluorescence intensities, red shift of fluorescence peak, and obvious decrease of lifetime were observed in the CdTe QDs assembled on the Ag NPs in comparison with the pure CdTe QDs. The fluorescence enhancement factor and red shift were found to depend on the Ag NP concentration. The fluorescence enhancement was attributed to a highly localized electromagnetic field on the Ag NPs generated by the surface plasma and the change in the surface trap state of the CdTe QDs originating from plasma oscillations in the Ag NPs. It is first proposed that the surface passivation of CdTe QDs is also an important factor for metal-enhanced fluorescence. The surface defects of CdTe QDs can be modified by the Cd-O coordination interaction between the CdTe QDs and PVP molecules, which will cause the trap state density and luminescence lifetime to decrease. The surface passivation of CdTe QDs can also improve fluorescence quantum yield and lead to the red shift of the fluorescence peak. Compared with previous reports, the occurrence of the self-assembly of CdTe QDs on the surface of PVP-capped Ag NPs is fairly simple and easy. From a practical point of view, the combination of CdTe QDs with Ag NPs may lead to the fluorescence enhancement, which could be utilized in a variety of chemical and biological detection applications. PMID:20355634

  2. Magnesium and cadmium containing Heusler phases REPd2Mg, REPd2Cd, REAg2Mg, REAu2Mg and REAu2Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnscher, Michael; Stein, Sebastian; Niehaus, Oliver; Benndorf, Christopher; Heletta, Lukas; Kersting, Marcel; Höting, Christoph; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-eight new Heusler phases REPd2Mg, REPd2Cd, REAg2Mg, REAu2Mg and REAu2Cd with different rare earth elements were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules in a water-cooled sample chamber of an induction furnace. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The cell volumes show the expected lanthanide contraction. The structures of YPd2Cd, GdPd2Cd, GdAu2Cd, Y1.12Ag2Mg0.88 and GdAg2Mg were refined based on single crystal diffractometer data. The magnetic properties were determined for fifteen phase pure samples. LuAu2Mg is a weak Pauli paramagnet with a susceptibility of 1.0(2) × 10-5 emu mol-1 at room temperature. The remaining samples show stable trivalent rare earth ions and most of them order magnetically at low temperatures. The ferromagnet GdAg2Mg shows the highest ordering temperature of TC = 98.3 K. 113Cd and 89Y MAS NMR spectra of YAu2Cd and YPd2Cd confirm the presence of unique crystallographic sites. The resonances are characterized by large Knight shifts, whose magnitude can be correlated with electronegativity trends.

  3. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  4. Structural Difference in Superconductive and Nonsuperconductive Bi-S Planes within Bi4O4Bi2S4 Blocks.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Sugawara, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Yongming; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Miura, Osuke; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the structure and superconductivity of Bi4O4S3 powders synthesized by heating under ambient and high pressures was investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The Bi4O4S3 powders synthesized under ambient pressure exhibited a strong superconductivity (diamagnetic) signal and zero resistivity below ∼4.5 K, while the Bi4O4S3 powder synthesized by the high-pressure method exhibited a low-intensity signal down to 2 K. Further annealing of the latter Bi4O4S3 powder under ambient pressure led to the development of a strong signal and zero resistivity. The crystal structures of all Bi4O4S3 phases consisted of Bi4O4Bi2S4 blocks including a Bi-S layer and anion(s) sandwiched between Bi4O4Bi2S4 blocks, but minor structural differences were detected. A comparison of the structures of the superconductive and nonsuperconductive Bi4O4S3 samples suggested that the superconductive Bi4O4S3 phases had slightly smaller lattice parameters. The average structures of the superconductive Bi4O4S3 phases were characterized by a slightly shorter and less bent Bi-S plane. Raman spectroscopy detected vibration of the S-O bonds, which can be attributed to sandwiched anion(s) such as SO4(2-). TEM observation showed stacking faults in the superconductive Bi4O4S3 phases, which indicated local fluctuation of the average structures. The observed superconductivity of Bi4O4S3 was discussed based on impurity phases, enhanced hybridization of the px and py orbitals of the Bi-S plane within Bi4O4Bi2S4 blocks, local fluctuation of the average structures, compositional deviation related to suspicious anion(s) sandwiched between Bi4O4Bi2S4 blocks, and the possibility of suppression of the charge-density-wave state by enriched carrier concentrations.

  5. Graphene oxide/α-Bi(2)O(3) composites for visible-light photocatalysis, chemical catalysis, and solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Som, Tirtha; Troppenz, Gerald V; Wendt, R Robert; Wollgarten, Markus; Rappich, Jörg; Emmerling, Franziska; Rademann, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    The growing challenges of environmental purification by solar photocatalysis, precious-metal-free catalysis, and photocurrent generation in photovoltaic cells receive the utmost global attention. Here we demonstrate a one-pot, green chemical synthesis of a new stable heterostructured, ecofriendly, multifunctional microcomposite that consists of α-Bi2 O3 microneedles intercalated with anchored graphene oxide (GO) microsheets (1.0 wt %) for the above-mentioned applications on a large economical scale. The bare α-Bi2 O3 microneedles display two times better photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 (Degussa-P25), whereas the GO-hybridized composite exhibits approximately four to six times enhanced photocatalytic activities than the neat TiO2 photocatalyst in the degradation of colored aromatic organic dyes (crystal violet and rhodamine 6G) under visible-light irradiation (300 W tungsten lamp). The highly efficient activity is associated with the strong surface adsorption ability of GO for aromatic dye molecules, the high carrier acceptability, and the efficient electron-hole pair separation in Bi2 O3 by individual adjoining GO sheets. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles (2.0 wt %) further enhances the photocatalytic performance of the composite over eightfold because of a plasmon-induced electron-transfer process from Ag nanoparticles through the GO sheets into the conduction band of Bi2 O3 . The new composites are also catalytically active and catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of borohydride ions. Photoanodes assembled from GO/α-Bi2 O3 and Ag/GO/α-Bi2 O3 composites display an improved photocurrent response (power conversion efficiency ∼20 % higher) over those prepared without GO in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24578169

  6. Graphene oxide/α-Bi(2)O(3) composites for visible-light photocatalysis, chemical catalysis, and solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Som, Tirtha; Troppenz, Gerald V; Wendt, R Robert; Wollgarten, Markus; Rappich, Jörg; Emmerling, Franziska; Rademann, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    The growing challenges of environmental purification by solar photocatalysis, precious-metal-free catalysis, and photocurrent generation in photovoltaic cells receive the utmost global attention. Here we demonstrate a one-pot, green chemical synthesis of a new stable heterostructured, ecofriendly, multifunctional microcomposite that consists of α-Bi2 O3 microneedles intercalated with anchored graphene oxide (GO) microsheets (1.0 wt %) for the above-mentioned applications on a large economical scale. The bare α-Bi2 O3 microneedles display two times better photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 (Degussa-P25), whereas the GO-hybridized composite exhibits approximately four to six times enhanced photocatalytic activities than the neat TiO2 photocatalyst in the degradation of colored aromatic organic dyes (crystal violet and rhodamine 6G) under visible-light irradiation (300 W tungsten lamp). The highly efficient activity is associated with the strong surface adsorption ability of GO for aromatic dye molecules, the high carrier acceptability, and the efficient electron-hole pair separation in Bi2 O3 by individual adjoining GO sheets. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles (2.0 wt %) further enhances the photocatalytic performance of the composite over eightfold because of a plasmon-induced electron-transfer process from Ag nanoparticles through the GO sheets into the conduction band of Bi2 O3 . The new composites are also catalytically active and catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of borohydride ions. Photoanodes assembled from GO/α-Bi2 O3 and Ag/GO/α-Bi2 O3 composites display an improved photocurrent response (power conversion efficiency ∼20 % higher) over those prepared without GO in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  8. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E.; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a ``glass-float'' (ukidama) structure.In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two

  9. Investigation of current transport normal and parallel to the tape plane in BSCCO/Ag tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, M.P.; Cho, J.H.; Willis, J.O.; Bulaevskii, L.N.

    1995-07-01

    We have performed transport, resistivity and critical current measurements on Bi-2223/Ag and Bi-2212/Ag tapes with current directions both parallel and perpendicular to the tape plane in magnetic fields up to 7 T and 50

  10. Antigen-dependent and -independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew D; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2015-12-10

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses.

  11. Antigen-dependent and –independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew D.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses. PMID:26658291

  12. β-Cyclodextrin coated SiO₂@Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles for SERS detection of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yilin; Yao, Guohua; Sun, Kexi; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    A new type of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate consisting of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) coated SiO2@Au@Ag nanoparticles (SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs) has been achieved. Our protocol was a simplified approach as the fabrication and modification of the silver shell were realized in a single-step reaction by taking advantage of β-CD as both the reducing and stabilizing agents. The as-synthesized SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs were uniform in size and demonstrated high SERS activity and reproducibility. The substrates consisting of the SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs were employed for SERS detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including PCB-3, PCB-29 and PCB-77. The SERS detection sensitivity was significantly improved due to enrichment of more PCB molecules captured by β-CD on the substrate surface, as confirmed by the appearance of the new Raman bands which are attributed to the complexes between β-CD and PCBs according to the theoretical simulation. Therefore, this work presents a novel approach to the fabrication of effective SERS substrates that can be employed for rapid determination of trace amounts of PCBs in the environment with high detection sensitivity and recognition selectivity. PMID:25478906

  13. Bonding of a silver sheath on textured-powder ribbons of green-state Bi-2212 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Klaus; McIntyre, Peter; Damborsky, Kyle; Lu, Feng; Pogue, Nathaniel

    2011-10-01

    A novel method is being developed for fabrication of textured-powder jelly-roll (TPJR) Bi-2212/Ag superconducting wire for applications in high-field magnets. In this process two silver foils must be fused together to enclose a ribbon of compacted, textured Bi-2212 fine powder. Fusing the silver foils must be accomplished with minimum heating of the superconducting powder filling. We are investigating methods using cold-welding, ultrasonic welding, and laser welding. Results of those investigations will be reported.

  14. Kinetic trapping through coalescence and the formation of patterned Ag-Cu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Galea, Antony; Vernieres, Jerome; Benelmekki, Maria; Diaz, Rosa E; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-05-14

    In recent years, due to its inherent flexibility, magnetron-sputtering has been widely used to synthesise bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via subsequent inert-gas cooling and gas-phase condensation of the sputtered atomic vapour. Utilising two separate sputter targets allows for good control over composition. Simultaneously, it involves fast kinetics and non-equilibrium processes, which can trap the nascent NPs into metastable configurations. In this study, we observed such configurations in immiscible, bi-metallic Ag-Cu NPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and noticed a marked difference in the shape of NPs belonging to Ag- and Cu-rich samples. We explained the formation of Janus or Ag@Cu core/shell metastable structures on the grounds of in-flight mixed NP coalescence. We utilised molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations to demonstrate that such configurations cannot occur as a result of nanoalloy segregation. Instead, sintering at relatively low temperatures can give rise to metastable structures, which eventually can be stabilised by subsequent quenching. Furthermore, we compared the heteroepitaxial diffusivities along various surfaces of both Ag and Cu NPs, and emphasised the differences between the sintering mechanisms of Ag- and Cu-rich NP compositions: small Cu NPs deform as coherent objects on large Ag NPs, whereas small Ag NPs dissolve into large Cu NPs, with their atoms diffusing along specific directions. Taking advantage of this observation, we propose controlled NP coalescence as a method to engineer mixed NPs of a unique, patterned core@partial-shell structure, which we refer to as a "glass-float" (ukidama) structure. PMID:27119383

  15. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Le Ba; Nghia, Nguyen Xuan; Nga, Pham Thu; Chinh, Vu Duc; Linh, Pham Thuy; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu

    Colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells were synthesized from TOPSe and cadmium oleate in octadecene, a non-coordinating solvent. Absorption, emission, and Raman scattering spectra of colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells with different thickness of CdSe well were investigated. The effect of thickness of CdSe well on the optical and vibrational properties of colloidal CdS/CdSe/CdS quantum wells was discussed. The expri-mental results provide further evidence for the existence of quantum dot-quantum well structures in CdS/CdSe/CdS type materials.

  16. The number of responding CD4 T cells and the dose of antigen conjointly determine the TH1/TH2 phenotype by modulating B7/CD28 interactions.

    PubMed

    Rudulier, Christopher D; McKinstry, K Kai; Al-Yassin, Ghassan A; Kroeger, David R; Bretscher, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Our previous in vivo studies show that both the amount of Ag and the number of available naive CD4 T cells affect the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the effector CD4 T cells generated. We examined how the number of OVA-specific CD4 TCR transgenic T cells affects the Th1/Th2 phenotype of anti-SRBC CD4 T cells generated in vivo upon immunization with different amounts of OVA-SRBC. Our observations show that a greater number of Ag-dependent CD4 T cell interactions are required to generate Th2 than Th1 cells. We established an in vitro system that recapitulates our main in vivo findings to more readily analyze the underlying mechanism. The in vitro generation of Th2 cells depends, as in vivo, upon both the number of responding CD4 T cells and the amount of Ag. We demonstrate, using agonostic/antagonistic Abs to various costimulatory molecules or their receptors, that the greater number of CD4 T cell interactions, required to generate Th2 over Th1 cells, does not involve CD40, OX40, or ICOS costimulation, but does involve B7/CD28 interactions. A comparison of the level of expression of B7 molecules by APC and CD4 T cells, under different conditions resulting in the substantial generation of Th1 and Th2 cells, leads us to propose that the critical CD28/B7 interactions, required to generate Th2 cells, may directly occur between CD4 T cells engaged with the same B cell acting as an APC.

  17. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  18. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  19. CD36 is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus E1 protein attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun-Jun; Li, Jian-Rui; Huang, Meng-Hao; Ma, Lin-Lin; Wu, Zhou-Yi; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Jing; Li, Yu-Huan; Han, Yan-Xing; Li, Hu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Peng, Zong-Gen; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane protein related to lipid metabolism. We show that HCV infection in vitro increased CD36 expression in either surface or soluble form. HCV attachment was facilitated through a direct interaction between CD36 and HCV E1 protein, causing enhanced entry and replication. The HCV co-receptor effect of CD36 was independent of that of SR-BI. CD36 monoclonal antibodies neutralized the effect of CD36 and reduced HCV replication. CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which directly bound CD36 but not SR-BI, significantly interrupted HCV entry, and therefore inhibited HCV replication. SSO’s antiviral effect was seen only in HCV but not in other viruses. SSO in combination with known anti-HCV drugs showed additional inhibition against HCV. SSO was considerably safe in mice. Conclusively, CD36 interacts with HCV E1 and might be a co-receptor specific for HCV entry; thus, CD36 could be a potential drug target against HCV. PMID:26898231

  20. Phenotypic and functional cellular differences between human CD3- decidual and peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Deniz, G; Christmas, S E; Brew, R; Johnson, P M

    1994-05-01

    CD3- leukocyte clones derived from human decidualized endometrial tissue of first trimester pregnancy have been compared with CD3- PBL clones. Most CD3- decidual granulated leukocyte (DGL) clones were CD16- CD56+, whereas most CD3- PBL clones were CD16+ CD56+. CD3- DGL and PBL clones, whether CD16+ or not, showed MHC-nonrestricted NK cell activity. However, CD3- CD16- DGL clones had low cytotoxic activity against the NK-resistant cell line BSM, whereas CD3- CD16+ DGL and CD3- PBL clones were strongly cytotoxic. Cytolytic activity has also been investigated in respect of target cell HLA-G expression, because this nonpolymorphic class I MHC molecule is expressed selectively by invasive fetal cytotrophoblast. Class I HLA Ag loss cell mutants were killed efficiently by CD3- DGL clones. Expression of transfected HLA-B8 increased their sensitivity to lysis by most CD3- DGL clones, whereas expression of transfected HLA-G commonly led to decreased target cell killing. In addition, the effects of uncloned CD3- DGL on the one-way MLR have been examined. These cells were very poor responders and, unless cultured to induce expression of class II MHC molecules, were also very poor stimulators. When fresh CD3- DGLs were added as third-party cells, either autologous or allogeneic to responder cells, [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased in the MLR. Thus, CD3- DGL clones express MHC-nonrestricted cytolytic activity, notably against HLA-negative cells, but expression of HLA-G offers protection to target cells. In addition, CD3- DGL may function to suppress allogeneic responses.

  1. Bonding of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Legs to Metallic Contacts Using Bi0.82Sb0.18 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizel, Roi; Bargig, Tal; Beeri, Ofer; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectrics is gaining increased attention as a renewable direct energy conversion method from heat to electricity. The most efficient and up-to-date thermoelectric materials for temperatures of up to 250°C are (Bi1- x Sb x )2 (Te1- y Se y )3 alloys. In the current research, to discover practical thermoelectric power generation devices capable of operation at such temperatures, Bi0.82Sb0.18 alloy was considered as a lead-free high-temperature (<250°C) solder composition for bonding of n-type Bi2Te2.4Se0.6 and p-type Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 legs into Cu, Ag, Ni and Fe metallic bridges. In the case of Cu, fine contacts with low electrical contact resistance of ˜1.5 ± 0.5 mΩ mm2 were observed upon soldering at 350°C.

  2. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  3. A soluble form of the human T cell differentiation antigen CD27 is released after triggering of the TCR/CD3 complex.

    PubMed

    Hintzen, R Q; de Jong, R; Hack, C E; Chamuleau, M; de Vries, E F; ten Berge, I J; Borst, J; van Lier, R A

    1991-07-01

    The human T cell Ag CD27 belongs to a recently defined family of cell surface receptors, including the nerve growth factor receptor, two distinct tumor necrosis factor receptors, and the B cell specific molecule CD40. On resting T cells, CD27 is a transmembrane homodimer with subunits of 50 to 55 kDa (p55). T cell activation via the TCR/CD3 complex causes a strong enhancement of p55 expression. Concomitantly, an alternative form of the CD27 molecule with a molecular mass of 28 to 32 kDa (p32) appears at the cell surface. With the use of ELISA, we here show that a soluble form of CD27 (sCD27) can be detected in the supernatant of T cells activated with anti-CD3 or combinations of anti-CD2 mAb. Moreover, sCD27 is found in both serum and urine from healthy donors. sCD27, purified from either culture supernatant or urine, has a molecular mass of 28 to 32 kDa and is, according to peptide mapping, structurally homologous to the p55 membrane form of CD27. Quantification of sCD27 levels may be used as a marker for T lymphocyte activation in vivo.

  4. Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2013-02-15

    We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PstS1 amplifies IFN-γ and induces IL-17/IL-22 responses by unrelated memory CD4+ T cells via dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Palma, Carla; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Abalsamo, Laura; Mattei, Fabrizio; Piccaro, Giovanni; Sanchez, Massimo; Fernandez, Carmen; Singh, Mahavir; Gabriele, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The immunological mechanisms that modulate protection during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection or vaccination are not fully understood. Secretion of IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent, of IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells plays a major role both in protection and immunopathology. Few Mtb Ags interacting with DCs affect priming, activation, and regulation of Ag-unrelated CD4(+) T-cell responses. Here we demonstrate that PstS1, a 38 kDa-lipoprotein of Mtb, promotes Ag-independent activation of memory T lymphocytes specific for Ag85B or Ag85A, two immunodominant protective Ags of Mtb. PstS1 expands CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells, amplifies secretion of IFN-γ and IL-22 and induces IL-17 production by effector memory cells in an Ag-unrelated manner in vitro and in vivo. These effects were mediated through the stimulation of DCs, particularly of the CD8α(-) subtype, which respond to PstS1 by undergoing phenotypic maturation and by secreting IL-6, IL-1β and, to a lower extent, IL-23. IL-6 secretion by PstS1-stimulated DCs was required for IFN-γ, and to a lesser extent for IL-22 responses by Ag85B-specific memory T cells. These results may open new perspectives for immunotherapeutic strategies to control Th1/Th17 immune responses in Mtb infections and in vaccinations against tuberculosis. PMID:23719937

  6. Tapping CD4 T cells for cancer immunotherapy: the choice of personalized genomics.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Cellular immune responses that protect against tumors typically have been attributed to CD8 T cells. However, CD4 T cells also play a central role. It was shown recently that, in a patient with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, CD4 T cells specific for a peptide from a mutated region of ERBB2IP could arrest tumor progression. This and other recent findings highlight new opportunities for CD4 T cells in cancer immunotherapy. In this article, I discuss the role and regulation of CD4 T cells in response to tumor Ags. Emphasis is placed on the types of Ags and mechanisms that elicit tumor-protective responses. I discuss the advantages and drawbacks of cancer immunotherapy through personalized genomics. These considerations should help to guide the design of next-generation therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  7. Electrical parameters of metal doped n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umadevi, P.; Prithivikumaran, N.

    2016-11-01

    The CdO, Al doped CdO and Cu doped CdO thin films were coated on p-type silicon substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The structural, surface morphological and electrical properties of undoped, Al and Cu doped CdO films on silicon substrate were studied. The Ag/CdO/p-Si, Ag/Al: CdO/p-Si and Ag/Cu: CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated and the diode parameters such as reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor of the diodes were investigated by current-voltage (I-V)characteristics. The reverse current of the diode was found to increase strongly with the doping. The values of barrier height and ideality factor were decreased by doping with aluminium and copper. Photo response of the heterojunction diodes was studied and it was found that, the heterojunction diode constructed with the doped CdO has larger Photo response than the undoped heterojunction diode.

  8. Exclusive Transduction of Human CD4+ T Cells upon Systemic Delivery of CD4-Targeted Lentiviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Uhlig, Katharina M; Muth, Anke; Kimpel, Janine; Lévy, Camille; Münch, Robert C; Seifried, Janna; Pfeiffer, Anett; Trkola, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Cheick; von Laer, Dorothee; Wels, Winfried S; Hartwig, Udo F; Verhoeyen, Els; Buchholz, Christian J

    2015-09-01

    Playing a central role in both innate and adaptive immunity, CD4(+) T cells are a key target for genetic modifications in basic research and immunotherapy. In this article, we describe novel lentiviral vectors (CD4-LV) that have been rendered selective for human or simian CD4(+) cells by surface engineering. When applied to PBMCs, CD4-LV transduced CD4(+) but not CD4(-) cells. Notably, also unstimulated T cells were stably genetically modified. Upon systemic or intrasplenic administration into mice reconstituted with human PBMCs or hematopoietic stem cells, reporter gene expression was predominantly detected in lymphoid organs. Evaluation of GFP expression in organ-derived cells and blood by flow cytometry demonstrated exclusive gene transfer into CD4(+) human lymphocytes. In bone marrow and spleen, memory T cells were preferentially hit. Toward therapeutic applications, we also show that CD4-LV can be used for HIV gene therapy, as well as for tumor therapy, by delivering chimeric Ag receptors. The potential for in vivo delivery of the FOXP3 gene was also demonstrated, making CD4-LV a powerful tool for inducible regulatory T cell generation. In summary, our work demonstrates the exclusive gene transfer into a T cell subset upon systemic vector administration opening an avenue toward novel strategies in immunotherapy.

  9. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, D.; Lang, TH.; Heeb, B.; Gauckler, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 microns. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains was parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6 deg. At 77 K/0T a critical current density of 15, 000 A/sq cm was reached in films of the dimension 1 cm x 2 cm x 20 microns (1 micron V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4 K/0T the highest value was 350,000 A/sq cm (1 nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  10. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, D.; Lang, T.; Heeb, B.

    1994-12-31

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 {mu}m. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains were parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6{degrees}. At 77K/OT a critical current density of 15`000 A/cm{sup 2} was reached in films of the dimension 1cm x 2cm x 20{mu}m (1{mu}V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4K/OT the highest value was 350`000 A/cm{sup 2} (1nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  11. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  12. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  13. BiVO(4)/CuWO(4) heterojunction photoanodes for efficient solar driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Satyananda Kishore; Deutsch, Todd G; Furtak, Thomas E; Brown, Logan D; Turner, John A; Herring, Andrew M

    2013-03-01

    BiVO(4)/CuWO(4) heterojunction electrodes were prepared using spray deposition of a highly porous bismuth vanadate film onto the surface of an electrodeposited three dimensional network connected copper tungstate. Bilayer BiVO(4)/CuWO(4)/fluorine doped tin oxide glass (FTO) electrodes demonstrated higher photocurrent magnitudes than either with BiVO(4)/FTO or CuWO(4)/FTO electrodes in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte buffered at pH 7. The photocurrent is enhanced by the formation of the heterojunction that aids charge carrier collection brought about by the band edge offsets. When the pH 7 buffered electrolytes contained 1.0 M bicarbonate is employed instead of 1.0 M sulfate, the charge transfer resistance was decreased. This led to nearly 1.8 times the photocurrent density at 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The photocurrent was stable over 24 hours in bicarbonate electrolyte. PMID:23348367

  14. CD8+ CD28− and CD8+ CD57+ T cells and their role in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Strioga, Marius; Pasukoniene, Vita; Characiejus, Dainius

    2011-01-01

    Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to gradual accumulation of late-differentiated, antigen-specific, oligoclonal T cells, particularly within the CD8+ T-cell compartment. They are characterized by critically shortened telomeres, loss of CD28 and/or gain of CD57 expression and are defined as either CD8+CD28− or CD8+CD57+ T lymphocytes. There is growing evidence that the CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population plays a significant role in various diseases or conditions, associated with chronic immune activation such as cancer, chronic intracellular infections, chronic alcoholism, some chronic pulmonary diseases, autoimmune diseases, allogeneic transplantation, as well as has a great influence on age-related changes in the immune system status. CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population is heterogeneous and composed of various functionally competing (cytotoxic and immunosuppressive) subsets thus the overall effect of CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell-mediated immunity depends on the predominance of a particular subset. Many articles claim that CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T cells have lost their proliferative capacity during process of replicative senescence triggered by repeated antigenic stimulation. However recent data indicate that CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T cells can transiently up-regulate telomerase activity and proliferate under certain stimulation conditions. Similarly, conflicting data is provided regarding CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell sensitivity to apoptosis, finally leading to the conclusion that this T-cell population is also heterogeneous in terms of its apoptotic potential. This review provides a comprehensive approach to the CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population: we describe in detail its origins, molecular and functional characteristics, subsets, role in various diseases or conditions, associated with persistent antigenic stimulation. PMID:21711350

  15. Geochemistry of the Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit (paguanta, NE Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchilla Benavides, D.; Merinero Palomares, R.; Piña García, R.; Ortega Menor, L.; Lunar Hernández, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit is located within the Paguanta mining project, situated at the northern end of the Andean Oligocene Porphyry Copper Belt of Chile. The sulfide mineralization occurs as W-E oriented veins hosted in volcanic rocks, mainly andesite (pyroclastic, ash and lavas), of Upper Cretaceous to Middle Tertiary age. The ore mineralogy (obtained by EMPA analyses) comprises in order of abundance, pyrite, sphalerite (5.5 - 10.89 wt % Fe, 9.8-19 % molar FeS and 0.52 wt % Cd), galena, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ag-bearing sulfosalts. The veins show a zoned and banded internal structure with pyrite at the edges and sphalerite in the center. The Ag occurs mostly as Ag-Cu-Sb sulfosalts, in order of abundance: series freibergite - argentotennantite -polybasite and stephanite. Other minor Ag phases such as argentite, pyrargirite and diaphorite were also identified. These Ag phases are typically associated with the base-metal sulfides. Freibergite occurs filling voids within sphalerite, chalcopyrite and at the contact between sphalerite and galena. Polybasite, stephanite, pyrargirite and argentite are mostly in close association with freibergite. In the case of diaphorite, it commonly occurs filling voids between galena crystals or as inclusions within galena. Some minor Ag-bearing sulfosalts are also identified between pyrite crystals. The alteration minerals are dominated by chlorite, illite and kaolinite. The gangue minerals consist of quartz and carbonates identified by XRD as kutnahorite. We obtained linear correlation statistically significant only for Ag, As Au, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn and therefore we generated an enhanced scatter plot matrix of these elements. Bulk rock analyses (ICP/MS and XRF) of drill cores show that Ag is strongly and positively correlated with Pb and As, moderately with Cd, Sb, Au and Zn and weakly with Cu, while Au is moderately and positively correlated with Ag, As, Cd, Sb and Zn and weakly with Cu and Pb. These results

  16. Synthesis and Electrochemical Behavior of Ceria Based Bi-Layer Films by Dip Coating Technique.

    PubMed

    Chinnu, M Karl; Anand, K Vijai; Kumar, R Mohan; Alagesan, T; Jayavel, R

    2015-01-01

    Ceria based bi-layer films of CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel based hydrothermal route combined with dip-coating. The synthesized samples were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence studies. The prepared materials were dissolved in naffion solution and disposed as a thin film on glassy carbon electrode by dip coating technique. Electrochemical Li+ intercalation/deintercalation was performed by cyclic voltammetry and these results indicate that the CeO2/LiClO4 system is electrochemically reversible. The total intercalation/deintercalation of the CeO2 film, CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 bi-layer films was determined by cyclic voltammetry, which showed increased charge storage capacity.

  17. Phosphine-free synthesis of high-quality reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe core with CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals and their application for detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaibin; Yuan, Hang; Niu, Jin Zhong; Xu, Shasha; Zhou, Changhua; Ma, Lan; Li, Lin Song

    2011-09-16

    Highly photoluminescent (PL) reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) and ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS core/multishell NCs were successfully synthesized by a phosphine-free method. By this low-cost, 'green' synthesis route, more than 10 g of high-quality ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS NCs were synthesized in a large scale synthesis. After the overgrowth of a CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS multishell on ZnSe/CdSe cores, the PL quantum yields (QYs) increased from 28% to 75% along with the stability improvement. An amphiphilic oligomer was used as a surface coating agent to conduct a phase transfer experiment, core/multishell NCs were dissolved in water by such surface modification and the QYs were still kept above 70%. The as-prepared water dispersible ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS core/multishell NCs not only have high fluorescence QYs but also are extremely stable in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, a biosensor system (lateral flow immunoassay system, LFIA) for the detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was developed by using this water-soluble core/multishell NCs as a fluorescent label and a nitrocellulose filter membrane for lateral flow. The result showed that such ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd(x)Zn(1 - x)S/ZnS core/multishell NCs were excellent fluorescent labels to detect HBsAg. The sensitivity of HBsAg detection could reach as high as 0.05 ng ml( - 1). PMID:21852741

  18. Superconductivity in textured Bi clusters/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Phuoc Huu; Tzeng, Wen-Yen; Chen, Hsueh-Ju; Luo, Chih Wei; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Leu, Jihperng

    2014-09-01

    We report superconductivity at an onset critical temperature below 3.1 K in topological insulator ∼200-nm-thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping and Auger electron spectroscopy elemental depth profiling, we clearly identified bismuth (Bi) precipitation and Bi cluster signatures. Superconductivity in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films was attributed to the proximity effect of Bi clusters precipitated on the surface of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films.

  19. Migratory CD103+ dendritic cells suppress Helminth-driven Type 2 immunity through constitutive expression of IL-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batf3-dependent CD103+ and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the development of type 1 immune responses. However, their role in type 2 immunity remains unclear. We found that Th2 cell responses were enhanced in Batf3-/- mice responding to helminth parasite antigens (Ag). As a r...

  20. [Ag85B and BCG enhance immune activity of dendritic cells in patients with initially treated tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun; Su, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yang; Guan, Weiwei; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Yuling; Dai, Erhei

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis major secreted protein Ag85B and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on the immune function of dendritic cells (DCs) in the patients with tuberculosis who have received an initial treatment. Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected and separated in 26 healthy subjects and 31 patients with tuberculosis who had been treated initially. Every specimen was divided into 4 groups and DCs were induced and cultured. On the 6th day, the DCs in the three experimental groups were treated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), BCG, Ag85B, respectively and no-treated DCs served as a control group. After 24-hour treatment, DCs were collected and examined for the levels of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and CD11c using flow cytometry. Moreover, the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-10 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results The expression levels of CD83 and IL-10 in the patient control group were significantly lower than those in healthy subject control group. The levels of CD83, CD86 and IFN-γ in the Ag85B treated group were obviously high than those in the control group. The level of IFN-γ in the BCG treated group was significantly high than that in the control group. The levels of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and IL-10 in the LPS treated group were remarkably higher than those in the control group. The levels of CD83, CD86 and IL-10 in the healthy subject LPS treated group were significantly higher than those in the healthy subject control group. Conclusion The immune-enhancing effect of Ag85B on DCs is superior to that of BCG in the patients with initially treated tuberculosis.

  1. Developing a biocuration workflow for AgBase, a non-model organism database

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Lakshmi; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tudor, Catalina O.; Schmidt, Carl J.; Vijay-Shanker, K.; McCarthy, Fiona M.

    2012-01-01

    AgBase provides annotation for agricultural gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Plant Ontology, as appropriate. Unlike model organism species, agricultural species have a body of literature that does not just focus on gene function; to improve efficiency, we use text mining to identify literature for curation. The first component of our annotation interface is the gene prioritization interface that ranks gene products for annotation. Biocurators select the top-ranked gene and mark annotation for these genes as ‘in progress’ or ‘completed’; links enable biocurators to move directly to our biocuration interface (BI). Our BI includes all current GO annotation for gene products and is the main interface to add/modify AgBase curation data. The BI also displays Extracting Genic Information from Text (eGIFT) results for each gene product. eGIFT is a web-based, text-mining tool that associates ranked, informative terms (iTerms) and the articles and sentences containing them, with genes. Moreover, iTerms are linked to GO terms, where they match either a GO term name or a synonym. This enables AgBase biocurators to rapidly identify literature for further curation based on possible GO terms. Because most agricultural species do not have standardized literature, eGIFT searches all gene names and synonyms to associate articles with genes. As many of the gene names can be ambiguous, eGIFT applies a disambiguation step to remove matches that do not correspond to this gene, and filtering is applied to remove abstracts that mention a gene in passing. The BI is linked to our Journal Database (JDB) where corresponding journal citations are stored. Just as importantly, biocurators also add to the JDB citations that have no GO annotation. The AgBase BI also supports bulk annotation upload to facilitate our Inferred from electronic annotation of agricultural gene products. All annotations must pass standard GO Consortium quality checking before release in Ag

  2. Perovskite BiFeO3 thin film photocathode performance with visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, P.; Yeo, D.; Chang, H.; Loh, L.; Dunn, S.

    2016-08-01

    Perovskite materials are now an important class of materials in the application areas of photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Inorganic perovskites such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are promising photocatalyst materials with visible light activity and inherent stability. Here we report the large area sol-gel synthesis of BFO films for solar stimulated water photo oxidation. By modifying the sol-gel synthesis process we have produced a perovskite material that has p-type behaviour and a flat band potential of ˜1.15 V (versus NHE). The photocathode produces a density of -0.004 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus NHE under AM1.5 G illumination. We further show that 0.6 μmol h-1 of O2 was produced at an external bias of -0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The addition of a non-percolating conducting network of Ag increases the photocurrent to -0.07 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus NHE (at 2% Ag loading) with an increase to 2.7 μmol h-1 for O2 production. We attribute the enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance to increased light absorption due light scattering by the incorporated Ag particles, improved charge transfer kinetics at the Ag/BFO interface and reduced over potential losses. We support these claims by an observed shift in flat band and onset potentials after Ag modification through UV-vis spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky plots and j-v curve analysis.

  3. Perovskite BiFeO3 thin film photocathode performance with visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, P.; Yeo, D.; Chang, H.; Loh, L.; Dunn, S.

    2016-08-01

    Perovskite materials are now an important class of materials in the application areas of photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Inorganic perovskites such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are promising photocatalyst materials with visible light activity and inherent stability. Here we report the large area sol-gel synthesis of BFO films for solar stimulated water photo oxidation. By modifying the sol-gel synthesis process we have produced a perovskite material that has p-type behaviour and a flat band potential of ∼1.15 V (versus NHE). The photocathode produces a density of ‑0.004 mA cm‑2 at 0 V versus NHE under AM1.5 G illumination. We further show that 0.6 μmol h‑1 of O2 was produced at an external bias of ‑0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The addition of a non-percolating conducting network of Ag increases the photocurrent to ‑0.07 mA cm‑2 at 0 V versus NHE (at 2% Ag loading) with an increase to 2.7 μmol h‑1 for O2 production. We attribute the enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance to increased light absorption due light scattering by the incorporated Ag particles, improved charge transfer kinetics at the Ag/BFO interface and reduced over potential losses. We support these claims by an observed shift in flat band and onset potentials after Ag modification through UV–vis spectroscopy, Mott–Schottky plots and j–v curve analysis.

  4. Perovskite BiFeO3 thin film photocathode performance with visible light activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, P; Yeo, D; Chang, H; Loh, L; Dunn, S

    2016-08-26

    Perovskite materials are now an important class of materials in the application areas of photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Inorganic perovskites such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are promising photocatalyst materials with visible light activity and inherent stability. Here we report the large area sol-gel synthesis of BFO films for solar stimulated water photo oxidation. By modifying the sol-gel synthesis process we have produced a perovskite material that has p-type behaviour and a flat band potential of ∼1.15 V (versus NHE). The photocathode produces a density of -0.004 mA cm(-2) at 0 V versus NHE under AM1.5 G illumination. We further show that 0.6 μmol h(-1) of O2 was produced at an external bias of -0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The addition of a non-percolating conducting network of Ag increases the photocurrent to -0.07 mA cm(-2) at 0 V versus NHE (at 2% Ag loading) with an increase to 2.7 μmol h(-1) for O2 production. We attribute the enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance to increased light absorption due light scattering by the incorporated Ag particles, improved charge transfer kinetics at the Ag/BFO interface and reduced over potential losses. We support these claims by an observed shift in flat band and onset potentials after Ag modification through UV-vis spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky plots and j-v curve analysis. PMID:27420393

  5. In-situ synthesis of nanofibers with various ratios of BiOClx/BiOBry/BiOIz for effective trichloroethylene photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifan; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak Yong; Ding, Bin; Park, Soo-Jin

    2016-10-01

    In this work, BiOClx/BiOBry/BiOIz (x + y + z = 1) composite nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning and the sol-gel methods. Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by BiOClx/BiOBry/BiOIz/PAN nanofibers was systematically investigated via gas chromatography (GC). Optimum photocatalytic activity was achieved with BiOCl0.3/BiOBr0.3/BiOI0.4 fibers under solar light irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) peaks due to Csbnd O and Cdbnd O were observed at 286.0 and 288.3 eV, respectively, it indicated that the BiOClx/BiOBry/BiOIz mixture had been successfully doped on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results also confirmed that we had synthesized the as-prepared composite nanofibers successfully. Photocatalytic activities of BiOCl0.3/BiOBr0.3/BiOI0.4 were up to 3 times higher than the pure BiOCl, BiOBr and BiOI samples, respectively.

  6. Sintering and hot isostatic pressing of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, A. S.; Nash, P.; Poeppel, R. B.; Goretta, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(x) phase was synthesized by solid-state reaction of oxides and carbonates. Initial compositions of Bi:Sr:Ca:Cu were 4:3:3:6 and 2:1.7:1:2. Pellets of the pure powder and powder containing 2.5, 5, or 15 wt percent Ag were cold-pressed and either sintered or hot isostatically pressed (HIPped). For HIPping, the pellets were encased in thin Ag sheets, canned in steel, and pressed at 105 MPa in argon at 800 or 850 C. HIPping produced dense specimens, but sintering did not. HIPping induced very little decomposition of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(x), but a post-HIP anneal was needed to raise the transition temperature above 80 K. The Ag additions appeared to minimize microcracking during HIPping at 800 C. Little microcracking was evident in any of the specimens HIPped at 850 C.

  7. Manufacture of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-based tapes with a composite sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Andersen, N. H.; Saksl, K.

    2008-02-01

    (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-based single-filament tapes were prepared using a pure Ag protective sheath in contact with the ceramic core and an external sheath consisting of Ni. The influence of the composite sheath geometry on the (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 phase formation kinetics was studied by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a 8.5% O2 - 91.5% N2 gas mixture and was found to depend strongly on the sheath architecture as a consequence of differences in the oxygen supply between the ceramic core and the outer atmosphere. Owing to the efficient protection of the pure Ag layer against Ni diffusion, the critical temperature of the (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 phase is unaffected. Critical current densities as high as 35 kA/cm2 (77K, self field) were obtained in a single heat treatment when a slow cooling rate was used. The ceramic density was significantly improved in comparison with that of tapes prepared using only pure Ag as sheath material and heat treated once. This effect can be attributed to the higher mechanical strength of the composite sheath at elevated temperatures, which prevents the development of an otherwise significant porosity during the growth of the superconducting crystallites.

  8. Transient Surface CCR5 Expression by Naive CD8+ T Cells within Inflamed Lymph Nodes Is Dependent on High Endothelial Venule Interaction and Augments Th Cell-Dependent Memory Response.

    PubMed

    Askew, David; Su, Charles A; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Dorand, R Dixon; Myers, Jay; Liou, Rachel; Nthale, Joseph; Huang, Alex Y

    2016-05-01

    In inflamed lymph nodes, Ag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells encounter Ag-bearing dendritic cells and, together, this complex enhances the release of CCL3 and CCL4, which facilitate additional interaction with naive CD8(+) T cells. Although blocking CCL3 and CCL4 has no effect on primary CD8(+) T cell responses, it dramatically impairs the development of memory CD8(+) T cells upon Ag rechallenge. Despite the absence of detectable surface CCR5 expression on circulating native CD8(+) T cells, these data imply that naive CD8(+) T cells are capable of expressing surface CCR5 prior to cognate Ag-induced TCR signaling in inflamed lymph nodes; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been characterized to date. In this study, we show that CCR5, the receptor for CCL3 and CCL4, can be transiently upregulated on a subset of naive CD8(+) T cells and that this upregulation is dependent on direct contact with the high endothelial venule in inflamed lymph node. Binding of CD62L and CD11a on T cells to their ligands CD34 and CD54 on the high endothelial venule can be enhanced during inflammation. This enhanced binding and subsequent signaling promote the translocation of CCR5 molecules from intracellular vesicles to the surface of the CD8(+) T cell. The upregulation of CCR5 on the surface of the CD8(+) T cells increases the number of contacts with Ag-bearing dendritic cells, which ultimately results in increased CD8(+) T cell response to Ag rechallenge.

  9. TLR2 engagement on CD4(+) T cells enhances effector functions and protective responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Reba, Scott M; Li, Qing; Onwuzulike, Sophia; Ding, Xuedong; Karim, Ahmad F; Hernandez, Yeritza; Fulton, Scott A; Harding, Clifford V; Lancioni, Christina L; Nagy, Nancy; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Wearsch, Pamela A; Rojas, Roxana E

    2014-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that mycobacterial lipoproteins engage TLR2 on human CD4(+) T cells and upregulate TCR-triggered IFN-γ secretion and cell proliferation in vitro. Here we examined the role of CD4(+) T-cell-expressed TLR2 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Ag-specific T-cell priming and in protection against MTB infection in vivo. Like their human counterparts, mouse CD4(+) T cells express TLR2 and respond to TLR2 costimulation in vitro. This Th1-like response was observed in the context of both polyclonal and Ag-specific TCR stimulation. To evaluate the role of T-cell TLR2 in priming of CD4(+) T cells in vivo, naive MTB Ag85B-specific TCR transgenic CD4(+) T cells (P25 TCR-Tg) were adoptively transferred into Tlr2(-/-) recipient C57BL/6 mice that were then immunized with Ag85B and with or without TLR2 ligand Pam3 Cys-SKKKK. TLR2 engagement during priming resulted in increased numbers of IFN-γ-secreting P25 TCR-Tg T cells 1 week after immunization. P25 TCR-Tg T cells stimulated in vitro via TCR and TLR2 conferred more protection than T cells stimulated via TCR alone when adoptively transferred before MTB infection. Our findings indicate that TLR2 engagement on CD4(+) T cells increases MTB Ag-specific responses and may contribute to protection against MTB infection.

  10. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  11. An overwhelmingly selective colorimetric sensor for Ag(+) using a simple modified polyacrylonitrile fiber.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoli; Yang, Huixiao; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-10-30

    A carboxymethyl-dithiocarbamate immobilized polyacrylonitrile fiber colorimetric sensor has been synthesized. This fiber sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Ag(+) in aqueous solution with a remarkable color change from light pink to red-brown over a wide pH range of 2-12. The sensor responds selectively to Ag(+) in the presence of other ions, including Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The colorimetric sensor has an extremely fast response time (10s) and a low visual limit of detection (5.53×10(-12) mol/L). The fiber sensor also undergoes an obvious color change in the presence of Ag(+) solutions containing EDTA, NaCl or NaBr. Density functional theory optimization reveals that the sensor and Ag(+) interact via a seven-membered ring complexation mechanism.

  12. An overwhelmingly selective colorimetric sensor for Ag(+) using a simple modified polyacrylonitrile fiber.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoli; Yang, Huixiao; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-10-30

    A carboxymethyl-dithiocarbamate immobilized polyacrylonitrile fiber colorimetric sensor has been synthesized. This fiber sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Ag(+) in aqueous solution with a remarkable color change from light pink to red-brown over a wide pH range of 2-12. The sensor responds selectively to Ag(+) in the presence of other ions, including Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The colorimetric sensor has an extremely fast response time (10s) and a low visual limit of detection (5.53×10(-12) mol/L). The fiber sensor also undergoes an obvious color change in the presence of Ag(+) solutions containing EDTA, NaCl or NaBr. Density functional theory optimization reveals that the sensor and Ag(+) interact via a seven-membered ring complexation mechanism. PMID:25967097

  13. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn2VO6: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S. O.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2015-02-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn2VO6, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn2VO6 adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO4 tetrahedra, ZnO6 octahedra and VO4 tetrahedra, and Bi2O12 dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM2AO6 (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn2VO6, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV.

  14. Efficient Charge Separation between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 for Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Jia, Yulong; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min; Bi, Yingpu; Qi, Yanxing

    2016-04-18

    Herein, porous Bi/Bi2 MoO6 nanoparticles have been prepared by a facile in-situ reduction approach. Moreover, the morphology and Bi content of product could be controlled by varying the reaction time. By controlled fabrication, the desired porous Bi2 MoO6 nanostructure with incorporation of Bi was obtained and exhibited high photoelectric and photocatalytic activity. In particular, the samples yield a photocurrent density of 320 μA cm(-2) , which is 3.2 times that of the pure Bi2 MoO6 nanosheet (100 μA cm(-2) ) under the same conditions. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis confirmed the surface plasmon resonance in the as-prepared porous nanoparticles. The improved photoelectric properties could be the synergistic effect of the porous structure with large surface area and effective electron-hole separations between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 .

  15. Efficient Charge Separation between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 for Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Jia, Yulong; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min; Bi, Yingpu; Qi, Yanxing

    2016-04-18

    Herein, porous Bi/Bi2 MoO6 nanoparticles have been prepared by a facile in-situ reduction approach. Moreover, the morphology and Bi content of product could be controlled by varying the reaction time. By controlled fabrication, the desired porous Bi2 MoO6 nanostructure with incorporation of Bi was obtained and exhibited high photoelectric and photocatalytic activity. In particular, the samples yield a photocurrent density of 320 μA cm(-2) , which is 3.2 times that of the pure Bi2 MoO6 nanosheet (100 μA cm(-2) ) under the same conditions. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis confirmed the surface plasmon resonance in the as-prepared porous nanoparticles. The improved photoelectric properties could be the synergistic effect of the porous structure with large surface area and effective electron-hole separations between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 . PMID:26868192

  16. Dissecting the Role of Retinoic Acid Receptor Isoforms in the CD8 Response to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanxia; Lee, Yu-Chi; Brown, Chrysothemis; Zhang, Weijun; Usherwood, Edward; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to a spectrum of infectious diseases. The studies presented dissect the intrinsic role of each of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) isoforms in the clonal expansion, differentiation, and survival of pathogen-specific CD8 T cells in vivo. The data show that RARα is required for the expression of gut-homing receptors on CD8+ T cells and survival of CD8+ T cells in vitro. Furthermore, RARα is essential for survival of CD8+ T cells in vivo following Listeria monocytogenes infection. In contrast, RARβ deletion leads to modest deficiency in Ag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion during infection. The defective survival of RARα-deficient CD8+ T cells leads to a deficiency in control of L. monocytogenes expansion in the spleen. To our knowledge, these are the first comparative studies of the role of RAR isoforms in CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:24610012

  17. CD-ROM-aided Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimbori, Susumu

    CD-ROM has recently attracted remarkable attentions as a new information media. In this feature the following points concerning CD-ROM are described: (1) Development of CD-ROM from audio CD, (2)advantages and character of CD-ROM compared with printed or online media, (3)CD-ROM specification by Philips-Sony, (4)hardware and system construction with CD-ROM, and (5)production processes of CD-ROM.

  18. MHC class I molecules with Superenhanced CD8 binding properties bypass the requirement for cognate TCR recognition and nonspecifically activate CTLs.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Clement, Mathew; Lissina, Anna; Edwards, Emily S J; Ladell, Kristin; Ekeruche, Julia; Hewitt, Rachel E; Laugel, Bruno; Gostick, Emma; Cole, David K; Debets, Reno; Berrevoets, Cor; Miles, John J; Burrows, Scott R; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    CD8(+) CTLs are essential for effective immune defense against intracellular microbes and neoplasia. CTLs recognize short peptide fragments presented in association with MHC class I (MHCI) molecules on the surface of infected or dysregulated cells. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to a single ligand (peptide MHCI [pMHCI]). The TCR/pMHCI interaction confers Ag specificity, whereas the pMHCI/CD8 interaction mediates enhanced sensitivity to Ag. Striking biophysical differences exist between the TCR/pMHCI and pMHCI/CD8 interactions; indeed, the pMHCI/CD8 interaction can be >100-fold weaker than the cognate TCR/pMHCI interaction. In this study, we show that increasing the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction by approximately 15-fold results in nonspecific, cognate Ag-independent pMHCI tetramer binding at the cell surface. Furthermore, pMHCI molecules with superenhanced affinity for CD8 activate CTLs in the absence of a specific TCR/pMHCI interaction to elicit a full range of effector functions, including cytokine/chemokine release, degranulation and proliferation. Thus, the low solution binding affinity of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction is essential for the maintenance of CTL Ag specificity.

  19. CD3+CD8+CD28− T Lymphocytes in Patients with Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies on the CD3+CD8+CD28− cells in SLE are inconsistent since several analyses describe CD3+CD8+CD28− as either immunosuppressive or cytotoxic. The aim of this study is to inquire whether the quantitative changes of CD3+CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression on CD3+CD8+CD28− cells may shed some light on functional properties of these cells. 54 adult SLE patients and 19 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. There were 15 patients in inactive (SLEDAI ≤ 5) and 39 in active (SLEDAI > 5) phase of disease. We determined absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− and CD3+CD8+CD28−Foxp3+ subpopulations by flow cytometry. We observed a statistically significant increase in absolute count and percentage of CD3+CD8+CD28− in SLE patients compared to HC (p < 0.001). Moreover there was significant positive correlation between increasing absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells and disease activity measured by SLEDAI (rs = 0.281, p = 0.038). Active LN patients had increased absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells compared to HC. Positive correlation of CD3+CD8+CD28− number with disease activity, and lack of Foxp3 expression on these cells, suggests that CD3+CD8+CD28− lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. PMID:27446964

  20. Characterization of Highly Efficient CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells by Low-Temperature Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Matsuzaki, Yuichi; Amin, Nowshad; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    1998-07-01

    Highly efficient CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method with a glass/ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu-doped carbon/Ag structure were characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement. A broad 1.42 eV band probably due to VCd Cl defect complexes appeared as a result of CdCl2 treatment. CdS/CdTe junction PL revealed that a CdSxTe1-x mixed crystal layer was formed at the CdS/CdTe interface region during the deposition of CdTe by CSS and that CdCl2 treatment promoted the formation of the mixed crystal layer. Furthermore, in the PL spectra of the heat-treated CdTe after screen printing of the Cu-doped carbon electrode, a neutral-acceptor bound exciton (ACu0, X) line at 1.590 eV was observed, suggesting that Cu atoms were incorporated into CdTe as effective acceptors after the heat treatment.

  1. Cutting Edge: Marginal Zone Macrophages Regulate Antigen Transport by B Cells to the Follicle in the Spleen via CD21.

    PubMed

    Prokopec, Kajsa E; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Sohn, Silke; Wermeling, Fredrik; Grönlund, Hans; Lindh, Emma; Carroll, Michael C; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2016-09-15

    Marginal zone macrophages (MZM) are strategically located in the spleen, lining the marginal sinus where they sense inflammation and capture Ag from the circulation. One of the receptors expressed by MZM is scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which has affinity for modified self-antigens. In this article, we show that engagement of MARCO on murine macrophages induces extracellular ATP and loss of CD21 and CD62L on marginal zone B cells. Engagement of MARCO also leads to reduction of Ag transport by marginal zone B cells and affects the subsequent immune response. This study highlights a novel function for MZM in regulating Ag transport and activation, and we suggest that MARCO-dependent ATP release regulates this through shedding of CD21 and CD62L. Because systemic lupus erythematosus patients were shown to acquire autoantibodies against MARCO, this highlights a mechanism that could affect a patient's ability to combat infections.

  2. Consolidation and plasticity of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, A. S.; Goretta, K. C.; Wheeler, R.; Moon, B. M.; Wu, C. T.; Nash, P.

    1991-05-01

    The Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(x) (2212) superconductor consists of platelike grains that grow up very rapidly in two directions at high temperature. The grain growth is so fast that this superconductor can not be sintered by conventional means. Densification can be achieved, however, by hot isostatic pressing by a combination of flat rolling and sintering. Results from 2212 and 2212 + 15 wt. percent Ag specimens produced by these consolidation methods are compared with those from sintering studies. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to assess the mechanisms by which 2212 densifies. The superconducting properties of each type of specimen were measured. It was found that only forms in which the platelike grains exhibited substantial preferred orientation were capable of carrying large amounts of current. This result has important implications to the thermomechanical processing of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors.

  3. CD8 controls T cell cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; Laugel, Bruno; Ekeruche, Julia; Clement, Mathew; van den Berg, Hugo A; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2010-10-15

    Estimates of human αβ TCR diversity suggest that there are <10(8) different Ag receptors in the naive T cell pool, a number that is dwarfed by the potential number of different antigenic peptide-MHC (pMHC) molecules that could be encountered. Consequently, an extremely high degree of cross-reactivity is essential for effective T cell immunity. Ag recognition by T cells is unique in that it involves a coreceptor that binds at a site distinct from the TCR to facilitate productive engagement of the pMHC. In this study, we show that the CD8 coreceptor controls T cell cross-reactivity for pMHCI Ags, thereby ensuring that the peripheral T cell repertoire is optimally poised to negotiate the competing demands of responsiveness in the face of danger and quiescence in the presence of self.

  4. Preferential induction of CD4+ T cell responses through in vivo targeting of antigen to dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1.

    PubMed

    Carter, Robert W; Thompson, Clare; Reid, Delyth M; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F

    2006-08-15

    Targeting of Ags and therapeutics to dendritic cells (DCs) has immense potential for immunotherapy and vaccination. Because DCs are heterogeneous, optimal targeting strategies will require knowledge about functional specialization among DC subpopulations and identification of molecules for targeting appropriate DCs. We characterized the expression of a fungal recognition receptor, DC-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1), on mouse DC subpopulations and investigated the ability of an anti-Dectin-1 Ab to deliver Ag for the stimulation of immune responses. Dectin-1 was shown to be expressed on CD8alpha-CD4-CD11b+ DCs found in spleen and lymph nodes and dermal DCs present in skin and s.c. lymph nodes. Injection of Ag-anti-Dectin-1 conjugates induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and Ab responses at low doses where free Ag failed to elicit a response. Notably, qualitatively different immune responses were generated by targeting Ag to Dectin-1 vs CD205, a molecule expressed on CD8alpha+CD4-CD11b- DCs, dermal DCs, and Langerhans cells. Unlike anti-Dectin-1, anti-CD205 conjugates failed to elicit an Ab response. Moreover, when conjugates were injected i.v., anti-Dectin-1 stimulated a much stronger CD4+ T cell response and a much weaker CD8+ T cell response than anti-CD205. The results reveal Dectin-1 as a potential targeting molecule for immunization and have implications for the specialization of DC subpopulations. PMID:16887988

  5. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br- and I-), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10-8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface.

  6. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    PubMed Central

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br– and I–), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10−8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface. PMID:26412773

  7. Second-order susceptibility spectra for δ-BiB3O6 polymer nanocomposites deposited on the chalcogenide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kityk, I. V.; Chrunik, M.; Majchrowski, A.; Guidi, Mariangela Cestelli; Angelucci, Marco; Kamel, Gihan; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Pępczyńska, M.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Parasyuk, O.; Bolesta, I. M.; Kowerdziej, R.

    2015-07-01

    The optimized conditions for the enhancement of the second harmonic generation in the composites of the orthorhombic δ-BiB3O6:Pr3+ nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films and deposited on the AgGaGe2Se6, AgGaGe2.7Si0.3Se8 (90 mol.% AgGaGe3Se8 - 10 mol.% AgGaSi3Se8), and AgGaGe3Se8:Cu substrates were established. The highest second-order susceptibility was achieved during the Ag-Ga-Ge-Se crystalline substrates photo-illumination by nanosecond laser pulses of about 2900 nm wavelength. The effect was found to be completely reversible after the interruption of the photo-inducing stimulation. Complementary studies of Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM, X-ray Diffraction, XRD, and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and DFT simulations of spectral dependences of the corresponding second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, were performed.

  8. Second-order susceptibility spectra for δ-BiB₃O₆ polymer nanocomposites deposited on the chalcogenide crystals.

    PubMed

    Kityk, I V; Chrunik, M; Majchrowski, A; Guidi, Mariangela Cestelli; Angelucci, Marco; Kamel, Gihan; Fedorchuk, A O; Pępczyńska, M; Jaroszewicz, L R; Parasyuk, O; Bolesta, I M; Kowerdziej, R

    2015-07-01

    The optimized conditions for the enhancement of the second harmonic generation in the composites of the orthorhombic δ-BiB3O6:Pr(3+) nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films and deposited on the AgGaGe2Se6, AgGaGe2.7Si0.3Se8 (90 mol.% AgGaGe3Se8 - 10 mol.% AgGaSi3Se8), and AgGaGe3Se8:Cu substrates were established. The highest second-order susceptibility was achieved during the Ag-Ga-Ge-Se crystalline substrates photo-illumination by nanosecond laser pulses of about 2900 nm wavelength. The effect was found to be completely reversible after the interruption of the photo-inducing stimulation. Complementary studies of Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM, X-ray Diffraction, XRD, and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and DFT simulations of spectral dependences of the corresponding second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, were performed.

  9. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  10. Nondestructive Investigation of Heterojunction Interfacial Properties Using Two-Wavelength Raman Spectroscopy on Thin-Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guanggen; Harrison, Paul; Kidman, Ali; Al-Mebir, Alaa; Feng, Lianghuan; Wu, Judy

    2016-09-01

    Raman spectra specific to CdS and CdTe were obtained on the CdS/CdTe heterojunction interface by employing two excitation wavelengths of λ1 = 488 nm and λ2 = 633 nm, respectively, from the glass side of Glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/HgTe:Cu:graphite/Ag solar cells fabricated using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). This two-wavelength Raman spectroscopy approach, with one wavelength selected below the absorption edge of the window layer (λ2 in this case), allows nondestructive characterization of the CdS/CdTe heterojunction and therefore correlation of the interfacial properties with the solar cell performance. In this study, the evolution of the interfacial strain relaxation during cell fabrication process was found to be affected not only by the inter-diffusion of S and Te corresponding to the formation of CdSxTe1-x ternary alloy with a various x from ∼0.01 to ∼0.067, but also by the variation in misfit dislocations (MDs) at CdS/CdTe interface from Raman TO/LO ratio ∼2.85 for as-deposited sample to TO/LO ∼4.44 for the cells post treatment. This is consistent with the change of the Urbach energy from 0.03 eV to 0.09 eV, indicative of the deterioration of crystalline quality of CdTe at interface although improved CdTe crystalline quality was observed away from the interface after the CdCl2 annealing. This difference crucially impacted on the rectification characteristics of the CdS/CdTe heterojunction and therefore the solar cell performance.

  11. A functional variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with DQ2-negative celiac disease in the Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, C; Rueda, B; Martínez, A; Maluenda, C; Polanco, I; López-Nevot, MA; Ortega, E; Sierra, E; de la Concha, E Gómez; Urcelay, E; Martín, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To address the role of CD209 in celiac disease (CD) patients. Non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic factors in CD predisposition are poorly understood, and environmental factors like infectious pathogens may play a role. CD209 is a dendritic and macrophage surface molecule involved in pathogen recognition and immune activation. Recently, a functional variant in the promoter of the CD209 gene (-336A/G) has been shown to affect the transcriptional CD209 activity in vitro and it has been associated with a higher susceptibility to/or severity of infection. METHODS: The study population was composed of two case-control cohorts of 103 and 386 CD patients and 312 y 419 healthy controls as well as a panel of 257 celiac families. Genotyping for the -336A/G CD209 promoter polymorphism was performed using a TaqMan 5´ allelic discrimination assay. HLA-DQ was determined by hybridization with allele specific probes. RESULTS: Initially, the case-control and familial studies did not find any association of the -336 A/G CD209 genetic variant with CD susceptibility. However, the stratification by HLA-DQ2 did reveal a significant association of CD209 promoter polymorphism in the HLA-DQ2 (-) group (carrier A vs GG in DQ2 (-) vs DQ2 (+) patients (P = 0.026, OR = 3.71). CONCLUSION: The -336G CD209 allele seems to be involved in CD susceptibility in HLA-DQ2 (-) patients. Our results might suggest a possible role of pathogens in the onset of a minor group of CD patients. PMID:16865785

  12. Temperature-dependent thermal expansion of cast and hot-pressed LAST (Pb-Sb-Ag-Te) thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Hall, Bradley D.; Case, Eldon D; Timm, Edward J; Trejo, Rosa M; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    The thermal expansion for two compositions of cast and hot-pressed LAST (Pb Sb Ag Te) n-type thermoelectric materials has been measured between room temperature and 673K via thermomechanical analysis (TMA). In addition, using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), the thermal expansion for both cast and hot-pressed LAST materials was determined from the temperature-dependent lattice parameters measured between room temperature and 623 K. The TMA and HT-XRD determined values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for the LAST compositions ranged between 20106K1 and 24106K1, which is comparable to the CTE values for other thermoelectric materials including PbTe and Bi2Te3. The CTE of the LAST specimens with a higher Ag content (Ag0.86Pb19Sb1.0Te20) exhibited a higher CTE value than that of the LAST material with a lower Ag content (Ag0.43Pb18Sb1.2Te20). In addition, a peak in the temperature-dependent CTE was observed between room temperature and approximately 450K for both the cast and hot-pressed LAST with the Ag0.86Pb19Sb1.0Te20 composition, whereas the CTE of the Ag0.43Pb18Sb1.2Te20 specimen increased monotonically with temperature.

  13. Junction formation of Cu3BiS3 investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and surface photovoltage measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Fredy; Chamorro, William; Vallejo, William; Baier, Robert; Dittrich, Thomas; Grimm, Alexander; Lux-Steiner, Martha C

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recently, the compound semiconductor Cu3BiS3 has been demonstrated to have a band gap of ~1.4 eV, well suited for photovoltaic energy harvesting. The preparation of polycrystalline thin films was successfully realized and now the junction formation to the n-type window needs to be developed. We present an investigation of the Cu3BiS3 absorber layer and the junction formation with CdS, ZnS and In2S3 buffer layers. Kelvin probe force microscopy shows the granular structure of the buffer layers with small grains of 20–100 nm, and a considerably smaller work-function distribution for In2S3 compared to that of CdS and ZnS. For In2S3 and CdS buffer layers the KPFM experiments indicate negatively charged Cu3BiS3 grain boundaries resulting from the deposition of the buffer layer. Macroscopic measurements of the surface photovoltage at variable excitation wavelength indicate the influence of defect states below the band gap on charge separation and a surface-defect passivation by the In2S3 buffer layer. Our findings indicate that Cu3BiS3 may become an interesting absorber material for thin-film solar cells; however, for photovoltaic application the band bending at the charge-selective contact has to be increased. PMID:22497001

  14. Plasmonics in the ultraviolet with the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeffrey M; Schatz, George C; Gray, Stephen K

    2013-04-21

    We discuss how the poor metals Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi can be used for plasmonics in the near to far ultraviolet (UV) range, similar to the noble metals Ag and Au in the visible (Vis) range. We first discuss the empirical dielectric functions of the poor metals, contrasting them with Ag and Au, and also fitting them to a Drude and multiple Lorentz oscillator form. Using Mie theory, we then compare the optical responses of spherical poor metal nanoparticles to noble metal ones. Finally, nanoparticle dimers are studied using a vectorial finite element method. We show how the poor metals exhibit large electric field enhancements in the UV, comparable to Au in the Vis, which makes them particularly attractive for sensing applications, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Coimmunization with an optimized IL-15 plasmid results in enhanced function and longevity of CD8 T cells that are partially independent of CD4 T cell help.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, Michele A; Robinson, Tara M; Chattergoon, Michael A; Choo, Daniel K; Choo, Andrew Y; Choe, Philip Y; Ramanathan, Mathura P; Parkinson, Rose; Kudchodkar, Sagar; Tamura, Yutaka; Sidhu, Maninder; Roopchand, Vidia; Kim, J Joseph; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K; Waldmann, Thomas A; Boyer, Jean D; Weiner, David B

    2005-07-01

    DNA vaccines are a promising technology for the induction of Ag-specific immune responses, and much recent attention has gone into improving their immune potency. In this study we test the feasibility of delivering a plasmid encoding IL-15 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for the induction of improved Ag-specific CD8(+) T cellular immune responses. Because native IL-15 is poorly expressed, we used PCR-based strategies to develop an optimized construct that expresses 80-fold higher than the native IL-15 construct. Using a DNA vaccination model, we determined that immunization with optimized IL-15 in combination with HIV-1gag DNA constructs resulted in a significant enhancement of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion, and strong induction of long-lived CD8(+) T cell responses. In an influenza DNA vaccine model, coimmunization with plasmid expressing influenza A PR8/34 hemagglutinin with the optimized IL-15 plasmid generated improved long term CD8(+) T cellular immunity and protected the mice against a lethal mucosal challenge with influenza virus. Because we observed that IL-15 appeared to mostly adjuvant CD8(+) T cell function, we show that in the partial, but not total, absence of CD4(+) T cell help, plasmid-delivered IL-15 could restore CD8 secondary immune responses to an antigenic DNA plasmid, supporting the idea that the effects of IL-15 on CD8(+) T cell expansion require the presence of low levels of CD4 T cells. These data suggest a role for enhanced plasmid IL-15 as a candidate adjuvant for vaccine or immunotherapeutic studies. PMID:15972637

  16. Synthesis of Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms and their use as DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ma, Zhanfang

    2011-06-01

    A simple synthetic route to prepare Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms consists of the facile addition of Na(2) S to a solution of triangular Ag nanoprisms. The resulting Ag(2) S-Ag nanoparticles are more stable in solution than the original Ag nanoprisms, and two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the original Ag nanoprisms still remain. In addition, the SPR bands of the Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms are tunable over a wide range. The Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms can be directly bioconjugated via well-established stable Ag(2) S surface chemistry with readily available sulfur coupling agents. The nanoprisms are used in the hybridization of functionalized oligonucleotides, and show promise as probes for future biosensing applications. PMID:21538868

  17. Anomalous conductivity tensor in the Dirac semimetal Na3Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun; Kushwaha, Satya; Krizan, Jason; Liang, Tian; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.

    2016-04-01

    Na3Bi is a Dirac semimetal with protected nodes that may be sensitive to the breaking of time-reversal invariance in a magnetic field B. We report experiments which reveal that both the conductivity and resistivity tensors exhibit robust anomalies in B. The resistivity ρxx is B-linear up to 35 T, while the Hall angle exhibits an unusual profile approaching a step function. The conductivities σxx and σxy share identical power-law dependences at large B. We propose that these significant deviations from conventional transport result from an unusual sensitivity of the transport lifetime to B. The transport features are compared with those in Cd3As2.

  18. Low-Temperature Bonding of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film In Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Cheng; Yang, Chung-Lin; Huang, Jing-Yi; Jain, Chao-Chi; Hwang, Jen-Dong; Chu, Hsu-Shen; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Chuang, Tung-Han

    2016-09-01

    A Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thermoelectric material electroplated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode at low temperatures of 448 K (175 °C) to 523 K (250 °C) using a 4- μm-thick In interlayer under an external pressure of 3 MPa. During the bonding process, the In thin film reacted with the Ag layer to form a double layer of Ag3In and Ag2In intermetallic compounds. No reaction occurred at the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Ni interface, which resulted in low bonding strengths of about 3.2 MPa. The adhesion of the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Ni interface was improved by precoating a 1- μm Sn film on the surface of the thermoelectric element and preheating it at 523 K (250 °C) for 3 minutes. In this case, the bonding strengths increased to a range of 9.1 to 11.5 MPa after bonding at 473 K (200 °C) for 5 to 60 minutes, and the shear-tested specimens fractured with cleavage characteristics in the interior of the thermoelectric material. The bonding at 448 K (175 °C) led to shear strengths ranging from 7.1 to 8.5 MPa for various bonding times between 5 and 60 minutes, which were further increased to the values of 10.4 to 11.7 MPa by increasing the bonding pressure to 9.8 MPa. The shear strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3/Cu joints bonded with the optimized conditions of the modified solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process changed only slightly after long-term exposure at 473 K (200 °C) for 1000 hours.

  19. Spray pyrolysis deposition and photoelectrochemical properties of n-type BiOI nanoplatelet thin films.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Nathan T; Hoang, Son; Self, Jeffrey L; Mullins, C Buddie

    2012-09-25

    Bismuth oxy-iodide is a potentially interesting visible-light-active photocatalyst; yet there is little research regarding its photoelectrochemical properties. Herein we report the synthesis of BiOI nanoplatelet photoelectrodes by spray pyrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates at various temperatures. The films exhibited n-type conductivity, most likely due to the presence of anion vacancies, and optimized films possessed incident photon conversion efficiencies of over 20% in the visible range for the oxidation of I(-) to I(3)(-) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile. Visible-light photons (λ > 420 nm) contributed approximately 75% of the overall photocurrent under AM1.5G illumination, illustrating their usefulness under solar light illumination. A deposition temperature of 260 °C was found to result in the best performance due to the balance of morphology, crystallinity, impurity levels, and optical absorption, leading to photocurrents of roughly 0.9 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Although the films performed stably in acetonitrile, their performance decreased significantly upon extended exposure to water, which was apparently caused by a loss of surface iodine and subsequent formation of an insulating bismuth hydroxide layer. PMID:22891667

  20. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation by CdSe/CdS Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fen; Han, Zhiji; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Odoi, Michael Y; Sowers, Kelly L; Krauss, Todd D

    2016-09-14

    The photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) production activity of various CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles was compared including CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs), CdSe quantum rods (QRs), and CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods (DIRs). With equivalent photons absorbed, the H2 generation activity orders as CdSe QDs ≫ CdSe QRs > CdSe/CdS QDs > CdSe/CdS DIRs, which is surprisingly the opposite of the electron-hole separation efficiency. Calculations of photoexcited surface charge densities are positively correlated with the H2 production rate and suggest the size of the nanoparticle plays a critical role in determining the relative efficiency of H2 production. PMID:27478995

  1. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  2. Element substitution from substrates in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 overlayers deposited by hot wall epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, Y.; Jahn, U.; Jenichen, B.; Berlin, K.; Kong, X.; Biermann, K.

    2014-09-01

    In depositing Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 or Sb2Te3 layers on certain substrates by hot wall epitaxy, the Bi and Sb atoms in the layers are replaced by the atoms supplied from the substrates. We extend our exploration on this substitution phenomenon for a number of combinations of the layer and the substrate to infer the factors that determine the occurrence of the substitution. Using a series of Ga- and In-based III-V substrates, it is evidenced that the group III atoms substitute the group V overlayer atoms when the bonds in the substrates are weak. We demonstrate that Ag triggers the substitution more effectively than Cu as a catalyst. The competition between the catalyst-induced substitutions on ternary alloy substrates shows that the dependence on the bond strength is not as strong as to be exclusive. Additionally, defectiveness around the interface between a semicoherently grown α-In2Se3 layer produced by the substitution and the InAs substrate is demonstrated. The cathodeluminescence properties are also provided focusing on the dependence on the phase of In2Se3.

  3. Cd Isotope Fractionation During Adsorption Varies with Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Montanez, G.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    compositions were measured using MC-ICP-MS with a Ag spike for mass bias correction. The fractionation between dissolved and adsorbed Cd was ~0.3‰ in terms of δ114/110Cd (relative to our ICP standard solution) for the KNO3-only experiments (adsorbed Cd is lighter) and very near zero for the NaCl-rich experiments. Our NaCl-rich result is consistent with the results of [4] and [6]. In addition, our KNO3-only result suggests that adsorption of Cd to mineral surfaces in low salinity waters, such as riverine water or groundwater, could be one of the few abiotic processes that can significantly fractionate Cd isotopes. We hypothesize that NaCl concentration affects Cd fractionation in this system by changing Cd speciation. Cd likely complexes with Cl in predominantly tetrahedral molecules, in contrast to the octahedral hydrated Cd cations present in low-Cl solutions. [1] Boyle et al. (1976) Nature 263, 42. [2] Lacan et al. (2006) GCA 70, 5104. [3] Ripperger et al. (2007) EPSL 261, 670. [4] Rehkämper et al. (2008) GCA 72 Suppl., A392. [5] Wombacher et al. (2003) GCA 67, 4639. [6] Schmitt et al. GCA 71 Suppl., A898.

  4. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  5. Enhancement of photoluminescence of different quantum dots by Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ya-Hsing; Lu, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Kan-Sen

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Enhancement effects of CdS/ZnS, Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S and ZnS QDs linked to Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied. ► There existed an optimal thickness of SiO{sub 2} shell on the enhancement. ► The enhancement factor was in the range of 2.5–3 for CdS/ZnS and Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S QDs. ► The PL intensity of ZnS QD was totally quenched due to absorption by silver particles. - Abstract: The enhancement of photoluminescence of several quantum dots, namely CdS/ZnS, Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S and pure ZnS, by Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles is studied and reported in this work. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) was used to link QDs to the core–shell nanoparticles. For CdS/ZnS, the Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed a maximum enhancement of about 2.5 due to surface plasmon resonance of silver particles when the shell thickness was 16 nm. When the shell thickness increased to 30 nm, the enhancement effect became negligible. Conversely, when the thickness decreased to 6 nm, the effect was also smaller due to possible capture of excited electrons by silver particles. For Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S, a similar enhancement effect was observed. However when pure ZnS was the QD, the photoluminescence went zero after the QD was linked to Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. This was caused by the fact that for ZnS QDs, the emission wavelength was 415 nm, which also corresponds to the absorbance peak of silver particles.

  6. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better.

  7. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better. PMID:26353675

  8. Degradation and capacitance: voltage hysteresis in CdTe devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, D. S.; Dhere, R. G.; Glynn, S. C.; del Cueto, J. A.; Metzger, W. K.

    2009-08-01

    CdS/CdTe photovoltaic solar cells were made on two different transparent conducting oxide (TCO) structures in order to identify differences in fabrication, performance, and reliability. In one set of cells, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to deposit a bi-layer TCO on Corning 7059 borosilicate glass consisting of a F-doped, conductive tin-oxide (cSnO2) layer capped by an insulating (undoped), buffer (iSnO2) layer. In the other set, a more advanced bi-layer structure consisting of sputtered cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4; CTO) as the conducting layer and zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4; ZTO) as the buffer layer was used. CTO/ZTO substrates yielded higher performance devices however performance uniformity was worse due to possible strain effects associated with TCO layer fabrication. Cells using the SnO2-based structure were only slightly lower in performance, but exhibited considerably greater performance uniformity. When subjected to accelerated lifetime testing (ALT) at 85 - 100 °C under 1-sun illumination and open-circuit bias, more degradation was observed in CdTe cells deposited on the CTO/ZTO substrates. Considerable C-V hysteresis, defined as the depletion width difference between reverse and forward direction scans, was observed in all Cu-doped CdTe cells. These same effects can also be observed in thin-film modules. Hysteresis was observed to increase with increasing stress and degradation. The mechanism for hysteresis is discussed in terms of both an ionic-drift model and one involving majority carrier emission in the space-charge region (SCR). The increased generation of hysteresis observed in CdTe cells deposited on CTO/ZTO substrates suggests potential decomposition of these latter oxides when subjected to stress testing.

  9. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  10. Activation-induced CD154 expression abrogates tolerance induced by apoptotic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    The decision to generate a productive immune response or tolerance often depends on the context in which T cells first see Ag. Using a classical system of tolerance induction, we examined the immunological consequence of Ag encountered in the presence of naïve or activated apoptotic cells. Naïve apoptotic cells induced tolerance when injected i.v.; however, previously activated apoptotic cells induced immunity. Further analysis revealed a key role for CD154, as tolerance resulted after i.v. injection of either naïve or activated apoptotic CD154−/− T cells, while co-injection of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb with naïve apoptotic T cells induced robust immunity. DC fed activated apoptotic T cells in vitro produced IL-12p40 in a CD154-dependent manner, and the use of IL-12p40−/− mice or mAb-mediated neutralization of IL-12 revealed a link between CD154, IL-12, and the ability of activated apoptotic T cells to induce immunity rather than tolerance. Collectively these results show that CD154 expression on apoptotic T cells can determine the outcome of an immune response to Ag recognized within the context of the apoptotic cells, and suggest the balance between naïve and activated apoptotic T cells may dictate whether a productive immune response is encouraged. PMID:19841180

  11. Synthesis and electrocatalytic properties of PtBi nanoplatelets and PdBi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hanbin; Zhu, Jinghan; Hou, Yanglong

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated a one-pot, facile and rapid strategy to synthesize novel PtBi nanoplatelets (NPLs) and PdBi nanowires (NWs) with controlled shape, size, and composition in the presence of oleylamine (OAm) and NH4Br. In contrast to the conventional face centered cubic (fcc) structure of Pt-based NPs, PtBi possesses a chemically ordered intermetallic hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. Using this uniaxial crystal structural character of PtBi, we succeed in synthesizing two-dimensional (2-D) PtBi NPLs. Significantly, the electrochemical studies indicate that the as-prepared 2-D PtBi NPLs exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward formic acid and methanol oxidation with larger oxidation current density, higher tolerance to CO poisoning, and more negative onset potential in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. This is attributed to the addition of second metal Bi. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that synthesis of one-dimensional (1-D) PdBi alloy NWs has been reported. The as-synthesized 1-D PdBi bimetallic NWs may find promising potential applications in various fields, such as fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, and organocatalysis.We have demonstrated a one-pot, facile and rapid strategy to synthesize novel PtBi nanoplatelets (NPLs) and PdBi nanowires (NWs) with controlled shape, size, and composition in the presence of oleylamine (OAm) and NH4Br. In contrast to the conventional face centered cubic (fcc) structure of Pt-based NPs, PtBi possesses a chemically ordered intermetallic hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. Using this uniaxial crystal structural character of PtBi, we succeed in synthesizing two-dimensional (2-D) PtBi NPLs. Significantly, the electrochemical studies indicate that the as-prepared 2-D PtBi NPLs exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward formic acid and methanol oxidation with larger oxidation current density, higher tolerance to CO poisoning, and more negative onset potential

  12. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  13. Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril'sk sulfide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, E. M.; Kulagov, E. A.; Serova, A. A.; Kulikova, I. M.; Korotaeva, N. N.; Sereda, E. V.; Tushentsova, I. N.; Belyakov, S. N.; Zhukov, N. N.

    2015-09-01

    The undeformed ore-bearing intrusions of the Noril'sk ore field (NOF) cut through volcanic rocks of the Late Permian-Early Triassic trap association folded in brachysynclines. Due to the nonuniform load on the roof of intrusive bodies, most sulfide melts were squeezed, up to the tops of ore-bearing intrusions; readily fusible Ni-Fe-Cu sulfide melts were almost completely squeezed. In our opinion, not only one but two stages of mineralization developed at the Noril'sk deposits: (i) syntrap magmatic and (ii) epigenetic post-trap metamorphic-hydrothermal. All platinum-group minerals (PGM) and minerals of gold are metasomatic in the Noril'sk ores. They replaced sulfide solid solutions and exsolution structures. All types of PGM and Au minerals occur in the ores, varying in composition from pyrrhotite to chalcopyrite, talnakhite, mooihoekite, and rich in galena; they are localized in the inner and outer contact zones and differ only in the quantitative proportions of ore minerals. The aureoles of PGM and Au-Ag minerals are wider than the contours of sulfide bodies and coincide with halos of fluid impact on orebodies and adjacent host rocks. The pneumatolytic PGM and Au-Ag minerals are correlated in abundance with the dimensions of sulfide bodies. Their amounts are maximal in veins of late fusible ore composed of eutectic PbS ss and iss intergrowths, as well as at their contacts. The Pd and Pt contents in eutectic sulfide ores of NOF are the world's highest. In the process of noble-metal mineral formation, the fluids supply Pd, Pt, Au, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, and a part of Te, whereas Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Ag, Rh, a part of Te and Pd are leached from the replaced sulfide minerals. The pneumatolytic PGM of the early stage comprises Pd and Pt intermetallic compounds enriched in Au along with Pd-Pt-Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-Pb(As) and (Pd,Pt,Au)(Sn,Sb,Bi,Te,As) solid solutions. Pneumatolytic PGM and Au minerals of the middle stage are products of solid-phase transformation and recrystallization of

  14. Structural and {sup 31}P NMR investigation of Bi(MM'){sub 2}PO{sub 6} statistic solid solutions: Deconvolution of lattice constraints and cationic influences

    SciTech Connect

    Colmont, Marie; Delevoye, Laurent; Ketatni, El Mostafa; Montagne, Lionel; Mentre, Olivier . E-mail: mentre@ensc-lille.fr

    2006-07-15

    Two solid solutions BiM{sub x} Mg{sub (2-x)}PO{sub 6} (with M {sup 2+}=Zn or Cd) have been studied through {sup 31}P MAS NMR. The analysis has been performed on the basis of refined crystal structures through X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The BiZn {sub x} Mg{sub (2-x)}PO{sub 6} does not provide direct evidence for sensitive changes in the phosphorus local symmetry. This result is in good agreement with structural data which show nearly unchanged lattices and atomic separations through the Zn{sup 2+} for Mg{sup 2+} substitution. On the other hand, the Cd{sup 2+} for Mg{sup 2+} substitution behaves differently. Indeed, up to five resonances are observed, each corresponding to one of the five first-cationic neighbour distributions, i.e. 4Mg/0Cd, 3Mg/1Cd, 2Mg/2Cd, 1Mg/3Cd and 0Mg/4Cd. Their intensities match rather well the expected weight for each configuration of the statistical Cd{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+} mixed occupancy. The match is further improved when one takes into account the influence of the 2nd cationic sphere that is available from high-field NMR data (18.8 T). Finally, the fine examination of the chemical shift for each resonance versus x allows to de-convolute the mean Z/a {sup 2} effective field into two sub-effects: a lattice constraint-only term and a chemical-only term whose effects are directly quantifiable. - Graphical abstract: First (CdMg){sub 4} cationic sphere influence on the {sup 31}P NMR signal in Bi(Cd,Mg){sub 2}PO{sub 6}. Display Omitted.

  15. BaCdSnS4 and Ba3CdSn2S8: syntheses, structures, and non-linear optical and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ni; Wu, Kui; Wang, Ying; Li, Qiang; Gao, Wenhui; Hou, Dianwei; Yang, Zhihua; Jiang, Huaidong; Dong, Yongjun; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-28

    Two non-centrosymmetric metal chalcogenides, BaCdSnS4 and Ba3CdSn2S8, were synthesized using a high temperature solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica tube. Although the two compounds have the same building units in their structures, namely CdS4, SnS4 and BaS8 units, both of them have different structures. BaCdSnS4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Fdd2 and its structure can be characterized by the two-dimensional ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layers composed of corner- and edge-sharing CdS4 and SnS4 tetrahedra with Ba atoms located between the two adjacent ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layers. Ba3CdSn2S8 crystallizes in the space group I4[combining macron]3d of the orthorhombic system and the CdS4 and SnS4 groups are connected with each other via corner-sharing to form a three-dimensional framework, which is different from the 2D ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layer structure in BaCdSnS4. The UV-vis-NIR diffuse-reflectance spectra show that the experimental band gaps are about 2.30 eV for BaCdSnS4 and 2.75 eV for Ba3CdSn2S8, respectively. IR and Raman measurement results indicate that their transparent ranges are up to 25 μm. Second-order NLO measurements show that BaCdSnS4 exhibits strong powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) intensities at 2.09 μm laser pumping that are ∼5 and 0.7 times that of AgGaS2 in the particle size 38-55 and 150-200 μm, respectively, whereas Ba3CdSn2S8 only exhibits SHG intensities of about 0.8 and 0.1 times that of AgGaS2 at the same particle sizes. The origin of the NLO response in BaCdSnS4 may originate from the macroscopic arrangement of the SnS4 and CdS4 tetrahedra. Furthermore, the photoluminescence properties of the two compounds have also been investigated and show obvious blue and green light emission. PMID:27272926

  16. Discover IDEA CD 2002. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    This Macintosh and PC compatible CD-ROM includes key resources about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) amendments of 1997. It is designed as a research and training tool for administrators, professors and students in higher education, families, advocates, policy makers, and service providers who strive for quality education…

  17. Use of MHC class II tetramers to investigate CD4+ T cell responses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Virginia; Moro, Monica; Del Mare, Sara; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    MHC-class I tetramers technology enabled the characterization of peptide-specific T cells at the single cell level in a variety of studies. Several laboratories have also developed MHC-class II multimers to characterize Ag-specific CD4+ T cells. However, the generation and use of MHC-class II multimers seems more problematic than that of MHC-I multimers. We have generated HLA-DR*1101 tetramers in a versatile empty form, which can be loaded after purification with peptides of interest. We discuss the impact of critical biological and structural parameters for the optimal staining of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells using HLA-DR*1101 tetramers, such as: (i) activation state of CD4+ T cells; (ii) membrane trafficking in the target CD4+ T cells; (iii) binding characteristics of the loaded CD4 epitope. Our data indicate that reorganization of TCR on the plasma membrane upon CD4+ T cell activation, as well as an homogenous binding frame of the CD4 epitopes to the soluble HLA-DR monomer, are critical for a stable TCR/MHC-class II tetramer interaction. These factors, together with the low frequencies and affinities of specific CD4+ T cells, explain the need for in vitro expansion or ex vivo enrichment of specific T cells for the optimal visualization with MHC-class II tetramers. PMID:18612991

  18. In situ synthesis and properties of reduced graphene oxide/Bi nanocomposites: as an electroactive material for analysis of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Panigrahy, Bharati; Sahoo, S; Satpati, A K; Li, Dan; Bahadur, D

    2013-05-15

    An in situ modified Hummers method (without the use of any surfactants) has been used for the deposition of bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the RGO/Bi nanocomposites provides a better choice as an electrode material for detection of heavy metal ions due to its better functional properties over the Bi film electrode. Trace analysis of heavy metal ions like Cd(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2) and Zn(+2) in water is carried out by stripping voltammetric analysis using RGO/Bi nanocomposite as an electrode material. The sensitivity and detection limit of the electrode were quantitatively estimated from the analysis. The three sigma detection limits at different deposition potential for Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were obtained as 2.8, 0.55, 17 and 26μgL(-1), respectively. Copper detection using Bi-film electrode was a major challenge, which has been resolved using the RGO/Bi nanocomposite electrode.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of SrBi

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying C.; Hoffmann, Roald; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2001-01-01

    SrBi{sub 2}Se{sub 4} was synthesized at 945 C and its structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data obtained at 165 K. SrBi{sub 2}Se{sub 4}is isotypic to 12-Ba Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and Eu1.1 Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 4}. The compound crystallizes in P6{sub 3}/m (Z=12) with a=25.970(2) {angstrom} and c=4.2437(3) {angstrom}. Final R{sub 1}=0.0630 and w R{sub 2}=0.1246 (I > 2{sigma}(I)). The coordination environments of Bi are distorted Se octahedra. These octahedra build up a uniaxial three-dimensional network with tunnels along the z direction, which are filled by Sr{sup 2+}. There is also a second tunnel along the z direction which is partially occupied by Bi atoms. The coordination spheres of Sr are bicapped trigonal prisms of Se. Transport measurements indicate that SrBi{sub 2}Se{sub 4}is semiconducting. This work adds one high-symmetry compound to the family of complex chalcogenides, in which low-symmetry compounds are common.

  20. Synthetic Amphipathic Helical Peptides Targeting CD36 Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bocharov, Alexander V; Wu, Tinghuai; Baranova, Irina N; Birukova, Anna A; Sviridov, Denis; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G; Remaley, Alan T; Eggerman, Thomas L; Patterson, Amy P; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic amphipathic helical peptides (SAHPs) designed as apolipoprotein A-I mimetics are known to bind to class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs), SR-BI, SR-BII, and CD36, receptors that mediate lipid transport and facilitate pathogen recognition. In this study, we evaluated SAHPs, selected for targeting human CD36, by their ability to attenuate LPS-induced inflammation, endothelial barrier dysfunction, and acute lung injury (ALI). L37pA, which targets CD36 and SR-BI equally, inhibited LPS-induced IL-8 secretion and barrier dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells while reducing lung neutrophil infiltration by 40% in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. A panel of 20 SAHPs was tested in HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with various SR-Bs to identify SAHPs with preferential selectivity toward CD36. Among several SAHPs targeting both SR-BI/BII and CD36 receptors, ELK-B acted predominantly through CD36. Compared with L37pA, 5A, and ELK SAHPs, ELK-B was most effective in reducing the pulmonary barrier dysfunction, neutrophil migration into the lung, and lung inflammation induced by LPS. We conclude that SAHPs with relative selectivity toward CD36 are more potent at inhibiting acute pulmonary inflammation and dysfunction. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies using SAHPs targeting CD36, but not necessarily mimicking all apolipoprotein A-I functions, may be considered a possible new treatment approach for inflammation-induced ALI and pulmonary edema. PMID:27316682

  1. Isothermal vapor phase epitaxy and rf sputtering for band gap engineered HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamiec, Krzysztof; Gawron, Waldemar; Piotrowski, Jozef

    1997-06-01

    The present high quality HgCdTe photodetectors are based on heterostructures with complicated band gap and doping profiles. Such structures can be obtained by combination of Isothermal Vapor Phase Epitaxy (ISO VPE) and RDF sputtering of CdTe. Cadmium Telluride exhibits unique properties - transparency to IR light, low conductivity, nearly lattice match and chemically compatibility to HgCdTe. Thus, low defect densities and hence low surface state density at the CdTe/HgCdTe interface are expected, which in turn lead to low surface recombination velocities and long effective lifetimes. The immediate use of CdTe epilayer is passivation of HgCdTe. High quality layers HgCdTe have been grown on CdTe substrates by open tube ISO VPE. CdTe layers have been obtained by RF magnetron sputtering on to previously deposited HgCdTe layers in 400 LS Leybold AG System. The substrate temperature can be varied form 20 to 90 degrees C. Thermal treatment has been performed in Hg/H2 atmosphere in reusable chamber at temperatures 200-400 degrees C. The resulting heterostructures have been characterized by visual microscopy with Nomarski contrast, Hall measurements and IR transmittance. This technic and photolithography has been extensively used for successful fabrication of heterojunction contact photoresistors and heterostructure photodiodes.

  2. Combinations of CD45 isoforms are crucial for immune function and disease.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Liu, Zhe; Wraith, David; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2006-03-15

    Expression of the CD45 Ag in hemopoietic cells is essential for normal development and function of lymphocytes, and both mice and humans lacking expression exhibit SCID. Human genetic variants of CD45, the exon 4 C77G and exon 6 A138G alleles, which alter the pattern of CD45 isoform expression, are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases. We constructed transgenic mice expressing either an altered level or combination of CD45 isoforms. We show that the total level of CD45 expressed is crucial for normal TCR signaling, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production. Most importantly, transgenic lines with a normal level, but altered combinations of CD45 isoforms, CD45(RABC/+) and CD45(RO/+) mice, which mimic variant CD45 expression in C77G and A138G humans, show more rapid onset and increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CD45(RO/+) cells produce more TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Thus, for the first time, we have shown experimentally that it is the combination of CD45 isoforms that affects immune function and disease. PMID:16517710

  3. The kinetics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell gene expression correlate with protection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) vaccinated against infectious pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Mutoloki, Stephen; Dalmo, Roy Ambli; Evensen, Oystein

    2013-04-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a highly contagious disease causing high mortalities in juvenile salmonids. Lack of correlation between neutralizing antibodies and infecting virus suggests a likelihood of involvement of the cellular mediated immune response in vaccine protection. To elucidate the kinetics of CD4 and CD8 T-cells responses in vaccine protection, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) were vaccinated with a high antigen (HiAg) or low antigen (LoAg) dose vaccine and challenged by cohabitation using a highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain. Analysis of T-cell gene expression in lymphoid organs (headkidney and spleen) showed that GATA-3 was positively correlated with increase in antibody levels when T-bet was low. Conversely, T-bet and FoxP3 were positively correlated with viral infection and negatively correlated with increase in antibody levels. Among the CD8+ T cell genes, expression of eomes and CD8α were positively correlated with increase in viral copy numbers and negatively correlated with increase in antibody levels. Up-regulation of granzyme A was highly correlated with increase in viral copy numbers in the LoAg and control groups indicating that this gene could save as a diagnostic marker of acute infection for IPNV during acute infection. In contrast, its down regulation in the HiAg which had low viral copy numbers corresponded with high antibody levels. Overall, these data show that the kinetics of CD4 and CD8 T-cell genes expression follow the same pattern as that observed in higher vertebrates. These findings suggest that functional signatures of the cellular mediated immune response could be evolutionary conserved across the vertebrate taxa and that they can effectively be used to monitor vaccine protection and infection progression of IPNV in Atlantic salmon.

  4. BiDil: from another vantage point.

    PubMed

    Puckrein, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In a recent Health Affairs Web Exclusive, Pamela Sankar and Jonathan Kahn argue against the Food and Drug Administration's approval of BiDil as a new drug for the treatment of heart failure in African Americans. Their paper questions the existence of disparities between African American and other heart-failure patients and the motivations of BiDil's developers and manufacturer. The disparities are confirmed and persistent, however, and BiDil's effectiveness is proven. If the authors' logic were to prevail, patients would be denied life-saving therapy. Continued investigation will likely narrow identification of patients who will benefit. PMID:16912053