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Sample records for ag cd cr

  1. Physiological characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimated to chronic stress induced by Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Hg ions.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Beatrycze; Pluciński, Bartosz; Kuczyńska, Paulina; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-08-01

    Acclimation to heavy metal-induced stress is a complex phenomenon. Among the mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity, an important one is the ability to induce oxidative stress, so that the antioxidant response is crucial for providing tolerance to heavy metal ions. The effect of chronic stress induced by ions of five heavy metals, Ag, Cu, Cr (redox-active metals) Cd, Hg (nonredox-active metals) on the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was examined at two levels - the biochemical (content of photosynthetic pigments and prenyllipid antioxidants, lipid peroxidation) and the physiological (growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration rates, induction of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence). The expression of the genes which encode the enzymes participating in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (APX1, CAT1, FSD1, MSD1) was measured. The other gene measured was one required for plastoquinone and α-tocopherol biosynthesis (VTE3). The application of heavy metal ions partly inhibited growth and biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The growth inhibition was accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation. An increase in the content of prenyllipid antioxidants was observed in cultures exposed to Cr2O7(2-), Cd(2+) (α- and γ-tocopherol and plastoquinone) and Cu(2+) (only tocopherols). The induction of nonphotochemical quenching was enhanced in cultures exposed to Cu(2+), Cr2O7(2-) and Cd(2+), as compared to the control. Chronic heavy metal-induced stress led to changes in gene expression dependent on the type and concentration of heavy metal ions. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes was usually accompanied by the up-regulation of the VTE3 gene. PMID:27104807

  2. Metals (Ag(+) , Cd(2+) , Cr(6+) ) affect ATPase activity in the gill, kidney, and muscle of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following acute and chronic exposures.

    PubMed

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Mustdafa

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were individually acutely exposed to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μg/mL) of Cd(2+) , Cr(6+) , and Ag(+) for 96 h and 0.05 μg/mL concentration of the same metals for different periods (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 days) chronically. Following each experimental protocol, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, Mg(2+) -ATPase, and Ca(2+) -ATPase activities were measured in the gill, kidney, and muscle of O. niloticus. In vitro experiments were also performed to determine the direct effects of metal ions (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μg/mL) on ATPases. Except Ag(+) , none of the metals caused fish mortality within 30 days. Silver killed all the fishes within 16 days. Metal exposures generally decreased Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -ATPase activities in the tissues of O. niloticus, although there were some fluctuations in Mg(2+) -ATPase activity. Ag(+) and Cd(2+) were found to be more toxic to ATPase activities than Cr(6+) . It was also observed that metal efficiency was higher in the gill than in the other tissues. Results indicated that the response of ATPases varied depending on metals, exposure types, and tissues. Because ATPases are sensitive to metal toxicity, their activity can give valuable data about fish physiology. Therefore, they may be used as a sensitive biomarker in environmental monitoring in contaminated waters. PMID:21901811

  3. Photocatalytic removal of M(2+) (Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+)) over new catalyst CuCrO(2).

    PubMed

    Ketir, W; Bouguelia, A; Trari, M

    2008-10-30

    The metal ions M(2+) (Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+)) are potentially toxic. Their electro deposition has been carried out in aqueous air-equilibrated CuCrO(2) suspension upon visible illumination. The delafossite CuCrO(2) is p-type semiconductor characterized by a low band gap (1.28 eV) and a long-term chemical stability. The corrosion rate is found to be 10(-2) micromol m(-2)month(-1) in aqua regia. The oxide has been elaborated through nitrate route where the specific surface area is increased via the surface/bulk ratio. A correlation exists between the dark M(2+) adsorption, the redox potential of M(2+/0) couple and the conduction band of CuCrO(2) positioned at -1.06 V(SCE). Ag(+) cannot be photoreduced because of its positive potential located far above the valence band. By contrast, Zn(2+) is efficiently deposited due to the large driving force at the interface. The improved photoactivity of copper with a deposition percentage (90%) is attributed to the strong dark adsorption onto the surface catalyst. The results indicate a competitive effect with the water reduction; it has been observed that the M(2+) deposition goes parallel with the hydrogen evolution. Such behavior is attributed to the low H(2) over voltage when ultra fine aggregate of M islands are photodeposited onto CuCrO(2) substrate. PMID:18384943

  4. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of CdO : Ag nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linjie; Wang, Shufang; Liu, Ran; Zha, Xinyu; Sun, Niefeng; Wang, Shujie; Wang, Jianglong; Fu, Guangsheng

    2016-07-26

    CdO : Ag nanocomposites with metallic Ag nanoparticles embedded in the polycrystalline CdO matrix were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The addition of Ag led to increased grain boundaries of CdO and created numerous CdO/Ag interfaces. By incorporating Ag into the CdO matrix, the power factor was increased which was probably due to the carrier energy filtering effect induced by the enhanced energy-dependent scattering of electrons. In addition, reduced thermal conductivity was also achieved by stronger phonon scattering from grain boundaries, CdO/Ag interfaces and Ag nanoparticles. These concomitant effects resulted in enhanced ZT values for all CdO : Ag nanocomposites, demonstrating that the strategy of introducing metallic Ag nanoparticles into the CdO host was very effective in optimizing the thermoelectric performance. PMID:27411573

  5. Elastic Constants of the β1-AgCd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshie; Makita, Tomoko; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Nagasawa, Akira

    1981-04-01

    The elastic constants of single crystal of β1-AgCd alloy with 47.9± 0.1 at.%Cd have been measured in a temperature range between 180 K and 360 K, using a ultrasonic pulse-cho overlapping method. It is found that with increasing temperature, the elastic constants CL{=}(C11+C12+2C44)/2 and C44 decrease linearly but C'{=}(C11-C12)/2 increases. In addition, this alloy shows a high elastic anisotropy in comparison with other Ag-based β1-phase alloys such as AgMg and AgZn.

  6. Flashlamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Kokta, Milan R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A room temperature solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG host material doped with a concentration of about 0.35% Ho ions, about 5.57% Tm ions and at least about 1.01% Cr ions. A broadband energizing source such as a flashlamp is disposed transversely to the laser crystal to energize the Ho ions, Tm ions and Cr ions.

  7. Extranuclear dynamics of 111Ag(→111Cd) doped in AgI nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Komatsuda, S.; Kawata, S.; Taoka, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic behavior of the extranuclear field relative to the 111Ag(→111Cd) probe nucleus introduced in a superionic conductor silver iodide (AgI) was investigated by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. For poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgI nanoparticles, we observed nuclear spin relaxation of the probe at room temperature. This result signifies that Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated sample make hopping motion from site to site at this low temperature. The activation energy for the dynamic motion was successfully estimated to be 46(10) meV. The first atomic-level observation of the temperature-dependent dynamic behavior of Ag+ ions in the polymer-coated AgI is reported.

  8. Photoluminescence and upconversion on Ag/CdTe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, A. E.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Mohamed, M. B.; Azzouz, I. M.

    2014-11-01

    Different sizes of aqueous CdTe QDs have been prepared by microwave via controlling the temperature and time of irradiation. To study the plasmonic effect on CdTe QDs, Silver NPs were prepared by using a chemical reduction method. Structure characterization of the nanocrystals (Ag NPs and CdTe QDs) was determined by transmission electron microscopy “TEM”. For optical characterization, the absorption and photolumincence (PL) spectra were measured. It has been found that there are two opposite behaviors (quenching and enhancement) in the fluorescence spectra based on the spectral coupling strength between Ag NPs and CdTe QDs. When there is strong overlapping, PL enhancement of CdTe QDs has been observed. On the other hand, when the overlapping is weak, the PL quenching was predominant at all Ag NPS concentrations. Input-output PL intensity dependence was also studied. Upconversion photoluminescence with low excitation intensity was observed in our CdTe QDs with a standard spectrofluorometer at excitation wavelength of 800 nm. Thermally assisted surface state mechanism has been proposed to be responsible for the upconverion process.

  9. Cladding technique for development of Ag In Cd decoupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Kogawa, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2005-08-01

    To develop a Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between two plates of the Al alloy (A6061-T6). We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 1 h, respectively, for small test pieces ( ϕ 22 mm in diam. × 5 mm in height). Especially, a sandwich case (a Ag-In plate with thickness of 0.5 mm between two Ag-Cd plates with thickness of 1.25 mm) gave easier (or better) bonding results. Though a hardened layer is found in the bonding layer, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, which is higher than the design stress in our application.

  10. Novel S = 3/2 Triangular Antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2 with Metallic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Isobe, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    A novel metallic silver chromate, Ag2CrO2, was synthesized using a high-pressure technique. Ag2CrO2 crystallizes in trigonal symmetry with lattice parameters of a = 2.9271(1) Å and c = 8.6721(4) Å. The structure consists of CrO2 and double Ag layers stacked alternately along the c-axis. The former realizes an S = 3/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg system, while the latter provides itinerant electrons. Ag2CrO2 exhibits an antiferromagnetic long-range order at TN = 24 K with the weak ferromagnetic moment. The resistivity shows a sudden drop at TN, suggesting a large s--d interaction (RKKY interaction) between the Cr 3d localized spins on the triangular lattice and the Ag 5s itinerant electrons. The RKKY interaction is responsible for releasing the magnetic frustration and the three-dimensional long-range ordering at TN.

  11. Localised Ag+ vibrations at the origin of ultralow thermal conductivity in layered thermoelectric AgCrSe2

    PubMed Central

    Damay, F.; Petit, S.; Rols, S.; Braendlein, M.; Daou, R.; Elkaïm, E.; Fauth, F.; Gascoin, F.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.

    2016-01-01

    In materials science, the substructure approach consists in imagining complex materials in which a particular property is associated with a distinct structural feature, so as to combine different chosen physical characteristics, which otherwise have little chance to coexist. Applied to thermoelectric materials, it has been used to achieve simultaneously phonon-glass and electron-crystal properties. Mostly studied for its superionic conductivity, AgCrSe2 is a naturally layered compound, which achieves very low thermal conductivity, ~0.4 W.K−1.m−1 at RT (room temperature), and is considered a promising thermoelectric. The Cr atoms of the [CrSe2]∞ layer bear a spin S = 3/2, which orders below TN = 55 K. Here we report low temperature inelastic neutron scattering experiments on AgCrSe2, alongside the magnetic field evolution of its thermal and electrical transport. We observe a very low frequency mode at 3 meV, ascribed to large anharmonic displacements of the Ag+ ions in the [Ag]∞ layer, and 2D magnetic fluctuations up to 3 TN in the chromium layer. The low thermal conductivity of AgCrSe2 is attributed to acoustic phonon scattering by a regular lattice of Ag+ oscillating in quasi-2D potential wells. These findings highlight a new way to achieve localised phonon modes in a perfectly crystalline solid. PMID:27000414

  12. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates. PMID:25483981

  13. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates.

  14. Control of Surface Segregation in Bimetallic NiCr Nanoalloys Immersed in Ag Matrix.

    PubMed

    Bohra, Murtaza; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Toulkeridou, Evropi; Diaz, Rosa E; Bobo, Jean-François; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-01-01

    Cr-surface segregation is a main roadblock encumbering many magneto-biomedical applications of bimetallic M-Cr nanoalloys (where M = Fe, Co and Ni). To overcome this problem, we developed Ni95Cr5:Ag nanocomposite as a model system, consisting of non-interacting Ni95Cr5 nanoalloys (5 ± 1 nm) immersed in non-magnetic Ag matrix by controlled simultaneous co-sputtering of Ni95Cr5 and Ag. We employed Curie temperature (TC) as an indicator of phase purity check of these nanocomposites, which is estimated to be around the bulk Ni95Cr5 value of 320 K. This confirms prevention of Cr-segregation and also entails effective control of surface oxidation. Compared to Cr-segregated Ni95Cr5 nanoalloy films and nanoclusters, we did not observe any unwanted magnetic effects such as presence Cr-antiferromagnetic transition, large non-saturation, exchange bias behavior (if any) or uncompensated higher TC values. These nanocomposites films also lose their unique magnetic properties only at elevated temperatures beyond application requirements (≥800 K), either by showing Ni-type behavior or by a complete conversion into Ni/Cr-oxides in vacuum and air environment, respectively. PMID:26750659

  15. Control of Surface Segregation in Bimetallic NiCr Nanoalloys Immersed in Ag Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohra, Murtaza; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Toulkeridou, Evropi; Diaz, Rosa E.; Bobo, Jean-François; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-01-01

    Cr-surface segregation is a main roadblock encumbering many magneto-biomedical applications of bimetallic M-Cr nanoalloys (where M = Fe, Co and Ni). To overcome this problem, we developed Ni95Cr5:Ag nanocomposite as a model system, consisting of non-interacting Ni95Cr5 nanoalloys (5 ± 1 nm) immersed in non-magnetic Ag matrix by controlled simultaneous co-sputtering of Ni95Cr5 and Ag. We employed Curie temperature (TC) as an indicator of phase purity check of these nanocomposites, which is estimated to be around the bulk Ni95Cr5 value of 320 K. This confirms prevention of Cr-segregation and also entails effective control of surface oxidation. Compared to Cr-segregated Ni95Cr5 nanoalloy films and nanoclusters, we did not observe any unwanted magnetic effects such as presence Cr-antiferromagnetic transition, large non-saturation, exchange bias behavior (if any) or uncompensated higher TC values. These nanocomposites films also lose their unique magnetic properties only at elevated temperatures beyond application requirements (≥800 K), either by showing Ni-type behavior or by a complete conversion into Ni/Cr-oxides in vacuum and air environment, respectively.

  16. Control of Surface Segregation in Bimetallic NiCr Nanoalloys Immersed in Ag Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Murtaza; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Toulkeridou, Evropi; Diaz, Rosa E.; Bobo, Jean-François; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2016-01-01

    Cr-surface segregation is a main roadblock encumbering many magneto-biomedical applications of bimetallic M-Cr nanoalloys (where M = Fe, Co and Ni). To overcome this problem, we developed Ni95Cr5:Ag nanocomposite as a model system, consisting of non-interacting Ni95Cr5 nanoalloys (5 ± 1 nm) immersed in non-magnetic Ag matrix by controlled simultaneous co-sputtering of Ni95Cr5 and Ag. We employed Curie temperature (TC) as an indicator of phase purity check of these nanocomposites, which is estimated to be around the bulk Ni95Cr5 value of 320 K. This confirms prevention of Cr-segregation and also entails effective control of surface oxidation. Compared to Cr-segregated Ni95Cr5 nanoalloy films and nanoclusters, we did not observe any unwanted magnetic effects such as presence Cr-antiferromagnetic transition, large non-saturation, exchange bias behavior (if any) or uncompensated higher TC values. These nanocomposites films also lose their unique magnetic properties only at elevated temperatures beyond application requirements (≥800 K), either by showing Ni-type behavior or by a complete conversion into Ni/Cr-oxides in vacuum and air environment, respectively. PMID:26750659

  17. Revisiting AgCrSe2 as a promising thermoelectric material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Huang, Sizhao; Feng, Dan; Li, Bing; Chen, Yuexing; Zhang, Jian; He, Jiaqing

    2016-08-24

    We revisited and investigated a layer-structured thermoelectric material AgCrSe2, which has an extremely low thermal conductivity. After using both differential scanning calorimetry and a comparative laser flash method, we realized that the specific heat of this material, the main contributor to the reported low thermal conductivity, is unlikely to be way below the Dulong-Petit limit as revealed in the literature. Besides, our in situ X-ray diffraction pattern up to 873 K indicated the instability of AgCrSe2 over 723 K, where it begins to decompose into Cr2Se3 and Ag2Se. This unexpected decomposition phenomenon resulted in the gradual increment of specific heat and thermal diffusivity, hence the deterioration of the overall thermoelectric performance. We deliberately introduced Ag and Cr vacancies into the lattice for carrier concentration optimization and could achieve an optimal figure of merit of ZT ∼ 0.5 at 723 K in the nominal composition Ag0.96CrSe2 in the direction perpendicular to the sintering press. Our findings suggest that more thorough investigations are necessary to ensure that AgCrSe2 is a promising thermoelectric material. PMID:27523166

  18. Study of Ag transport in Cr2N0.61-7Ag nanocomposite thin film due to thermal exposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, P.; Jurči, P.; Podgornik, B.; Jenko, D.; Hudáková, M.; Kusý, M.

    2015-12-01

    Cr2N0.61-7Ag nanocomposite coatings were deposited on substrates made of Cr-V ledeburitic tool steel Vanadis 6 using reactive magnetron sputtering at a deposition temperature of 500 °C. Investigations of as-deposited films and annealing experiments in closed-air atmosphere at temperatures of 300, 400 and 500 °C and the durations up to 24 h, followed by quantitative scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were composed of Cr2N0.61 matrix and individual silver agglomerates located along columnar crystals of the matrix. The maximal size of Ag-agglomerates was 80 nm. The surface population density of silver agglomerates increased with prolonging the annealing time up to 2 h and then decreased. The increase was more pronounced at lower annealing temperatures. This behaviour was referred to the competition between three phenomena, namely the transport of detached Ag atoms to the free surface, formation of oxide layer on the surface and sublimation of silver from the surface. At lower temperatures and/or shorter annealing times, the Ag-transport to the free surface was determined to be prevalent, thus, an increase in population density of silver agglomerates was determined. On the other hand, for higher temperatures and/or longer annealing times the population density of Ag-agglomerates rather decreased due to retarding effect of thicker oxide layer and sublimation of silver.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics of Fe nanoparticles embedded in Cr and Ag matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddis, D.; Qureshi, M. T.; Baker, S. H.; Binns, C.; Roy, M.; Laureti, S.; Fiorani, D.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.

    2015-11-01

    Static and dynamical magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in non-magnetic (Ag) and antiferromagnetic (Cr) matrices with a volume filling fraction (VFF) of 10% have been investigated. In both Fe@Ag and Fe@Cr nanocomposites, the Fe NPs have a narrow size distribution, with a mean particle diameter around 2 nm. In both samples, the saturation magnetization reaches that of Fe bulk bcc, suggesting the absence of alloying with the matrices. The coercivity at 5 K is much larger in Fe@Cr than in Fe@Ag as a result of the strong interaction between the Fe NPs and the Cr matrix. Temperature-dependent magnetization and ac-susceptibility measurements point out further evidence of the enhanced interparticle interaction in the Fe@Cr system. While the behaviour of Fe@Ag indicates the presence of weakly interacting magnetic monodomain particles with a wide distribution of blocking temperatures, Fe@Cr behaves like a superspin glass produced by the magnetic interactions between NPs.

  20. Luminescence Dynamics of Cr2+ in CdTe and Cd0.55Mn0.45Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluiett, A.; Hommerich, U.; Seo, J. T.; Shah, R.; Trivedi, S. B.; Kutcher, S. W.; Chen, R. J.; Wang, C. C.; Zong, H.

    2001-04-01

    Cr^2+ in tetrahedrally coordinated CdTe and Cd_0.55Mn_0.45Te crystals are under investigation as potential host materials for tunable, mid-infrared (MIR) lasers. The small crystal field splitting of the free ion energy levels of Cr^2+ induces absorption (1900nm) and stokes shifted emission (2000nm-3000nm) bands in the MIR. Also, the relatively large ionic mass and tetrahedral environment of Cr^2+ in CdTe and Cd_0.55Mn_0.45Te have shown that the luminescence efficiency at room temperature is approximately 72100luminescence lifetime decreases rapidly, which suggest that the effects of nonradiative decay increases. The decay dynamics of Cr^2+ in CdTe and Cd_0.55Mn_0.45Te will be described with the model of Struck and Fonger for the non-radiative decay rate.

  1. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  2. Magnetic ordering and exchange striction stabilized geometric ferroelectricity in multiferroic AgCrS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Zhongbing; Jia, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zeng, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic AgCrS2 are investigated by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. For the low temperature crystal structure, the ground state is found to be in the collinear double ferromagnetic striped state with a \\uparrow \\uparrow \\downarrow \\downarrow spin structure, which is in good agreement with the neutron scattering result. The interlayer magnetic interactions are comparable to the intralayer ones, indicating that AgCrS2 is actually a three-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet. Moreover, an analysis of Born effective charges and electric polarization reveals that the partial ferroelectricity in AgCrS2 belongs rather to the ‘geometric ferroelectric’ class, in which exchange striction and/or lattice distortion play an important role in stabilizing the polar structure.

  3. Magnetic ordering and exchange striction stabilized geometric ferroelectricity in multiferroic AgCrS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Zhongbing; Jia, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zeng, Zhi

    2016-06-15

    The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic AgCrS2 are investigated by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. For the low temperature crystal structure, the ground state is found to be in the collinear double ferromagnetic striped state with a [Formula: see text] spin structure, which is in good agreement with the neutron scattering result. The interlayer magnetic interactions are comparable to the intralayer ones, indicating that AgCrS2 is actually a three-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet. Moreover, an analysis of Born effective charges and electric polarization reveals that the partial ferroelectricity in AgCrS2 belongs rather to the 'geometric ferroelectric' class, in which exchange striction and/or lattice distortion play an important role in stabilizing the polar structure. PMID:27158027

  4. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  5. Loading Ag nanoparticles on Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, De-Xiang; Chen, Shumei; Wen, Tian

    2016-05-01

    An amine-functionalized Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework (BIF-77) with three-dimensional open structure has been successfully synthesized, which can load Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB).

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of CuAgSe doped with Co, Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajka, Peter; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril

    Thermoelectric materials represent one way that reliable cooling below the boiling point of nitrogen can be realized. Current materials do not exhibit sufficiently high efficiencies at cryogenic temperatures, but significant progress is being made. One material that has generated significant interest recently is CuAgSe. It has been demonstrated (Ishiwata et al., Nature Mater. 2013) that doping CuAgSe with 10% Ni at the Cu sites increases the material's thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at 100 K from 0.02 to 0.10. This is intriguing not just because of the dramatic effect that the Ni doping produces, but also because CuAgSe is a semimetal and semimetals are not usually able to exhibit the kind of asymmetric carrier activation necessary for strong thermoelectric performance. In order to further investigate the unusual nature of thermoelectricity in CuAgSe and its strong dependence on chemical composition, we have synthesized and measured the thermoelectric properties of a series of CuAgSe samples doped with Co and Cr. Temperature-dependent magnetic and thermoelectric transport properties of CuAgSe as a function of Co and Cr doping will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Defense, AFOSR, MURI Program Contract # FA9550-10-1-0533 and the Trustees of Boston College.

  7. Self-regulated route to ternary hybrid nanocrystals of Ag-Ag2S-CdS with near-infrared photoluminescence and enhanced photothermal conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoxing; Bao, Chunlin; Liu, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaoping; Xi, Chunyan; Xu, Zheng; Ji, Zhenyuan

    2014-09-01

    Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of heterointerfaces among the crystals. This work will not only advance the synthesis chemistry of multi-component hybrid nanocrystals but also provide a possible route for the design of advanced multi-model materials used in bio-related fields.Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of

  8. Ag adsorption on Cd-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1) and S-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1-bar) surfaces: First-principles investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yandong; Dai, Ying; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xianghong; Huang, Baibiao

    2011-04-15

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the adsorption of Ag at Cd-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1) and S-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1-bar) surfaces as a function of Ag coverage. Our results reveal that Ag adsorption at Cd-terminated (0 0 0 1) has a large binging energy than at S-terminated (0 0 0 1-bar) surface. For Ag adsorption at Cd-terminated (0 0 0 1) surface, T4 structure is more favorable and the Ag-Cd bond posses an ionic-like character. While for Ag adsorption at S-terminated (0 0 0 1-bar) surface, the H3 structure is most stable and the bonding between Ag-S is covalent. It is found that the magnitude and the sign of surface dipole moment are partly determined by the difference between the electronegativities of Ag and the host atom bonding with Ag. The adsorption energy changes as a function of Ag coverage. In addition, related properties of Ag cluster adsorption at Cd-terminated (0 0 0 1) surface are also discussed. -- Graphical abstract: We studied the adsorption of Ag at Cd-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1) and S-terminated CdS (0 0 0 1-bar) surfaces as a function of Ag coverage by means of the first-principles calculations. In addition, related properties of Ag cluster adsorption at Cd-terminated (0 0 0 1) surface are also discussed. Our ab initio calculations are useful complement to the intense experimental studies for Ag-CdS interface. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Ag adsorption effects on electronic structure and associated physics properties of CdS is systemically studied. {yields} The surface dipole moment is partly determined by the difference between the electronegativities of silver and the host atom bonding with silver. {yields} The characteristic of Ag cluster (Ag{sub 2}, Ag{sub 4}, and Ag{sub 7}) adsorption on the CdS (0 0 0 1) surface is discussed.

  9. Heavy metal tolerance (Cr, Ag AND Hg) in bacteria isolated from sewage

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Silva, Agostinho A.; de Carvalho, Márcia A. Ribeiro; de Souza, Sérgio A. L; Dias, Patrícia M. Teixeira; da Silva Filho, Renato G.; de Meirelles Saramago, Carmen S.; de Melo Bento, Cleonice A.; Hofer, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    Samples of sewage from a university hospital and a chemistry technical school were analysed for the percentage of bacterial tolerance to chromium (Cr), silver (Ag) and mercury (Hg). Additionally, we investigated the effect of these metals on pigmentation and on some enzymatic activities of the metal tolerant strains isolated, as well as antimicrobial resistance in some metal tolerant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Tolerance to Cr was observed mainly in Gram positive bacteria while in the case of Ag and Hg the tolerant bacteria were predominately Gram negative. Hg was the metal for which the percentage of tolerance was significantly higher, especially in samples from the hospital sewage (4.1%). Mercury also had the most discernible effect on color of the colonies. Considering the effect of metals on the respiratory enzymes, one strain of Ag-tolerant Bacillus sp. and one of Hg-tolerant P. aeruginosa were unable to produce oxidase in the presence of Ag and Hg, respectively, while the expression of gelatinase was largely inhibited in various Gram negative strains (66% by Cr). Drug resistance in Hg-tolerant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from the university hospital sewage was greater than 80%, with prevalence of multiple resistance, while the Ag-tolerant strains from the same source showed about 34% of resistance, with the predominance of mono-resistance. Our results showed that, despite the ability of metal tolerant strains to survive and grow in the presence of these elements, the interactions with these metals may result in metabolic or phisiological changes in this group of bacteria. PMID:24031994

  10. Heavy metal tolerance (Cr, Ag AND Hg) in bacteria isolated from sewage.

    PubMed

    Lima de Silva, Agostinho A; de Carvalho, Márcia A Ribeiro; de Souza, Sérgio A L; Dias, Patrícia M Teixeira; da Silva Filho, Renato G; de Meirelles Saramago, Carmen S; de Melo Bento, Cleonice A; Hofer, Ernesto

    2012-10-01

    Samples of sewage from a university hospital and a chemistry technical school were analysed for the percentage of bacterial tolerance to chromium (Cr), silver (Ag) and mercury (Hg). Additionally, we investigated the effect of these metals on pigmentation and on some enzymatic activities of the metal tolerant strains isolated, as well as antimicrobial resistance in some metal tolerant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Tolerance to Cr was observed mainly in Gram positive bacteria while in the case of Ag and Hg the tolerant bacteria were predominately Gram negative. Hg was the metal for which the percentage of tolerance was significantly higher, especially in samples from the hospital sewage (4.1%). Mercury also had the most discernible effect on color of the colonies. Considering the effect of metals on the respiratory enzymes, one strain of Ag-tolerant Bacillus sp. and one of Hg-tolerant P. aeruginosa were unable to produce oxidase in the presence of Ag and Hg, respectively, while the expression of gelatinase was largely inhibited in various Gram negative strains (66% by Cr). Drug resistance in Hg-tolerant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from the university hospital sewage was greater than 80%, with prevalence of multiple resistance, while the Ag-tolerant strains from the same source showed about 34% of resistance, with the predominance of mono-resistance. Our results showed that, despite the ability of metal tolerant strains to survive and grow in the presence of these elements, the interactions with these metals may result in metabolic or phisiological changes in this group of bacteria. PMID:24031994

  11. Colossal electroresistance and colossal magnetoresistance in spinel multiferroic CdCr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. P.; Huang, C. L.; Lin, C. C.; Her, J. L.; Ho, C. J.; Lin, J.-Y.; Berger, H.; Yang, H. D.

    2010-03-01

    Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and colossal electroresistance (CER) induced by the electric field in spinel multiferroic CdCr2S4 are reported. It is found that a metal-insulator transition in CdCr2S4 is triggered by the electrical field. In magnetic fields, the resistivity ρ of CdCr2S4 responds similarly to that of CMR manganites. Combing previous reports, these findings make CdCr2S4 the unique compound to possess all four properties of the colossal magnetocapacitive, colossal electrocapacitive, CER, and CMR. The present results open a new venue for searching new materials to show CMR by tuning electric and magnetic fields.

  12. Continuous-wave Cr{sup 2+}:CdS laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovskii, Vladimir I; Korostelin, Yurii V; Landman, Aleksandr I; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Skasyrsky, Yan K; Frolov, M P

    2010-01-31

    Continuous-wave lasing is obtained for the first time in a Cr{sup 2+}:CdS crystal pumped by a thulium fibre laser at 1908 nm. The output power of the laser at 2534 nm achieved 0.81 W with the slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power equal to 52.3%. The parameters of Cr{sup 2+}:CdS and Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe lasers are compared. A Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal generated 1.7 W of cw radiation at 2638 nm with the slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed power equal to 53.4%. (lasers)

  13. Enhanced removal of trace Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution by titanium oxide-Ag composite adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si Si; Chen, Yong Zhou; De Zhang, Li; Hua, Guo Min; Xu, Wei; Li, Nian; Zhang, Ye

    2011-06-15

    Titanium oxide-Ag composite (TOAC) adsorbents were prepared by a facile solution route with Ag nanoparticles being homogeneously dispersed on layered titanium oxide materials. The as-synthesized TOAC exhibited a remarkable capability for trace Cr(VI) removal from an aqueous solution, where the concentration of Cr(VI) could be decreased to a level below 0.05 mg/L within 1h. We have systematically investigated the factors that influenced the adsorption of Cr(VI), for example, the pH value of the solution, and the contact time of TOAC with Cr(VI). We found that the adsorption of Cr(VI) was strongly pH-dependent. The adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) onto TOAC fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and a maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) as 25.7 mg/g was achieved. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which implied that the adsorption was composed of two steps: the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto TOAC followed by the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Ag nanoparticles. Our results revealed that TOAC with high capacity of Cr(VI) removal had promising potential for wastewater treatment. PMID:21514991

  14. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanowires integrated with CdS and Ag2S.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chienhua; Li, Zhengcao; Lin, Hehnan; Wang, Guojing; Liao, Jiecui; Li, Mingyang; Lv, Shasha; Li, Wei

    2016-02-18

    A series of ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures with different amounts of Ag2S were prepared using simple and low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and a chemical precipitation method. The ZnO nanowires, with a diameter of ∼100 nm and a length of ∼1 μm, were modified by coating CdS and Ag2S. CdS has a high absorption coefficient and can efficiently match with the energy levels of ZnO, which can enhance the light absorption ability of the nanostructures. In addition, Ag2S with a narrow band gap was used as the main light absorber and played an important role in increasing the light absorption in the visible light region. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures was investigated using the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in an aqueous solution under visible light. The ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures were found to be more efficient than ZnO nanowires, ZnO-CdS nanowires, and ZnO-Ag2S nanowires. There is 7.68 times more photocatalytic activity for MO degradation in terms of the rate constant for ZnO-CdS-Ag2S 15-cycle ternary nanostructure compared to the as-grown ZnO. Furthermore, the effect of the amount of Ag2S and CdS on the ZnO surface on the photocatalytic activity was analyzed. The superior photo-absorption properties and photocatalytic performance of the ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures can be ascribed to the heterostructure, which enhanced the separation of the photo-induced electron-hole pairs. In addition, visible light could be absorbed by ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures rather than by ZnO. PMID:26815888

  15. Efficient cw lasing in a Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, V A; Kozlovskii, V I; Korostelin, Yu V; Landman, A I; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Skasyrsky, Ya K; Frolov, M P

    2007-11-30

    Continuous wave lasing in a Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal is obtained for the first time. The Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal pumped by a 1.908-{mu}m thulium fibre laser generated 1.07 W at 2.623 {mu}m with the quantum slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed power equal to 60%. (letters)

  16. Availability of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, And Cr) in agriculture from commercial fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nacke, H; Gonçalves, A C; Schwantes, D; Nava, I A; Strey, L; Coelho, G F

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) to soil and maize plants fertilized with different sources and doses of zinc (Zn) in a Rhodic Eutrudox soil. For that purpose, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr were evaluated in leaf tissue and grains of maize plants and in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers after fertilization with four doses of Zn from eight different sources of fertilizer. There was no accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Cr in maize grain and Cd and Cr in leaf tissue of the plants; nevertheless, there was accumulation of Pb in leaf tissue, showing its availability throughout different sources of Zn and consequent uptake by plants. Regarding the soil, it was observed that fertilizer from the different sources made Cd, Pb, and Cr available at increasing amounts proportional to increased Zn doses. Under experimental conditions, fertilization with Zn increased concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in soil, further highlighting the importance of conducting more studies related to the application of mineral fertilizers for micronutrient supply and the availability of heavy metals. PMID:23361451

  17. Synthesis and spectral characterizations of trivalent ions (Cr3+, Fe3+) doped CdO nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Aswani, T; Babu, B; Manjari, V Pushpa; Stella, R Joyce; Rao, G Thirumala; Krishna, Ch Rama; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent transition metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) doped CdO nanopowders via sonication in the presence of Sodium lauryl sulfate as stabilizing agent were synthesized and characterized. Powder XRD studies indicate that the obtained CdO has a cubic phase and concluded that the trivalent ions doping induced the lattice constants to change some extent. Optical absorption spectra exhibited the characteristic bands of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in octahedral site symmetry. Crystal field (Dq) and inter-electronic repulsion (B and C) parameters are evaluated for Cr(3+) doped CdO nanopowders as Dq=1540, B=619 and C=3327 cm(-1) and for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders Dq=920, B=690, C=2750 cm(-1). EPR spectra of the Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders exhibited resonances at g=1.973 and g=2 respectively which indicate distorted octahedral site for both ions with the host. Photoluminescence spectra shows the emission bands in violet and bluish green regions for Cr(3+) doped CdO, ultraviolet and blue emissions for Fe(3+) doped CdO nanopowders. The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated from the emission spectrum. FT-IR spectra indicate the presence of various functional groups of host lattice. PMID:24291431

  18. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor-Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)-in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs fabricated by uniformly depositing the QDs into the TNTs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were synthesized, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results demonstrated that the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM and other films were successfully prepared. In comparison with the four films of TNTs, CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SILAR, the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM showed much better absorption capability and the highest photocurrent density in UV-vis range (320~800 nm). The cycles of local deposition have great influence on their photoelectric properties. The photocurrent density of Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SSM with optimum deposition cycles of 6 was about 37 times that of TNTs without modification, demonstrating their great prospective applications in solar energy utilization fields. PMID:26428017

  19. CD226 as a genetic adjuvant to enhance immune efficacy induced by Ag85A DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Fangli; Zhu, Junfeng; Sang, Lixuan; Han, Xue; Wang, Danan; Shan, Fengping; Li, Shengjun; Sun, Xun; Lu, Changlong

    2015-03-01

    Antigen-85A (Ag85A) is one of the major proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Many studies on animal models have shown that vaccination with the recombinant Ag85A-DNA or Ag85A protein induces powerful immune response. However, these vaccines cannot generate sufficient protective immunity in the systemic compartment. CD226, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the majority of NK cells, T cells, monocytes, and platelets, and can be served as a co-stimulator that contributes to multiple innate and adaptive responses. However, there has been no study where either CD226 protein or DNA has been used as an adjuvant for vaccine development. The aim of this study was to develop a novel Ag85A DNA vaccine with CD226 as the genetic adjuvant to increase the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Oral vaccination with pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA induced potent immune responses in mice. CD226 was an effective genetic adjuvant that improved the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A and enhanced the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells in mice. Th1 dominant cytokines (i.e. IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α), cellular immunity (i.e. CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)T cells and CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)T cells in splenocytes) and MLNs were also significantly elevated by pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA vaccination. Our results suggest that CD226 is an effective adjuvant to enhance the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Our findings provide a new strategy for the development of a DNA vaccine co-expressing Ag85A and CD226. PMID:25582686

  20. Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 Nanotube Array Films with High Photocurrent Density by Spotting Sample Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Zhao, Peini; Zhang, Fanjun; Liu, Yuliang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-10-01

    Ag2S/CdS/TiO2 hybrid nanotube array films (Ag2S/CdS/TNTs) were prepared by selectively depositing a narrow-gap semiconductor—Ag2S (0.9 eV) quantum dots (QDs)—in the local domain of the CdS/TiO2 nanotube array films by spotting sample method (SSM). The improvement of sunlight absorption ability and photocurrent density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array films (TNTs) which were obtained by anodic oxidation method was realized because of modifying semiconductor QDs. The CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs fabricated by uniformly depositing the QDs into the TNTs via the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were synthesized, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results demonstrated that the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM and other films were successfully prepared. In comparison with the four films of TNTs, CdS/TNTs, Ag2S/TNTs, and Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SILAR, the Ag2S/CdS/TNTs prepared by SSM showed much better absorption capability and the highest photocurrent density in UV-vis range (320~800 nm). The cycles of local deposition have great influence on their photoelectric properties. The photocurrent density of Ag2S/CdS/TNTs by SSM with optimum deposition cycles of 6 was about 37 times that of TNTs without modification, demonstrating their great prospective applications in solar energy utilization fields.

  1. Development of aluminum (Al5083)-clad ternary Ag In Cd alloy for JSNS decoupled moderator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Saito, S.; Oikawa, K.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Naoe, T.; Koyama, T.; Ooi, T.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kawai, M.; Kurishita, H.; Konashi, K.

    2006-09-01

    To develop Ag (silver)-In (indium)-Cd (cadmium) alloy decoupler, a method is needed to bond the decoupler between Al alloy (Al5083) and the ternary Ag-In-Cd alloy. We found that a better HIP condition was temperature, pressure and holding time at 803 K, 100 MPa and 10 min. for small test pieces ( ϕ22 mm in dia. × 6 mm in height). Hardened layer due to the formation of AlAg 2 was found in the bonding layer, however, the rupture strength of the bonding layer is more than 30 MPa, the calculated design stress. Bonding tests of a large size piece (200 × 200 × 30 mm 3), which simulated the real scale, were also performed according to the results of small size tests. The result also gave good bonding and enough required-mechanical-strength.

  2. High frequency of circulating HBcAg-specific CD8 T cells in hepatitis B infection: a flow cytometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, S; Yamamoto, K; Shimada, N; Okano, N; Okamoto, R; Suzuki, T; Hakoda, T; Mizuno, M; Higashi, T; Tsuji, T

    2001-01-01

    Viral antigen-specific T cells are important for virus elimination. We studied the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell response using flow cytometry. Three phases of HBV infection were studied: Group A, HBeAg (+) chronic hepatitis; Group B, HBeAb (+) HBV carrier after seroconversion; and Group C, HBsAb (+) phase. Peripheral T cells were incubated with recombinant HB core antigen (HBcAg), and intracytoplasmic cytokines were analysed by flow cytometry. HBcAg-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were identified in all three groups and the number of IFN-γpositive T cells was greater than TNF-α-positive T cells. The frequency of IFN-γ-positive CD4 and CD8 T cells was highest in Group C, compared with Groups A and B. No significant difference in the HBcAg-specific T cell response was observed between Group A and Group B. The HBcAg-specific CD8 T cell response was diminished by CD4 depletion, addition of antibody against human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I, class II or CD40L. Cytokine-positive CD8 T cells without HBcAg stimulation were present at a high frequency (7 of 13 cases) in Group B, but were rare in other groups. HBcAg-specific T cells can be detected at high frequency by a sensitive flow cytometric analysis, and these cells are important for controlling HBV replication. PMID:11472405

  3. Functional classification of memory CD8+ T cells by CX3CR1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Jan P.; Beyer, Marc; Meissner, Felix; Abdullah, Zeinab; Sander, Jil; Höchst, Bastian; Eickhoff, Sarah; Rieckmann, Jan C.; Russo, Caroline; Bauer, Tanja; Flecken, Tobias; Giesen, Dominik; Engel, Daniel; Jung, Steffen; Busch, Dirk H.; Protzer, Ulrike; Thimme, Robert; Mann, Matthias; Kurts, Christian; Schultze, Joachim L.; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Knolle, Percy A.

    2015-01-01

    Localization of memory CD8+ T cells to lymphoid or peripheral tissues is believed to correlate with proliferative capacity or effector function. Here we demonstrate that the fractalkine-receptor/CX3CR1 distinguishes memory CD8+ T cells with cytotoxic effector function from those with proliferative capacity, independent of tissue-homing properties. CX3CR1-based transcriptome and proteome-profiling defines a core signature of memory CD8+ T cells with effector function. We find CD62LhiCX3CR1+ memory T cells that reside within lymph nodes. This population shows distinct migration patterns and positioning in proximity to pathogen entry sites. Virus-specific CX3CR1+ memory CD8+ T cells are scarce during chronic infection in humans and mice but increase when infection is controlled spontaneously or by therapeutic intervention. This CX3CR1-based functional classification will help to resolve the principles of protective CD8+ T-cell memory. PMID:26404698

  4. Functional classification of memory CD8(+) T cells by CX3CR1 expression.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Jan P; Beyer, Marc; Meissner, Felix; Abdullah, Zeinab; Sander, Jil; Höchst, Bastian; Eickhoff, Sarah; Rieckmann, Jan C; Russo, Caroline; Bauer, Tanja; Flecken, Tobias; Giesen, Dominik; Engel, Daniel; Jung, Steffen; Busch, Dirk H; Protzer, Ulrike; Thimme, Robert; Mann, Matthias; Kurts, Christian; Schultze, Joachim L; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Knolle, Percy A

    2015-01-01

    Localization of memory CD8(+) T cells to lymphoid or peripheral tissues is believed to correlate with proliferative capacity or effector function. Here we demonstrate that the fractalkine-receptor/CX3CR1 distinguishes memory CD8(+) T cells with cytotoxic effector function from those with proliferative capacity, independent of tissue-homing properties. CX3CR1-based transcriptome and proteome-profiling defines a core signature of memory CD8(+) T cells with effector function. We find CD62L(hi)CX3CR1(+) memory T cells that reside within lymph nodes. This population shows distinct migration patterns and positioning in proximity to pathogen entry sites. Virus-specific CX3CR1(+) memory CD8(+) T cells are scarce during chronic infection in humans and mice but increase when infection is controlled spontaneously or by therapeutic intervention. This CX3CR1-based functional classification will help to resolve the principles of protective CD8(+) T-cell memory. PMID:26404698

  5. Determination of standard thermodynamic properties of daubreelite (FeCr2S4) in the system Ag-Cr-Fe-S by the solid state galvanic cells method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchii, Evgeniy; Voronin, Mikhail; Osadchii, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Daubreelite is a common mineral in enstatite chondrites, but its thermodynamic properties have not been studied. This greatly complicates the study of the physico - chemical parameters of enstatite chondrites formation in their parent bodies. Analysis of the quaternary system Ag-Cr-Fe-S showed that at temperatures below 423 K can be stable phase association Ag2S + Cr2S3 + FeS2 + FeCr2S4, potential silver which can be defined in a completely solid state galvanic cell: (-) Pt | Ag | RbAg4I5 | Ag2S, Cr2S3, FeS2, FeCr2S4 | Pt (+), with a RbAg4I5 as a solid electrolyte with a specific conductivity of Ag+ ion. The overall potential forming process in the cell corresponds to a chemical reaction: 2Ag + Cr2S3 + FeS2 = Ag2S + FeCr2S4 Gibbs energy of this reaction is associated with the electromotive force of galvanic cells by fundamental equation of thermodynamics ΔrG =-nFE, where n = 2 - the number of electrons in the electrochemical process, F = 96485 C•mol-1 - Faraday constant, and E-electromotive force (emf) of galvanic cell in volts. Temperature dependence of the emf was determined in an electrochemical cell, a device which is described in detail in the works Osadchii and Chareev (2006), and Osadchii and Echmaeva (2007). The results were approximated by a linear dependence of E(T), which corresponds to the condition ΔrCp constant and equal to zero: E(mV)=76.32+0.2296•T, 339

  6. The Structure-Function Relationships of Complement Receptor Type 2 (CR2; CD21).

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) is a surface-associated glycoprotein which binds to a variety of endogenous ligands, including the complement component C3 fragments iC3b, C3dg and C3d, the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, and the type I cytokine, interferon-alpha. CR2 links the innate complement-mediated immune response to pathogens and foreign antigens with the adaptive immune response by binding to C3d that is covalently attached to targets, and which results in a cell signalling phenomenon that lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Variations or deletions of the CR2 gene in humans, or the Cr2 gene in mice associate with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. A number of infectious agents including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prions also bind to CR2 either directly or indirectly by means of C3d-targeted immune complexes. In this review we discuss the interactions that CR2 undertakes with its best characterized ligands C3d, CD23 and the EBV gp350/220 envelope protein. To date only a single physiologically relevant complex of CR2 with one of its ligands, C3d, has been elucidated. By contrast, the interactions with CD23 and EBV gp350/220, while being important from physiologic and disease-associated standpoints, respectively, are only incompletely understood. A detailed knowledge of the structure-function relationships that CR2 undergoes with its ligands is necessary to understand the implications of using recombinant CR2 in therapeutic or imaging agents, or alternatively targeting CR2 to down-regulate the antibody mediated immune response in cases of autoimmunity. PMID:26916158

  7. Preparation, characterization, and bacteriostasis of AgNP-coated β-CD grafting cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Bin; Lin, Li

    2013-03-01

    A novel functional material of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) grafting cellulose beads containing immobilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented in this paper. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Phenolphthalein probe molecule technique was used to detect the activity of the grafting β-CD, and the results demonstrated that the deposition of AgNPs had no influence on its encapsulation ability. Acid resistance of the AgNPs on the bead material was studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. The stability of the AgNPs was enhanced due to the grafting of β-CD. Tube dilution method was applied to study the bacteriostatic effect, and the minimal inhibitory doses of the novel material against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively. The minimal bactericidal doses for the two bacteria were 25 and 25 mg, respectively. PMID:23340866

  8. Batf3-independent langerin- CX3CR1- CD8α+ splenic DCs represent a precursor for classical cross-presenting CD8α+ DCs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Troels R; Knight, Deborah A; Tang, Ching-Wen; Osmond, Taryn L; Hermans, Ian F

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that CD8α(+) DCs in the spleen of mice contain an immature precursor for functionally mature, "classical" cross-presenting CD8α(+) DCs. The lymphoid tissues contain a network of phenotypically distinct DCs with unique roles in surveillance and immunity. Splenic CD8α(+) DCs have been shown to exhibit a heightened capacity for phagocytosis of cellular material, secretion of IL-12, and cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells. However, this population can be subdivided further on the basis of expression of both langerin/CD207 and CX(3)CR1. We therefore evaluated the functional capacities of these different subsets. The CX(3)CR1(+) CD8α(+) DC subset does not express langerin and does not exhibit the classical features above. The CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+) DC can be divided into langerin-positive and negative populations, both of which express DEC205, Clec9A, and high basal levels of CD86. However, the langerin(+) CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+) subset has a superior capacity for acquiring cellular material and producing IL-12 and is more susceptible to activation-induced cell death. Significantly, following purification and adoptive transfer into new hosts, the langerin(-) CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+) subset survives longer, up-regulates expression of langerin, and becomes more susceptible to activation-induced cell death. Last, in contrast to langerin(+) CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+), the langerin(-) CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+) are still present in Batf3(-/-) mice. We conclude that the classical attributes of CD8α(+) DC are confined primarily to the langerin(+) CX(3)CR1(-) CD8α(+) DC population and that the langerin(-) CX(3)CR1(-) subset represents a Batf3-independent precursor to this mature population. PMID:25170118

  9. The distribution of heavy metals including Pb, Cd and Cr in Kendari Bay surficial sediments.

    PubMed

    Armid, Alrum; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Zaeni, Ahmad; Sani, Asrul; Ruslan, Ruslan

    2014-07-15

    The surficial coastal sediments in Kendari Bay are sampled in the field to determine the concentration and pollution level of three heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cr). Twenty-five sampling points ranging from the inner (Wanggu River) to the outer area of the bay have been chosen. The physicochemical properties, such as temperature, pH, salinity and TDS of the overlying water, as well as the sediment type and TOC of the surficial sediments, are also measured. The total concentrations of the Pb, Cd and Cr in the sediment samples are quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cr) ranged from 0.84 to 17.02 μg/g, 0.02 to 0.17 μg/g and 1.92 to 40.11 μg/g (dry weight), respectively, following the Cr>Pb>Cd sequence. To assess the degree of contamination, a geoaccumulation index (Igeo) is measured. Kendari Bay is not a contaminated area regarding Pb, Cd and Cr. PMID:24880681

  10. Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Maps of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Chai, Zhe; Volinsky, Alex A.; Sun, Huili; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy has been investigated by hot compressive tests in the 650-950 °C temperature and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructure evolution of the alloy during deformation was characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The flow stress decreases with the deformation temperature and increases with the strain rate. The apparent activation energy for hot deformation of the alloy was 343.23 kJ/mol. The constitutive equation of the alloy based on the hyperbolic-sine equation was established to characterize the flow stress as a function of the strain rate and the deformation temperature. The processing maps were established based on the dynamic material model. The optimal processing parameters for hot deformation of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy are 900-950 °C and 0.001-0.1 s-1 strain rate. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation temperature and the strain rate.

  11. Dielectric function of the ferromagnetic semiconductor CdMnCrTe studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Younghun; Um, Youngho

    2014-11-01

    We describe the pseudo-dielectric function of Cd1- x- y Mn x Cr y Te ferromagnetic semiconductor alloys by using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the 1.0 ~ 6.0 eV spectral range at room temperature. The ellipsometry data include structures that can be attributed to the effects of Cr concentration on the E 0, E 1, E 1 + Δ1, and E 2 critical points. Critical-point (CP) parameters were obtained by fitting standard critical point (SCP) model line shapes to the numerically-calculated second- energy derivatives of ɛ( ω) = ɛ 1( ω) + iɛ 2( ω). The E 0, E 1, E 1 + Δ1, and E 2 energies decreased with Cr content y; this phenomenon is related to the hybridization of the valence and the conduction bands in CdTe with the 3 d states of Mn and Cr.

  12. Modelling the leaching of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr from cementitious waste using PHREEQC.

    PubMed

    Halim, Cheryl E; Short, Stephen A; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose; Low, Gary

    2005-10-17

    A leaching model was developed using the United States Geological Survey public domain PHREEQC geochemical package to simulate the leaching of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr from cementitious wastes. The model utilises both kinetic terms and equilibrium thermodynamics of key compounds and provides information on leachate and precipitate speciation. The model was able to predict the leaching of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr from cement in the presence of both simple (0.1 and 0.6M acetic acid) and complex municipal landfill leachates. Heavy metal complexation by the municipal landfill leachate was accounted for by the introduction of a monoprotic organic species into the model. The model indicated Pb and As were predominantly incorporated within the calcium silicate hydrate matrix while a greater portion of Cd was seen to exist as discrete particles in the cement pores and Cr (VI) existed mostly as free CrO4(2-) ions. Precipitation was found to be the dominant mechanism controlling heavy metal solubility with carbonate and silicate species governing the solubility of Pb and carbonate, silicate and hydroxide species governing the solubility of Cd. In the presence of acetic acid, at low pH values Pb and Cd acetate complexes were predominant whereas, at high pH values, hydroxide species dominated. At high pH values, the concentration of As in the leachate was governed by the solubility of Ca3(AsO4)2 with the presence of carbonate alkalinity competing with arsenate for Ca ions. In the presence of municipal landfill leachate, Pb and Cd organic complexes dominated the heavy metal species in solution. The reduction of As and Cr in municipal landfill leachate was crucial for determining aqueous speciation, with typical municipal landfill conditions providing the reduced forms of As and Cr. PMID:16043281

  13. Direct determination of Cd, Pb and Cr in honey by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Kulek; dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Felsner, Maria Lurdes; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2014-03-01

    Slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for direct determination of Cr, Pb and Cd in honey without sample pretreatment. The honey slurries were prepared in aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. The slurries were directly introduced in the pyrolytic graphite tubes. Pd-Mg was used as a chemical modifier only for Cd determination. Analytical curves were performed with aqueous standards for Pb and Cr and with addition of fructose for Cd. The quantification limits for Cd, Pb and Cr were 2.0, 5.4 and 9.4ngg(-1), respectively. Acceptable precision of the methodology was obtained through repeatability and intermediate precision. In the accuracy study, recoveries were satisfactory (94-101%) for the three elements. The methodology was applied in honey from Paraná (Brazil). The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr ranged from 141 to 228ngg(-1), <2.0 to 8ngg(-1) and 83 to 94ngg(-1), respectively. PMID:24176328

  14. Simultaneous Incorporation of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the Goethite Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Navdeep; Gräfe, Markus; Singh, Balwant; Kennedy, Brendan

    2009-10-21

    In order to improve our understanding of how the goethite crystal structure is affected by the incorporation of metals (and by variations in the amount of the incorporation), and to review any possible synergistic and antagonistic effects of co-metals, the present investigation focused on the incorporation of multiple (di-, tri-, and tetra-) metals, i.e. Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb, in the goethite crystallographic structure. A series of single- and multi-metal M-Cr/Zn/Cd/Pb-substituted goethites with M/(M+Fe) molar ratios = 0.10 were prepared. The general sequence of metal entry in single-metal substituted goethites was Zn = Cr > Cd > Pb and in multi-metal-substituted goethites was Zn > Cr {ge} Cd > Pb. Simultaneous incorporation of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb up to 10.5 mole % was achieved in goethite. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques were employed to assess the structural characteristics of the synthesis products. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed small changes in unit-cell parameters and Fe/M-Fe/M distances due to M substitution(s). A typical goethite-like crystalline structure remained intact, however. The unit-cell parameters were mutually, linearly correlated, though Fe/M-Fe/M distances were not, indicating that complex changes occurred at the local scale. In single-metal substituted goethites, incorporation of Cr reduced the unit-cell volume by 0.13% while that of Zn, Cd, and Pb increased it by 1.09, 3.58, and 0.56%, respectively. The changes in multi-metal-substituted goethites appeared to be the complex combination of that of the individually incorporated metals. The X-ray absorption near edge structure study of Pb-substituted goethites showed that the majority of associated Pb was Pb{sup 2+}, while Pb{sup 4+} was preferred over Pb{sup 2+} in the bulk structure. Measurements by EXAFS at the Fe K-edge indicated that the Fe polyhedra contracted in the presence of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, providing room for

  15. Influence of root temperature on phytoaccumulation of As, Ag, Cr, and Sb in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta).

    PubMed

    Baghour, M; Moreno, D A; Hernández, J; Castilla, N; Romero, L

    2001-01-01

    Three consecutive years of field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of root temperatures induced by the application of mulches for phytoextraction of As, Ag, Cr and Sb using potato plants (roots, tubers, stems and leaflets). Four different plastic covers were used (T1: transparent polyethylene; T2: white polyethylene; T3: white and black coextruded polyethylene; and T4: black polyethylene), taking uncovered plants as control (T0). The different treatments had a significant effect on mean root temperatures (T0 = 16 degrees C, T1 = 20 degrees C, T2 = 23 degrees C, T3 = 27 degrees C and T4 = 30 degrees C) and induced a significantly different response in the As, Ag, Cr and Sb phytoaccumulation. The T3 treatment gave rise to the greatest phytoaccumulation of As, Ag, Cr and Sb in the roots, leaflets and tubers. In terms of the relative distribution of the phytoaccumulated metals (with respect to the total of the plant), As accumulated mainly in the roots and leaflets whereas Ag, Cr and Sb accumulated primarily in the tubers, establishing a close relationship between biomass development of each organ and phytoaccumulation capacity of elements in response to temperature in the root zone. With regard to phytoremediation using the potato plant, it is necessary to ascertain the influence and include the control of the thermal regime of the soil to optimize the phytoextraction of pollutants. PMID:11545361

  16. Approaching the N=82 shell closure with mass measurements of Ag and Cd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenfeldt, M.; Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Borgmann, Ch.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Naimi, S.; Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Delahaye, P.

    2010-03-15

    Mass measurements of neutron-rich Cd and Ag isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The masses of {sup 112,114-124}Ag and {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd, determined with relative uncertainties between 2x10{sup -8} and 2x10{sup -7}, resulted in significant corrections and improvements of the mass surface. In particular, the mass of {sup 124}Ag was previously unknown. In addition, other masses that had to be inferred from Q values of nuclear decays and reactions have now been measured directly. The analysis includes various mass differences, namely the two-neutron separation energies, the applicability of the Garvey-Kelson relations, double differences of masses deltaV{sub pn}, which give empirical proton-neutron interaction strengths, as well as a comparison with recent microscopic calculations. The deltaV{sub pn} results reveal that for even-even nuclides around {sup 132}Sn the trends are similar to those in the {sup 208}Pb region.

  17. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10‑7 M to 10‑2 M with a low detection limit of 10‑8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors.

  18. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10(-7) M to 10(-2) M with a low detection limit of 10(-8) M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors. PMID:27184729

  19. β-CD Dimer-immobilized Ag Assembly Embedded Silica Nanoparticles for Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eunil; Jeong, Daham; Cha, Myeong Geun; Choi, Jae Min; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hwanhee; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jung, Seunho; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We designed a β-CD dimer on silver nanoparticles embedded with silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) structure to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silica NPs were utilized as a template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spot structures and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, and a thioether-bridged dimeric β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture PAHs. The assembled Ag NPs on silica NPs were confirmed by TEM and the presence of β-CD dimer on Ag@SiO2 was confirmed by UV-vis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs were used as SERS substrate for detecting perylene, a PAH, directly and in a wide linearity range of 10−7 M to 10−2 M with a low detection limit of 10−8 M. Also, the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs exhibited 1000-fold greater sensitivity than Ag@SiO2 NPs in terms of their perylene detection limit. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting various PAH compounds using the β-CD dimer@Ag@SiO2 NPs as a multiplex detection tool. Various PAH compounds with the NPs exhibited their distinct SERS bands by the ratio of each PAHs. This approach of utilizing the assembled structure and the ligands to recognize target has potential for use in sensitive analytical sensors. PMID:27184729

  20. Metal-Semiconductor Hybrid Aerogels: Evolution of Optoelectronic Properties in a Low-Dimensional CdSe/Ag Nanoparticle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Lamia; Esteves, Richard J Alan; Hafiz, Shopan; Özgür, Ümit; Arachchige, Indika U

    2015-10-27

    Hybrid nanomaterials composed of metal-semiconductor components exhibit unique properties in comparison to their individual counterparts, making them of great interest for optoelectronic applications. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that interfacial interactions of individual components are of paramount importance to produce hybrid electronic states. The direct cross-linking of nanoparticles (NPs) via controlled removal of the surfactant ligands provides a route to tune interfacial interactions in a manner that has not been thoroughly investigated. Herein, we report the synthesis of CdSe/Ag heteronanostructures (aerogels) via oxidation induced self-assembly of thiol-coated NPs and the evolution of optical properties as a function of composition. Three hybrid systems were investigated, where the first and second excitonic energies of CdSe were matched with plasmonic energy of Au or Ag NPs and Ag hollow NPs. Physical characterization of the aerogels suggests the presence of an interconnected network of hexagonal CdSe and cubic Ag NPs. The optical properties of hybrids were systematically examined through UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved (TR) PL spectroscopic studies that indicate the generation of alternate radiative decay pathways. A new emission (640 nm) from CdSe/Ag aerogels emerged at Ag loading as low as 0.27%, whereas absorption band tailing and PL quenching effects were observed at higher Ag and Au loading, respectively. The TRPL decay time of the new emission (∼600 ns) is markedly different from those of the band-edge (1.83 ± 0.03 ns) and trap-state (1190 ± 120 ns) emission maxima of phase pure CdSe, supporting the existence of alternate radiative relaxation pathways in sol-gel derived CdSe/Ag hybrids. PMID:26389642

  1. New chalcogenide glasses in the CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Boidin, R.; Bychkov, E.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the total conductivity of CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between the selenide and telluride equivalent systems. -- Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system were synthesized and the glass-forming range was determined. The maximum content of CdTe in this glass system was found to be equal to 15 mol.%. The macroscopic characterizations of samples have consisted in Differential Scanning Calorimetry, density, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The cadmium telluride addition does not generate any significant change in the glass transition temperature but the resistance of binary AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses towards crystallisation is estimated to be decreasing on the base of {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} parameter. The total electrical conductivity {sigma} was measured by complex impedance spectroscopy. First, the CdTe additions in the (AgI){sub 0.5}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5} host glass, (CdTe){sub x}(AgI){sub 0.5-x/2}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5-x/2} lead to a conductivity decrease at x {<=} 0.05. Then, the behaviour is reversed at 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.15. The obtained results are discussed by comparison with the equivalent selenide system.

  2. Bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to bivalves in south San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Luoma, S.N.; Geen, A. van

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability of Cd, Cr, and Zn to benthic bivalves (Potamocorbular amurensis and Macoma balthica) is affected by the type of natural particles the animals ingest, and the concentration and speciation of dissolved metals. During a spring phytoplankton bloom in south San Francisco Bay dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations decreased to about half of pre-bloom concentrations. The concentrations of particulate Cd and Zn concentrations increased due to preferential uptake of these metals by phytoplankton. Assimilation of Cd was more efficient when clams ate pure phytoplankton (80% for M. balthica and 29% for P. amurensis) than when they were exposed to inorganic-dominated particles. M. balthica and P. amurensis assimilated 72% and 42% of Zn associated with the particles during the bloom. Assimilation of Cr was low (<6%) and particle type had little effect on its availability. Accumulation of Cd via the dissolved route was low in high salinity waters (15 ppt). Metal bioaccumulation in the bivalves was modeled using the experimentally determined physiological parameters. The results were compared to metal concentrations in clams from the Bay. The model suggested that the clams accumulated Cd and Zn at higher rates during the phytoplankton bloom, although dissolved metal concentrations in the water column were reduced.

  3. Metal coordination study at Ag and Cd sites in crown thioether complexes through DFT calculations and hyperfine parameters.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Rafael R; Lima, Filipe C D A; Gonçalves, Marcos B; Errico, Leonardo A; Rentería, Mario; Petrilli, Helena M

    2015-04-01

    Structural and electronic properties of [C12H24S6X], [C13H26S6OX], and [C14H28S6OX] (X: Ag(+), Cd(2+)) crown thioether complexes were investigated within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method. The theoretical results were compared with time-differential perturbed γ-γ angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments reported in the literature using the (111)Ag→(111)Cd probe. In the case of X=Ag(+), a refinement of the structure was performed and the predicted equilibrium structures compared with available X-ray diffraction experimental data. Structural distortions induced by replacing Ag(+) with Cd(2+) were investigated as well as the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor at the Cd(2+) sites. Our results suggest that the EFG at Cd(2+) sites corresponds to the Ag(+) coordination sphere structure, i.e., before the structural relaxations of the molecule with X=Cd(2+) are completed. The results are discussed in terms of the characteristics of the TDPAC (111)Ag→(111)Cd probe and the time window of the measurement, and provide an interesting tool with which to probe molecular relaxations. PMID:25814377

  4. CdS and AgBr sensitized eriochrome black T (EBT) dye solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. D.; Dube, D. C.; Mathur, S. C.

    1985-11-01

    The photovoltaic and rectification properties of CdS- and AgBr-sensitized Eriochrome Black T dye solar cells have been studied. The dependence of the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage on light intensity and electrode material are examined and the variations with electrode material are explained on the basis of the built-in potential developed at the metal-semiconductor interface. Conversion efficiency, fill factor, diode factor and reverse saturation current are also calculated for each cell.

  5. Volume dependence of Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, P. ); Andreani, L.C. ); Continenza, A. ); McMahan, A.K. )

    1993-05-15

    We have undertaken a first-principles theoretical study of the Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg as a function of volume reduction. We present results for the hybridization width [Delta]([epsilon]) in both the [ital J]=5/2 multiplet and in the [Gamma][sub 8], [Gamma][sub 7] crystal field states of the [ital f][sup 1] Ce configuration. We also calculate the hybridization contribution to the magnetic transition temperature. This is found to increase with pressure but is smaller than the experimental values, indicating that the Coulomb exchange contribution to the magnetic coupling is not negligible in these compounds.

  6. Volume dependence of Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, P.; Continenza, A. . Dipt. di Fisica); Andreani, L.C. ); McMahan, A.K. )

    1992-09-01

    We have undertaken a first-principles theoretical study of the Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg as a function of volume reduction. We present results for the hybridization width [Delta]([epsilon]) in both the J = 5/2 multiplet and in the [Gamma][sub 8], [Gamma][sub 7] crystal field states of the f[sup 1] Ce configuration. We also calculate the hybridization contribution to the magnetic transition temperature. This is found to increase with pressure but is smaller than the experimental values, indicating that the Coulomb exchange contribution to the magnetic coupling is not negligible in these compounds.

  7. Volume dependence of Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, P.; Continenza, A.; Andreani, L.C.; McMahan, A.K.

    1992-09-01

    We have undertaken a first-principles theoretical study of the Anderson hybridization in cubic CeCd and CeAg as a function of volume reduction. We present results for the hybridization width {Delta}({epsilon}) in both the J = 5/2 multiplet and in the {Gamma}{sub 8}, {Gamma}{sub 7} crystal field states of the f{sup 1} Ce configuration. We also calculate the hybridization contribution to the magnetic transition temperature. This is found to increase with pressure but is smaller than the experimental values, indicating that the Coulomb exchange contribution to the magnetic coupling is not negligible in these compounds.

  8. Removal of Cd, Cr, and Pb from aqueous solution by unmodified and modified agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Suthor, Vishandas; Rafique, Ejaz; Yasin, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    The adsorption of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb), widely detected in wastewater, by unmodified and modified banana stalks, corn cob, and sunflower achene was explored. The three agricultural wastes were chemically modified with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), in order to improve their adsorptive binding capacity. The experiments were conducted as a function of contact time and initial metal ion concentrations. Of the three waste materials, corn cob had the highest adsorptive capacity for Pb than Cr and Cd. The NaOH-modified substrates had higher adsorptive capacity than the acid modified samples. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity between 10 and 100 %. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was highest (21-60 mg g(-1) of banana, 30-57 mg g(-1) of corn cob, and 23-28 mg g(-1) of sunflower achene) and that of Cd was least (4-7 mg g(-1) of banana, 14-20 mg g(-1) of corn cob, and 11-16 mg g(-1) of sunflower achene). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. The results demonstrate that the agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate water polluted with heavy metals. PMID:25626568

  9. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  10. Spin-lattice coupling and novel magnetic properties in the triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Masaaki

    2013-03-01

    Spin-lattice coupling plays an important role in selecting the ground state in the geometrically frustrated magnets, since a small amount of structural distortion is sufficient to lift the ground state degeneracy and stabilize a long-range magnetic order. Ag2CrO2 consists of insulating triangular lattice planes of CrO2 (Cr3+ ion with S=3/2), which are separated by the metallic Ag2 layers. Interestingly, the electric transport in the Ag2 layer is strongly affected by the magnetism in the CrO2 layer. We performed neutron diffraction experiments on this material and found that a partially disordered state with 5 sublattices abruptly appears at TN=24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. The nonnegligible further-neighbor interactions suggest the existence of the RKKY interaction mediated by the conduction electrons. We have recently performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments and found anomalous magnetic excitations, which cannot be explained simply by the linear spin-wave theory.

  11. Development of CdO-graphite-Ag coatings for gas bearings to 427 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhushan, B.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite is one of the most commonly known lubricants. Its effectiveness in a range between room temperature (RT) and 540 C is reportedly improved by adding cadmium oxide. CdO-graphite powder in a gas carrier has been used in numerous applications that rely on dry lubrication. A coating of this composition was developed and successfully tested in foil air bearings for long periods up to a temperature of 427 C and at a normal contacting load (during starting and stopping) of 14 kPa based on bearing projected area. The addition of ultra-fine silver to the CdO-graphite has improved the coating endurance. At 427 C, the CdO-graphite-Ag coating performed better than CdO-graphite without silver, both for extended periods at 14 kPa loading and for limited periods at 35 kPa. At 288 C, the coating was tested for an extended period up to 28 kPa and has also successfully completed high-speed shock tests to an acceleration level of 100g.

  12. Magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in Cr8, Cr7Cd, and Cr7Ni molecular rings from 19F-NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonali, L; Garlatti, E; Casadei, C M; Furukawa, Y; Lascialfari, A; Carretta, S; Troiani, F; Timco, G; Winpenny, R E; Borsa, F

    2014-04-14

    A detailed experimental investigation of the 19F nuclear magnetic resonance is made on single crystals of the homometallic Cr₈ antiferromagnetic molecular ring and heterometallic Cr₇Cd and Cr₇ Ni rings in the low temperature ground state. Since the F- ion is located midway between neighboring magnetic metal ions in the ring, the 19F-NMR spectra yield information about the local electronic spin density and ¹⁹F hyperfine interactions. In Cr8, where the ground state is a singlet with total spin S T = 0, the ¹⁹F-NMR spectra at 1.7 K and low external magnetic field display a single narrow line, while when the magnetic field is increased towards the first level crossing field, satellite lines appear in the ¹⁹F-NMR spectrum, indicating a progressive increase in the Boltzmann population of the first excited state S T = 1. In the heterometallic rings, Cr₇Cd and Cr₇ Ni, whose ground state is magnetic with S T = 3/2 and S T = 1/2, respectively, the ¹⁹F-NMR spectrum has a complicated structure which depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field, due to both isotropic and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions and classical dipolar interactions. From the 19F-NMR spectra in single crystals we estimated the transferred hyperfine constants for both the F⁻-Ni2⁺ and the F⁻-Cd2⁺ bonds. The values of the hyperfine constants compare well to the ones known for F⁻-Ni2⁺ in KNiF₃ and NiF₂ and for F⁻-Cr³⁺ in K₂NaCrF₆. The results are discussed in terms of hybridization of the 2s, 2p orbitals of the F⁻ ion and the d orbitals of the magnetic ion. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the electron-spin decoherence.

  13. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg), selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, C; Suzuki, K T

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between transition metals (Ag+, Cd2+ and Hg2+) and selenium (Se) in the bloodstream was studied in vitro by means of the HPLC--inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method. Transition metal ions and selenide (produced in vitro from selenite in the presence of glutathione) or sulfide (Na2S) formed a (metal-Se/S) complex, which then bound to a plasma protein, selenoprotein P (Sel P), to form a ternary complex, (metal-Se/S)-Sel P. The molar ratios of metals to Se were 1:1 for Hg/Se and Cd/Se, but either 1:1 or 2:1 for Ag/Se, depending on the ratio of their doses. The results indicate that the interaction between transition metals and Se occurs through the general mechanism, i.e., transition metal ions and selenide form the unit complex (metal-Se)n, and then the complex binds to selenoprotein P to form the ternary complex ¿(metal-Se)n¿m--seleno-protein P in the bloodstream. PMID:9833321

  14. Availability of sediment-bound Cd, Co, and Ag to mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, C.; Fisher, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ingested sediment is one potentially important source of metals for benthic organisms. The influence of physical and chemical properties of oxidized sediments on the bioavailability of metals to marine filter feeders is largely unknown. The authors examined the relative importance of specific sedimentary components that may exert control on the uptake of Cd, Co, and Ag in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Iron and manganese oxides, montmorillonite clay, silica, and natural sediment particles were triple labeled with the gamma emitters {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, and {sup 110m}Ag. Some particles were also coated with fulvic acid (FA) to simulate the influence of organic coating on metal bioavailability. Metals associated with FA-coated particles were generally absorbed by mussels to a greater extent than metals associated with uncoated particles. Desorption experiments with labeled particles at pH 5 were performed in parallel to simulate the behavior of food-bound metals in the acidic gut of bivalves. High correlations (r > 0.97) between the amount of desorbed metal under these conditions and the assimilation efficiency for metals from FA-coated particles were noted among coated particles but not uncoated particles (r < 0.6). These results suggest that the relation between metal partitioning to sediments and biological availability of the metal is not obvious, since the organic coatings and the acidic digestion process influence assimilation of sediment-bound metals.

  15. Band bending at Al, In, Ag, and Pt interfaces with CdTe and ZnTe (110)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahi, A. K.; Miyano, K.; Carey, G. P.; Chiang, T. T.; Lindau, I.

    1990-01-01

    UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic methods are presently used to study the band-bending behavior and interfacial chemistry of Al, In, Ag, and Pt overlayers on vacuum-cleaved p-CdTe and p-ZnTe (110). All four metals are found to yield Schottky barriers on CdTe and ZnTe. The metal-induced gap states model prediction of a difference in barrier heights for two semiconductors which is dependent on their band lineup is borne out by the results for Ag, Pt, and Al, but not for In. Reaction and intermixing for Al, Ag, and Pt overlayers on CdTe and ZnTe indicate that these interfaces are not ideal.

  16. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco José

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm- 2 (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg- 1 Cd, 2 mg kg- 1 Cr and 15 mg kg- 1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers.

  17. Spectroscopy study of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions immobilization on C-S-H phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Renata; Deja, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) have a large number of structural sites available for cations and anions to bind. The C-S-H phases are materials which have ability to toxic ions immobilization. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing, substitution and precipitation of insoluble compounds. This study presents the C-S-H (prepared with C/S ratios 1.0) phase as absorbent for immobilization of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions. The C-S-H spectra before and after incorporation of heavy metals ions into the C-S-H structure were obtained. The effect of added heavy metals ions on the hydration phenomena was studied by means of X-ray diffractions analysis. FTIR spectra was measured. The microstructure and phase composition of C-S-H indicate that they can play an essential role in the immobilization of heavy metals. The properties of C-S-H in the presence of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr cations were studied. The leaching ML test was used to evaluate the level of immobilization of heavy metals in C-S-H. The leached solutions are diluted and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the activated solid particles are separated, washed, desiccated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr cations immobilization was very high (exceeding 99.96%).

  18. Spectroscopy study of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions immobilization on C-S-H phase.

    PubMed

    Żak, Renata; Deja, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) have a large number of structural sites available for cations and anions to bind. The C-S-H phases are materials which have ability to toxic ions immobilization. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing, substitution and precipitation of insoluble compounds. This study presents the C-S-H (prepared with C/S ratios 1.0) phase as absorbent for immobilization of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions. The C-S-H spectra before and after incorporation of heavy metals ions into the C-S-H structure were obtained. The effect of added heavy metals ions on the hydration phenomena was studied by means of X-ray diffractions analysis. FTIR spectra was measured. The microstructure and phase composition of C-S-H indicate that they can play an essential role in the immobilization of heavy metals. The properties of C-S-H in the presence of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr cations were studied. The leaching ML test was used to evaluate the level of immobilization of heavy metals in C-S-H. The leached solutions are diluted and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the activated solid particles are separated, washed, desiccated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr cations immobilization was very high (exceeding 99.96%). PMID:25106815

  19. Geospatial Mapping of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Urban Soil, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Grimida, S. E.; Elkekli, A. R.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Population-based random stratified sampling of the city of Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico provided 500 city blocks for study. We collected soil from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a selected block; equal measured small volumes of these were combined to produce a composite sample for analysis. Such composite samples (1) decrease, by an order of magnitude, laboratory processing and analysis costs, and (2) smooth the data to represent blocks as averages of individual houses. Retention of the unanalyzed samples of the individual houses permits their later analysis should the composites suggest further study of individual houses on an anomalous block. Elemental analysis of 10 mg pressed powders was performed on a Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, via 8 secondary targets and 12 USGS and NIST multi-element rock standards. The mean and (range) of concentration for Pb was 43 (13-550) ppm; for Cr, 31 (1.8-76); for Cu, 22 (6-550); for Zn 84 (42-415) ppm; for Cd, 1.9 (0.1-6.2); and for Sb, 5.9 (2.7-29). The old urban core of Cd. Juarez was marked by high levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn, and, to a smaller degree, of Cd and Sb. This pattern mirrors that of contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA, directly across the narrow Rio Grande. Businesses, industrial facilities, transportation (both railroads and highways), traditional "downtown" shopping, and old residential districts cluster in this urban core. A Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, which operated for more than a century until 1999, is present in the US adjacent to the Rio Grande, about two km away from downtown Cd. Juarez. Thus the city has been subject to both traditional metal sources (e.g., leaded gasoline, highway debris) and smelter emissions. The poplation of Cd. Juarez has exploded in the last few decades to some 1.5 million inhabitants due both to natural growth and in-migration from rural districts for economic opportunity. Most of this growth has been accommodated by radial expansion of the city into the surrounding

  20. CrAgDb--a database of annotated chaperone repertoire in archaeal genomes.

    PubMed

    Rani, Shikha; Srivastava, Abhishikha; Kumar, Manish; Goel, Manisha

    2016-03-01

    Chaperones are a diverse class of ubiquitous proteins that assist other cellular proteins in folding correctly and maintaining their native structure. Many different chaperones cooperate to constitute the 'proteostasis' machinery in the cells. It has been proposed earlier that archaeal organisms could be ideal model systems for deciphering the basic functioning of the 'protein folding machinery' in higher eukaryotes. Several chaperone families have been characterized in archaea over the years but mostly one protein at a time, making it difficult to decipher the composition and mechanistics of the protein folding system as a whole. In order to deal with these lacunae, we have developed a database of all archaeal chaperone proteins, CrAgDb (Chaperone repertoire in Archaeal genomes). The data have been presented in a systematic way with intuitive browse and search facilities for easy retrieval of information. Access to these curated datasets should expedite large-scale analysis of archaeal chaperone networks and significantly advance our understanding of operation and regulation of the protein folding machinery in archaea. Researchers could then translate this knowledge to comprehend the more complex protein folding pathways in eukaryotic systems. The database is freely available at http://14.139.227.92/mkumar/cragdb/. PMID:26862144

  1. Dependency of simultaneous Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Cd(II) reduction on the cathodes of microbial electrolysis cells self-driven by microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Lihua; Wu, Dan; Huang, Liping; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Chen, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using either Cr(VI) (MFCsCr) or Cu(II) (MFCsCu) as a final electron acceptor, are stacked to self-drive microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) using Cd(II) (MECsCd) as an electron acceptor for simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCsCr, Cu(II) in MFCsCu and Cd(II) in MECsCd with no external energy consumption. Titanium sheet (TS) and carbon rod (CR) as the cathodes of MECsCd are assessed for efficient system performance. MFCsCr and MFCsCu in series is superior to the parallel configuration, and higher Cd(II) reduction along with simultaneous Cr(VI) and Cu(II) reduction supports TS function as a good cathode material. Conversely, CR can not entirely proceed Cd(II) reduction in MECsCd despite of more Cr(VI) and Cu(II) reduction in the same serial configuration than either system alone. While a decrease in cathode volume in both MFCsCr and MFCsCu with serial connection benefits to reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCsCr and Cu(II) in MFCsCu, Cd(II) reduction in MECsCd is substantially enhanced under a decrease in cathode volume in individual MFCsCr and serially connected with volume-unchanged MFCsCu. This study demonstrates simultaneous Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Cd(II) recovery from MFCsCr-MFCsCu-MECsCd self-driven system is feasible, and TS as the cathodes of MECsCd is critical for efficient system performance.

  2. Hybrid Au-CdSe and Ag-CdSe nanoflowers and core-shell nanocrystals via one-pot heterogeneous nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    AbouZeid, Khaled M; Mohamed, Mona B; El-Shall, M Samy

    2011-12-01

    A general approach, based on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CdSe nanostructures on Au or Ag nanocrystals, for the synthesis of Au-CdSe and Ag-CdSe hybrid nanostructures is developed. The new approach provides a versatile one-pot route for the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers consisting of a gold or silver core and multipod CdSe rods or an intact CdSe shell with controlled thickness, depending on the nucleation and growth parameters. At lower growth temperatures such as 150 °C, the CdSe clusters are adsorbed on the surface of the metal cores in their surface defects, then multiple arms and branches form, resulting in nanoflower-shaped hybrid structures. Increasing the size of the metal core through the choice of the reducing and capping agents results in an improvement of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains, producing core-shell structures. The growth temperature appears to be the most important factor determining the nature of the interface between the metal and CdSe domains. At relatively high temperatures such as 300 °C, the formation of large, faceted Au cores creates preferential growth sites for the CdSe nanocrystalline shell, thus resulting in well-defined Au-CdSe core-shell structures with large interfaces between the Au and CdSe domains. The present approach is expected to foster systematic studies of the electronic structures and optical properties of the metal-semiconductor hybrid materials for potential applications in photovoltaic and nanoelectronic devices. PMID:21994186

  3. An ab initio study on electronic and magnetic properties of Cr, V doped Cd and Zn nitrides for spintronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddeen, M. Mohamed Sheik; Banu, I. B. Shameem

    2016-05-01

    The half-metallic ferromagnetic property of Cr, V doped CdN and ZnN has been investigated by the electronic band structure calculations using Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. The host compounds of CdN and ZnN were doped with Cr and V in the concentration of 37.5% to replace Cd and Zn atoms. The compounds CdN and ZnN doped with Cr are found to exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetism and the results are compared in GGA and GGA+U (Hubbard) method. In this present work, electronic band structure, density of states, magnetic properties and spin polarization were studied. The p-d hybridization in the doped transition metal-d bands and N-p bands that causes exchange splitting was discussed to bring out the differences in the half-metallic character of the doped compounds. The degree of half-metallic nature in terms of spin polarizations has been predicted for Cr-doped CdN and ZnN. The calculated magnetic moments for the doped compounds are found to increase with the increase in Hubbard potential U for Cr-doped compounds. The Cr-doped CdN and ZnN are found to exhibit direct band gap in spin down direction.

  4. Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles loaded on two-dimensional large surface area graphite-like carbon nitride sheets: simple synthesis and excellent photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Liang, Lin; Wang, Fangxiao; Liu, Mengshuai; Sun, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with a large surface area was prepared through thermal condensation of guanidine hydrochloride at 650 °C. Various amounts of silver chromate (Ag2CrO4) nanoparticles with small size were highly loaded on the g-C3N4 by a simple co-precipitation method at room temperature. The chemical constituents, surface structure and optical properties of the resultant Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 composites were thoroughly characterized. And the photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol, the experimental results indicated that the as-prepared Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 composites presented excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. With the mass ratio of Ag2CrO4 to g-C3N4 at 1 : 2, the Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 composites exhibited optimal photocatalytic activity for degrading RhB, approximately 6.1 and 10.4 times higher than those on pure g-C3N4 and bare Ag2CrO4 particles. The improved photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the combined effect including the larger surface area, highly dispersed smaller Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles, stronger visible absorption and higher charge separation efficiency of the Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 composites. Moreover, the possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity was tentatively proposed. PMID:26937621

  5. Low-energy electron elastic scattering from Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Ag, and Cd atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.; Sokolovski, D.

    2011-05-15

    Electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) for ground and excited Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Ag, and Cd atoms have been investigated in the electron-impact energy range 0 {<=}E{<=} 1 eV. The near-threshold TCSs for both the ground and excited states of these atoms are found to be characterized by Ramsauer-Townsend minima, shape resonances, and extremely sharp resonances corresponding to the formation of stable bound negative ions. The recently developed Regge-pole methodology where the crucial electron-electron correlations are embedded is employed for the calculations. From close scrutiny of the imaginary parts of the complex angular momenta, we conclude that these atoms form stable weakly bound ground and excited negative ions as Regge resonances through slow electron collisions. The extracted electron binding energies from the elastic TCSs of these atoms are contrasted with the available experimental and theoretical values.

  6. Metal arsonate polymers of Cd, Zn, Ag and Pb supported by 4-aminophenylarsonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lesikar-Parrish, Leslie A.; Neilson, Robert H.; Richards, Anne F.

    2013-02-15

    The coordination preferences of 4-aminophenylarsonic acid, 4-NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H{sub 2}, (p-arsanilic acid) with CdCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2.5H{sub 2}O, ZnCl{sub 2}, Ag(SO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}) and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} have been investigated affording five new metal arsonate polymers. The reaction between 4-aminophenylarsonic acid and CdCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2.5H{sub 2}O resulted in a one-dimensional polymer, [{l_brace}Cd(4-NH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H)(Cl){sub 2}{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}, 1, in which the polymeric chain is propagated by bridging chlorides. Exchange of CdCl{sub 2} for ZnCl{sub 2} afforded [{l_brace}Zn{sub 2}(4-NH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3})(Cl){sub 2}{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(Cl)]{sub n}, 2, featuring interlinked 6- and 8-membered [Zn-O-As] ring systems. The reaction of Ag(SO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}) with 4-aminophenylarsonic acid, afforded polymeric 3, [Ag(4-NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H)(4-NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H{sub 2})]{sub n} where coordination of the amino group to the silver center is observed and [{l_brace}Ag{sub 2}(4-NH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H)(4-NH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3})({mu}2-SO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}(SO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n}, 4. By comparison, the reaction of p-arsanilic acid with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} yielded a polymeric chain [Pb(4-NH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n}, 5 of similar topology to 1. The structures of 1-5 have been indiscriminately characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and their composition supported by relevant spectroscopic techniques. A comparison of the structural features of these polymers is used to determine the coordination preference of the ligand and factors influencing structural motifs, for example, the role of the anion. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of 4-aminophenylarsonic acid, 4-NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}AsO{sub 3}H{sub 2}, with cadmium, zinc, silver, and lead have resulted in

  7. Photocatalytic activity of CdS and Ag2S quantum dots deposited on poly(amidoamine) functionalized carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi

    2011-01-01

    Two novel ternary nanocatalysts, f-MWCNTs-CdS and f-MWCNTs-Ag2S were successfully constructed by covalent grafting of fourth generation (G4) hyperbranched, crosslinked poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) to carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) and subsequent deposition of CdS or Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). The structural transformation, surface potential, and morphology of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) and nanocatalysts were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the effective anchoring of QDs on f-MWCNTs. The catalytic activity of nanocatalysts was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange under illumination of UV light. The coupling of MWCNTs, PAMAM and CdS or Ag2S QDs significantly enhanced the catalytic efficiency of nanocatalysts. The rate constants for degradation of methyl orange in presence of nanocatalysts were calculated using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Overall, the excellence in photodegradation was accomplished by hybridizing f-MWCNTs with CdS or Ag2S PMID:22267895

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites and their enhanced visible-light activities in degradation of different pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirhashemi, Mahsa; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Novel ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Ag2CrO4 nanocomposites were successfully fabricated via preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 followed by coupling of it with Ag2CrO4 through facile ultrasonic-assisted method. The resultant samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques. Photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes, including rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange was examined under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the ternary nanocomposite with 20% of Ag2CrO4 demonstrated the superior activity. This nanocomposite showed 10.6, 2.9, and 3.0-folds greater activity compared to ZnO, ZnO/Ag2CrO4, and ZnO/Ag3VO4, respectively. The enhanced activity was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the photogenerated charge carriers in the ternary nanocomposites. To understand efficiently separation of the charge carriers, a plausible diagram was proposed based on formation of tandem n-n heterojunctions.

  9. Biosorption of Cr (VI), Cr (III), Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solutions by Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa racemosa algal biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvan, Narayanaswamy; Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important environmental problems today. Biosorption is an innovative technology that employs biological materials to accumulate heavy metals from waste water through metabolic process or physicochemical pathways of uptake. Even though several physical and chemical methods are available for removal of heavy metals, currently many biological materials such as bacteria, algae, yeasts and fungi have been widely used due to their good performance, low cost and large quantity of availability. The aim of the present study is to explore the biosorption of toxic heavy metals, Cr(VI), Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by algal biomass obtained from algae Sargassum wightii (brown) and Caulerpa racemosa (green). Biosorption of algal biomass was found to be biomass concentration- and pH-dependent, while the maximal biosorption was found at pH 5.0 and with the metal concentration of 100 mg L-1. S. wightii showed the maximal metal biosorption at the biomass concentration of 25 g L-1, followed by C. racemosa with the maximal biosorption at 30 g L-1. S. wightii showed 78% biosorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions. C. racemosa exhibited 85% biosorption of Cd(II) and Cr(VI), and 50% biosorption of Cr(III) and Pb(II). The results of our study suggest that seaweed biomass can be used efficiently for biosorption of heavy metals.

  10. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E.

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. {yields} Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. {yields} Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. {yields} Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallisation (T{sub x}), and melting (T{sub m}) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} and their Hruby, H{sub r} = (T{sub x} - T{sub g})/(T{sub m} - T{sub x}), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity {sigma} and the room temperature conductivity {sigma}{sub 298} was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm{sup -1} region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  11. Synthesis, characterizations and anti-bacterial activities of pure and Ag doped CdO nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Venkatesan, A.; Soundhirarajan, P.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, synthesized pure and Ag (1%, 2%, and 3%) doped Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. Then, the synthesized products were characterized by thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectroscopy, and anti-bacterial activities, respectively. The transition temperatures and phase transitions of Cd(OH)2 to CdO at 400 °C was confirmed by TG-DTA analysis. The XRD patterns show the cubic shape and average particle sizes are 21, 40, 34, and 37 nm, respectively for pure and Ag doped samples. FT-IR study confirmed the presence of CdO and Ag at 677 and 459 cm-1, respectively. UV-Vis-DRS study shows the variation on direct and indirect band gaps. The surface morphologies and elemental analysis have been confirmed from SEM and with EDX. In addition, the synthesized products have been characterized by antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Further, the present investigation suggests that CdO nanoparticles have the great potential applications on various industrial and medical fields of research.

  12. Frequency dependent electrical properties of nano-CdS/Ag junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, D.; Choudhury, A.

    2005-05-01

    Polymer embedded cadmium sulfide nanoparticles/quantum dots were synthesized by a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (lmw) as the desired matrix. In an attempt to measure the electrical properties of nano-CdS/Ag samples, we propose that contribution from surface traps are mainly responsible in determining the I˜ V and C˜ V characteristics in high frequency ranges. To be specific, beyond 1.2 MHz, the carrier injection from the trap centers of the embedded quantum dots is ensured by large current establishment even at negative biasing condition of the junction. The unexpected nonlinear signature of C˜ V response is believed to be due to the fact that while trying to follow very high signal frequency (at least 10-3 of recombination frequency), there is complete abruptness in carrier trapping (charging) or/and detrapping (decay) in a given CdS nanoparticle assembly. The frequency dependent unique role of the trap carriers certainly find application in nanoelectronic devices at a desirable frequency of operation.

  13. Decorating CdTe QD-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres with Ag NPs to Prevent Bacteria Invasion for Enhanced Anticounterfeit Applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangyang; Dong, Qigeqi; Lan, Shi; Cai, Qian; Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhang, Shiqi; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dots (QDs) as potent candidates possess advantageous superiority in fluorescence imaging applications, but they are susceptible to the biological circumstances (e.g., bacterial environment), leading to fluorescence quenching or lose of fluorescent properties. In this work, CdTe QDs were embedded into mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2 NSs) for preventing QD agglomeration, and then CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs (m-SiO2/CdTe NSs) were modified with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to prevent bacteria invasion for enhanced anticounterfeit applications. The m-SiO2 NSs, which serve as intermediate layers to combine CdTe QDs with Ag NPs, help us establish a highly fluorescent and long-term antibacterial system (i.e., m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs). More importantly, CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs showed fluorescence quenching when they encounter bacteria, which was avoided by attaching Ag NPs outside. Ag NPs are superior to CdTe QDs for preventing bacteria invasion because of the structure (well-dispersed Ag NPs), size (small diameter), and surface charge (positive zeta potentials) of Ag NPs. The plausible antibacterial mechanisms of m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were established. As for potential applications, m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs were developed as fluorescent anticounterfeiting ink for enhanced imaging applications. PMID:25901940

  14. SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 thin films with superhydrophilicity and low-emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Ryeol Park, Kyoung; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 multilayer structures have been designed and deposited by the RF and DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited TiO2/glass films which are initially amorphous in nature were subjected to post annealing at 673 K for anatase phase TiO2. The anatase TiO2 films showed an optical bandgap ˜3.32 eV. The Ag(Cr)/TiO2 showed very low-emissivity (low-e) value ˜0.081 which is evaluated by using the sheet resistance (6.51 Ω/□) of the films. All the deposited films showed high visible transmittance (˜81%) and high infrared reflectance (72%) which are recorded by using the UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. In addition, experimentally obtained optical properties were in good agreement with the simulation data. The TiO2/n-Si heterojunction concept has been employed to enhance the superhydrophilicity of the deposited multilayer stack, TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 films exhibited best superhydrophilicity with water contact angle ˜2°. The deposited multilayer structures SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 and TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 achieved significant low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  15. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag) in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, M.; Wake, B. D.; Lopez Garcia, P.; Bown, J.; Baker, A. R.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m) of dissolved cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu and Ag display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and of Cd similar to phosphate. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs may have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However, uptake by dino- and nano-flagellates may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P), yielding lower Cd / P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll waters

  16. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag) in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, M.; Wake, B. D.; Lopez Garcia, P.; Bown, J.; Baker, A. R.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2012-03-01

    Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m) of dissolved cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu, Ag, and of Cd display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and phosphate, respectively. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water-masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs appeared to have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However uptake by dino- and nano-flagelattes may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P), yielding lower Cd/P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd-uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these High-Nutrient Low

  17. Sensitivity of Four Cyanobacterial Isolates from Tropical Freshwaters to Environmentally Realistic Concentrations of Cr(6+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2.).

    PubMed

    Munagamage, Thilini; Rathnayake, I V N; Pathiratne, A; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of four tropical cyanobacteria viz. Coelosphaerium sp., Synechococcus sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Chroococcus sp. to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(6+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)was assessed based on fluorescence change as a proxy for growth reduction. At 24 h exposure, the growth reduction inthe cyanobacteria followed the order: Zn(2+) < Cr(6+) ≤ Cd(2+). Of the four cyanobacteria, Synechococcus was the most sensitive for Cr(6+), where as Chroococcus was the most sensitive for Cd(2+)and Zn(2+). Sensitivity was gradually decreased by 96 h implying the acquisition of tolerance by cyanobacteria to heavy metal ions with prolonged exposure. PMID:27101284

  18. Facile synthesis of AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3 multi-heterojunctions with high visible light activity for Cr(VI) reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Shi, Xiaodong; Liu, Enqin; Crittenden, John C; Ma, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yanqing

    2016-11-01

    AgI sensitized BiOI-Bi2O3 composite (AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3) with multi-heterojunctions was prepared using simple etching-deposition process. Different characterization techniques were performed to investigate the structural, optical and electrical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts. It was found that the ternary AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3 composite exhibited: (1) improved photocurrent response, (2) smaller band gap, (3) greatly reduced charge transfer resistance and (4) negative shift of flat band potential, which finally led to easier generation and more efficient separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the hetero-interfaces. Thus, for the reduction of Cr(VI), AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3 exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation at near neutral pH. AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3 was optimized when the initial molar ratio of KI to Bi2O3 and AgNO3 to Bi2O3 was 1:1 and 10%, respectively. The estimated kCr(VI) on optimized AgI/BiOI-Bi2O3 was about 16 times that on pure Bi2O3. Good stability was also observed in cyclic runs, indicating that the current multi-heterostructured photocatalyst is highly desirable for the remediation of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater. PMID:27239723

  19. Particulate contacts to Si and CdTe: Al, Ag, Hg-Cu-Te, and Sb-Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Ribelin, Rosine; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    1999-03-01

    Our team has been investigating the use of particle-based contacts in both Si and CdTe solar cell technologies. First, in the area of contacts to Si, powders of Al and Ag prepared by an electroexplosion process have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM elemental determination X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), and TEM electron diffraction (TEM-ED). These Al and Ag particles were slurried and tested as contacts to p- and n-type silicon wafers, respectively. Linear current-voltage (I-V) was observed for Ag on n-type Si, indicative of an ohmic contact, whereas the Al on p-type Si sample was non-ideal. A wet-chemical surface treatment was performed on one Al sample and TEM-EDS indicated a substantial decrease in the O contaminant level. The treated Al on p-type Si films exhibited linear I-V after annealing. Second, in the area of contacts to CdTe, particles of Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te have been applied as contacts to CdTe/CdS/SnO2 heterostructures prepared by the standard NREL protocol. First, Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te were prepared by a metathesis reaction. After CdCl2 treatment and NP etch of the CdTe layer, particle contacts were applied. The Hg-Cu-Te contacted cells exhibited good electrical characteristics, with Voc>810 mV and efficiencies > 11.5% for most cells. Although Voc>800 mV were observed for the Sb-Te contacted cells, efficiencies in these devices were limited to 9.1% presumably by a large series resistance (>20 Ω) observed in all samples.

  20. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity by band alignment in mesoporous ternary polyoxometalate-Ag2S-CdS semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornarakis, I.; Lykakis, I. N.; Vordos, N.; Armatas, G. S.

    2014-07-01

    Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster anions with different reduction potentials, such as PW12O403-, SiW12O404- and PMo12O403-, were employed as electron acceptors in these ternary heterojunction photocatalysts. Characterization by small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N2 physisorption measurements showed hexagonal arrays of POM-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanorods with large internal BET surface areas and uniform mesopores. The Keggin structure of the incorporated POM clusters was also verified by elemental X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis, infrared and diffuse-reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. These new porous materials were implemented as visible-light-driven photocatalysts, displaying exceptional high activity in aerobic oxidation of various para-substituted benzyl alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Our experiments show that the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes at CdS through the potential gradient along the CdS-Ag2S-POM interfaces is responsible for the increased photocatalytic activity.Porous multicomponent semiconductor materials show improved photocatalytic performance due to the large and accessible pore surface area and high charge separation efficiency. Here we report the synthesis of well-ordered porous polyoxometalate (POM)-Ag2S-CdS hybrid mesostructures featuring a controllable composition and high photocatalytic activity via a two-step hard-templating and topotactic ion-exchange chemical process. Ag2S compounds and polyoxometalate cluster

  1. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    PubMed

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi ) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX (= Σ αi νi ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2 ) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish). PMID:25318827

  2. CD209 (DC-SIGN) -336A>G promoter polymorphism and severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin Yuen Kwong; Xu, Mei-Shu; Ching, Johannes Chi Yun; So, Thomas Man Kit; Lai, Sik-To; Chu, Chung-Ming; Yam, Loretta Y C; Wong, Andrew T Y; Chung, Pui Hong; Chan, Vera Sau Fong; Lin, Chen Lung Steve; Sham, Pak Chung; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, Joseph S M; Khoo, Ui-Soon

    2010-07-01

    CD209 (DC-SIGN) is an important C-type lectin which acts a receptor of many pathogens. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -336A>G in the CD209 promoter has been demonstrated to regulate promoter activity and to be associated with several important infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Dengue fever. CD209 facilitates severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus spike protein-bearing pseudotype driven infection of permissive cells in vitro. In keeping with previously published findings, our in vitro studies confirmed that this SNP modulates gene promoter activity. Genetic association analysis of this SNP with clinico-pathologic outcomes in 824 serologic confirmed SARS patients showed that the -336AG/GG genotype SARS patients was associated with lower standardized lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared with the -336AA patients (p = 0.014, odds ratio = 0.40). High LDH levels are known to be an independent predictor for poor clinical outcome, probably related to tissue destruction from immune hyperactivity. Hence, SARS patients with the CD209 -336 AA genotype carry a 60% chance of having a poorer prognosis. This association is in keeping with the role of CD209 in modulating immune response to viral infection. The relevance of these findings for other infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions would be worth investigating. PMID:20359516

  3. Static and dynamic properties of the quasi-1D Heisenberg antiferromagnets AgVP 2S 6 ( S=1) and AgCrP 2S 6 ( S = 3/2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payen, C.; Mutka, H.; Soubeyroux, J. L.; Molinié, P.; Colombet, P.

    1992-02-01

    Differences in behaviour between the two quasi-1D Heisenberg antiferromagnets AgVP 2S 6 ( S=1) and AgCrP 2S 6 ( S = 3/2) have been evidenced by susceptibility measurements, neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering. The results obtained for the S=1 compound are consistent with Haldane's conjecture as well as existing numerical results. The S = 3/2 compound behaves conventionally above the 3D ordering temperature ( TN=20 K).

  4. Highly enhanced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) on AgI/TiO2 under visible light irradiation: Influence of calcination temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Shi, Xiaodong; Xu, Jianjia; Crittenden, John C; Liu, Enqin; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yanqing

    2016-04-15

    AgI/TiO2 was prepared using a dissolution-precipitation method, followed by calcination at different temperatures (100-700°C). The as-prepared AgI/TiO2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results revealed that calcination temperature significantly impacted the visible light absorption of AgI/TiO2 along with a shift from metastable γ-AgI to relatively stable β-AgI. We found that highest photocatalytic reduction rate of Cr(VI) and β-AgI content were obtained for a calcination temperature of 350°C. Furthermore, the pseudo-first order rate constant was five times that for a photocatalyst calcined at 100°C. The dramatically enhanced reduction rate of Cr(VI) was attributed to enhanced visible light absorption and greatly reduced charge transfer resistance, which eventually facilitates more efficient separation and easier transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs to the catalyst surface. Other experimental conditions were also carefully investigated and optimized with initial AgI loading percentage (5%), catalyst dosage (1.0g/L), coexisting organics (1.0mmol/L EDTA) and pH (1-2). The optimal AgI/TiO2 exhibited good stability with little change in activity after 5 cycles. PMID:26785212

  5. Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Qifei; Li, Ting; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Guo, Xingming; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2015-08-15

    A few studies have focused on release of valuable/toxic metals from Pb/Zn smelting slag by heterotrophic bioleaching using expensive yeast extract as an energy source. The high leaching cost greatly limits the practical potential of the method. In this work, autotrophic bioleaching using cheap sulfur or/and pyrite as energy matter was firstly applied to tackle the smelting slag and the bioleaching mechanisms were explained. The results indicated autotrophic bioleaching can solubilize valuable/toxic metals from slag, yielding maximum extraction efficiencies of 90% for Zn, 86% for Cd and 71% for In, although the extraction efficiencies of Pb, As and Ag were poor. The bioleaching performance of Zn, Cd and Pb was independent of leaching system, and leaching mechanism was acid dissolution. A maximum efficiency of 25% for As was achieved by acid dissolution in sulfursulfur oxidizing bacteria (S-SOB), but the formation of FeAsO4 reduced extraction efficiency in mixed energy source - mixed culture (MS-MC). Combined works of acid dissolution and Fe(3+) oxidation in MS-MC was responsible for the highest extraction efficiency of 71% for In. Ag was present in the slag as refractory AgPb4(AsO4)3 and AgFe2S3, so extraction did not occur. PMID:25996622

  6. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.

  7. Antioxidative role of selenium on some tissues of (Cd2+), Cr3+)-induced rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orun, Ibrahim; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Ozdemir, Ilknur; Alkan, Aysel; Erdogan, Kenan

    2008-09-01

    Chemical toxic pollutants (especially heavy metals) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. Membrane phospholipids of aerobic organisms are continually subjected to oxidant challenges from endogenous and exogenous sources, while peroxidized membranes and lipid peroxidation products represent constant threats to aerobic cells. The primary antioxidant protection against free radical and ROS is provided by the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively. The trace element selenium has been implicated in chemo-prevention and drug-resistance through reduction of oxidative stress. Selenium could prevent damage to the unsaturated fatty acid of subcellular membranes by lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals. The results reported here show that sodium selenite has an important contribution to antioxidative defense for the spleen and heart of rainbow trout. The ability of sodium selenite to prevent the oxidative stress induced by heavy metals (Cd(2+), Cr(3+)) in fish was rationalized. PMID:17920681

  8. Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb distribution in biosolid pellets used as soil amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Manuel M.; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro Pedreño, Jose; Gómez Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Pardo, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The application of biosolids to a soil is a method that offers important benefits (Navarro et al. 2003). The transport and application costs are quite low (mostly if they are dehydrated biosolids or pellets) if soils are located near a wastewater treatment plant. It is possible to recycle nutrients (N, P, and K) and organic matter by improving the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and by reducing the fertilizer costs. However, the use of biosolids may also has several problems, such as the presence of quantities of metals that could be toxic for plants or could contaminate ground-waters after being leached. Heavy metals are one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of its high toxicity, abundance and easy accumulation by plant (Soriano-Disla et al. 2014; Rosen and Chen 2014). Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of biosolids is subject to rigorous controls within the European Union. The present study was designed to examine the partition of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. Samples were collected from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of a wastewater processing plant. The samples correspond to biosolids with humidities below 20% and are representative of the three horizons within the pile: the isolation surface (H1), the mesophilous area (H2), and the thermophilous area (H3). Biosolid aggregates were placed in a pellet press and then compacted. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate samples were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The

  9. Reaction of CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ with solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyuk, L.L.; Lyalikova, R.Yu.; Radautsan, S.I.; Ratseev, S.A.; Tezlevan, V.E.

    1987-12-01

    Single crystals of the magnetic semiconductor cadmium dichromium tetraselenide were grown by liquid- and vapor-liquid-transport methods, chemical vapor-transport reactions, and slowly cooling the solution of the substance in the melt. Cadmium chloride was tested as a solvent. We studied the crystallization of cadmium dichromium tetraselenide for two compositions of the molten solution which are optimal for producing the crystals. The experimental data on the crystallization of cadmium dichromium tetraselenide permitted production of CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ single crystals by heating the molten solution up to 740/sup 0/C, keeping it there for 3-4 h, followed by slow cooling. The crystals thus produced do not differ in quality from crystals grown by the traditional methods,and the duration of the technological cycle is substantially decreased.

  10. Effects of morphology, diameter and periodic distance of the Ag nanoparticle periodic arrays on the enhancement of the plasmonic field absorption in the CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Eskandari, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Yousefirad, Mansooreh; Nabavi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the numerical calculations of plasmonic field absorption of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) periodic arrays in the CdSe quantum dot (QD) film are investigated by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD). Diameter (D), periodic distance (P), and morphology effects of Ag NPs are investigated on the improvement of the plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film. Results show that plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is enhanced with reduction of D of Ag NPs until 5 nm and reduces thereafter. It is observed that with raising D of Ag NPs, optimum plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is shifted toward the higher P. Moreover, with varying morphology of Ag NPs from spherical to cylindrical, cubic, ringing and pyramid, the plasmonic field absorption is considerably enhanced in CdSe QD film and position of quadrupole plasmon mode (QPPM) is shifted toward further wavelength. For cylindrical Ag NPs, the QPPM intensity increased with raising height (H) until 15 nm and reduces thereafter.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the photocatalytic performance of Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven plasmonic photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Malla, Shova; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven photocatalyst was successfully synthesized. • Photocatalyst exhibited strong absorption in the visible region. • Photocatalytic activity was significantly enhanced. • Enhanced activity was caused by the SPR effect induced by Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized in ethanol/water mixture by photo assisted co-precipitation method at room temperature. As synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by performing the degradation experiment over methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) as model dyes under simulated solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} showed the higher photocatalytic performance as compared to CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles. Dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over the surface of CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles causes the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enhances the broad absorption in the entire visible region of the solar spectrum. Hence, dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles could be the better alternative to enhance the absorption of visible light by scheelite crystal family for effective photocatalysis.

  12. Structural features of AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, two new compounds with the alluaudite-type structure, and their catalytic activity in butan-2-ol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kacimi, Mohammed; Ziyad, Mahfoud; Hatert, Frederic . E-mail: fhatert@ulg.ac.be

    2005-04-20

    AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, two new compounds with the alluaudite-type structure, were synthesized by a solid state reaction in air at 750 deg. C. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} indicates the presence of small amounts of (Ca, Mg){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} with the whitlockite structure, as impurity, whereas AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is constituted by pure alluaudite. The Rietveld refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate an ordered cationic distribution for AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, with Ag on A(2)', Cd on A(1) and M(1), and Mg on M(2), whereas a disordered distribution of Cd and Ca between the A(1) and M(1) sites is observed for AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The catalytic properties of these compounds has been measured in reaction of butan-2-ol dehydrogenation. In the absence of oxygen, both samples exhibit poor dehydrogenation activity. All samples displayed no dehydration activity. Introduction of oxygen into the feed changed totally the catalytic behavior of the catalysts. The production of methyl ethyl ketone increases with time on stream and the reaction temperature. AgCaCdMg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is more efficient than AgCd{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  13. Protection associated with a TB vaccine is linked to increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells but no increase in avidity for Ag85A.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Steinbach, Sabine; Jones, Gareth J; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, W Ivan; Vordermeier, Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2016-08-31

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis in humans and cattle. Previously, we found boosting BCG-primed cows with recombinant human type 5 adenovirus expressing antigen 85A (Ad5-85A) increased protection against Mycobacterium bovis infection compared to BCG vaccination alone. The aim of this study was to decipher aspects of the immune response associated with this enhanced protection. We compared BCG-primed Ad5-85A-boosted cattle with BCG-vaccinated cattle. Polyclonal CD4(+) T cell libraries were generated from pre-boost and post-boost peripheral blood mononuclear cells - using a method adapted from Geiger et al. (2009) - and screened for antigen 85A (Ag85A) specificity. Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell lines were analysed for their avidity for Ag85A and their Ag85A epitope specificity was defined. Boosting BCG with Ad5-85A increased the frequencies of post-boost Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells which correlated with protection (reduced pathology). Boosting Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell responses did not increase their avidity. The epitope specificity was variable between animals and we found no clear evidence for a post-boost epitope spreading. In conclusion, the protection associated with boosting BCG with Ad5-85A is linked with increased frequencies of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells without increasing avidity or widening of the Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cell repertoire. PMID:27498622

  14. Highly effective and stable Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs photocatalysts for simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and orange II degradation under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li; Xiong, Xiaoli; Liang, Ninggang; Long, Qiyi

    2015-10-01

    A series of high-performance photocatalysts of Ag3PO4-WO3/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated through a deposition-precipitation method. Their structures and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM, EDS and TEM analyses verified that Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs composites have been successfully prepared. PL analysis illustrated that Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs have the lower emission peak intensities, compared with Ag3PO4 and WO3. By using simultaneous decontaminations of Cr(VI) and orange II as model reactions, the photocatalytic efficiencies of Ag3PO4, WO3 and Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs have strong photocatalytic activities. The effect of Ag3PO4:WO3 ratio on the photocatalytic activity was systemically studied. The catalyst AWM7/3 was found to exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. The improvement of photocatalytic activity and stability was mainly attributed to the highly effective separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and special transfer pathway of electrons and holes in Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs composites. Therefore, the prepared Ag3PO4-WO3/MWCNTs could act as a high-performance catalyst for the simultaneous decontaminations of Cr(VI) and orange II, and also suggested the promising applications.

  15. Ag plasmonic nanostructures and a novel gel electrolyte in a high efficiency TiO2/CdS solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-04-21

    A novel photoanode architecture with plasmonic silver (Ag) nanostructures embedded in titania (TiO2), which served as the wide band gap semiconducting support and CdS quantum dots (QDs), as light absorbers, is presented. Ag nanostructures were prepared by a polyol method and are comprised of clumps of nanorods, 15-35 nm wide, interspersed with globular nanoparticles and they were characterized by a face centered cubic lattice. Optimization of Ag nanostructures was achieved on the basis of a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained for the cell with a Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode encompassing a mixed morphology of Ag nano-rods and particles, relative to analogous cells with either Ag nanoparticles or Ag nanorods. Interfacial charge transfer kinetics was unraveled by fluorescence quenching and lifetime studies. Ag nanostructures improve the light harvesting ability of the TiO2/CdS photoanode via (a) plasmonic and scattering effects, which induce both near- and far-field enhancements which translate to higher photocurrent densities and (b) charging effects, whereby, photoexcited electron transfer from TiO2 to Ag is facilitated by Fermi level equilibration. Owing to the spectacular ability of Ag nanostructures to increase light absorption, a greatly increased PCE of 4.27% and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% (at 440 nm) was achieved for the cell based on Ag/TiO2/CdS, greater by 42 and 66%, respectively, compared to the TiO2/CdS based cell. In addition, the liquid S(2-) electrolyte was replaced by a S(2-) gel containing fumed silica, and the redox potential, conductivity and p-type conduction of the two were deduced to be comparable. Although the gel based cells showed diminished solar cell performances compared to their liquid counterparts, nonetheless, the Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode continued to outperform the TiO2/CdS electrode. Our studies demonstrate that Ag nanostructures effectively capture a significant chunk of the electromagnetic spectrum and aid QD

  16. Effect of interfacial defects on the electronic and magnetic properties of epitaxial CrAs/InAs and CrAs/CdSe half-metallic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanakis, I.; Lekkas, I.

    2010-09-01

    We present an extended study of single impurity atoms at the interface between the half-metallic ferromagnetic zinc-blende CrAs compound and the zinc-blende binary InAs and CdSe semiconductors in the form of very thin multilayers. Contrary to the case of impurities in the perfect bulk CrAs studied in Galanakis and Pouliasis [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321 (2009) 1084] defects at the interfaces do not alter in general the half-metallic character of the perfect systems. The only exception are Void impurities at Cr or In(Cd) sites which lead, due to the lower-dimensionality of the interfaces with respect to the bulk CrAs, to a shift of the p bands of the nearest neighboring As(Se) atom to higher energies and thus to the loss of the half-metallicity. But Void impurities are Schottky-type and should exhibit high formation energies and thus we expect the interfaces in the case of thin multilayers to exhibit a robust half-metallic character.

  17. Group B streptococcus-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophages is CR3 (CD11b/CD18) dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, K J; McCormick, L L; Schneider, B

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by murine macrophages in response to cytokines and/or gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. NO induction by gram-positive bacteria such as group B streptococci (GBS), the major etiologic agents of neonatal pneumonia and meningitis, has received little study. GBS as well as two other gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were found to stimulate NO production in thioglycolate-elicited murine macrophages and in the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 in the presence of gamma interferon. Serotype Ia and III GBS were both stimulatory, as were asialo- and type antigen-deficient mutant strains of type III GBS. NO production was dose dependent, inhibitable by L-arginine analogs, and unaffected by polymyxin B. Since phagocytosis by murine and human phagocytes of GBS is dependent on complement receptor type 3 (CR3), the role of CR3 in the NO response to GBS was tested in the CR3-deficient myelomonocytic cell line WEHI-3. GBS did not induce NO, whereas S. aureus or lipopolysaccharide did induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. S. epidermidis, whose nonopsonic phagocytosis is also CR3 dependent, failed to induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. Monoclonal anti-CR3 (anti-CD11b or anti-CD18) in the presence of interferon also induced NO production in thioglycolate-elicited macrophages and in J774A.1 cells but not in WEHI-3 cells. This evidence suggests that ligated CR3 and gamma interferon act synergistically to induce NO production and that CR3 mediates the GBS-induced signal for NO production in interferon-treated macrophages. PMID:8039877

  18. Thermal stability and the nonstoichiometry region of doped CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/ and CdIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Buzhor, V.P.; Lyalikova, R. Yu.; Radautsan, S.I.; Ratseev, S.A.; Tezlevan, V.E.

    1986-08-01

    This work studies the thermal stability of dichromium cadmium tetraselenide, doped with different impurities, and of diindium cadium tetrasulfide, as well as the region of nonstoichiometry of their single crystals grown by chemical vapor-transport reactions. The authors used the thermogravimetric method for investigations which were carried out with a MOM derivatograph in the temperature range 300-1170/sup 0/K. The nature of impurities and the doping level were found to have influence on the temperature of the beginning of oxidation. It is shown that CdIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ is more resistant to oxidation than CdCr/sub 2/Se/sub 4/.

  19. Effect of adherent bacteria and bacterial extracellular polymers upon assimilation by Macoma balthica of sediment-bound Cd, Zn and Ag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of adherent bacteria and bacterial extracellular polymer (exopolymer) upon uptake of particle-bound Cd, Zn and Ag by the deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica were studied in the laboratory. Amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and unaltered and alkaline-extracted sediments were used as model particulates in separate, controlled deposit-feeding experiments. In general, amounts of metal taken up from ingested particles varied dramatically with the nature of the particle surface. Ingestion of contaminated iron oxide particles did not contribute to overall uptake of Cd and Ag in feeding clams, but accounted for 89 to 99% of total Zn uptake. Exopolymer adsorbed on iron oxide particles caused an increase in the biological availability of particle-bound metals in the order Ag>Cd>Zn, whereas adherent bacteria up to 3.2 X 1011 g-1 had no effect upon amounts of metal taken up from ingested particulates. At the higher Cd and Ag concentrations employed (3.6 X 10-7M), feeding rates declined with increasing amounts of iron oxide-bound exopolymer, suggesting behavioral avoidance due to increased metal availability. Much of the Cd (57 %) taken up by clams feeding on unaltered estuarine sediments originated from particulates, even though particle/solute distribution of Cd (86%) was similar to that in experiments with iron oxide particles. Uptake of Cd from alkalineextracted sediments was insignificant, as it was from unamended iron oxide. However, addition of exopolymer (10 mgg-1 sediment) caused a restoration nn bioavailability of sediment-bound Cd.

  20. First-principles study of the electronic and the magnetic properties of Cr-doped wurtzite cadmium sulfide (Cd1- x Cr x S, x = 12.5% and 6.25%)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Azeem; Majid, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    The electronic and the magnetic properties of Cr-doped wurtzite cadmium sulfide (Cd1- x Cr x S) at different concentrations ( x = 12.5% and 6.25%) are investigated in the frame work of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), its extension through on-site Hubbard U interactions (GGA+U), and the Tran Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The ferromagnetic exchange interactions between Cr-Cr atoms via S atoms are studied. The magnetic moments on these atoms are studied in detail by using different charge analysis techniques. The p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment on Cr from its free space charge value and produces a small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Cd and S host sites. Cr-doped CdS provides a half-metallic semiconductor.

  1. Synthesis of zeolite-supported microscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Cr(6+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangke; Han, Zhantao; Zhang, Wei; Song, Le; Li, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Zeolite-supported microscale zero-valent iron (Z-mZVI) was synthesized and used to remove heavy metal cation (Cd(2+)) and anion (Cr(6+)) from aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed that mZVI (100-200 nm) has been successfully loaded and efficiently dispersed on zeolite. Atomic absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) revealed the amount of stabilized mZVI was about 1.3 wt.%. The synthesized Z-mZVI has much higher reduction ability and adsorption capacity for Cr(6+) and Cd(2+) compared to bare nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and zeolite. Above 77% Cr(6+) and 99% Cd(2+) were removed by Z-mZVI, while only 45% Cr(6+) and 9% Cd(2+) were removed by the same amount iron of nZVI, and 1% Cr(6+) and 39% Cd(2+) were removed by zeolite alone with an initial concentration of 20 mg/L Cr(6+) and 200 mg/L Cd(2+). The removal of Cr(6+) by Z-mZVI follows the pseudo first-order kinetics model, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that Cr(6+) was reduced to Cr(3+) and immobilized on the surface of Z-mZVI. The removal mechanisms for Cr(6+) include reduction, adsorption of Cr(3+) hydroxides and/or mixed Fe(3+)/Cr(3+) (oxy)hydroxides. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model indicated that chemical sorption might be rate-limiting in the sorption of Cd(2+) by Z-mZVI. This synthesized Z-mZVI has shown the potential as an efficient and promising reactive material for removing various heavy metals from wastewater or polluted groundwater. PMID:26731307

  2. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  3. CX3CR1+ CD115+ CD135+ common macrophage/DC precursors and the role of CX3CR1 in their response to inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Auffray, Cedric; Fogg, Darin K.; Narni-Mancinelli, Emilie; Senechal, Brigitte; Trouillet, Celine; Saederup, Noah; Leemput, Julia; Bigot, Karine; Campisi, Laura; Abitbol, Marc; Molina, Thierry; Charo, Israel; Hume, David A.; Cumano, Ana; Lauvau, Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    CX3CR1 expression is associated with the commitment of CSF-1R+ myeloid precursors to the macrophage/dendritic cell (DC) lineage. However, the relationship of the CSF-1R+ CX3CR1+ macrophage/DC precursor (MDP) with other DC precursors and the role of CX3CR1 in macrophage and DC development remain unclear. We show that MDPs give rise to conventional DCs (cDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs), and monocytes, including Gr1+ inflammatory monocytes that differentiate into TipDCs during infection. CX3CR1 deficiency selectively impairs the recruitment of blood Gr1+ monocytes in the spleen after transfer and during acute Listeria monocytogenes infection but does not affect the development of monocytes, cDCs, and PDCs. PMID:19273628

  4. Electronic Properties of MoSi2-Type Hf2X Intermetallic Compounds (X=Pd, Ag, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaar, I.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Berant, Z.

    2001-11-01

    The Hf z coordinate and the value of the electric field gradient (efg) main component (V zz ), were calculated for three Hf2X compounds (X = Pd, Ag, Cd) on a first-principle basis, using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. Exchange and correlation effects were treated either by the local spine density approximation (LSDA) or by the more advanced generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated V zz values, in the Hf site, were in very good agreement with available 181Hf TDPAC experimental results.

  5. Analysis of ZFS parameters and local structure in Cr3+ ion doped into A2CdF4 (A = Cs, K) fluorine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkgöz, Muhammed

    2016-03-01

    An investigation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) of Cr3+ ions at the centers with the tetragonal (TE) and orthorhombic (OR) symmetries has been carried out in Cr3+ ion doped into A2CdF4 (A = Cs, K) fluorine compounds in the frame of semi-empirical superposition model (SPM). Various structural formations, namely uncompensated Cr3+ center (TE center I), Cr3+-VM (OR center III) and Cr3+-Li+ (OR center IV), and the relevant distortions have been verified in Cs2CdF4 and K2CdF4 crystals. Three different structural models have been examined for OR Cr3+ centers. The reasonableness of these structural models has been discussed.

  6. Influence of microalgal biomass on absorption efficiency of Cd, Cr, and Zn by two bivalves from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, B.-G.; Luoma, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The bioavailability to clams (Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica) of Cd, Cr, and Zn from suspended particulate material (SPM) collected during a phytoplankton bloom was compared to bioavailability from SPM dominated by resuspended sediments. Bioavailability was also compared among mudflat sediments amended with different levels of living benthic microalgae. Bioavailability was defined by absorption efficiencies determined using pulse-chase protocols, modified for studying natural particle assemblages. The partitioning of Cd and Zn to particles (K(d)) increased as the microalgae biomass (Chl a) increased in the particle assemblages; partitioning of Cr was less affected by the algal biomass. The clams fed particle assemblages enriched with microalgae absorbed Cd and Zn with significantly greater efficiency than did the clams fed algae-poor particles. This was partially explained by the greater occurrence of Cd and Zn in the cytosolic fraction of the particle assemblages that were microalgae enriched, as well as by the efficient absorption of cytosolic material by the clams. Among metals, Zn was most efficiently absorbed by both clams, and Cr the least. M. balthica absorbed Zn more efficiently from all types of food particles (39-82%) than did P. amurensis (13-50%). P. amurensis absorbed Cd with greater efficiency from the bloom SPM (44-48%) than did M. balthica (13-21%), but the two clams absorbed Cd similarly from benthic microalgae (26-51%). The addition of microalgae to complex natural particle assemblages clearly affected the bioavailability of associated metals, so studies using sediments (or suspended particulate material) that do not include a realistic living food component could underestimate metal bioavailability from particle ingestion.

  7. Terahertz magneto-optics in the ferromagnetic semiconductor HgCdCr2Se4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, T. J.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Telegin, A. V.; Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Granovsky, A. B.; Naumov, S. V.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The magneto-optical response of the ferromagnetic semiconductor HgCdCr2Se4 at terahertz (THz) frequencies is studied using polarization sensitive THz time-domain spectroscopy. It is shown that the polarization state of broadband terahertz pulses, with a spectrum spanning from 0.2 THz to 2.2 THz, changes as an even function of the magnetization of the medium. Analysing the ellipticity and the rotation of the polarization of the THz radiation, we show that these effects originate from linear birefringence and dichroism, respectively, induced by the magnetic ordering. These effects are rather strong and reach 102 rad/m at an applied field of 1 kG which saturates the magnetization of the sample. Our observation serves as a proof-of-principle showing strong effects of the magnetic order on the response of a medium to electric fields at THz frequencies. These experiments also suggest the feasibility of spin-dependent transport measurements on a sub-picosecond timescale.

  8. Field-dependent dielectric and magnetic properties in multiferroic CdCr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. P.; Lin, C. C.; Her, J. L.; Ho, C. J.; Taran, S.; Berger, H.; Chaudhuri, B. K.; Yang, H. D.

    2009-06-01

    Based on the results of field-dependent dielectric and magnetic measurements, we observe several interesting behaviors and phase transitions in this geometrically frustrated spinel system CdCr2S4 . (1) A glassy dipolar state occurs near TC˜85K , which is induced by the onset of ferromagnetic ordering. (2) A ferroelectric ordering occurs near Tp˜56K , which is enhanced by externally applying electric field. (3) Both the magnitude and step-up temperature of dielectric constant (ɛ') near TC are suppressed by an electric field yet are increased by the magnetic field. (4) Both electric and magnetic fields colossally enhance the magnitude of dielectric constant (ɛ') near Tp . (5) A clear dip of magnetization under various electric fields is observed near Tp indicating the different spin-dipole interactions near TC and Tp . Attempts are made to analyze these field-dependent properties by considering the strong spin-lattice coupling and exchange striction effect in this novel multiferroic material.

  9. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances. PMID:26899726

  10. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances.

  11. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances. PMID:26899726

  12. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural and electronic properties of Cd0.75Cr0.25S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Anita; Kaur, Kulwinder; Dhiman, Shobna; Kumar, Ranjan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present the results obtained from first principle calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural and electronic properties of Cd1-xCrxS diluted magnetic semiconductor in Zinc Blende (B3) phase at x=0.25. High pressure behavior of Cd1-xCrxS has been investigated between 0 GPa to100 GPa The calculations have been performed using Density functional theory as implemented in the Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms code using local density approximation as exchange-correlation (XC) potential. Calculated electronic band structures of Cd1-xCrxS are discussed in terms of contribution of Cr 3d5 4s1, Cd 4d10 5s2, S 3s2 3p4 orbital's. Study of band structures shows half-metallic ferromagnetic nature of Cd0.75Cr0.25S with 100% spin polarization. Under application of external pressure, the valence band and conduction band are shifted upward which leads to modification of electronic structure

  13. Bright white-light emission from Ag/SiO2/CdS-ZnS core/shell/shell plasmon couplers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Tang, Luping; Gao, Xiaoqin; Xu, Ruilin; Zhang, Huichao; Yu, Yongya; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2015-12-28

    Well-defined plasmon couplers (PCs) that comprise a Ag core overcoated with a SiO(2) shell with controlled thickness, followed by a monolayer of CdS-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized to modify the emission from trap-rich CdS-ZnS QDs by adjusting the distance between the QDs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs). When the thickness of the SiO(2) shell was 10 nm, because the shell could effectively suppress the non-radiative energy transfer from the semiconductor QDs to the metal NPs and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NPs spectrally matched the emission peak of the CdS-ZnS QDs to bring about strong plasmon coupling, optimum enhancements of the surface state emission (SSE) (17 times) and band-edge emission (BEE) (4 times) were simultaneously realized and the SSE to BEE intensity ratio was increased to 55%. As a result, a bright white-light source with 1931 Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.32, 0.34) was realized by the superposition of the two emissions. The experimental results from Ag/SiO(2)/CdSe-ZnS and the Ag/SiO(2)/CdS:Mn-ZnS core/shell/shell PCs indicated that suppressing the non-radiative decay rate (k(nr)) was the underlying mechanism for plasmon coupling fluorescence enhancement. PMID:26592756

  14. Bright white-light emission from Ag/SiO2/CdS-ZnS core/shell/shell plasmon couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chen; Tang, Luping; Gao, Xiaoqin; Xu, Ruilin; Zhang, Huichao; Yu, Yongya; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2015-12-01

    Well-defined plasmon couplers (PCs) that comprise a Ag core overcoated with a SiO2 shell with controlled thickness, followed by a monolayer of CdS-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized to modify the emission from trap-rich CdS-ZnS QDs by adjusting the distance between the QDs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs). When the thickness of the SiO2 shell was 10 nm, because the shell could effectively suppress the non-radiative energy transfer from the semiconductor QDs to the metal NPs and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NPs spectrally matched the emission peak of the CdS-ZnS QDs to bring about strong plasmon coupling, optimum enhancements of the surface state emission (SSE) (17 times) and band-edge emission (BEE) (4 times) were simultaneously realized and the SSE to BEE intensity ratio was increased to 55%. As a result, a bright white-light source with 1931 Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.32, 0.34) was realized by the superposition of the two emissions. The experimental results from Ag/SiO2/CdSe-ZnS and the Ag/SiO2/CdS:Mn-ZnS core/shell/shell PCs indicated that suppressing the non-radiative decay rate (knr) was the underlying mechanism for plasmon coupling fluorescence enhancement.

  15. Continuous-wave broadly tunable diode laser array-pumped mid-infrared Cr2+:CdSe laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. A.; Tarabrin, M. K.; Kovtun, A. A.; Karasik, V. E.; Kireev, A. N.; Kozlovsky, V. I.; Korostelin, Yu V.; Podmar'kov, Yu P.; Frolov, M. P.; Gubin, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a room-temperature, solid-state, broadly tunable Cr-doped CdSe single-crystal continuous-wave laser. Longitudinal pumping with a continuous-wave diode laser array at 1.94 μm produced a broadband output of 280 mW at 2.6 μm with an incident power slope efficiency of 12%. With an intracavity Brewster-cut CaF2 prism, we tuned the Cr2+:CdSe laser from 2.45 to 3.06 μm with a resolution of 10 nm and an output power up to 55 mW.

  16. ACUTE TOXICITIES OF CD2+, CR+6, HG2+, NI2+, AND ZN2+ TO ESTUARINE MACROFAUNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static acute toxicity bioassays were conducted at 20 C and 20 o/oo salinity with CdCl2-2 and one half H2O, K2CrO4, HgCl2, NiCl2-6H2O, and ZnCl2 using adults of starfish, Asterias forbesi; sandworm, Nereis virens; hermit crab, Pagurus longicarpus; softshell clam, Mya arenaria; mud...

  17. Static quadrupole moments of 106Agm and 109Agm and the electric field gradient of Ag in Zn and Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkes, I.; Hlimi, B.; Marest, G.; Sayouty, E. H.; Coussement, R.; Hardeman, F.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Low temperature nuclear orientation of 106Agm and 110Agm in Zn and Fe and level mixing resonances on 109Agm have been measured in order to deduce Q and Vzz values. A fourth-order resonance in 109AgmZn has been found with a full width at half maximum of 1.9 × 10-9 eV, and Vzz(AgCd)Vzz(AgZn)=1.0064(34) was deduced. The electric quadrupole moments found in the literature, reevaluated for Sternheimer correction Q(108Agm)=+1.32(7) b and Q(110Agm)=+1.44(10) b, are used for the calibration of Vzz and yield Q(106Agm)=+1.11(11) b, Q(109Agm)=(+)0.97(11) b, and Vzz(AgZn)=+4.2(5)×1017 V/cm2. Furthermore, μ(106Agm)=(+)3.82(8)μN and several δ(E 2M 1) mixing ratios in 106Pd are also determined. The quadrupole moments are in good agreement with Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic model and folded-Yukawa microscopic model calculations. The particle states can be described in terms of deformed Nilsson orbitals or three valence-proton holes coupled to a quadrupole vibrator.

  18. Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Death Induced by Bortezomib and AG 490 Activates Dendritic Cells through CD91

    PubMed Central

    Cirone, Mara; Di Renzo, Livia; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Conte, Valeria; Trivedi, Pankaj; Santarelli, Roberta; Gonnella, Roberta; Frati, Luigi; Faggioni, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    To understand how cytotoxic agent-induced cancer cell death affects the immune system is of fundamental importance to stimulate immune response to counteract the high mortality due to cancer. Here we compared the immunogenicity of Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) cell death induced by anticancer drug Bortezomib (Velcade) and Tyrphostin AG 490, a Janus Activated Kinase 2/signal trasducer and activator of transcription-3 (JAK2/STAT3) inhibitor. We show that both treatments were able to induce PEL apoptosis with similar kinetics and promote dendritic cells (DC) maturation. The surface expression of molecules involved in immune activation, namely calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 increased in dying cells. This was correlated with DC activation. We found that PEL cell death induced by Bortezomib was more effective in inducing uptake by DC compared to AG 490 or combination of both drugs. However the DC activation induced by all treatments was completely inhibited when these cells were pretreated with a neutralizing antiboby directed against the HSP90/70 and CRT common receptor, CD91. The activation of DC by Bortezomib and AG 490 treated PEL cells, as seen in the present study, might have important implications for a combined chemo and immunotherapy in such patients. PMID:22412839

  19. High-Performance Fully Nanostructured Photodetector with Single-Crystalline CdS Nanotubes as Active Layer and Very Long Ag Nanowires as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    An, Qinwei; Meng, Xianquan; Sun, Pan

    2015-10-21

    Long and single-crystalline CdS nanotubes (NTs) have been prepared via a physical evaporation process. A metal-semiconductor-metal full-nanostructured photodetector with CdS NTs as active layer and Ag nanowires (NWs) of low resistivity and high transmissivity as electrodes has been fabricated and characterized. The CdS NTs-based photodetectors exhibit high performance, such as lowest dark currents (0.19 nA) and high photoresponse ratio (Ilight/Idark ≈ 4016) (among CdS nanostructure network photodetectors and NTs netwok photodetectors reported so far) and very low operation voltages (0.5 V). The photoconduction mechanism, including the formation of a Schottky barrier at the interface of Ag NW and CdS NTs and the effect of oxygen adsorption process on the Schottky barrier has also been provided in detail based on the studies of CdS NTs photodetector in air and vacuum. Furthermore, CdS NTs photodetector exhibits an enhanced photosensitivity as compared with CdS NWs photodetector. The enhancement in performance is dependent on the larger surface area of NTs adsorbing more oxygen in air and the microcavity structure of NTs with higher light absorption efficiency and external quantum efficiency. It is believed that CdS NTs can potentially be useful in the designs of 1D CdS-based optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26457660

  20. Genotoxic Effects Induced by Cd(+2), Cr(+6), Cu(+2) in the Gill and Liver of Odontesthes bonariensis (Piscies, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Gasulla, J; Picco, S J; Carriquiriborde, P; Dulout, F N; Ronco, A E; de Luca, J C

    2016-05-01

    Genotoxic effects of Cd(+2), Cr(+6), and Cu(+2) on the gill and liver of the Argentinean Silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) were studied using the comet assay and in relation with the metal tissue accumulation. Fish were exposed to three waterborne concentrations of each metal for 2 and 16 days. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). After 2 days, significant increase of the genetic damage index (GDI) was only observed in the gill of fish exposed to Cr(+6) and Cu(+2), and the LOECs were 2160 nM and 921.1 nM, respectively. The gill LOEC for Cd(+2) by 16 days was 9.4 nM. In the liver, LOECs were obtained only for Cd(+2) and Cr(+6) and were 9.4 and 2160 nM, respectively. The three metals were able to induce genotoxic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and the gill was the most sensitive organ. PMID:27003804

  1. Modification of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with EDTA for the removal of Cd and Cr ions from water effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaúque, Eutilério F. C.; Dlamini, Langelihle N.; Adelodun, Adedeji A.; Greyling, Corinne J.; Catherine Ngila, J.

    2016-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning technique prior to surface modification with polyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) using ethylenediamine (EDA) as the cross-linker. The modified nanofibers (EDTA-EDA-PAN) were subsequently applied in the wastewater treatment for the removal of Cd(II) and Cr(VI). Textural and chemical characterizations of the nanofibers were carried out by analysis of the specific surface area (Brauner Emmet and Teller (BET)) and thermogravimetric analyses, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the adsorption equilibrium studies with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models, Freundlich was found most suitable for describing the removal mechanism of the target metals as they collect on a heterogeneously functionalized polymer surface. The EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers showed effective sorption affinity for both Cd(II) and Cr(VI), achieving maximum adsorption capacities of 32.68 and 66.24 mg g-1, respectively, at 298 K. In furtherance, the nanofibers were regenerated by simple washing with 2 M HCl solution. Conclusively, the EDTA-EDA-PAN nanofibers were found to be efficient for the removal of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) in water effluents.

  2. Electrokinetic recovery of Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Zn and Mn from waste printed circuit boards: effect of assisting agents.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2009-10-15

    The printed circuit boards (PCBs) contains large number of heavy metal such as Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Zn and Mn. In this study, the use of electrokinetic (EK) treatment with different assisting agents has been investigated to recover the heavy metals from waste PCBs, and the effectiveness of different assisting agents (HNO(3), HCl, citric acid) was evaluated. The PCBs were first pre-treated by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process, then subjected to EK process. The heavy metal speciation, migration and recovery efficiency in the presence of different assisting agents during EK process were discussed. The mass loss of Cd, Cr, As and Zn during the SCWO process was negligible, but approximately 52% of Ni and 56% of Mn were lost in such a process. Experimental results showed that different assisting agents have significant effect on the behavior and recovery efficiency of different heavy metals. HCl was highly efficient for the recovery of Cd in waste PCBs due to the low pH and the stable complexation of Cl(-). Citric acid was highly efficient for the recovery of Cr, Zn and Mn. HNO(3) was low efficient for recovery of most heavy metals except for Ni. PMID:19481346

  3. AGS67E, an Anti-CD37 Monomethyl Auristatin E Antibody–Drug Conjugate as a Potential Therapeutic for B/T-Cell Malignancies and AML: A New Role for CD37 in AML

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel S.; Guevara, Claudia I.; Jin, Liqing; Mbong, Nathan; Verlinsky, Alla; Hsu, Ssucheng J.; Aviña, Hector; Karki, Sher; Abad, Joseph D.; Yang, Peng; Moon, Sung-Ju; Malik, Faisal; Choi, Michael Y.; An, Zili; Morrison, Kendall; Challita-Eid, Pia M.; Doñate, Fernando; Joseph, Ingrid B.J.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Dick, John E.; Stover, David R.

    2015-01-01

    CD37 is a tetraspanin expressed on malignant B cells. Recently, CD37 has gained interest as a therapeutic target. We developed AGS67E, an antibody–drug conjugate that targets CD37 for the potential treatment of B/T-cell malignancies. It is a fully human monoclonal IgG2 antibody (AGS67C) conjugated, via a protease-cleavable linker, to the microtubule-disrupting agent mono-methyl auristatin E (MMAE). AGS67E induces potent cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell-cycle alterations in many non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell lines and patient-derived samples in vitro. It also shows potent antitumor activity in NHL and CLL xenografts, including Rituxan-refractory models. During profiling studies to confirm the reported expression of CD37 in normal tissues and B-cell malignancies, we made the novel discovery that the CD37 protein was expressed in T-cell lymphomas and in AML. AGS67E bound to >80% of NHL and T-cell lymphomas, 100% of CLL and 100% of AML patient-derived samples, including CD34+CD38− leukemic stem cells. It also induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell-cycle alterations in AML cell lines and antitumor efficacy in orthotopic AML xenografts. Taken together, this study shows not only that AGS67E may serve as a potential therapeutic for B/T-cell malignancies, but it also demonstrates, for the first time, that CD37 is well expressed and a potential drug target in AML. PMID:25934707

  4. Sources and build up of Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb in the sludge of Gaza.

    PubMed

    Shomar, Basem

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program was conducted for the sludge of Gaza between 2001 and 2006. All 32 tested parameters except zinc and adsorbable organic halogens were within the allowable values for sludge to be applied in agriculture. Average concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the sludge from the Gaza Strip for the 4 years 2002-2005 reached 2,000 mg/kg which represents a major limiting factor for sludge application in agriculture. This study aimed to measure levels of Zn in the wastewater and sludge in December 2006 and to identify the sources and the build up of Zn in the sludge in Gaza. Cd, Cr and Pb were also assessed for their relationship to sources and buildup of Zn. The results showed that there is no significant fluctuation in the concentration of Cd, Cr and Pb in the different stages of wastewater treatment. Zn, however, is concentrated inside the treatment plant by processes of precipitation and/or absorption, particularly in the aerobic facilities. Although the plant receives wastewater with Zn concentrations of only 9 microg/l, this concentration increased 18-fold inside the aerobic lagoon of the treatment plant, before dropping to an average of 14 microg/l in the effluent wastewater. The sludge from the first sedimentation pond showed a Zn concentration of 567 mg/kg and increased in the effluent polishing pond to 1,643 mg/kg. The Zn concentration in 3-month-old sludge averaged 592 mg/kg. There was no correlation between the Zn concentrations in the sludge and the wastewater at the same location. However, there was a strong correlation between Zn and Pb in the sludge. The electroplating and galvanization industries are the major Zn producing industries in Gaza, with an average Zn of 2,995 and 1,557 microg/l, respectively in their effluent wastewater. These values do not represent a significant Zn pollution load to the treatment plant because these industries are limited in size and number, and their effluents are diluted before entering the treatment

  5. Ag nanoclusters could efficiently quench the photoresponse of CdS quantum dots for novel energy transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yue; Liang, Yan-Yu; He, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Herein the influence of ultrasmall Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) against CdS quantum dots (QDs) in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) nanosystem was exploited for the first time, based on which a novel PEC bioanalysis was successfully developed via the efficient quenching effect of Ag NCs against the CdS QDs. In a model system, DNA assay was achieved by using molecular beacon (MB) probes anchored on a CdS QDs modified electrode, and the MB probes contain two segments that can hybridize with both target DNA sequence and the label of DNA encapsulated Ag NCs. After the MB probe was unfolded by the target DNA sequence, the labels of oligonucleotide encapsulated Ag NCs would be brought in close proximity to the CdS QDs electrode surface, and efficient photocurrent quenching of QDs could be resulted from an energy transfer process that originated from NCs. Thus, by monitoring the attenuation in the photocurrent signal, an elegant and sensitive PEC DNA bioanalysis could be accomplished. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0pM to 10nM and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3pM. This work presents a feasible signaling principle that could act as a common basis for general PEC bioanalysis development. PMID:27315518

  6. Bioconcentration of Ag, Cd, Co, Mn and Zn in the Mangrove Oyster (Crassostrea gasar) and Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment: A Radiotracer Study.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Tumnoi, Yutthana; Pouil, Simon; Warnau, Michel; Metian, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Bioaccumulation kinetics of five dissolved metals were determined in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar, using corresponding radiotracers ((54)Mn, (57)Co, (65)Zn, (109)Cd and (110m)Ag). Additionally, their bioaccessibility to human consumers was estimated. Results indicated that over a 14-day exposure (54)Mn and (57)Co were linearly concentrated in oysters whereas (109)Cd, (65)Zn and (110m)Ag were starting to saturate (steady-state not reached). Whole-body concentration factors at 14 days (CF14d in toto) ranged from 187 ± 65 to 629 ± 179 with the lowest bioconcentration capacity for Co and the highest for Ag. Depuration kinetics were best described by a double-exponential model with associated biological half-lives ranging from 26 days (Ag) to almost 8 months (Zn and Cd). Bioaccessible fraction of the studied elements was estimated using in vitro digestions, which suggested that oysters consumed seasoned with lemon enhanced the accessibility of Cd, Mn and Zn to human consumers, but not Ag and Co. PMID:27194421

  7. Plasmon enhanced CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods array deposited with Ag nanoparticles as photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M.; Ahmadi, V.; Yousefi rad, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2015-04-01

    CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array deposited with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as photoanode was fabricated. Light absorption effect of Ag NPs on improvement of the cell performance was investigated. Performance improvement of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) was controlled by the structure design and architecture. Different decorations and densities of Ag NPs were utilized on the photoanode. Results showed that using 5% Ag NPs in the photoanode results in the increased efficiency, fill factor, and circuit current density from 0.28% to 0.60%, 0.22 to 0.29, and 2.18 mA/cm2 to 3.25 mA/cm2, respectively. Also, incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) results showed that cell performance improvement is related to enhanced absorption in the photoanode, which is because of the surface plasmonic resonance and light scattering of Ag NPs in the photoanode. Measurements of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that hole transfer kinetics increases with introduction of Ag NPs into photoanode. Also, it is shown that chemical capacitance increases with introduction of Ag NPs. Such increase can be attributed to the surface palsmonic resonance of Ag NPs which leads to absorption of more light in the photoanode and generation of more photoelectron in the photoanode.

  8. (Ca/Sr)Au xCd 1- x: Stacking variants of the CrB-FeB series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Wiebke; Dürr, Ines; Daub, Michael; Röhr, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The structural chemistry of binary 1:1 alkaline earth metallides AIIM ( M=p-block or late transition element) is dominated by planar M zig-zag chains, which are stacked in different orientations (CrB ( c) to FeB ( h) type) and with variable stacking distances (types I and II). As a case study of the electronic influences, the substitution of Au against Cd in the respective Ca and Sr aurides was examined by means of experimental, crystallographic and computational methods. Starting from CaAu, up to 11% of Au can be substituted by Cd without a change in the CrB structure type (orthorhombic, space group Cmcm, a=398.2(1), b=1122.6(6), c=460.9(2) pm, Z=4, R1=0.0303). Starting from SrAu (stacking sequence (hc)2(h2c)2), depending on the proportion of the Cd substitution a successive change to structures with increased hexagonality is observed: In SrAu0.93Cd0.07 (monoclinic, space group P21/m, a=621.3(4), b=472.4(2), c=1216.1(9) pm, β=96.97(5)∘, Z=6, R1=0.0467) the stacking sequence is h2 c, i.e. the hexagonality is 66.67%. A slightly more increased Cd content in SrAu0.78Cd0.22 (orthorhombic, space group Pnma, a=3243.3(8), b=474.17(8), c=626.20(9) pm, Z=16, R1=0.0682) drives the hexagonality to 75%, with a (h3c)2 stacking sequence known from several rare earth nickel compounds. Further Cd substitution is not possible. However, in the Cd-rich section of the two series, where the CsCl/β-brass structure type occurs for both alkaline earth elements, a small Au substitution, as determined from powder data by Rietveld refinements, is possible. The substitution limit and the stability ranges of the CsCl and the CrB type can be rationalized from the calculated band structures. Geometrical and electronic criteria are used to compare and discuss the stability ranges in a structural map.

  9. Geopolymers for immobilization of Cr(6+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Provis, John L; Feng, Dingwu; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2008-09-15

    Alkali activation of fly ash by sodium silicate solutions, forming geopolymeric binders, provides a potential means of treating wastes containing heavy metals. Here, the effects on geopolymer structure of contamination of geopolymers by Cr(VI), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the forms of various nitrate and chromate salts are investigated. The addition of soluble salts results in a high extent of dispersal of contaminant ions throughout the geopolymer matrix, however very little change in geopolymer structure is observed when these materials are compared to their uncontaminated counterparts. Successful immobilization of these species will rely on chemical binding either into the geopolymer gel or into other low-solubility (silicate or aluminosilicate) phases. In the case of Pb, the results of this work tentatively support a previous identification of Pb(3)SiO(5) as a potential candidate phase for hosting Pb(II) within the geopolymer structure, although the data are not entirely conclusive. The addition of relatively low levels of heavy metal salts is seen to have little effect on the compressive strength of the geopolymeric material, and in some cases actually gives an increase in strength. Sparingly soluble salts may undergo some chemical conversion due to the highly alkaline conditions prevalent during geopolymerization, and in general are trapped in the geopolymer matrix by a simple physical encapsulation mechanism. Lead is in general very effectively immobilized in geopolymers, as is cadmium in all except the most acidic leaching environments. Hexavalent chromium is problematic, whether added as a highly soluble salt or in sparingly soluble form. PMID:18313213

  10. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  11. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP).

    PubMed

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free-modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  12. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells.

  13. Magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in Cr{sub 8}, Cr{sub 7}Cd, and Cr{sub 7}Ni molecular rings from {sup 19}F-NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonali, L.; Borsa, F.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Garlatti, E.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7 Casadei, C. M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Furukawa, Y.; Lascialfari, A.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano ; Carretta, S.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.

    2014-04-14

    A detailed experimental investigation of the {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance is made on single crystals of the homometallic Cr{sub 8} antiferromagnetic molecular ring and heterometallic Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni rings in the low temperature ground state. Since the F{sup −} ion is located midway between neighboring magnetic metal ions in the ring, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra yield information about the local electronic spin density and {sup 19}F hyperfine interactions. In Cr{sub 8}, where the ground state is a singlet with total spin S{sub T} = 0, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra at 1.7 K and low external magnetic field display a single narrow line, while when the magnetic field is increased towards the first level crossing field, satellite lines appear in the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum, indicating a progressive increase in the Boltzmann population of the first excited state S{sub T} = 1. In the heterometallic rings, Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni, whose ground state is magnetic with S{sub T} = 3/2 and S{sub T} = 1/2, respectively, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum has a complicated structure which depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field, due to both isotropic and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions and classical dipolar interactions. From the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra in single crystals we estimated the transferred hyperfine constants for both the F{sup −}-Ni{sup 2+} and the F{sup −}-Cd{sup 2+} bonds. The values of the hyperfine constants compare well to the ones known for F{sup −}-Ni{sup 2+} in KNiF{sub 3} and NiF{sub 2} and for F{sup −}-Cr{sup 3+} in K{sub 2}NaCrF{sub 6}. The results are discussed in terms of hybridization of the 2s, 2p orbitals of the F{sup −} ion and the d orbitals of the magnetic ion. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the electron-spin decoherence.

  14. Investigation of the transport and fate of Pb, Cd, Cr(VI) and As(V) in soil zones derived from moderately contaminated farmland in Northeast, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingmin; Dong, Deming; Hua, Xiuyi; Dong, Shuofei

    2009-10-30

    Some farmland in Shenyang had been irrigated with industrial wastewater since 1962. Although wastewater irrigation was ceased in 1992, soil had been heavily polluted by heavy metals, especially by Cd. For better understanding processes of soil-heavy metal interactions, in particular, the mobility and retention mechanism of heavy metal in soil, a study on the transport and fate of heavy metals in soil zones from Shenyang suburb was carried out by column leaching tests in laboratory. Breakthrough curves of Pb, Cd, Cr(VI) and As(V) fitted by Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model. The results of fitted breakthrough curves showed that transport rates of the four heavy metals in the soil zones followed the order: Cr(VI)>As(V)>Cd>Pb, which indicated that Cr(VI) was much more mobile, and Pb was comparatively unmovable. Cr in effluents and As were almost entirely Cr(VI) and As(V), respectively, and no Cr(III) and As(III) was ever detected during the leaching tests. The contents of Pb, Cd, Cr and As in leached soils decreased in the order of Pb>Cd>Cr>As, which suggested that adsorption ability of soil to Pb was greatest and to As was least. The methods of selective sequential extraction and solvent extraction were used to determine the fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, As and the valent states of Cr, As [Cr(VI) or Cr(III), As(V) or As(III)] in original soils and in leached soils. After leaching tests, the relative and absolute concentrations of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide and organic fraction of each element were all increased, which enhanced the potential mobility and risk of Pb, Cd, Cr and As to soil/groundwater system. The relative concentrations of Cr(III) and As(III) in different depth of the soil zones after leaching tests were increased by about 6.0% and 5.6%, respectively. Cr(III) and As(III) tended to be adsorbed by soils, which reduced the mobility of them into groundwater. PMID:19500903

  15. Simultaneous Adsorption and Degradation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Silica-Coated Fe0 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongpu; Ren, Bozhi; Li, Tielong

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell silica-coated Fe0 nanoparticles (Fe@SiO2) were prepared in one-step synthesis by aqueous reduction combined with modified Stöber method. The as-prepared Fe@SiO2 were then used for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch tests indicated that Fe@SiO2 exhibited high removal capacity toward Cr(VI) and Cd(II). Cr(VI) was removed by Fe@SiO2 through reduction rather than adsorption, while Cd(II) removal was mainly through adsorption. The removal rate increased with increasing initial Fe NPs dose and decreased with increasing initial Cr(VI) and Cd(II) concentrations. Cd(II) adsorption was also strengthened by Cr(VI) reduction with the release of OH−. The removals of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were weakened in the presence of cations or humic acid, as a result of aggregation and less active site of Fe@SiO2. Overall, the simply prepared Fe@SiO2 were potential material for the heavy metals removed from water. PMID:24455425

  16. Dynamic off-centering of Cr3+ ions and short-range magneto-electric clusters in CdCr2S4

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Goncalo; Pereira, Andre; Lopes, Armandina; Amaral, Joao; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F; Ren, Yang; Mendonca, Tania; Sousa, C T; Amaral, Vitor; Correa, Joao; Araujo, Joao Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The cubic spinel CdCr2S4 gained recently a vivid interest, given the relevance of relaxor-like dielectric behavior in its paramagnetic phase. By a singular combination of local probe techniques, namely, pair distribution function and perturbed angular correlation, we firmly establish that the Cr ion plays the central key role on this exotic phenomenon, namely, through a dynamic off-centering displacement of its coordination sphere. We further show that this off-centering of the magnetic Cr ion gives rise to a peculiar entanglement between the polar and magnetic degrees of freedom, stabilizing, in the paramagnetic phase, short-range magnetic clusters, clearly seen in ultralow-field susceptibility measurements. Moreover, the Landau theory is here used to demonstrate that a linear coupling between the magnetic and polar order parameters is sufficient to justify the appearance of magnetic cluster in the paramagnetic phase of this compound. These results open insights on the hotly debated magnetic and polar interaction, setting a step forward in the reinterpretation of the coupling of different physical degrees of freedom.

  17. Origin and properties of soluble CD21 (CR2) in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Ling, N R; Hardie, D L; Johnson, G D; Maclennan, I C M

    1998-01-01

    By analysis with a panel of CD21 MoAbs it is shown that a large part of the soluble CD21 in human blood plasma is of the long isoform (CD21L), as judged by comparison with antigen produced by mouse L cells transfected with CD21L-cDNA and reactivity with the restricted CD21 MoAb R4/23. This is compatible with the hypothesis that soluble CD21 in the blood is mainly derived from follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Cells from a human keratinocyte cell line transfected with cDNA from the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Raji also produced soluble CD21L (sCD21L), whereas the short form of sCD21 (sCD21S) was the major component of sCD21 produced by the B lymphoblastoid cell line LICR-LON-HMy and the T cell line Jurkat. Confocal studies of FDC isolated from human tonsil revealed that CD21 was present in the cytoplasm. On gel filtration sCD21 from untreated serum has an apparent size considerably greater than the 130 kD found by SDS–PAGE analysis. This may be partly accounted for by the non-globular shape of the molecule, but may also indicate, as reported by others, that in its native state sCD21 is complexed with other proteins. However, no evidence of complexing with sCD23 or C3d could be found. PMID:9737663

  18. Partially disordered state and spin-lattice coupling in an S=3/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, M.; Yoshida, H.; Isobe, M.; de La Cruz, C.; Fishman, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    Ag2CrO2 consists of triangular lattice planes of CrO2, which are well separated by the metallic Ag2 layers. [1] This compound is an S=3/2 frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet without orbital degree of freedom. We performed neutron diffraction experiments on a powder sample of Ag2CrO2 on a neutron powder diffractometer HB-2A and a triple-axis neutron spectrometer HB-1, installed at HFIR in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With decreasing temperature, a short-range 4-sublatice spin state develops. However, a long-range partially disordered state with 5 sublattices abruptly appears at TN=24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion, and persists at least down to 2 K. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. It was found that the spin-lattice coupling is a common feature in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with multiple-sublattice spin states, since the triangular lattice is elastic. [4pt] [1] H. Yoshida et al., to appear in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

  19. Thermally induced effect on sub-band gap absorption in Ag doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Sharma, Kriti; Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    Thin films of Ag doped CdSe have been prepared by thermal evaporation using inert gas condensation (IGC) method taking Argon as inert gas. The prepared thin films are annealed at 363 K for one hour. The sub-band gap absorption spectra in the as deposited and annealed thin films have been studied using constant photocurrent method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region is described by an Urbach tail in both as deposited and annealed thin films. The value of Urbach energy and number density of trap states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region which have been found to increase after annealing treatment indicating increase in disorderness in the lattice. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has also been studied using derivative procedure of absorption coefficient.

  20. Structural and magnetic effects of Cd{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, P. Suchismita; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline CdCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} spinels with non-magnetic indium substitution were investigated with an aim to study the influence of non-magnetic substitution at the Cd site on its structural and magnetic properties. We carried out powder XRD and magnetic measurements on three compositions: Cd{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1). The XRD patterns were analyzed by carrying out Rietveld analysis and structural parameters were estimated. Phase purity of the compounds using reitveld refinement technique where confirming the indium distribution at tetrahedral site of the cubic close-packed sublattice formed by the selenium ions. The chemical compositions of these compounds were determined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Compared to parent compound, CdCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4}, the ferromagnetic Curie temperature T{sub C} was found to decrease from 130K to 123K and 114K as x varied from 0 to 0.05 and 0.1 respectively, whereas the saturation magnetization increases in Cd{sub 0.95}In{sub 0.05}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and again decreases in Cd{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4}.

  1. Employment of electrochemically synthesized TGA-CdSe quantum dots for Cr(3+) determination in vitamin supplements.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gustavo C S; de Santana, Éden E A; da Silva, Paulo A B; Freitas, Denilson V; Navarro, Marcelo; Paim, Ana Paula S; Lavorante, André F

    2015-11-01

    The fluorescence quenching of TGA-CdSe quantum dots (QDs) was used for Cr(3+) quantification in vitamin supplements. The QD was electrochemically synthesized, demonstrating high reproducibility with control of particle size, thus making it a clean method, without the presence of reducing agents. Under ideal conditions, with the fluorescence band at 551 nm (excitation 365 nm), the maximum fluorescence quenching was observed at pH 4.0, with a time of 200 s for each data acquisition. Under optimum experimental conditions, linear quenching was observed for Cr(3+) in the range of 25.0-325.0 ng L(-1) (R=0.9996, n=6), a limit of detection of 5.67 ng L(-1), and relative standard deviation of 4.43% (n=10). The recovery test for Cr(3+) quantification in vitamin supplements presented results from 82% to 98%. These Cr(3+) determination results were compared to the same vitamin supplement sample using flame atomic absortion spectrometry (FAAS) method, and no significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. PMID:26452917

  2. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  3. Complement-mediated binding of naturally glycosylated and glycosylation-modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to human CR2 (CD21).

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, D C; Stewart, K; Ahearn, J M; Zhou, J; Zhou, J

    1993-01-01

    Particulate glycoproteins lacking sialic acid, such as desialylated enveloped viruses, readily activate complement through the alternative pathway. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contains two heavily glycosylated and partially sialylated envelope glycoproteins: a surface gp120 and a transmembrane gp41. The abilities of naturally glycosylated HIV-1 and glycosylation-modified HIV-1 to interact with the complement system were examined with a biological assay which measured the binding of whole virus particles to cells expressing CR2 (CD21), the complement receptor found naturally in abundance on follicular dendritic cells and immature B cells. HIV-1 IIIB was synthesized in the presence or absence of the mannosidase II inhibitor, swainsonine, to give rise to high-mannose-type, nonsialylated, nonfucosylated carbohydrate moieties. The virus also was treated with neuraminidase or endo-beta-galactosidase to remove terminal sialic acids. An enzyme immunoassay specific for HIV-1 p24 core protein was used to quantitate the amount of virus bound to cell surfaces. Virus particles incubated with 1:3-diluted, fresh HIV-1-negative human serum as a source of complement readily bound to MT-2 (CD4+ CR2+) and Raji-3 (CD4- CR2+) cells but not to CEM (CD4+ CR2-) cells, suggesting that the virus bound to CR2 independently of CD4. Compared with heat-inactivated or C3-deficient sera, fresh complement increased binding by as much as 62 times for naturally glycosylated virus, and 5 times more than this for glycosylation-modified virus. Similar observations were made with freshly isolated, non-mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additional evidence that HIV-1 bound to CR2 independently of CD4 was provided by the fact that binding was blocked by monoclonal antibody OKB7 (anti-CR2) but not by OKT4a (anti-CD4). Also, the virus bound to transfected K562 cells (CD4-) which expressed recombinant human CR2 but did not bind to untransfected K562 cells. Results obtained

  4. [Concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and As in liver Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) captured in Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Díaz, Fernando; Serrano, Arturo; Cuervo-López, Liliana; López-Jiménez, Alejandra; Galindo, José A; Basañez-Muñoz, Agustin

    2013-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals in marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the hardest conservation issues to solve. Sharks as top predators are bioindicators of the marine ecosystem health, since they tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnify contaminants; they also represent a food source for local consumption. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the possible presence of heavy metals and a metalloid in livers of Carcharhinus limbatus. For this, a total of 19 shark livers were taken from animals captured nearby Tamihua, Veracruz, Mexico from December 2007 to April 2008. 12 out of the 19 captured sharks were males, one was an adult female, three were juvenile males, and three juvenile females. Four heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) and one metaloid (As) were analyzed in shark livers using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame and hydride generator. Our results showed that the maximum concentrations found were: Hg = 0.69 mg/kg, Cd = 0.43 mg/kg, As = 27.37 mg/kg, Cr = 0.70 mg/kg. The minimum concentrations found were: As = 14.91 mg/kg, Cr = 0.35 mg/kg. The Pb could not be determined because the samples did not have the spectrophotometer minimum detectable amount (0.1 mg/kg). None of the 19 samples analyzed showed above the permissible limits established by Mexican and American laws. There was a correlation between shark size and Cr and As concentration (Pearson test). The concentration of Cr and As was observed to be higher in bigger animals. There was not a significant difference in heavy metals concentration between juveniles and adults; however, there was a difference between males and females. A higher Cr concentration was found in females when compared to males. None of the samples exceed the maximum limit established by the laws of Mexico and the United States of America. Much longer studies are needed with C. limbatus and other species caught in the region, in order to determine the degree of contaminants exposure in aquatic ecosystems

  5. Metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Tl, and Zn) Binding to Cytosolic Biomolecules in Field-Collected Larvae of the Insect Chaoborus.

    PubMed

    Rosabal, Maikel; Mounicou, Sandra; Hare, Landis; Campbell, Peter G C

    2016-03-15

    We characterized the biomolecules involved in handling cytosolic metals in larvae of the phantom midge (Chaoborus) collected from five mining-impacted lakes by determining the distribution of Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Tl, and Zn among pools of various molecular weights (HMW: high molecular weight, >670-40 kDa; MMW: medium molecular weight, 40-<1.3 kDa; LMW: low molecular weight, <1.3 kDa). Appreciable concentrations of nonessential metals were found in the potentially metal-sensitive HMW (Ag and Ni) and LMW (Tl) pools, whereas the MMW pool, which includes metallothioneins (MTs) and metallothionein-like proteins and peptides (MTLPs), appears to be involved in Ag and Cd detoxification. Higher-resolution fractionation of the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction revealed further differences in the partitioning of nonessential metals (i.e., Ag = Cd ≠ Ni ≠ Tl). These results provide unprecedented details about the metal-handling strategies employed by a metal-tolerant, freshwater animal in a field situation. PMID:26886407

  6. Cluster formation in Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CdCl{sub 2} glass system

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.S.; Singh, N.B.

    2008-11-03

    Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20 wt% CdCl{sub 2} glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized with the help of several experimental techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction study indicated that the glasses are amorphous in nature. DSC studies showed that CdCl{sub 2} doped glass is chemically more durable. Electrical conductivity and ionic transference number measurements have shown that both the glasses are ionic conductors with Ag{sup +} ions as the charge carriers. The electrical conductivity of the doped glass is found to be higher than the undoped one. Structures of the glasses have been proposed on the basis of IR spectral analysis. From SEM studies it has been inferred that addition of 20 wt% CdCl{sub 2} modifies the morphology of Ag{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass and in its presence formation of clusters composed of nanofibers occur.

  7. Immobilization of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Mn) in the mineral additions containing concrete composites.

    PubMed

    Giergiczny, Zbigniew; Król, Anna

    2008-12-30

    The presented work determines the level of heavy metals (Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Cr+6, Cd+2, Mn+2) immobilization in the composites produced using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as well as of binders containing large amount of mineral additives in its composition-siliceous fly ash (FA), fluidized bed combustion ash (FFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Heavy metals were introduced to cementitious materials in the form of soluble salts as well as components of hazardous wastes (medical ash, metallurgical dust). It has been stated, that the level of heavy metals immobilization is combined with composites composition. Majority of analyzed heavy metals, added to binders' composition in the form of heavy metal salts achieves high level of immobilization, in mortar based on binder with 85% GGBFS and 15% OPC. The lowest immobilization level was reached for chromium Cr+6 added to hardening mortars as Na2Cr2O72H2O. The level ranges from 85.97% in mortars made on blended binder (20% OPC, 30% FFA and 50% GGBFS) to 93.33% in mortar produced on OPC. The increase of the so-called immobilization degree with time of hardened material maturing was found. This should be attributed to the pozzolanic or pozzolanic/hydraulic properties of components used; their effect on microstructure of hardened material is also important. Mineral additions enter the hydration reactions in the mixtures and favor the formation of specific microstructure promoting the immobilization of hazardous elements. PMID:18423859

  8. Cation ordering and physicochemical characterization of the quaternary diamond-like semiconductor Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetta, Carl D.; Minsterman, William C.; Lake, Charles H.; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2012-03-15

    The quaternary diamond-like semiconductor, Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4}, was synthesized via high-temperature solid-state synthesis as well as structurally and physicochemically characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction provided a model for Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} in the orthorhombic, noncentrosymmetric space group Pna2{sub 1} with a=13.7415(8) A, b=8.0367(5) A and c=6.5907(4) A, in contrast to a previously published model in Pmn2{sub 1} from the Rietveld analysis of laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. The Pna2{sub 1} space group is supported by the Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Differential thermal analysis suggests that Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} exists in two polymorphs. Optical diffuse reflectance UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy indicates that the orange compound is a semiconductor with a band gap of 2.32 eV. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy were used to further characterize the material. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the diamond-like semiconductor Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} has been solved and refined in the orthorhombic noncentrosymmetric space group Pna2{sub 1}. A view down the a-axis shows that all MS{sub 4} tetrahedra are pointing in the same direction along the c-axis. The structure can be derived from that of lonsdaleite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} is solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure is supported by the Rietveld analysis of synchrotron diffraction data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} is a semiconductor with an optical band gap of 2.32 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Additional characterization is reported.

  9. Organochlorine residue and toxic metal (Pb, Cd and Cr) levels in the surface sediments of the Marmara Sea and the coast of Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksu, A; Taşkin, O S

    2012-05-01

    In this study, organochlorine and toxic metal (Pb, Cd and Cr) analyses have been done in the surface sediments. Sediment samples have been collected from 7 parts of the Marmara Sea and the coast of Istanbul during 2009. Total Pb, Cd and Cr contents vary between 32 μg g(-1) and 122 μg g(-1); 0.19 μg g(-1) and 1.16 μg g(-1); 62 μg g(-1) and 372 μg g(-1), respectively. EF values of Pb and Cr are higher than 1.5 in all the stations. EF value of Cd is considerably high at Station MY1 (Tuzla Port). Total organochlorine residue contents range between 4.33 ng g(-1) and 22.2 ng g(-1) in the surface sediments. PMID:22421429

  10. Draft genomic sequence of a chromate- and sulfate-reducing Alishewanella strain with the ability to bioremediate Cr and Cd contamination.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xian; Li, Jiahong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhou, Gaoting; Wang, Hui; Li, Liqiong; Xu, Biao; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Alishewanella sp. WH16-1 (= CCTCC M201507) is a facultative anaerobic, motile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from soil of a copper and iron mine. This strain efficiently reduces chromate (Cr(6+)) to the much less toxic Cr(3+). In addition, it reduces sulfate (SO4 (2-)) to S(2-). The S(2-) could react with Cd(2+) to generate precipitated CdS. Thus, strain WH16-1 shows a great potential to bioremediate Cr and Cd contaimination. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and comparative genomic results among strain WH16-1 and other Alishewanella strains. The genome comprises 3,488,867 bp, 50.4 % G + C content, 3,132 protein-coding genes and 80 RNA genes. Both putative chromate- and sulfate-reducing genes are identified. PMID:27499827

  11. Isolating the Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 binding site on complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21).

    PubMed

    Young, Kendra A; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Holers, V Michael; Hannan, Jonathan P

    2007-12-14

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) is essential for the attachment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the surface of B-lymphocytes in an interaction mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein gp350. The heavily glycosylated structure of EBV gp350 has recently been elucidated by x-ray crystallography, and the CR2 binding site on this protein has been characterized. To identify the corresponding gp350 binding site on CR2, we have undertaken a site-directed mutagenesis study targeting regions of CR2 that have previously been implicated in the binding of CR2 to the C3d/C3dg fragments of complement component C3. Wild-type or mutant forms of CR2 were expressed on K562 cells, and the ability of these CR2-expressing cells to bind gp350 was measured using flow cytometry. Mutations directed toward the two N-terminal extracellular domains of CR2 (SCR1-2) reveal that a large contiguous surface of CR2 SCR1-2 is involved in gp350 binding, including a number of positively charged residues (Arg-13, (Arg-28, (Arg-36, Lys-41, Lys-57, Lys-67, and Arg-83). These data appear to complement the CR2 binding site on gp350, which is characterized by a preponderance of negative charge. In addition to identifying the importance of charge in the formation of a CR2-gp350 complex, we also provide evidence that both SCR1 and SCR2 make contact with gp350. Specifically, two anti-CR2 monoclonal antibodies, designated as monoclonal antibodies 171 and 1048 whose primary epitopes are located within SCR2, inhibit binding of wild-type CR2 to EBV gp350; with regard to SCR1, both K562 cells expressing an S15P mutation and recombinant S15P CR2 proteins exhibit diminished gp350 binding. PMID:17925391

  12. Relationship between geographical origin and contents of Pb, Cd, and Cr in honey samples from the state of Paraná (Brazil) with chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Kulek; dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Felsner, Maria Lurdes; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trace elements, Pb, Cd, and Cr in honey samples from eight different regions from the state of Paraná (Brazil), using slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Chemometric analysis (principal component analysis (PCA)) was applied to classify honey samples according to their levels of the trace elements Pb, Cd, and Cr, which is also related to the geographical origin of honey samples. The mean concentration for the elements followed the order Pb > Cr > > Cd. The mean values were 200 ± 76, 88 ± 14, and 4.1 ± 4 ng g(-1) for Pb, Cr, and Cd, respectively. It could be verified that honey samples are geographically separated, especially with regard to Pb and Cd contents. Thus, honey can be considered a bioindicator of environmental contamination, suggesting possible contamination in soil, water, and air. This contamination can be related to natural or anthropogenic sources present in the study regions. PMID:24938816

  13. Effects of salinity, temperature and food type on the uptake and elimination rates of cd, cr, and zn in the asiatic clam corbicula fluminea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Byeong-Gweon

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory radiotracer experiments were conducted to determine assimilation efficiencies (AE) from ingested algal food and oxic sediment particles, uptake rates from the dissolved phase, and the efflux rates of Cd, Cr and Zn in the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea. Among three elements, AE from both algal and sediment food was greatest for Cd, followed by Zn and Cr. The AEs of tested elements from algal food (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were consistently higher than those from sediments at a given salinity and temperature. The influence of salinity (0, 4 and 8 psu) and temperature (5, 13 and 21¼) on the metal AEs was not evident for most tested elements, except Cd AEs from sediment. The rate constant of metal uptake from the dissolved phase ( k u was greatest for Cd, followed by Zn and Cr in freshwater media. However, in saline water, the k u of Zn were greater than those of Cd. The influx rate of all tested metals increased with temperature. The efflux rate constant was greatest for Cr (0.02 d-1), followed by Zn (0.010~0.017 d-1) and Cd (0.006 d-1). The efflux rate constant for Zn in clam tissues depurated in 0 psu (0.017 d-1) was faster than that in 8 psu (0.010 d-1). Overall results showed that the variation of salinity and temperature in estuarine systems can considerably influence the metal bioaccumulation potential in the estuarine clam C. fluminea. The relatively high Cd accumulation capacity of C. fluminea characterized by the high AE, high dissolved influx rate and low efflux rate, suggested that this clam species can be used as an efficient biomonitor for the Cd contamination in freshwater and estuarine environments.

  14. Occupational exposures to Cd, Ni, and Cr modulate titers of antioxidized DNA base autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, K; Karkoszka, J; Cohen, B; Barański, B; Jakubowski, M; Cosma, G; Taioli, E; Toniolo, P

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether occupational exposures to derivatives of carcinogenic metals evoke inflammatory immune responses, as determined by the presence of elevated titers of antibodies (Ab) that recognize oxidized DNA bases. Sera obtained from the blood of steel welders (Delaware) and from workers of the Centra Ni-Cd Battery Factory (Poznań, Poland) were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine specific and nonspecific binding, an oxidized thymidine [5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU)] coupled to bovine serum albumin (HMdU-BSA) as well as mock-coupled BSA (M-BSA) were used as antigens for coating the wells of microtiter plates. Titers of anti-HMdU Ab were significantly elevated in the high Cd and Ni exposure groups (18.3 +/- 3.2 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 A492/microliters; p < 0.05). The sera of the groups with low exposures to Cd and Ni also had enhanced titers of those Ab but those increases were not statistically significant. Interestingly, the Ab titers present in the sera of controls for Cd and Ni exposures appear to be constant regardless of the protein content. In contrast, both lightly and heavily exposed subjects exhibited Ab titers that increased with increasing protein content. When 12 randomly selected workers (4 from each of the control, lightly, and heavily exposed groups) were outfitted with personal monitors, anti-HMdU Ab titers of those workers showed a significant difference between the groups with light (< 100 micrograms/m3) and heavy (> 200 micrograms/m3) exposures to Cd (9.8 +/- 3.7 vs 22.1 +/- 3.7 A492/microliters; p < 0.01) and Ni (11.7 +/- 1.4 vs 31.0 +/- 1.8; p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843102

  15. Structural requirements for C3d,g/Epstein-Barr virus receptor (CR2/CD21) ligand binding, internalization, and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Carel, J C; Myones, B L; Frazier, B; Holers, V M

    1990-07-25

    The structure of CR2, the human C3d,g/EBV receptor (CR2/CD21) consists of 15 or 16 60-70 amino acid repeats called short consensus repeats (SCRs) followed by a transmembrane and a 34-amino acid intracytoplasmic domain. Functions of CR2 include binding the human complement component C3d,g when it is covalently attached to targets or cross-linked in the fluid phase. In addition, CR2 binds the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and mediates internalization of EBV and subsequent infection of cells. In order to explore functional roles of the repetitive extracytoplasmic SCR structure and the intracytoplasmic domain of CR2, we have created truncated CR2 (rCR2) mutants bearing serial deletions of extracytoplasmic SCRs and also the intracytoplasmic tail. We then stably transfected these rCR2 mutants into two cell lines, murine fibroblast L cells and human erythroleukemic K562 cells. Phenotypic analysis of these expressed mutants revealed that 1) The C3d,g- and EBV-binding sites are found in the two amino-terminal SCRs of CR2, 2) expression of SCRs 3 and 4 is further required for high affinity binding to soluble cross-linked C3d,g, 3) the intracytoplasmic domain of CR2 is not required for binding C3d,g or EBV but is necessary for internalization of cross-linked C3d,g as well as for EBV infection of cells, 4) monoclonal anti-CR2 antibodies with similar activities react with single widely separated epitopes, and 5) no functional roles can yet be clearly assigned to SCRs 5-15, as rCR2 mutants not containing these SCRs show no major differences from wild-type rCR2 in binding or internalizing cross-linked C3d,g or mediating EBV binding and infection. PMID:1695627

  16. Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis. PMID:23451151

  17. Toxic effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) on seed germination and growth and DPPH-scavenging activity in Brassica rapa var. turnip.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Maryam Mehmood; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Mohammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-04-01

    Toxicity of heavy metal is a wide spread environmental problem affecting all life forms including plants. In the present study the toxic effects of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on seed germination rate (%), germination index (G-index) and growth (mm) of Brassica rapa var. turnip have been investigated. The seeds were soaked either in distilled water (control) or in aqueous solutions of Cd, Cr and Pb (1 g/l, 2.5 g/l and 5 g/l) at 4°C in dark for 24 hours. Prior to inoculation onto MS0 medium, the soaked seeds were either washed with sterile distilled water or inoculated without washing on solidified MS0 medium at 25 ± 2°C with 16/8-hour photoperiod in a growth chamber to germinate in vitro. Such stress conditions revealed that by increasing the concentration of heavy metals, the germination rate (%), G-index value and growth (mm) decreased significantly, suggesting their toxic effect on B. rapa var. turnip. This study further revealed that experiment with seed washing resulted in less toxicity of selected heavy metals on germination and growth of B. rapa var. turnip, as compared to experiment without washing. However, the resulting toxicity order of the selected heavy metals remained the same (Cd > Cr > Pb). Significant decrease has been observed in seed viability and germination potential and finally heavy metals completely ceased further growth and development of plants. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity revealed that significantly higher activity was observed in control plants without heavy metals treatment. Furthermore, the Cd-treated plants showed decreased antioxidant activity. Cr and Pb were less toxic as compared to Cd (control > Pb > Cr > Cd). This study revealed that selected heavy metals not only affected plant development but also disturbed plant metabolic pathways. PMID:22872632

  18. Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Fargasova, A. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Heavy metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) contamination in urban areas and wildlife reserves: honeybees as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Manera, Maurizio; Grotta, Lisa; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2011-05-01

    The degree of heavy metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) pollution in honeybees (Apis mellifera) was investigated in several sampling sites around central Italy including both polluted and wildlife areas. The honeybee readily inhabits all environmental compartments, such as soil, vegetation, air, and water, and actively forages the area around the hive. Therefore, if it functions in a polluted environment, plant products used by bees may also be contaminated, and as a result, also a part of these pollutants will accumulate in the organism. The bees, foragers in particular, are good biological indicators that quickly detect the chemical impairment of the environment by the high mortality and the presence of pollutants in their body or in beehive products. The experiment was carried out using 24 colonies of honeybees bred in hives dislocated whether within urban areas or in wide countryside areas. Metals were analyzed on the foragers during all spring and summer seasons, when the bees were active. Results showed no presence of mercury in all samples analyzed, but honeybees accumulated several amounts of lead, chromium, and cadmium. Pb reported a statistically significant difference among the stations located in urban areas and those in the natural reserves, showing the highest values in honeybees collected from hives located in Ciampino area (Rome), next to the airport. The mean value for this sampling station was 0.52 mg kg(-1), and July and September were characterized by the highest concentrations of Pb. Cd also showed statistically significant differences among areas, while for Cr no statistically significant differences were found. PMID:20393811

  20. Effects of the preparation method on the structure and the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag2CrO4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Difa; Cao, Shaowen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Silver chromate (Ag2CrO4) photocatalysts are prepared by microemulsion, precipitation, and hydrothermal methods, in order to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the structure and the visible-light photocatalytic activity. It is found that the photocatalytic activity of the prepared Ag2CrO4was highly dependent on the preparation methods. The sample prepared by microemulsion method exhibits the highest photocatalytic efficiency on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the smaller particle size, higher surface area, relatively stronger light absorption, and blue-shift absorption edge, which result in the adsorption of more MB molecules, a shorter diffusion process of more photogenerated excitons, and a stronger oxidation ability of the photogenerated holes. Considering the universalities of microemulsion, precipitation, and hydrothermal methods, this work may also provide a prototype for the comparative study of semiconductor based photocatalysis for water purification and environmental remediation. PMID:24991502

  1. Multi-functional TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx coatings for low-emissivity and hydrophilic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Park, Kyoung Ryeol; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Multi-functional (coatings with some additional functional properties such as high transparency, antireflection, hydrophilicity and antifogging) coatings are indispensable for the modern energy saving systems. In this regard, we deposited TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx multilayer thin films on soda-lime glass by using RF and DC magnetron sputtering to achieve a multi-functional thin film stack with the combination low-emissivity (low-e) and hydrophilicity properties in addition to the high transparency. Primary deposition of Ag(Cr)/TiNx was tried for the low-e effect and successfully obtained a very low emissivity value of 0.067, and then Si and TiO2 films with different bandgap were subsequently deposited to provide the hydrophilic properties. X-ray diffraction results revealed the anatase phase formation of TiO2 after annealing the films at 673 K by using the rapid thermal annealing system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was carried out to determine the chemical composition and elemental depth distribution. The multilayer stack exhibited superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of about 5° after irradiation by UV light. A Heterojunction film with wide and narrow bandgap semiconductor materials was effective to improve the hydrophilicity. The films exhibited a high visible transmittance (∼85.5%, at 550 nm) and low infrared transmittance (7%, at 2000 nm) including low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  2. Optical Characterization and 2,525 micron Lasing of Cr(2+):Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. R.; Wu, X.; Hoemmerich, U.; Trivedi, S. B.; Grasza, K.; Yu, Z.

    1997-01-01

    static acentric electric crystal field or the coupling of asymmetric phonons can force electric-dipole transitions by the admixture of wave functions with opposite parity. Tetrahedral sites lack inversion symmetry which provides the odd-parity field necessary to relax the parity selection rule. Therefore, high absorption and emission cross sections are observed. An enhanced radiative emission rate is also expected to reduce the detrimental effect of non-radiative decay. Motivated by the initial results on Cr doped ZnS and ZnSe, we have started a comprehensive effort to study Cr(2+) doped II-VI semiconductors for solid-state laser applications. In this paper we present the optical properties and the demonstration of mid-infrared lasing from Cr doped Cd(0.85)Mn(0.15)Te.

  3. Evolution of spin phonon coupling by substituting Cd for Zn in the frustrated spinel ZnCr2Se4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuliang; Yang, Zhaorong

    2016-05-01

    Frustration makes a tremendous amount of degenerate ground states which provides no energy scale of its own. Any perturbation has to be considered strong and fascinating phenomena may be emergent upon relieving of frustration. Here, we report the evolution of spin phonon coupling in the frustrated spinel system Zn1-xCdxCr2Se4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) from magnetization, specific heat and thermal conductivity. Our results give clear evidences that the spin-orientated structural transitions decay rapidly as x going from 0 to 0.4 while the correlations between spin and lattice degrees of freedom for 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1 become weak and can be explained in terms of the traditional magnetostriction effect. In addition, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 thermal carriers reveal strong scattering from spin fluctuations in the vicinity of TN owing to strong frustration, in stark contrast with those for 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1 where traditional phonon-like heat conduction behaviors are observed. Moreover, it is shown that a moderate applied magnetic field can drive readily the fluctuations-scattered thermal conductivity toward traditional phonon-like one as observed in CdCr2Se4, reaching about 30% for x = 0.4 at 25 K in 1 T. Such strong field-sensitive effects may introduce new promising functionalities for potential applications.

  4. Behaviour of Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sewage sludge incineration by fluidised bed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Marani, D.; Braguglia, C.M.; Mininni, G.; Maccioni, F

    2003-07-01

    Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn behaviour during sewage sludge incineration was investigated in seven pilot tests using a circulating fluidised bed furnace. Dewatered sludge at a solids concentration of 15-18% was fed to the furnace either alone (two tests) or spiked with chlorinated organic compounds (five tests). The behaviour of metals in the fluidised bed furnace was studied by comparing metal concentrations in the two main ash streams: ash separated from the cyclone immediately following the fluidised bed furnace, and fly ash recovered in the final bag filter. A metal enrichment factor was defined as the ratio of metal concentration between filter ash and cyclone ash. Only Cd and Pb showed any significant enrichment. Their enrichment factors were mainly affected by chlorine concentration in the feed sludge. To check whether simple equilibrium models may explain and predict metal behaviour, experimental data were compared with percentage of the metal vaporisation in the combustion chamber predicted using a thermodynamic model. Discrepancies between model predictions and experimental results are accounted for by considering that kinetics may be a limiting factor in the formation of metal chloride gaseous species. Due to the very short sludge residence time in the fluidised bed furnace, the gaseous compounds have little chance to evolve completely.

  5. A survey of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se in earthworms and soil from diverse sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Cromartie, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Earthworms and soils were collected from 20 diverse sites in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and were analyzed for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, and Se. Correlation coefficients relating Iconcentrations of the elements in earthworms to concentrations in soil were low (-0.20Cd (23 ppm) and Se (7.6 ppm) detected in earthworms were in the range reported to be toxic to animals fed diets containing these elements; however, even in the absence of any environmental contamination, some species of earthworms may contain high concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Se. Earthworms of the genus Eisenoides, for example, were exceptional in their ability to concentrate Pb. When earthworms are used as indicators of environmental contamination, it is important to identify the species, to report the soil characteristics, and to collect similar earthworms from very similar but uncontaminated soil.

  6. Antioxidative role of selenium against the toxic effect of heavy metals (Cd+2, Cr+3) on liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792).

    PubMed

    Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Orun, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Ilknur; Erdogan, Kenan; Alkan, Aysel; Yilmaz, Ismet

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of Cd+2, Cr+3 and Se metals on biochemical parameters in liver tissue of Oncorhynchus mykiss. The rainbow trout were exposed to heavy metal stress (Cd+2, Cr+3) at 2 ppm dosage. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of selenium treatment at the same dosage (2 ppm) on some biochemical parameters. The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the changes in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) from biochemical parameters were determined in liver tissue of the fish groups exposed to heavy metals, especially for the selenium-applied groups. Results of this study showed that the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in the tissues of fish exposed to the stress of Cd+2 and Cr+3 were significantly lower than the control groups (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the closer values to the control groups were obtained in selenium-added groups (Cr+3 + Se+4, Cd+2 + Se+4). For the level of MDA, the last production of lipid peroxidation showed increases (P < 0.05) in the groups exposed to the metal stress, whereas significant decreases were obtained in selenium-applied groups. The result of the statistical evaluation showed that the negative effects occurring in the biochemical parameters of the applied groups exposed to the toxicity of heavy metal were significantly eliminated (P < 0.05) as a result of selenium treatment. PMID:18665459

  7. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26503637

  8. Adaptively Evolving Bacterial Communities for Complete and Selective Reduction of Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Cd(II) in Biocathode Bioelectrochemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Linjie; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-08-18

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been shown to be useful in removing individual metals from solutions, but effective treatment of electroplating and mining wastewaters requires simultaneous removal of several metals in a single system. To develop multiple-reactor BESs for metals removal, biocathodes were first individually acclimated to three different metals using microbial fuel cells with Cr(VI) or Cu(II) as these metals have relatively high redox potentials, and microbial electrolysis cells for reducing Cd(II) as this metal has a more negative redox potential. The BESs were then acclimated to low concentrations of a mixture of metals, followed by more elevated concentrations. This procedure resulted in complete and selective metal reduction at rates of 1.24 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cr(VI), 1.07 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cu(II), and 0.98 ± 0.01 mg/L-h for Cd(II). These reduction rates were larger than the no adaptive controls by factors of 2.5 for Cr(VI), 2.9 for Cu(II), and 3.6 for Cd(II). This adaptive procedure produced less diverse microbial communities and changes in the microbial communities at the phylum and genus levels. These results demonstrated that bacterial communities can adaptively evolve to utilize solutions containing mixtures of metals, providing a strategy for remediating wastewaters containing Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Cd(II). PMID:26175284

  9. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  10. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from Sediment, Followed by FAAS and GFAAS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Aparecida M S; Oliveira, Marcone A L; Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Silva, Julio C J

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasound method for simultaneous extraction of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from sediment, and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was proposed. The experimental results obtained using analytical curves and the method of standard additions agreed at a confidence level of 95% for all the analytes, as determined by FAAS and GFAAS, indicating no significant matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1 to 93.7% (certified reference material) and from 89 to 107% (spike tests). The LOD and LOQ results from the method were consistent with the techniques used (FAAS and GFAAS), with high analytical throughput. The proposed method was then used to determine Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in river sediment samples from Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results indicated levels below those permitted by Brazilian legislation for all the analytes, with the exception of Cr. PMID:26851077

  11. Effect of large additions of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, to cement raw meal on the composition and the properties of the clinker and the cement

    SciTech Connect

    Murat, M.; Sorrentino, F.

    1996-03-01

    The utilization of hydraulic binders to solidify and to stabilize industrial wastes and municipal garbage is presently recognized as one of the solutions to the problem of environment protection. Te addition of important quantities of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn to raw meals of Portland and calcium aluminate cement modifies the mineralogical composition and the properties of the final cement. Portland cement can absorb a large amount of Cd and Zn. This absorption leads to an increase of setting time and a decrease of strengths of the cement. It also can trap chromium with a short setting time and high strengths. Calcium aluminate cements easily trap Cd and Cr with a delayed setting and good strength but also Pb with normal setting time and strengths. Large quantities of zinc oxide have a deleterious effect on calcium aluminate strengths.

  12. Comparison of the protective effects of antioxidant compounds in the liver and kidney of Cd- and Cr-exposed common carp.

    PubMed

    Karaytug, Sahire; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Karayakar, Fahri

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether the taurine (TAU), alpha-lipoic acid (LA), curcumin (CUR), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protection against oxidative stress caused by heavy metals is owed to the metal-decreasing or antioxidative effect. In this context, liver and kidney tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) were exposed in vivo to model toxicants cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). The tissues were dissected 96 h after intraperitoneal injection of the metals and antioxidant substances. Cd and Cr levels were determined in the liver using the ICP-OES, but we could not obtain enough kidney tissue to make the same measurements in the kidney. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx, and the GSH redox status and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. Of all investigated antioxidants, only NAC decreased metal levels in the liver. Cd had little effect on oxidative stress parameters, while Cr showed a weak prooxidative effect. Cotreatment with TAU/LA/CUR/NAC and Cr significantly increased liver SOD activity. Chromium induced kidney SOD and CAT, but all antioxidants lowered CAT activity. Cadmium reduced liver and increased kidney GSSG. NAC increased liver GSH, but the increase did not correlate with decrease in Cd. Curcumin given with Cd increased kidney and decreased liver lipid peroxidation, whereas TAU with Cr increased lipid peroxidation in both tissues. N-Acetylcysteine was the most effective antioxidative agent, owing to its metal-decreasing function as well as to its effects on the GSH redox status. We believe that the investigated antioxidant substances which may have been involved in the reduction of Cr caused an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in CAT activity. Changes in the GSSG levels in both tissues might be an adaptive response to the prooxidative potential of Cd. Because of their respective tissue- and metal-dependent prooxidative effects, CUR and TAU deserve particular attention in regard to

  13. Fluorometric sensing of ultralow As(III) concentrations using Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been an important global issue in recent years. Because of the high level toxicity of arsenic to human health, an easy, inexpensive, low level and highly selective detection technique is of great importance to take any early precautions. This study reports the synthesis of Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer (Ag-h-CdS/ZnS) nanoparticles for the easy fluorometric determination of As(iii) ions in the aqueous phase. The hollow bi-layer structures were synthesized by a sacrificial core method using AgBr as the sacrificial core and the core was removed by dissolution in an ammonium hydroxide solution. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different instrumental techniques. A good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence quenching intensity and As(iii) concentration in the range of 0.75-22.5 μg L(-1) at neutral pH with a limit of detection as low as 0.226 μg L(-1). PMID:26541652

  14. Studies of the spin Hamiltonian parameters and defect structures for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Shao-Yi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Xian-Fen; He, Jia-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g//, g⊥, hyperfine structure constants A//, A⊥ and superhyperfine parameters Az‧, Ax‧ and Ay‧) and defect structures for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3 crystals are theoretically studied using the improved perturbation formulas of these quantities for a 4d9 ion in a tetragonally elongated octahedron. The contributions from both the crystal-field and charge transfer mechanisms are taken into account, and the relevant model parameters are quantitatively obtained from the cluster approach in a consistent way. The impurity centers are found to undergo the relative tetragonal elongations of about 9.4% and 8.2% for Ag2+ in NaF and CsCdF3, respectively, along the C4 axis due to the Jahn-Teller effect. By employing the few adjustable parameters, the calculated spin Hamiltonian parameters based on the above uniform formulas and the local tetragonal elongation distortions agree well with the experimental data. Despite dominant ionicity of the hosts, the charge transfer contributions are actually important to the spin Hamiltonian parameters (e.g., about 20% for the g-shifts) due to strong covalency of impurity Ag2+.

  15. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).

    PubMed

    Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

  16. Partially disordered state and spin-lattice coupling in an S=3/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Yoshida, H.; Isobe, M.; De la cruz, Clarina; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2012-01-01

    Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 2} is an S = 3/2 frustrated triangular lattice antiferromagnet without an orbital degree of freedom. With decreasing temperature, a four-sublattice spin state develops. However, a long-range partially disordered state with five sublattices abruptly appears at T{sub N} = 24 K, accompanied by a structural distortion, and persists at least down to 2 K. The spin-lattice coupling stabilizes the anomalous state, which is expected to appear only in limited ranges of further-neighbor interactions and temperature. It was found that the spin-lattice coupling is a common feature in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with multiple-sublattice spin states, since the triangular lattice is elastic.

  17. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Ledin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH~8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >7) decreased their removal. The presence of both 20 and 100mg/L HA suppressed the heavy metal removal except for Cr, and the suppression was higher at the higher HA concentration. Geochemical simulations suggest that this is due to the formation of dissolved HA-metal complexes preventing effective metal sorption. In the case of Cr, the presence of HA increased the removal when using alumina or BCS, while hindering the removal when using GAC. The findings show that the pH-value of the stormwater to be treated must be in the range of 6-7 in order to achieve removal of the full spectrum of metals. The results also show that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads of natural organic acids during the pollen season in spring or during defoliation in autumn and early winter, and during mixing of runoff with snowmelt having a low pH. PMID:27213673

  18. Uptake and loss kinetics of Cd, Cr and Zn in the bivalves Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica: Effects of size and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, B.-G.; Wallace, W.G.; Luoma, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotracer studies were employed to quantitatively compare the biokinetics of uptake from the dissolved phase (influx rates) and loss (efflux) between 2 bivalves, Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica, and among the metals Cd, Cr and Zn. Effects of salinity on influx rate were evaluated in these 2 highly euryhaline species as were effects of animal size on uptake and loss. Metal speciation and biological attributes interacted to differentiate bioaccumulation processes among metals and between species. Influx rates of the 3 metals (??g g-1 [dry wt] d-1) increased linearly with dissolved metal concentrations. Influx rates of Zn in both clams were 3 to 4x those for Cd and 15x those for Cr. However, influx on the basis of free ion activities would be faster for Cd than for Zn. Relative influx rates among the metals were similar in the 2 bivalves. But, absolute influx rates of all 3 metals were 4 to 5x greater in P. amurensis than in M. balthica, probably because of differences in biological attributes (i.e. clearance rate or gill surface area). As salinity was reduced from 30 to 5 psu, the influx rate of Cd for P. amurensis increased 4-fold and that for M. balthica increased 6-fold, consistent with expected changes in speciation. However the influx rates of Cr in both clams also increased 2.4-fold over the same range, indicating a biological contribution to the salinity effect. Influx rates of Zn were not significantly affected by salinity. Weight specific metal influx rates (??g g-1 [dry wt] d-1) were negatively correlated with the tissue dry weight of the clams, but most rate constants determining physiological turnover of assimilated metals were not affected by clam size. The exception was the rate constant for Cd loss, which resulted in faster turnover in large M. balthica than in smaller clams. The rate constant of loss for P. amurensis increased in the order of Cd (0.011 d-1) < Zn (0.027 d-1) < Cr (0.048 d-1). This was different from the hierarchy of rate

  19. Effects of metal-bearing nanoparticles (Ag, Au, CdS, ZnO, SiO2) on developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lacave, José María; Retuerto, Ander; Vicario-Parés, Unai; Gilliland, Douglas; Oron, Miriam; Cajaraville, Miren P; Orbea, Amaia

    2016-08-12

    Due to the increasing commercialization of consumer and industrial products containing nanoparticles (NPs), an increase in the introduction of these materials into the environment is expected. NP toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on multiple biotic and abiotic factors, resulting in an unlimited number of combinations impossible to test in practice. The zebrafish embryo model offers a useful screening tool to test and rank the toxicity of nanomaterials according to those diverse factors. This work aims to study the acute and sublethal toxicity of a set of metal-bearing NPs displaying different properties, in comparison to that of the ionic and bulk forms of the metals, in order to establish a toxicity ranking. Soluble NPs (Ag, CdS and ZnO) showed the highest acute and sublethal toxicity, with LC50 values as low as 0.529 mg Ag l(-1) for Ag NPs of 20 nm, and a significant increase in the malformation prevalence in embryos exposed to 0.1 mg Cd l(-1) of CdS NPs of ∼4 nm. For insoluble NPs, like SiO2 NPs, acute effects were not observed during early embryo development due to the protective effect of the chorion. But effects on larvae could be expected, since deposition of fluorescent SiO2 NPs over the gill lamella and excretion through the intestine were observed after hatching. In other cases, such as for gold NPs, the toxicity could be attributed to the presence of additives (sodium citrate) in the NP suspension, as they displayed a similar toxicity when tested separately. Overall, the results indicated that toxicity to zebrafish embryos depends primarily on the chemical composition and, thus, the solubility of the NPs. Other characteristics, such as size, played a secondary role. This was supported by the observation that ionic forms of the metals were always more toxic than the nano forms, and bulk forms were the least toxic to the developing zebrafish embryos. PMID:27363512

  20. Effects of metal-bearing nanoparticles (Ag, Au, CdS, ZnO, SiO2) on developing zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Lacave, José; Retuerto, Ander; Vicario-Parés, Unai; Gilliland, Douglas; Oron, Miriam; Cajaraville, Miren P.; Orbea, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing commercialization of consumer and industrial products containing nanoparticles (NPs), an increase in the introduction of these materials into the environment is expected. NP toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on multiple biotic and abiotic factors, resulting in an unlimited number of combinations impossible to test in practice. The zebrafish embryo model offers a useful screening tool to test and rank the toxicity of nanomaterials according to those diverse factors. This work aims to study the acute and sublethal toxicity of a set of metal-bearing NPs displaying different properties, in comparison to that of the ionic and bulk forms of the metals, in order to establish a toxicity ranking. Soluble NPs (Ag, CdS and ZnO) showed the highest acute and sublethal toxicity, with LC50 values as low as 0.529 mg Ag l‑1 for Ag NPs of 20 nm, and a significant increase in the malformation prevalence in embryos exposed to 0.1 mg Cd l‑1 of CdS NPs of ∼4 nm. For insoluble NPs, like SiO2 NPs, acute effects were not observed during early embryo development due to the protective effect of the chorion. But effects on larvae could be expected, since deposition of fluorescent SiO2 NPs over the gill lamella and excretion through the intestine were observed after hatching. In other cases, such as for gold NPs, the toxicity could be attributed to the presence of additives (sodium citrate) in the NP suspension, as they displayed a similar toxicity when tested separately. Overall, the results indicated that toxicity to zebrafish embryos depends primarily on the chemical composition and, thus, the solubility of the NPs. Other characteristics, such as size, played a secondary role. This was supported by the observation that ionic forms of the metals were always more toxic than the nano forms, and bulk forms were the least toxic to the developing zebrafish embryos.

  1. Solubility of chlorargyrite (AgCl(cr./l.)) in water: New experimental data and a predictive model valid for a wide range of temperatures (273-873 K) and water densities (0.01-1 g·cm-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Zotov, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of chlorargyrite, AgCl(cr./l.), in pure water at 623, 673 and 753 (±2) K as a function of pressure in a wide range aqueous densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3) was determined using various experimental approaches. Combined theoretical quantum chemistry simulations of Ag speciation and structure with a recently developed equation of state (EoS) for aqueous neutral species (Akinfiev and Diamond, 2003) were applied to describe published and newly made AgCl(cr./l.) solubility measurements in water. The use of the employed EoS for AgCl(H2O)(aq) cluster is found out to provide a good description of the whole set of experimental measurements in a wide range of temperatures (273-753 K), water densities (0.01-0.7 g·cm-3), and pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. Also, the proposed AgCl(H2O)(aq) thermodynamic description is proved to be valid for a dense aqueous fluid (0.7-1 g·cm-3) at 273-623 K and saturation water pressure. Although silver obviously shows greater affinity to dense aqueous fluid, AgCl hydration in the vapour phase is demonstrated to be also significant. A model extrapolation to magmatic conditions predicts an appreciable silver content even in low density fluids, thus supporting the hypothesis of metal transport with vapour.

  2. The effect of TiO{sub 2} and Ag nanoparticles on reproduction and development of Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Philbrook, Nicola A.; Winn, Louise M.; Afrooz, A.R.M. Nabiul; Saleh, Navid B.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2011-12-15

    In the last two decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and silver (Ag) NPs are both found in cosmetics and foods, but their increasing use is of concern due to their ability to be taken up by biological systems. While there are some reports of TiO{sub 2} and Ag NPs affecting complex organisms, their effects on reproduction and development have been largely understudied. Here, the effects of orally administered TiO{sub 2} or Ag NPs on reproduction and development in two different model organisms were investigated. TiO{sub 2} NPs reduced the developmental success of CD-1 mice after a single oral dose of 100 or 1000 mg/kg to dams, resulting in a statistically significant increase in fetal deformities and mortality. Similarly, TiO{sub 2} NP addition to food led to a significant progeny loss in the fruit fly, Drosophila, as shown by a decline in female fecundity. Ag NP administration resulted in an increase in the mortality of fetal mice. Similarly in Drosophila, Ag NP feeding led to a significant decrease in developmental success, but unlike TiO{sub 2} NP treatment, there was no decline in fecundity. The distinct response associated with each type of NP likely reflects differences in NP administration as well as the biology of the particular model. Taken together, however, this study warns that these common NPs could be detrimental to the reproductive and developmental health of both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  3. A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide as a fluorescent probe for Ag+ in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanmei; Zhou, Hua; Ma, Tongsen; Zhang, Junli; Niu, Jingyang

    2012-03-01

    A new Schiff base based on vanillin and naphthalimide was designed and synthesized as fluorescent probe. The probe showed high selectivity for Ag+ over other metal ions such as Pb2+, Na+, K+, Cd2+, Ba2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution. A new fluorescence emission was observed at 682 nm in the presence of Ag+ ion. The fluorescence intensity quenched with increasing the concentration of Ag+ at 682 nm. The method of job's plot confirmed the 1:2 complex between Ag+ and probe, and the mechanism was proposed.

  4. Influence of technological defects on the optical and photoelectric properties of AgCd{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}GaSe{sub 4} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyak, A. P. Davydyuk, H. Ye.; Bozhko, V. V.; Bulatetska, L. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2012-03-15

    The study is concerned with the photoelectric and optical properties of a AgCd{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}GaSe{sub 4} alloy with a Mn {yields} Cd isovalent substitution. The positions of the photoconductivity and photoluminescence peaks are determined, and the band gap of the alloy is estimated, based on compositional analysis. The influence of technological defects on specific features of the alloy's photoelectric and optical properties is analyzed. It is established that the centers controlling the alloy crystals' photosensitivity are cation vacancies. The photoluminescence centers responsible for emission at awavelengths from 0.77 to 0.88 {mu}m (dependent on the relation between components in the alloy) are defect complexes consisting of cation and anion vacancies. A physically consistent model is proposed to interpret the effects observed in the alloy.

  5. Toxicity and critical body residues of Cd, Cu and Cr in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Müller) based on lethal and sublethal effects.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Martínez-Madrid, Maite; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate critical body residues (CBRs) of three metals [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr)] in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex based on lethal (LBR) and sublethal effects (CBR), and to discuss the relevance of the exposure to sediment for deriving CBR. Toxicity parameters (LC50, EC50, LBR50 and CBR50) were estimated for each metal by means of data on survival and on several sublethal variables measured in short-term (4 days), water-only exposures and in long-term, chronic (14 and 28 days) exposures using metal-spiked sediment. Sublethal endpoints included autotomy in short-term exposure, as well as reproduction and growth in chronic bioassays. LBR50 and CBR50 were 3-6 times higher in sediment than in water-only exposure to Cd and about 2-11 times higher for Cu, depending on the measured endpoint; however, for Cr these parameters varied only by a factor of 1.2. Cu and Cr LBR50 and CBR50 values in 96 h water-only exposure were very similar (survival 2.39 μmol Cu g(-1) dw, 2.73 μmol Cr g(-1) dw; autotomy 0.53 μmol Cu g(-1) dw, 0.78 μmol Cr g(-1) dw). However, in metal-spiked sediments, 28 d CBR50 values for autotomy, reproduction and growth ranged 6.76-29.54 μmol g(-1) dw for Cd, 3.88-6.23 μmol g(-1) dw for Cu, 0.65 μmol g(-1) dw for Cr (calculated only on total number of young). Exposure conditions (time and presence/absence of sediment) seem to be influential in deriving metal CBR values of Cd and Cu, while appear to be irrelevant for Cr. Thus, CBR approach for metals is complex and tissue residue-toxicity relationship is not directly applicable so far. PMID:24085604

  6. Fractional and group composition of the Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd compounds in the soils of technogenic landscapes in the impact zone of the Novocherkassk Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkina, T. M.; Motuzova, G. V.; Mandzhieva, S. S.; Nazarenko, O. G.; Burachevskaya, M. V.; Antonenko, E. M.

    2013-04-01

    The compounds of Cr, Ni, Mn, and Cd in the soils around the Novocherkassk Power Station and the influence of the technogenic and natural factors on their composition were investigated. The data on the fractional and the group composition of these compounds proved to be informative for assessing the ecological state of the soils. The soil components specifying the accumulation and the properties of the heavy metal compounds in the polluted and unpolluted areas were identified.

  7. Magnetotransmission of unpolarized infrared radiation in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) single crystals studied using the voigt geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Patrakov, E. I.; Naumov, S. V.; Fedorov, V. A.; Menshchikova, T. K.

    2013-11-01

    The features characterizing the behavior of magnetotransmission in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 single crystals are studied using natural light in the infrared spectral range. The relation between the changes in the magneto-optical properties and in the electron band structure is found. It is shown that the most significant changes in the magnetotransmission spectrum and the band structure occur within the 0.1 < x < 0.25 range.

  8. First-principles investigation of electronic structure, effective carrier masses, and optical properties of ferromagnetic semiconductor CdCr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Hui, Zhu; Xiang-Rong, Chen; Bang-Gui, Liu

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structures, the effective masses, and optical properties of spinel CdCr2S4 are studied by using the full-potential linearized augmented planewave method and a modified Becke–Johnson exchange functional within the density-functional theory. Most importantly, the effects of the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on the electronic structures and carrier effective masses are investigated. The calculated band structure shows a direct band gap. The electronic effective mass and the hole effective mass are analytically determined by reproducing the calculated band structures near the BZ center. SOC substantially changes the valence band top and the hole effective masses. In addition, we calculated the corresponding optical properties of the spinel structure CdCr2S4. These should be useful to deeply understand spinel CdCr2S4 as a ferromagnetic semiconductor for possible semiconductor spintronic applications. Project supported by the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. U1430117 and U1230201).

  9. Quantum phase transition from superparamagnetic to quantum superparamagnetic state in ultrasmall Cd(1-x)Cr(II)(x)Se quantum dots?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Kumar, Pushpendra; Washington, Aaron; Wang, Zhenxing; Dalal, Naresh S; Strouse, Geoffrey F; Singh, Kedar

    2012-02-01

    Despite a long history of success in formation of transition-metal-doped quantum dots (QDs), the origin of magnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) is yet a controversial issue. Cr(II)-doped II-VI DMSs are half-metallic, resulting in high-temperature ferromagnetism. The magnetic properties reflect a strong p-d exchange interaction between the spin-up Cr(II) t(2g) level and the Se 4p. In this study, ultrasmall (~3.1 nm) Cr(II)-doped CdSe DMSQDs are shown to exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism, as expected from theoretical arguments. Surprisingly, a low-temperature phase transition is observed at 20 K that is believed to reflect the onset of long-range ordering of the single-domain DMSQD. PMID:22074220

  10. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Arenaza, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r=0.63 (p<0.001), between the two surveys. However, there was no linear correlation for the other three metals (UCd, UCr and UHg), between the two sampling periods (p>0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals. PMID:20659760

  11. New series of triple molybdates AgA3R(MoO4)5 (A=Mg, R=Cr, Fe; A=Mn, R=Al, Cr, Fe, Sc, In) with framework structures and mobile silver ion sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Irina Yu.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Belov, Dmitry A.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.; Savina, Aleksandra A.; Khaikina, Elena G.

    2016-06-01

    Triple molybdates AgA3R(MoO4)5 (A=Mg, R=Cr, Fe; A=Mn, R=Al, Cr, Fe, Sc, In) of the NaMg3In(MoO4)5 type were synthesized and single crystals of AgMg3R(MoO4)5 (R=Cr, Fe) were grown. In their structures, the MoO4 tetrahedra, pairs and trimers of edge-shared (Mg, R)O6 octahedra are connected by common vertices to form a 3D framework. Large framework cavities involve Ag+ cations disordered on three nearby positions with CN=3+1 or 4+1. Alternating (Mg, R)O6 octahedra and MoO4 tetrahedra in the framework form quadrangular windows penetrable for Ag+ at elevated temperatures. Above 653-673 K, the newly obtained molybdates demonstrate abrupt reduction of the activation energy to 0.4-0.6 eV. At 773 K, AgMg3Al(MoO4)5 shows electric conductivity 2.5·10-2 S/cm and Ea=0.39 eV compatible with characteristics of the best ionic conductors of the NASICON type.

  12. The Potential of Cr3 [Triaqua-μ3 -Oxo-Hexa-μ-Propionatotrichromium(III) Chloride] to Reduce Birth Defects in the Offspring of Diabetic CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Keith, Johnathan D; Vincent, Christina; Goetsch, Michael; Lemley, Amie; Kraus, Riley; Broussard, Austin; Kildow, Ashley; Faught, Josh; Vincent, John B; Rasco, Jane F

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing concern worldwide and leads to multiple complications during pregnancy. Pharmacologic doses of chromium (Cr) have been linked with improving insulin sensitivity and other positive benefits in the treatment of diabetes in animal models. By using streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia in female CD-1 mice, reproductive outcomes of diabetic and chromium-dosed diabetic females were examined. After dosing 10 mg/kg Cr in the form of triaqua-μ3 -oxo-hexa-μ-propionatotrichromium(III) chloride or Cr3 during gestation days 8-16 (GD8-GD16), all females were sacrificed on gestation day 17 (GD17) and examined for maternal weight gain. The fetuses were examined for gross malformations and for skeletal malformations. The offspring of Cr3-dosed females tended to have a reduction in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. While hyperglycemia still had negative impacts on the health of dams and their offspring, administration of Cr led to an apparent trend in the reduction in the number of malformations and incidence of supernumerary ribs compared to those of untreated diabetic mothers. PMID:25991574

  13. Influence of metal (Cd and Zn) waterborne exposure on radionuclide (134Cs, 110Ag, and 57Co) bioaccumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a field and laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ausseil, Olivier; Adam, Christelle; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Baudin, Jean-Pierre; Casellas, Claude; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2002-03-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the influence of Cd and Zn on the contamination levels of 110Ag, 57Co, and 134Cs in rainbow trout. During a four-week prior exposure phase, two fish groups were held in tanks in the Lot River (France) at a reference (<0.05 microg Cd/L and 68 microg Zn/L) and at a polluted site (1.5 microg Cd/L and 152 microg Zn/L). During a subsequent phase, organisms were brought back to the laboratory, where the radionuclide accumulation and depuration were studied for 14 and 7 d, respectively. During this second phase, the water used in the experiments was brought back from the two sites on the Lot River in order to work under the same chemical conditions. The potential effect of chronic exposure to stable metals on several biomarkers has been explored: Plasma analysis indicated the disruption of certain variables linked to the energetic metabolism and to the maintenance of the ionic balance. In contrast, no significant disruption of the measured enzyme activities was observed. With regard to the bioaccumulation of radionuclides, concentrations in fish exposed to metals are much lower than those in fish from the control group. Various hypotheses are proposed to link fish metabolic profiles due to metal exposure to the radiocontamination of organisms. PMID:11878476

  14. FAS -670 A/G polymorphism may be associated with the depletion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Renata Bezerra; Santana, Bárbara Brasil; Lima, Sandra Souza; Neris Martins Feitosa, Rosimar; de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Marluísa; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes was investigated in a sample of 198 HIV-1-seropositive individuals and 191 seronegative controls to evaluate a possible association between polymorphisms and the infection. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -670 polymorphism was accomplished through polymerase chain reaction assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme MvaI. The identification of the A and G alleles of the FAS -124 polymorphism and the T and delT alleles of the FAS -169 polymorphism were performed using the amplification-created restriction site method followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism reactions. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the groups did not reveal any significant differences. However, the quantitative analysis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes suggests that the G allele of the FAS -670 A/G polymorphism can be a protective factor against the depletion of these cells in the course of an HIV-1 infection. Polymorphisms in the FAS and FASL genes were not associated with the number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes or the plasma viral load. Our findings suggest that the FAS -670 polymorphism may be associated with apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes after infection by HIV-1. PMID:26429326

  15. T lymphocyte expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21): a role in adhesive cell-cell interactions and dysregulation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed

    Levy, E; Ambrus, J; Kahl, L; Molina, H; Tung, K; Holers, V M

    1992-11-01

    Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21), the receptor for both the C3d,g portion of human complement component C3 and the Epstein-Barr virus, has been recently described on peripheral T cells. By using dual stain flow cytometric analysis, we have also observed that a peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulation of normal healthy donors bears CR2 in a range varying from 1.1 to 23.2% (mean 12.6%) of total CD3+ cells. T lymphocytes from nine patients with inactive SLE expressed CR2 in a similar range. Three patients with active SLE were also studied. One of them, having neuropathy and glomerulonephritis, displayed an expansion of the CR2 T cell subpopulation which reached as much as 89% of total CD3+ cells. To examine potential functional roles of T cell CR2, cells from a Jurkat-derived CR2 expressing T cell line were found to bind in vitro to human CR2-, complement-coated K562 cell targets in a CR2- and complement-dependent fashion. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that CR2 might act to increase adherence of T cells to nucleated target cells bearing C3d,g, a function which may be relevant to cytotoxicity or other T cell activities requiring cell-cell interaction. PMID:1424280

  16. Flowing Liquid Anode Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge as an Excitation Source for Optical Emission Spectrometry with the Improved Detectability of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Greda, Krzysztof; Swiderski, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with a flowing liquid anode (FLA-APGD) was developed as the efficient excitation source for the optical emission spectrometry (OES) detection. Differences in the appearance and the electrical characteristic of the FLA-APGD and a conventional system operated with a flowing liquid cathode (FLC-APGD) were studied in detail and discussed. Under the optimal operating conditions for the FLA-APGD, the emission from the analytes (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was from 20 to 120 times higher as compared to the FLC-APGD. Limits of detections (LODs) established with a novel FLA-APGD system were on average 20 times better than those obtained for the FLC-APGD. A further improvement of the LODs was achieved by reducing the background shift interferences and, as a result, the LODs for Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn were 0.004, 0.040, 0.70, 1.7, 0.035, and 0.45 μg L(-1), respectively. The precision of the FLA-APGD-OES method was evaluated to be within 2-5% (as the relative standard deviation of the repeated measurements). The method found its application in the determination of the content of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, and Zn in a certified reference material (CRM) of Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2), four brass samples as well as mineral water and tea leaves samples spiked with the analytes. In the case of brass samples, a reference method, i.e., inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used. A good agreement between the results obtained with FLA-APGD-OES and the certified values for the CRM TORT-2 as well as the reference values obtained with ICP-OES for the brass samples was revealed, indicating the good accuracy of the proposed method. The recoveries obtained for the spiked samples of mineral water and tea leaves were within the range of 97.5-102%. PMID:27476678

  17. Sensitive determinations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements in aqueous solutions using chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, X Y; Hao, Z Q; Li, C M; Li, J M; Yi, R X; Shen, M; Li, K H; Guo, L B; Li, X Y; Lu, Y F; Zeng, X Y

    2016-06-13

    In this study, chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CR-SENLIBS) was for the first time applied to improve the detection sensitivities of trace heavy metal elements in aqueous solutions. Utilizing chemical replacement effect, heavy metal ions in aqueous solution were enriched on the magnesium alloy surface as a solid replacement layer through reacting with the high chemical activity metallic magnesium (Mg) within 1 minute. Unitary and mixed solutions with Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements were prepared to construct calibration curves, respectively. The CR-SENLIBS showed a much better detection sensitivity and accuracy for both unitary and mixed solutions. The coefficients of determination R2 of the calibration curves were above 0.96, and the LoDs were of the same order of magnitude, i.e., in the range of 0.016-0.386 μg/mL for the unitary solution, and in the range of 0.025-0.420 μg/mL for the mixed solution. These results show that CR-SENLIBS is a feasible method for improving the detection sensitivity of trace element in liquid sample, which definitely provides a way for wider application of LIBS in water quality monitoring. PMID:27410358

  18. A comparative computational study on hydrogen adsorption on the Ag(+), Cu(+), Mg(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) cationic sites in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Kozyra, Paweł; Piskorz, Witold

    2016-05-14

    In this article the interaction between H2 and Ag(+), Cu(+), Mg(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) cations in cluster models of several sizes has been studied computationally. Depending on the changes imposed by the adsorption process on the H2 molecule the activation can vary in a wide range - from only slight weakening of the H-H bond to complete dissociation of the H2 molecule. The NOCV (Natural Orbitals for Chemical Valence) analysis allowed for decomposition of the electron density distortion into contributions easier for interpretation. Three essential factors have been identified (i-iii). In the case of bare cations the main contribution is a donation from σH2 to the cation (i). When a zeolite framework surrounding the cation is introduced, it hinders σ-donation and enhances π-backdonation from the cation to the antibonding orbital of the molecule (ii). For Cu(i) and Ag(i) sites π-backdonation becomes dominant, while for Mg(ii), Cd(ii), and Zn(ii) cations, the σ-donation, albeit diminished, still remains a dominant contribution. Calculations showed that the localization and coordination of Zn(ii) have crucial influence on its interaction with H2. We identified a Zn(2+) position at which the H2 molecule dissociates - here the interaction between H2 and oxygen framework (iii) plays a crucial role. Based on the calculations the mechanism of H2 transformation has been proposed. Upon heterolytic dissociation of H2 the Zn(0) moiety and two OH groups can be formed. Eventually, in two elementary steps, the H2 molecule can be restored. In this case, the ability of the site to activate/dissociate hydrogen is caused by the low coordination number of the zinc cation and the geometry of the site which allows positively charged H2 to interact with framework oxygen what enhances the formation of OH and Z-O-(ZnH)(+) groups. PMID:27092373

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis Disclosing a Key Role for CD16+CX3CR1+ Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dhondt, Annemieke; De Meyer, Grim; Neirynck, Nathalie; Bernaert, Pascale; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Brouckaert, Peter; Vanholder, Raymond; Glorieux, Griet

    2015-01-01

    The risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in chronic kidney disease; in this process micro-inflammation plays an essential role. Responsible mechanisms remain to a large extent unidentified. In this pilot study transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood monocytes was used to identify in an unprejudiced manner which factors could be discriminative for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty gender- and age-matched, non-diabetic, non-smoking subjects with CRP < 20 mg/L were recruited: 9 healthy controls, 11 patients with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and a history of cardiovascular event (CVE), 10 patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis without previous cardiovascular event (CKD5HD) and 10 with a previous cardiovascular event (CKD5HD/CVE). Monocytes were isolated and their mRNA was submitted to focused transcriptome analysis using a macroarray platform containing ca. 700 genes associated with macrophage functional capacity. The macroarray data indicated 9 genes (8 upregulated and 1 downregulated) with a significant differential expression in CKD5HD/CVE vs. CVE alone, after excluding genes differentially expressed in CKD5HD vs. control. For FCGR3A (CD16) and CX3CR1 (chemokine receptor) the upregulation vs. control and vs. CVE could be confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for all CKD5HD patients. Furthermore, CX3CR1 relative expression on monocytes correlated with CRP. Flow cytometric analysis of purified monocytes confirmed a significant increase in the percentage of CD16 positive monocytes in all CKD5HD patients vs. control and CVE. The present study indicates the importance of a specific pro-inflammatory monocyte subpopulation, positive for CD16 and the co-expressed chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, discriminative for CKD5HD patients. PMID:25830914

  20. Fluorometric selective detection of fluoride ions in aqueous media using Ag doped CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-14

    The presence of fluoride ions in drinking water plays an important role in human health. For that reason, maintaining the optimum concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential, as both low and excess (above the permissible level) concentrations can cause different health problems, such as fluorosis, urolithiasis, kidney failure, cancer, and can even lead to death. So, development of a simple and low cost method for the detection of fluoride ions in water is highly desirable. In this study, a fluorometric method based on Ag-CdS/Ag-ZnS core/shell nanoparticles is developed for fluoride ion detection. The method was tested in aqueous solution at different pH values. The selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence probe was checked in the presence of other anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-) SO4(2-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-), CH3COO(-), and H2PO4(-)) and found there is no significant interference of these associated ions. The fluoride ion concentration was varied in the range 190-22 800 μg L(-1) and a lower detection limit was obtained as 99.7 μg L(-1). PMID:26645767

  1. Electronic structure of magnetic semiconductor CdCr{sub 2}Te{sub 4}: A possible spin-dependent symmetry filter

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, H.; Butler, W. H.; Ramasamy, K.; Gupta, A.

    2013-11-04

    We present a theoretical investigation of the electronic and magnetic structure of spinel CdCr{sub 2}Te{sub 4} using density functional theory, its extensions via onsite Hubbard U interactions, and a screened-hybrid-functional exchange potential. We find that the ground state is semiconducting within the latter approach, and within this magnetic-semiconducting system, we compute the complex band structure, finding a slowly decaying evanescent Δ{sup ~}{sub 1} state possibly suitable for realizing a spin-dependent symmetry filter effect.

  2. Optical and magneto-optical effects in Hg1- x Cd x Cr2Se4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Zainullina, R. I.; Mostovshchikova, E. V.; Viglin, N. A.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Zykov, G. S.; Fedorov, V. A.; Menshchikova, T. K.; Buchkevich, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The concentration, temperature, and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetoreflection and magnetotransmission of natural light in the infrared spectral range and the Kerr effect in single crystals of ferromagnetic Hg1- x Cd x Cr2Se4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) spinels have been studied. A relationship of the magneto-optical properties to the electronic band structure of spinels has been established. The most significant changes in the spectra of magnetoreflection, magnetotransmission, and the Kerr effect are shown to be observed for 0.1 < x < 0.25 and are attributable to a rearrangement of the band structure as the composition changes.

  3. Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg) levels in Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775), and sediment samples from the Black Sea littoral (Thrace, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Mülayim, A; Balkıs, H

    2015-06-15

    Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) and Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775) are the dominant benthic invertebrate species along the Thrace Coast of the western Black Sea. The aim of this study was to determine toxic metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) accumulation levels in these species, as well as within littoral sediments from this area. Our results showed that all of the metals, except for Cd, were below that in average shale. The measured accumulation levels were mostly within the range of what is naturally found within the earth's crust. However, some study stations did have increased concentrations, indicating anthropogenic pollution in these areas. The Cd contents of E. verrucosa collected from all our study stations were well above the limits set by the Turkish Food Codex, especially in Kıyıköy, whereas Pb content was close to the limit at all stations and exceeded the limit in Kıyıköy, but Hg content was below the limit at all stations. Cd content of R. venosa exceeded the limit only in Kumköy. Pb content was below the limit, and Hg was at or slightly above the limit at all stations. PMID:25913797

  4. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels.

    PubMed

    Rosabal, Maikel; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Hare, Landis; Campbell, Peter G C

    2015-03-01

    We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative "sensitive" fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes+lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in "sensitive" subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes+lysosomes. Among these "sensitive" fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in "sensitive" fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments. PMID:25635611

  5. Comparison of the suppressive effects of soluble CR1 and C5a receptor antagonist in acute arthritis induced in rats by blocking of CD59

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, M; Nishikawa, K; Morgan, B P; Matsuo, S

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of suppression of complement activation at C3 level and inhibition of C5a on acute synovitis in rats. Acute synovitis was induced in Wistar rats by intra-articular (i.a.) injection into one knee of 0.3 mg of MoAb 6D1 (anti-rat CD59 antibody). In the treatment groups, soluble CR1 (sCR1) or C5a receptor (C5aR) antagonist was administered intra-articularly or intravenously and effects on the course of the acute synovitis were monitored. Synovitis induced by 6D1 was characterized by joint swelling, thickening of synovial tissue, cellular infiltration and deposition of membrane attack complex (MAC) on the synovial surface. Neither inflammatory change nor MAC deposition was found in rats which received an i.a. injection of sCR1 to suppress complement activity in the joint. Intra-articular injection of sCR1 did not reduce plasma complement activity. Intravenous administration of sCR1 suppressed plasma complement activity but had no effect on the course of the arthritis and synovitis with MAC deposition was observed. Neither i.a. nor i.v. injection of C5aR antagonist had any suppressive effects on inflammatory change or MAC deposition in synovium. The data show that inflammatory change induced by 6D1 was mediated by local complement activation and was not accompanied by systemic complement activation. C5a generation was not responsible for the observed inflammation, suggesting that other complement activation products, possibly MAC, mediate the inflammatory change observed in this model of acute synovitis in rats. PMID:10632677

  6. Atomic-level observation of Ag-ion hopping motion in AgI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Mizuuchi, R.; Irioka, N.; Kawata, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of the 111mCd(→111Cd) and 111In(→111Cd) probes to the study of dynamics in polycrystalline silver iodide (AgI) was examined by means of the time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique. It was found that the 111mCd(→111Cd) probe occupies a unique site in γ-AgI and exhibits nuclear relaxation caused by dynamic perturbation arising from Ag + hopping motion in α-AgI; while the residential sites of 111In(→111Cd) vary, suggesting that 111In ions can not settle themselves in a fixed site in the AgI crystal structure. We here demonstrate that 111mCd(→111Cd) can be a potential nucleus to probe the Ag +-ion dynamic motion in α-AgI.

  7. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) onto a vanadium mine tailing from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Taihong; Jia, Shiguo; Chen, Ying; Wen, Yinghong; Du, Changming; Guo, Huilin; Wang, Zhuochao

    2009-09-30

    The adsorption of heavy metal cations Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by a mine tailing which mainly contains muscovite was investigated. The property of the mineral was investigated by using SEM, FT-IR, XRD and BET analysis. pH(pzc) was measured by an titration technique to give a value of 5.4+/-0.1. Kinetics experiments indicated that the processes can be simulated by pseudo-second-order model. Total adsorption amounts of the heavy metal increased, while the adsorption density decreased when the solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) increased. Grain size did not affect the adsorption capacity significantly. The resulting isotherms can be described by Frendlich relationship. And the maximum adsorption capacity (molar basis) followed the order of Cr(III)>Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II). Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption processed were endothermic and may be chemical in nature with positive DeltaH(0). The positive DeltaS(0) suggested that dissociative processed were involved. Small positive DeltaG(0) suggested that the adsorption processes required a small amount of energy. Adsorption processes were slightly affected by electrolyte ion concentration but strongly dependent on pH value. The most possible mechanism of the adsorption processes involve the inner-sphere-complexions by the aluminol or silanol groups on the surface of the mineral. PMID:19427115

  8. Effect of EDTA, EDDS, NTA and citric acid on electrokinetic remediation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contaminated dredged marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Ammami, Mohamed-Tahar; Benamar, Ahmed; Mezazigh, Salim; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, electrokinetic (EK) remediation method has been widely considered to remove metal pollutants from contaminated dredged sediments. Chelating agents are used as electrolyte solutions to increase metal mobility. This study aims to investigate heavy metal (HM) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) mobility by assessing the effect of different chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) or citric acid (CA)) in enhancing EK remediation efficiency. The results show that, for the same concentration (0.1 mol L(-1)), EDTA is more suitable to enhance removal of Ni (52.8 %), Pb (60.1 %) and Zn (34.9 %). EDDS provides effectiveness to increase Cu removal efficiency (52 %), while EDTA and EDDS have a similar enhancement removal effect on As EK remediation (30.5∼31.3 %). CA is more suitable to enhance Cd removal (40.2 %). Similar Cr removal efficiency was provided by EK remediation tests (35.6∼43.5 %). In the migration of metal-chelate complexes being directed towards the anode, metals are accumulated in the middle sections of the sediment matrix for the tests performed with EDTA, NTA and CA. But, low accumulation of metal contamination in the sediment was observed in the test using EDDS. PMID:26782321

  9. Historical perspective of heavy metals contamination (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) in the Seine River basin (France) following a DPSIR approach (1950-2005).

    PubMed

    Meybeck, Michel; Lestel, Laurence; Bonté, Philippe; Moilleron, Régis; Colin, Jean Louis; Rousselot, Olivier; Hervé, Daniel; de Pontevès, Claire; Grosbois, Cécile; Thévenot, Daniel R

    2007-04-01

    The Driver-Pressures-State-Impact-Response approach is applied to heavy metals in the Seine River catchment (65,000 km(2); 14 million people of which 10 million are aggregated within Paris megacity; 30% of French industrial and agricultural production). The contamination pattern at river mouth is established on the particulate material at different time scales: 1930-2000 for floodplain cores, 1980-2003 for suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bed-sediments, 1994-2003 for atmospheric fallout and annual flood deposits. The Seine has been among the most contaminated catchments with maximum contents recorded at 130 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 24 for Hg, 558 for Pb, 1620 for Zn, 347 for Cu, 275 for Cr and 150 for Ni. Today, the average levels for Cd (1.8 mg kg(-1)), Hg (1.08), Pb (108), Zn (370), Cu (99), Cr (123) and Ni (31) are much lower but still in the upper 90% of the global scale distribution (Cr and Ni excepted) and well above the natural background values determined on pre-historical deposits. All metal contents have decreased at least since 1955/65, well before metal emission regulations that started in the mid 1970's and the metal monitoring in the catchment that started in the early 1980's. In the last 20 y, major criteria changes for the management of contaminated particulates (treated urban sludge, agricultural soils, dredged sediments) have occurred. In the mid 1990's, there was a complete shift in the contamination assessment scales, from sediment management and water usage criteria to the good ecological state, now required by the 2000 European Directive. When comparing excess metal outputs, associated to river SPM, to the average metal demand within the catchment from 1950 to 2000, the leakage ratios decrease exponentially from 1950 to 2000 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, meanwhile, a general increase of the demand is observed: the rate of recycling and/or treatment of metals within the anthroposphere has been improved ten-fold. Hg environmental trajectory is very

  10. Synthesis of 2-Mercaptonicotinic Acid-Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and its Application to Spectrofluorometric Determination of Cr(VI) in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Khorashahi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Navid

    2016-05-01

    The CdSe quantum dots (QDs) capped with 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (H2MN) were prepared through a controllable process at 80 °C. The prepared QDs were characterized by XRD, TEM, IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence (FL) techniques. It was found that the QDs were nearly mono-disperse with the diameters in the range of 8-10 nm. These QDs are capable to exhibit strong FL even in concentrated acidic media. They exhibit an enhanced fluorescence in the presence of Cr(VI), which was used for the determination of Cr(VI) in water samples. The linear range was found to be 1 × 10(-7)-6.0 × 10(-6) M with the RSD and DL of 0.92 % and 5 × 10(-8) M, respectively. Except that Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) which can be eliminated through a simple precipitation process, the other co-existent ions present in natural water were not interfered. The recoveries obtained for the added amounts of Cr(VI) were in the range of 96.9-103.2 %, which denote on application of the method, satisfactorily. PMID:26825078

  11. Recruitment of CD16(+) monocytes to endothelial cells in response to LPS-treatment and concomitant TNF release is regulated by CX3CR1 and interfered by soluble fractalkine.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Knut; Heisig, Kerstin; Groeger, Marko; Wallert, Maria; Funke, Harald; Lorkowski, Stefan; Huber, Otmar; Mosig, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    Fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment and adhesion, and controls leukocyte migration on endothelial cells (ECs). We show that FKN triggers different effects in CD16(+) and CD16(-) monocytes, the two major subsets of human monocytes. In the presence of ECs a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulus led to a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-secretion by CD16(+) monocytes, which depends on the interaction of CX3CR1 expressed on CD16(+) monocytes with endothelial FKN. Soluble FKN that was efficiently shed from the surface of LPS-activated ECs in response to binding of CD16(+) monocytes to ECs, diminished monocyte adhesion in down-regulating CX3CR1 expression on the surface of CD16(+) monocytes resulting in decreased TNF-secretion. In this process the TNF-converting enzyme (TACE) acts as a central player regulating FKN-shedding and TNFα-release through CD16(+) monocytes interacting with ECs. Thus, the release and local accumulation of sFKN represents a mechanism that limits the inflammatory potential of CD16(+) monocytes by impairing their interaction with ECs during the initial phase of an immune response to LPS. This regulatory process represents a potential target for therapeutic approaches to modulate the inflammatory response to bacterial components. PMID:27031442

  12. Ligational behavior of clioquinol antifungal drug towards Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal, morphological and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a synthesis, characterization, theoretical and biological (anti-bacterial, and anti-fugal) evaluation studies of Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of clioquinol (CQ) drug ligand. Structures of the titled complexes cited herein were discussed using elemental analyses and spectral measurements e.g., IR, 1H NMR, and electronic studies. The results confirmed the formation of the clioquinol complexes by three molar ratios (1:1) for Ag(I), (1:2) for Hg(II) and (1:3) for both Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions. The clioquinol reacts as a bidentate chelate bound to all respected metal ions through the oxygen and nitrogen of quinoline-8-ol. The metal(II) ions coordinated to clioquinol ligand through deprotonation of sbnd OH terminal group. Infrared and 1H NMR spectral data confirm that coordination is via the oxygen of phenolic group and nitrogen atom of quinoline moiety. The molar conductance measurements of the CQ complexes in DMSO correspond to be non-electrolyte nature. Thus, these complexes may be formulated as [Ag(CQ)(H2O)2] H2O, [Hg(CQ)2]ṡ2H2O, [Cr(CQ)3] and [Fe(CQ)3]H2O. The Coats-Redfern method, the kinetic thermodynamic parameters like activation energies (E∗), entropies (ΔS∗), enthalpies (ΔH∗), and Gibbs free energies (ΔG∗) of the thermal decomposition reactions have been deduced from thermogravimetric curves (TG) with helpful of differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curves. The narrow size distribution in nano-scale range for the clioquinol complexes have been discussed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX) analyzer.

  13. Thermally deposited Ag-doped CdS thin film transistors with high-k rare-earth oxide Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoi, P.

    2013-03-15

    The performance of thermally deposited CdS thin film transistors doped with Ag has been reported. Ag-doped CdS thin films have been prepared using chemical method. High dielectric constant rare earth oxide Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been used as gate insulator. The thin film trasistors are fabricated in coplanar electrode structure on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates with a channel length of 50 {mu}m. The thin film transistors exhibit a high mobility of 4.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and low threshold voltage of 1 V. The ON-OFF ratio of the thin film transistors is found as 10{sup 5}. The TFTs also exhibit good transconductance and gain band-width product of 1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mho and 71 kHz respectively.

  14. Direct detection of Pb in urine and Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in natural waters using electrochemical sensors immobilized with DMSA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Choi, Daiwon; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    Urine is universally recognized as one of the best non-invasive matrices for biomonitoring exposure to a broad range of xenobiotics including toxic metals. For direct, simple, and field-deployable monitoring of urinary Pb, electrochemical sensors employing superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a surface functionalization of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been developed. The metal detection involves rapid collection of dispersed metal-bound nanoparticles from a sample solution at a magnetic or electromagnetic electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetry of the metal in acidic medium. The sensors were evaluated as a function of solution pH, the binding affinity of Pb to DMSA-Fe3O4, the ratio of nanoparticles per sample volume, preconcentration time, and Pb concentrations. The effect of binding competitions between the DMSA-Fe3O4 and urine constituents for Pb on the sensor responses was studied. After 90s of preconcentration in samples containing 25 vol.% of rat urine and 0.1 g/L of DMSA-Fe3O4, the sensor could detect background level of Pb (< 1 ppb) and yielded linear responses from 0 to 50 ppb of Pb, excellent reproducibility (%R.S.D of 5.3 for seven measurements of 30 ppb Pb), and Pb concentrations comparable to those measured by ICP-MS. The sensor could also simultaneously detect background levels (< 1 ppb) of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in river and seawater.

  15. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-05-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  16. Ion conduction in the Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} systems doped with Cd{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Na{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.M.; Yahya, A.I.; Ahmad, A.

    1996-03-01

    Ion conductivities of face centered cubic Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} systems doped with Cd{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Na{sup +} were measured. In 67 mol% Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} solid solution doped with Cd{sup 2+} ions, the phase transition occurs at a lower temperature than in the parent compounds and the system shows higher conductivity. The increase in conductivity is discussed in terms of vacancies produced. K{sup +} doped Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} exhibits higher conductivity prior to the phase transition, which is attributed to lattice loosening. A decrease in conductivity is observed above 140{degrees}C. This is interpreted in terms of anion framework collapse. Na{sup +} doped Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} shows high conductivity for the high temperature phase because of the small size of Na{sup +} ions. The activation energy for ionic motion for all the samples is calculated from the graph of log({delta}T) versus 1/T.

  17. Use of neutralized industrial residue to stabilize trace elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Mo, and Cr) in marine dredged sediment from South-East of France.

    PubMed

    Taneez, Mehwish; Marmier, Nicolas; Hurel, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Management of marine dredged sediments polluted with trace elements is prime issue in the French Mediterranean coast. The polluted sediments possess ecological threats to surrounding environment on land disposal. Therefore, stabilization of contaminants in multi-contaminated marine dredged sediment is a promising technique. Present study aimed to assess the effect of gypsum neutralized bauxaline(®) (bauxite residue) to decrease the availability of pollutants and inherent toxicity of marine dredged sediment. Bauxaline(®), (alumia industry waste) contains high content of iron oxide but its high alkalinity makes it not suitable for the stabilization of all trace elements from multi-contaminated dredged sediments. In this study, neutralized bauxaline(®) was prepared by mixing bauxaline(®) with 5% of plaster. Experiments were carried out for 3 months to study the effect of 5% and 20% amendment rate on the availability of Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Mo, and Cr. Trace elements concentration, pH, EC and dissolved organic carbon were measured in all leachates. Toxicity of leachates was assessed against marine rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. The Results showed that both treatments have immobilization capacity against different pollutants. Significant stabilization of contaminants (Cu, Cd, Zn) was achieved with 20% application rate whereas As, Mo, and Cr were slightly stabilized. Toxicity results revealed that leachates collected from treated sediment were less toxic than the control sediment. These results suggest that application of neutralized bauxaline(®) to dredged sediment is an effective approach to manage large quantities of dredged sediments as well as bauxite residue itself. PMID:26894678

  18. Determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in human semen by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave sample dissolution.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, J; Moreno, R; Cristiano, A R

    1991-09-01

    Human semen samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, using L'vov platforms and the method of standard additions, to determine their Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn content. The samples were analyzed directly and after conventional and microwave wet acid dissolution. Matrix modification, using magnesium and palladium nitrates and ammonium biphosphate solutions, was evaluated for the analysis of the microwave-digested samples. The best results were obtained for Cr, Cu and Zn using Pd(NO3)2, and a mixture of Mg(NO3)2 and Pd(NO3)2 solutions. The direct analysis of water-diluted semen produced inaccurate results with unacceptably high standard deviations. The results obtained for the microwave-dissolved samples showed relative standard deviation values within the range 0.63-8.4%. The analysis of spiked semen solutions showed recoveries of the added analytes ranging from 96 to 104%. The accuracy of the measurements was checked against the NIST 1,577a, bovine liver, standard reference material. Sample dissolution time was drastically reduced from 3-4 hours, using the conventional method, to approximately 8 minutes using the microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure. PMID:1821719

  19. Environmental behaviors and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in multimedia in an oilfield in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Dazhou; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The environmental behaviors of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in a Chinese oilfield were investigated using a steady-state multimedia aquivalence (SMA) model. The modeling results showed good agreement with the actual measured values, with average residual errors of 0.69, 0.83, 0.35, 0.16, and 0.54 logarithmic units for air, water, soil, sediment, and vegetation compartments, respectively. Model results indicated that most heavy metals were buried in sediment, and that transfers between adjacent compartments were mainly deposition from the water to the sediment compartment (48.59 %) and from the air to the soil compartment (47.74 %) via atmospheric dry/wet deposition. Sediment and soil were the dominant sinks, accounting for 68.80 and 25.26 % of all the heavy metals in the multimedia system, respectively. The potential ecological risks from the five heavy metals in the sediment and soil compartments were assessed by the potential ecological risk index (PERI). The assessment results demonstrate that the heavy metals presented low levels of ecological risk in the sediment compartment, and that Cd was the most significant contributor to the integrated potential ecological risk in the oilfield. The SMA model provided useful simulations of the transport and fate of heavy metals and is a useful tool for ecological risk assessment and contaminated site management. PMID:27040543

  20. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (<50%). Carpobrotus rossii and Crassula helmsii showed higher potential for phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands. PMID:26201657

  1. Evaluation of the role of CD207 on Langerhans cells in a murine model of atopic dermatitis by in situ imaging using Cr:forsterite laser-based multimodality nonlinear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jyh-Hong; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2012-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory disease of skin. It remains unclear that CD207 of Langerhans cells (LCs) plays a central role in the development of allergic sensitization. There is little data on LCs within the microenviroment in vivo. We used a murine model of epicutaneous (EC) ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization inducing an inflammatory skin resembling AD to explore the role of CD207 in the pathogenesis of AD. Cr:forsterite laser-based multimodality nonlinear microscopy was applied for in situ imaging. Peritoneal injections of Alexa Fluor 647-rat anti-mouse CD207 into mice were performed to specifically trace the LCs. Peritoneal injections of OVA-Alexa Fluor 647 conjugate into mice were performed to specifically trace the OVA. We found that combining Alexa Fluor fluorescent probes with multimodality nonlinear microscopy permitted the unequivocal in situ imaging of CD207-expressing LCs. The relevant time-course, expressional, and functional studies reveal that CD207 of LCs plays an essential role during the induction of EC sensitization. We establish and validate that Cr:forsterite laser-based multimodality nonlinear microscopy is applicable for the specific detection of labeled mAb-bound LCs and labeled antigen. We suggest that CD207-expressing LCs initiate the allergic response through the CD207 mediated epicutaneous sensitization associated with the development of AD.

  2. Chemical fractionation of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils at the end of 65-d sorghum-sudan grass growth.

    PubMed

    Sivapatham, Paramasivam; Lettimore, Jon M; Alva, Ashok K; Jayaraman, Kuppuswamy; Harper, Legia M

    2014-09-19

    Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soil. Understanding the chemical association of trace elements in soils amended with biosolids is very important since it determines their availability within rhizosphere and mobility beyond the rhizosphere. A sequential extraction method was used to determine the various chemical associations [labile (exchangeable + sorbed), organic, carbonates, and sulfides] of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb at the end of sorghum-sudan grass growth (65d) in Candler fine sand (pH = 6.8) and in Ogeechee loamy sand (pH = 5.2) amended with wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) obtained from two different sources at application rates of 0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.2 Mg ha(-1). Results of this study indicated that irrespective of the soil type, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb in the labile fractions (exchangeable + sorbed) were in the range of 0-3.0 mg kg(-1) and the amount for Zn was in the range of 0.2-6.6 mg kg(-1). Therefore, their availability to plants and mobility beyond rhizosphere would be substantially low unless further transformations occur from other fractions. Results also indicated that the presence of substantial amounts of trace elements studied were in sulfide (HNO3) fraction and in organic (NaOH) fraction irrespective of soil type with the exception of Pb which was mainly present as carbonate (Na2EDTA) fraction and the remaining Pb equally as sulfide (HNO3) and organic (NaOH) fractions. Furthermore, results indicated that Cd was mainly present as carbonate (Na2EDTA) fraction. Irrespective of soil type, source and rate of WWTS application, summation of quantities of various fractions of all the trace elements studied through sequential extraction procedure were 1 to 25 % lower than that of total recoverable quantities of these trace elements determined on acid digestion described by US EPA method 3050 B. It was further evident that growing sorghum sudan grass for 65-d

  3. An overwhelmingly selective colorimetric sensor for Ag(+) using a simple modified polyacrylonitrile fiber.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoli; Yang, Huixiao; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-10-30

    A carboxymethyl-dithiocarbamate immobilized polyacrylonitrile fiber colorimetric sensor has been synthesized. This fiber sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for Ag(+) in aqueous solution with a remarkable color change from light pink to red-brown over a wide pH range of 2-12. The sensor responds selectively to Ag(+) in the presence of other ions, including Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The colorimetric sensor has an extremely fast response time (10s) and a low visual limit of detection (5.53×10(-12) mol/L). The fiber sensor also undergoes an obvious color change in the presence of Ag(+) solutions containing EDTA, NaCl or NaBr. Density functional theory optimization reveals that the sensor and Ag(+) interact via a seven-membered ring complexation mechanism. PMID:25967097

  4. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-11-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

  5. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starska, Katarzyna; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina; Aleksandrowicz, Paweł; Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures and fluorescent properties of Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) coordination polymers constructed from 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Degang; Xie Lixia; Fan Yaoting; Hou Hongwei; Xu Yan

    2009-06-15

    Three new d{sup 10} coordination polymers, namely [Cd(taa)Cl]{sub n}1, [Hg(taa)Cl]{sub n}2, and [Ag{sub 1.5}(taa)(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}]{sub n}3 (taa=1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acatate anion) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of two-dimensional layers constructed by carboxyl-linked helical chains, which are further linked through carboxyl group to generate a unique 3D open framework. Topological analysis reveals that the structure of 1 can be classified as an unprecedented (3,8)-connected network with the Schlaefli symbol (4.5{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.5{sup 8}.6{sup 14}.7{sup 3}.8). Compound 2 manifests a doubly interpenetrated decorated alpha-polonium cubic network with the Schlaefli symbol of (4{sup 10}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 3}). Compound 3 consists of 2D puckered layers made up of Ag centers and taa{sup -} bridges. In addition, all of these compounds are photoluminescent in the solid state with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid and Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) salts display luminescent properties and may be potential candidates for luminescent materials.

  7. Harnessing and storing visible light using a heterojunction of WO3 and CdS for sunlight-free catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Yiseul; Kim, Wooyul; Park, Hyunwoong

    2016-08-01

    CdS and WO3 (CdS/WO3) bilayer film electrodes are fabricated to harness solar visible light (λ > 420 nm) and store photogenerated electrons for possible use during periods of unavailable sunlight. The overall film thickness is approximately 50-60 μm, while the CdS underlayer is slightly thinner than WO3 owing to a packing effect. The energetics of CdS and WO3 determined by optical and electrochemical analyses enables cascaded electron transfer from CdS to WO3. The open circuit potential (EOCP) of CdS/WO3 under visible light (approximately -0.35 V vs. SCE) is nearly maintained even in the absence of light, with a marginal decrease (∼0.15 V) in ∼20 h of darkness. Neither CdS nor WO3 alone exhibits such behavior. The electron lifetimes (τ) of CdS and WO3 are each less than 100 s, whereas coupling of the two increases τ to ∼2500 s at the EOCP. In the absence of dissolved O2, τ further increases, suggesting that O2 is the primary electron acceptor. In spite of oxic conditions, CdS/WO3 is capable of continuously reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) and Ag(+) to Ag(0) after removal of visible light. The number of utilized (i.e., stored) electrons in the reductions of Cr(6+) and Ag(+) are estimated to be ∼1.08 × 10(17) and ∼0.87 × 10(17), respectively. The primary role of CdS is to be a visible-light absorber in the 420-565 nm wavelength range, transferring the photogenerated electrons to WO3. The electrons stored in WO3 are gradually released to electron acceptors with suitable redox potentials. PMID:27411566

  8. Murine mesothelioma induces locally-proliferating IL-10(+)TNF-α(+)CD206(-)CX3CR1(+) M3 macrophages that can be selectively depleted by chemotherapy or immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jackaman, Connie; Yeoh, Teong L; Acuil, Manyual L; Gardner, Joanne K; Nelson, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    We used a murine model to monitor changes to myeloid cell subsets, i.e., myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), M1 macrophages that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and express CD40 and CD80 and suppressive M2 macrophages that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines and express CD206 and CX3CR1, during mesothelioma progression and during chemotherapy or immunotherapy-induced tumor regression. In vitro studies showed that mesothelioma-conditioned media generated CD206(-)CX3CR1(+)MCP-1(+)TGF-β(+) macrophages that induced T cell proliferation but prevented T cell IFNγ production. In vivo studies showed that co-inoculation of macrophages with mesothelioma cells led to faster tumor growth, and depleting macrophages using anti-F4/80 antibody induced tumor regression. Flow cytometry revealed increasing levels of different suppressive myeloid cells in lymphoid organs: MDSCs dominated bone marrow (BM) and spleens, M2 macrophages dominated tumor-draining lymph nodes (DLN) and a mixed IL-10(+)TNF-α(+)CD206(-)CX3CR1(+) M1/M2 (M3) macrophage subset dominated the mesothelioma microenvironment. Ki67 staining and cell cycle analysis showed that tumor-associated M1 and M3, but not M2, macrophages were proliferating in situ, with M1 cells arrested in the G1 phase while M3 cells progressed to mitosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that M1 and M3 cells were co-located supporting the hypothesis that M1 cells transition to M3 cells during proliferation. Gemcitabine reduced tumor-associated M3 and MDSCs, but not M2 macrophages, the latter likely contributing to the tumor outgrowth seen following treatment cessation. In contrast, IL-2/agonist anti-CD40 antibody therapy reduced M3 cells and polarized macrophages into M1 cells coinciding with tumor regression. These data show that myeloid cells, particularly M3 cells, represent a therapeutic target for the generation of antitumor immunity. PMID:27471652

  9. The Uptake Mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of Galerina vittiformis

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Dilna; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan; Shetty, Vidya K.

    2013-01-01

    Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(VI) from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs). These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress. PMID:24455671

  10. Investigation of heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr) stabilization in river sediment by nano-zero-valent iron/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-fang; Zhang, Jinghui; Zhang, Xiaomao; Wang, Weiya; Li, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nano-zero-valent iron/activated carbon (nZVI/AC) composite was evaluated for its effectiveness in the stabilization of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr in dredged river sediment. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were adopted to compare the effects of nZVI/AC dosage, particle size, time duration, and temperature on heavy metal leachability. The results show that leachability dropped considerably with the addition of nZVI/AC and powdered particles in the size of 0.075-0.18 mm was more effective in stabilization than granular ones. Stabilization effect was stable in long-term and robust against changes in temperature. Tessier sequential extraction revealed that heavy metals were associated with solid particle, inorganic or organic matters in sediment. The addition of nZVI/AC was able to convert relatively weakly bound heavy metals into more strongly bound species and thus reduce the bioavailability and toxicity. Also, the standard potential of heavy metals may decide the mechanism of stabilization process. PMID:26370818

  11. A first-principles study on the negative thermal expansion material: Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A=Cu, Zn, Ag, or Cd; B=Si, Ge, or Sn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bingyan; He, Haiyan; Pan, Bicai

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the first-principles calculations, we systemically study the magnetic and the negative thermal expansion (NTE) properties of Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A = Cu, Zn, Ag, or Cd; B = Si, Ge, or Sn). From the calculated results, except Mn3(Cu0.5Si0.5)N, all the doped compounds considered would exhibit the NTE. For the dopants at B sites, the working temperature of the NTE shifts to higher temperature range from Si to Sn, and among the compounds with these dopants, Mn3(A0.5Ge0.5)N has the largest amplitude of the NTE coefficient. As to the dopants at A sites, compared to Mn3(Cu0.5B0.5)N, Mn3(A0.5B0.5)N (A = Ag or Cd) exhibit the NTE with higher temperature ranges and lower coefficient of the thermal expansion. In a word, these compounds would have different working temperatures and coefficients of the NTE, which is important for the applications in different conditions.

  12. Complexation of Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ metal ions with 4,13-didecyl-l,7,10,16-tetraoxa-4,13-diazacyclooctadecane in acetonitrile-ethylacetate binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadyar, M.; Rounaghi, G. H.; Tarahomi, S.; Mohajeri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Conductometric titrations have been performed in acetonitrile-ethylacetate (AN-EtOAc) binary solutions at 288, 298, 308, and 318 K to obtain the stoichiometry, the complex stability constants and the standard thermodynamic parameters for the complexation of Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ cations with 4,13-didecyl-1,7,10,16-tetraoxa-4,13-diazacyclooctadecane (cryptand 22DD). The stability constants of the resulting 1: 1 complexes formed between the metal cations and the ligand were determined by computer fitting of the conductance-mole ratio data. There is a non-linear relationship between the log K f values of complexes and the mole fraction of ethylacetate in the mixed solvent system. In addition, the conductometric data show that the stoichiometry of the complexes formed between the Cd2+, Ni2+, and Ag+ cations with the ligand changes with the nature of the solvent. The standard enthalpy and entropy values for the 1: 1 [ML] complexation reactions were evaluated from the temperature dependence of the formation constants. Thermodynamically, the complexation processes of the metal cations with the C22DD, is mainly entropy governed and the values of thermodynamic parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvent solutions.

  13. Structure and physical properties of RT{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=rare earth, T=Ni, Pd) compounds with the CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20}-type structure

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, V.W.; Yazici, D.; White, B.D.; Dilley, N.R.; Friedman, A.J.; Brandom, B.; Maple, M.B.

    2014-07-01

    Eleven new compounds, R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Y, La–Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) and R Pd{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Ce, Pr, Sm), were grown as single crystals in high temperature cadmium-rich solutions. They crystallize in the cubic CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20}-type structure (Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z=8) as characterized by measurements of powder X-ray diffraction. Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements were performed on R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Y, La–Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) single crystals. Whereas YNi{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} and LaNi{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} exhibit unremarkable metallic behavior, when magnetic moments from localized 4f electron states (Gd{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+}) are embedded into this host, they exhibit ferromagnetic order with values of the Curie temperature T{sub C} for R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Gd, and Tb) which scale with the de Gennes factor. - Graphical abstract: Specific heat divided by temperature C/T vs. T for single crystals of R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Y, La–Nd, Gd, and Tb). Left inset: Low temperature C/T vs. T{sup 2} for LaNi{sub 2}Cd{sub 20}. The solid line represents a linear fit of the data. Right inset: Low-temperature C/T data vs. T for R=Ce–Nd, Gd, and Tb; magnetic ordering temperatures are indicated by arrows. - Highlights: • R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Y, La–Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) single crystals synthesized for the first time. • R Pd{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Ce, Pr, Sm) single crystals synthesized for the first time. • Single crystals are of good metallurgical quality (large RRR values). • NdNi{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} orders antiferromagnetically at T{sub N}=1.5 K. • R Ni{sub 2}Cd{sub 20} (R=Sm, Gd, Tb) order ferromagnetically.

  14. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 μg/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 μg/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro

  15. Metal distribution and disorder in the crystal structure of [NH2Et2][Cr7MF8((t)BuCO2)16] wheel molecules for M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Finn Krebs; Overgaard, Jacob; Christensen, Mogens; McIntyre, Garry James; Timco, Grigore; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2014-12-01

    The homometallic wheel compound [Cr8F8(O2CCMe3)16] formed with fluorine and pivalic acid ligands can be modified by introducing in the synthesis process a divalent cation M capable of octahedral coordination instead of one of the trivalent Cr centres in the ring. Heterometallic mono-anionic species [Cr7MF8(O2CCMe3)16](-) can form diethylammonium salts and be crystallized from ethylacetate solution as compounds with the general formula [NH2Et2][Cr7MF8((t)BuCO2)16][C4H8O2]0.5 for M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd. Their structures are isomorphous, belonging to the space group P21/c. The study has determined the degree of order for the individual M heterometal over the possible metal positions of the ring in the crystal structure by modelling based on X-ray diffraction data. The model took into account disorder in tert-butyl groups of the pivalate ligands and in the position and orientation of the ethylacetate solvent molecule. The heterometal turned out to be partly ordered in the crystal structure. PMID:25449616

  16. K-italic-shell ionization cross sections for Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag by protons and oxygen ions in the energy range 0. 3--6. 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M.; Benka, O.

    1986-08-01

    Absolute K-italic-shell ionization cross sections have been measured for thin targets of Al, Ti, and Cu for protons in the energy range 0.3--2.0 MeV and for thin targets of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag for oxygen ions in the energy range 1.36--6.4 Mev. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) approximation with energy-loss (E), Coulomb (C), and relativistic (R) corrections, i.e., the ECPSSR approximation (Brandt and Lapicki), to the semiclassical approximation (Laegsgaard, Andersen, and Lund), and to a theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1s-italicsigma molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud (MS)). The proton results agree within 3% with empirical reference cross sections. Also, the ECPSSR provides best overall agreement for protons. For oxygen ions, ECPSSR and MS predict experimental results satisfactorily for scaled velocities xi> or =0.4. For lower scaled velocities, the experimental cross sections become considerably higher than theoretical predictions for Coulomb ionization. This deviation increases with increasing Z-italic/sub 1//Z/sub 2/; it cannot be explained by electron transfer to the projectile or by ionization due to target recoil atoms.

  17. Analytical performance of a lab-made concomitant metal analyzer to generate volatile species of Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn and Zn using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a reaction media.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Alonso, Julia; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluated the main parameters affecting Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn and Zn vapor generation using a lab-made concomitant metal analyzer (CMA) as a reaction chamber and gas-liquid separator. The modifier used in the reaction media was 8-hydroxyquinoline, and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used as detection technique. The performance of the lab-made concomitant analyzer was compared with the performance of a continuous flow gas-liquid separator and of a cyclonic spray chamber. Standards were prepared in acid media and included 1 mg L(-1) of Co as a catalyzer. The optimum concentrations of the reagents in the standards were: 450 mg L(-1) of 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0.4 M nitric acid. The optimum concentration of sodium borohydride to generate the vapors was 2.25% (w/v) (prepared in 0.4% (w/v) NaOH). The volatile species were swept from the CMA to the torch by an argon flow of 0.6 mL min(-1). The use of the CMA led to an improvement of the detection limits for some elements compared to conventional nebulization: 1.1 μg L(-1) for Ag, 7.0 μg L(-1) for Au and 4.3 μg L(-1) for Sn. The limit of detection for Cu was 1.4 μg L(-1) and for Ni 22.5 μg L(-1). The direct mixing of the reagents on the spray chamber was not effective for Cd and Zn; a deviation of the linearity was observed for these elements. PMID:23141310

  18. Syntheses, crystal structures and fluorescent properties of Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) coordination polymers constructed from 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, De-Gang; Xie, Li-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2009-06-01

    Three new d10 coordination polymers, namely [Cd(taa)Cl] n1, [Hg(taa)Cl] n2, and [Ag 1.5(taa)(NO 3) 0.5] n3 (taa=1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acatate anion) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of two-dimensional layers constructed by carboxyl-linked helical chains, which are further linked through carboxyl group to generate a unique 3D open framework. Topological analysis reveals that the structure of 1 can be classified as an unprecedented (3,8)-connected network with the Schläfli symbol (4.5 2) 2(4 2.5 8.6 14.7 3.8). Compound 2 manifests a doubly interpenetrated decorated α-polonium cubic network with the Schläfli symbol of (4 10.6 2.8 3). Compound 3 consists of 2D puckered layers made up of Ag centers and taa - bridges. In addition, all of these compounds are photoluminescent in the solid state with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor.

  19. Screening HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4 Counts for Cryptococcal Antigenemia prior to Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Screening Strategies in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C.; Bonawitz, Rachael; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Glencross, Deborah K.; Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Greene, Gregory S.; Chiller, Tom M.; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Long, Lawrence; van Rensburg, Craig; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 South Africa established a national cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) screening policy targeted at HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts <100 cells/ μl who are not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Two screening strategies are included in national guidelines: reflex screening, where a CrAg test is performed on remnant blood samples from CD4 testing; and provider-initiated screening, where providers order a CrAg test after a patient returns for CD4 test results. The objective of this study was to compare costs and effectiveness of these two screening strategies. Methods We developed a decision analytic model to compare reflex and provider-initiated screening in terms of programmatic and health outcomes (number screened, number identified for preemptive treatment, lives saved, and discounted years of life saved) and screening and treatment costs (2015 USD). We estimated a base case with prevalence and other parameters based on data collected during CrAg screening pilot projects integrated into routine HIV care in Gauteng, Free State, and Western Cape Provinces. We conducted sensitivity analyses to explore how results change with underlying parameter assumptions. Results In the base case, for each 100,000 CD4 tests, the reflex strategy compared to the provider-initiated strategy has higher screening costs ($37,536 higher) but lower treatment costs ($55,165 lower), so overall costs of screening and treatment are $17,629 less with the reflex strategy. The reflex strategy saves more lives (30 lives, 647 additional years of life saved). Sensitivity analyses suggest that reflex screening dominates provider-initiated screening (lower total costs and more lives saved) or saves additional lives for small additional costs (< $125 per life year) across a wide range of conditions (CrAg prevalence, patient and provider behavior, patient survival without treatment, and effectiveness of preemptive fluconazole treatment). Conclusions In

  20. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  1. Synthesis of amino functionalized magnetic graphenes composite material and its application to remove Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Yang, Jian; Hu, Lihua; Yan, Liangguo; Xu, Weiying

    2014-08-15

    In the present study, a kind of graphenes magnetic material (Fe3O4-GS) was prepared by compositing graphene sheet with ferroferric oxide, and shown to be effective for removing Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, XPS and BET, respectively. The pHZPC value of the sorbent was estimated to be 3.5 by alkaline-titration methods. Fe3O4-GS can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation at low magnetic field within one minute. The sorption capacities of the metals were 17.29, 27.95, 23.03, 27.83 and 22.07 mg g(-1) for Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Kinetic data showed good correlation with pseudo-second-order equation and the Freundlich model was found to fit for the isotherm data of all the heavy metal ions. It was found that the metals sorption was accomplished mainly via chelation or ion exchange. The results of thermodynamic studies illustrate that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. PMID:25016452

  2. A series of Zn/Cd coordination polymers constructed from 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate and N-donor ligands: Syntheses, structures and luminescence sensing of Cr3+ in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong-Cheng; Fan, Yan; Si, Chang-Dai; Wu, Ya-Jun; Dong, Xiu-Yan; Yang, Yun-Xia; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Jia-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel series of Zn/Cd coordination polymers based on H3L, namely, [Zn2(HL)2(bipy)2(H2O)6]n (1), [Zn(HL)(phen)]n (2), [Cd3L2(bbi)3]n (3), [Zn3L2(bbi)3]n (4) [(H3L =4-[(1-carboxynaphthalen-2-yl)oxy]phthalic acid, bipy =4,4‧-bipyridine, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, bbi =1,1‧-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole] have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal reaction. Compound 1 possesses two diverse 1D chains constructed by different bipy coligands, which were further connected to form a 3D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 2 possesses a complicated 1D chain based on secondary building unit (SBU) with binuclear Zn cluster. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibit similar 2D→3D framework, which can be rationalized as (3,4,4)-connected 3D net with a Schläfli symbol of (63.8.102)2(63)2(64.8.10). In particular, compound 3 exhibited a high sensitivity for Cr3+ in aqueous solutions, which suggest that compound 3 is a promising luminescent probe for selectively sensing Cr3+.

  3. Chemometric evaluation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) and Pb (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) concentrations in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children.

    PubMed

    Batista, Érica Ferreira; Augusto, Amanda dos Santos; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    A method was developed for determining the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after treatment with dilute HNO3 and hot block. The combination of fractional factorial design and Desirability function was used to evaluate the ICP OES operational parameters and the regression models using Central Composite and Doehlert designs were calculated to stablish the best working condition for all analytes. Seventeen lipstick samples manufactured in different countries with different colors and brands were analyzed. Some samples contained high concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cr and Pb, which are carcinogenic and cause allergic and eczematous dermatitis. The maximum concentration detected was higher than the permissible safe limits for human use, and the samples containing these high metal concentrations were intended for use by children. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a chemometrics tool for exploratory analysis to observe the similarities between samples relative to the metal concentrations (a correlation between Cd and Pb was observed). PMID:26838401

  4. Adsorption of Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺, Cu²⁺ and Cr³⁺ onto titanate nanotubes: competition and effect of inorganic ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Ting; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Wang, Yanqi; Yin, Xiaochen; Li, Xuezhao; Ni, Jinren

    2013-07-01

    Adsorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Cr(3+) from aqueous solutions onto titanate nanotubes (TNTs) in multiple systems was systematically studied. Particular attention was paid to competitive adsorption and the effect of inorganic ions. TNTs showed large adsorption capacity for the four heavy metals, with the mechanism of ion-exchange between metal ions and H(+)/Na(+) located in the interlayers of TNTs. Binary or quaternary competitive adsorption indicated that the adsorption capacity of the four heavy metals onto TNTs followed the sequence of Pb(2+) (2.64 mmol g(-1)) ≫ Cd(2+) (2.13 mmol g(-1)) > Cu(2+) (1.92 mmol g(-1)) ≫ Cr(3+) (1.37 mmol g(-1)), which followed the reverse order of their hydration energies. Moreover, inorganic ions including Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibited the adsorption of heavy metals on TNTs, because they competed for adsorption sites, decreased the activity of heavy metal ions, and promoted the aggregation of TNTs. However, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) generally enhanced adsorption because the resulting hydroxyl-Al/Fe intercalated or coated TNTs could also capture metal ions. Furthermore, minor effect of inorganic ions on adsorption of Pb(2+) resulted from its strong affinity to TNTs. Difficult desorption and small inhibiting effect by Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on adsorption of Cr(3+) was due to the formed stable complex of HOCr(OTi)₂ ≡ with TNTs. Present study indicated potential applications of TNTs in wastewater treatment for heavy metals. PMID:23597796

  5. Interference of heavy metals on the photosynthetic response from a Cr(VI)-resistant Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides strain.

    PubMed

    D'ors, A; Cortés, A A; Sánchez-Fortún, A; Bartolomé, M C; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2016-01-01

    The successful selection of a particular type of bioelement and its association to the appropriate transducer determines the specificity of a biosensor. Therefore, from a strain of chloroficea Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides, modified in laboratory to tolerate high Cr(VI) concentrations, the possible interferences of other heavy metals on photosynthetic activity were studied. After exposing wild type and Cr(VI)-resistant cells to increasing Ag(+1), Co(+2), Hg(+2), Cr(+3), Cu(+2), Zn(+2), Fe(+3) and Cd(+2) concentrations, both photosynthetic quantum yields was compared. Photosynthetic electron transport rates were measured with a TOXY-PAM chlorophyll fluorometer, non-linear regression analysis of each of the toxicity tests was done, and means of both groups were compared using unpaired t test. The results show no significant differences between both cell types when they were exposed to Ag(+1), Co(+2), Hg(+2), Cr(+3), Cu(+2), Fe(+3) and Cd(+2) metal ions, and extremely significant differences (p < 0.0001) to Zn(+2) exposures. These results demonstrate the suitability of this Cr(VI)-resistant type D. chlorelloides strain as a suitable bioelement to be coupled to a biosensor based on dual-head microalgae strategy to detect and quantify Cr(VI) in water courses and waste water treatment plants. However, some disturbance may be expected, especially when certain analyte species such as zinc are present in water samples tested. The analysis of binary mixtures between Zn(+2) and other heavy metals showed a slight antagonistic phenomenon in all cases, which should not alter the potential Zn(+2) interference in the Cr(+6) detection process. PMID:26458928

  6. Studies on structural & optical properties of CdS0.2Se0.8: Ag nanocomposite thin film for photosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, J. B.; Patil, R. S.; Patil, I. J.; Jagtap, P. P.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2012-06-01

    Silver doped CdS0.2Se0.8 thin films of different concentrations were grown by simple and economical chemical bath deposition technique and later on characterized for optoelectronic and physicochemical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of undoped and doped sample indicates polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed uniform morphology with cabbage type structure for undoped film and leaf-like structure for doped films over the entire glass substrate. Room temperature absorbance for 1 wt% doping concentration of silver showed an excitonic peak which confirms the size quantization of the particle. I-V characteristic for undoped and doped film shows ohmic and Schottky junction behavior.

  7. Multi-ion and pH sensitivity of AgGeSe ion selective electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde Garrido, J. M.; Silveyra, J. M.; Ureña, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Many chalcogenide glasses have been found to combine benefits such as good chemical durability, selectivity, and reproducibility for applications as solid-state sensitive membranes of ion selective electrodes (ISEs). In previous works, we have shown that ISEs with ionic conductive AgGeSe membranes have good sensitivity to Ag+ ions. In the present work, we explore the Agx(Ge0.25Se0.75)100-x, 10≤x≤30 (at%) system as candidate for ISEs applications detecting several other ions (K+, Mg2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+). We evaluated ISEs fabricated with bulk as well as with thin film membranes. We found no dependence of the sensing properties on the Ag content of the ionic conductive membranes. Thin films exhibited the same properties than bulk membranes, indicating that these chalcogenide glasses have great potential for miniaturization. The ISEs showed a high response (Nernstian or super-Nernstian) to the presence of Hg2+, Pb2+, and Fe3+, a low response (sub-Nernstian) to the presence of Cr3+, and a total lack of response to the presence of Cd2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and K+. We also tested how the pH of the solution affected the response of the ISEs. The potentials of the ISEs were practically constant in neutral or acidic solutions, while decreased drastically in basic solutions when the primary ion was not present. The latter phenomenon was caused by the slow dissolution of the membrane into the solution, meaning that long-term basic environments should be avoided for these ISEs. We concluded that ISEs with ionic conductive AgGeSe membranes are good candidates to integrate multi-electrode systems.

  8. The influence of aliphatic alcohols, camphor, and camphor-alcohol mixtures on the electroreduction kinetics of ions Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, and EuSO/sub 4//sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Afanas'ev, B.N.; Kuzyakova L.M.

    1986-06-01

    This study was conducted at the dropping mercury electrode at high surface coverages of the electrode by adsorbate molecules. From polarization curves obtained at different concentrations of the surface-active substances, the effective values of the transfer coefficients and the parameters r/sub 1//r and S/sub 1/ characterizing electrochemical reaction rates in the presence of surfactants were determined. It was shown that in Cd/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/ electroreduction in the presence of surfactants, the rate-determining step is the penetration of these ions into the surface layer of low electric permittivity; in the electroreduction of Cr/sup 3 +/ and EuSO/sub 4//sup +/ ions, it is electron transfer to the species undergoing discharge while this is inside the surface layer.

  9. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. PMID:26073519

  10. Optical and magneto-optical effects in Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P. Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Zainullina, R. I.; Mostovshchikova, E. V.; Viglin, N. A.; Gan’shina, E. A.; Zykov, G. S.; Fedorov, V. A.; Menshchikova, T. K.; Buchkevich, A. A.

    2015-09-15

    The concentration, temperature, and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetoreflection and magnetotransmission of natural light in the infrared spectral range and the Kerr effect in single crystals of ferromagnetic Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) spinels have been studied. A relationship of the magneto-optical properties to the electronic band structure of spinels has been established. The most significant changes in the spectra of magnetoreflection, magnetotransmission, and the Kerr effect are shown to be observed for 0.1 < x < 0.25 and are attributable to a rearrangement of the band structure as the composition changes.

  11. Determining optimal cytotoxic activity of human Her2neu specific CD8 T cells by comparing the Cr51 release assay to the xCELLigence system.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Courtney L; Henle, Andrea M; Knutson, Keith L

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic CD8 T cells constitute a subgroup of T cells that are capable of inducing the death of infected or malignant host cells. These cells express a specialized receptor, called the T cell receptor (TCR), which can recognize a specific antigenic peptide bound to HLA class I molecules. Engagement of infected cells or tumor cells through their HLA class I molecule results in production of lytic molecules such as granzymes and perforin resulting in target cell death. While it is useful to determine frequencies of antigen-specific CD8 T cells using assays such as the ELIspot or flow cytometry, it is also helpful to ascertain the strength of CD8 T cell responses using cytotoxicity assays. The most recognizable assay for assessing cytotoxic function is the Chromium Release Assay (CRA), which is considered a standard assay. The CRA has several limitations, including exposure of cells to gamma radiation, lack of reproducibility, and a requirement for large numbers of cells. Over the past decade, there has been interest in adopting new strategies to overcome these limitations. Newer approaches include those that measure caspase release , BLT esterase activity and surface expression of CD107. The impedance-based assay, using the Roche xCelligence system, was examined in the present paper for its potential as an alternative to the CRA. Impedance or opposition to an electric current occurs when adherent tumor cells bind to electrode plates. Tumor cells detach following killing and electrical impedance is reduced which can be measured by the xCelligence system. The ability to adapt the impedance-based approach to assess cell-mediated killing rests on the observation that T cells do not adhere tightly to most surfaces and do not appear to have much impact on impedance thus diminishing any concern of direct interference of the T cells with the measurement. Results show that the impedance-based assay can detect changes in the levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells

  12. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages. PMID:25813023

  13. Valence Fluctuations Revealed by Magnetic Field and Pressure Scans: Comparison with Experiments in YbXCu4 (X=In, Ag, Cd) and CeYIn5 (Y=Ir, Rh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    The mechanism of how critical end points of the first-order valence transition (FOVT) are controlled by a magnetic field is discussed. We demonstrate that critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field. This results explain the field dependence of the isostructural FOVT observed in Ce metal and YbInCu4. Magnetic field scan can make the system reenter in a critical valence fluctuation region. Even in intermediate-valence materials, the QCP is induced by applying a magnetic field, at which magnetic susceptibility also diverges. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is shown to be a cooperative phenomenon of the Zeeman effect and the Kondo effect, which creates a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. The key concept is that the closeness to the QCP of the FOVT is vital in understanding Ce- and Yb-based heavy-fermions. This explains the peculiar magnetic and transport responses in CeYIn5 (Y=Ir, Rh) and metamagnetic transition in YbXCu4 for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd.

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption of metals (51Cr, 65Zn, 95mTc, 109Cd, 113Sn, 147Pm, and 238Pu) by rats and swine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Miller, B M; Goebel, J C

    1984-12-01

    Adult and neonatal rats and neonatal pigs were gavaged with solutions of metal radionuclides to determine gastrointestinal absorption. Zinc-65 and technetium-95m were well-absorbed by both age groups; chromium-51, cadmium-109, tin-113, promethium-147, and plutonium-238 were not. The quantities of the poorly absorbed metals that were absorbed by neonates were between 4 and 100 times higher than those absorbed by adult rats. Autoradiograms prepared from the entire small intestine of the neonatal rat showed that 109Cd was retained in the duodenum. In contrast, measurements in the piglets showed much higher 109Cd retention in the ileum than in the duodenum. Autoradiograms and radiochemical measurements of 147Pm and 238Pu in both neonatal rats and swine showed the highest level of retention in the ileum. The results indicate that, for most of the metals studied, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is substantially higher for neonatal than for adult rats. PMID:6510393

  15. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination. PMID:25298023

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in the CD14 gene are associated with monocyte activation and carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yean K.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Westhorpe, Clare L.V.; Maisa, Anna; Spelman, Tim; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the relationship between innate immune activation and CVD, we investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 and CD14 and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate measurement for CVD, in HIV-infected individuals on ART and HIV-uninfected controls as a cross-sectional, case-control study. We quantified the frequency of monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16), markers of monocyte activation (CD38, HLA-DR), and endothelial adhesion (CCR2, CX3CR1, CD11b) by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD163, sCD14, sCX3CL1, and sCCL2, were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of TLR4 and CD14 SNPs was also performed. The TT genotype for CD14/−260SNP but not the CC/CT genotype was associated with elevated plasma sCD14, and increased frequency of CD11b+CD14+ monocytes in HIV-infected individuals. The TT genotype was associated with lower cIMT in HIV-infected patients (n = 47) but not in HIV-uninfected controls (n = 37). The AG genotype for TLR4/+896 was associated with increased CX3CR1 expression on total monocytes among HIV-infected individuals and increased sCCL2 and fibrinogen levels in HIV-uninfected controls. SNPs in CD14/−260 and TLR4/+896 were significantly associated with different markers of systemic and monocyte activation and cIMT that differed between HIV-infected participants on ART and HIV-uninfected controls. Further investigation on the relationship of these SNPs with a clinical endpoint of CVD is warranted in HIV-infected patients on ART. PMID:27495090

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in the CD14 gene are associated with monocyte activation and carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yean K; Shankar, Esaki M; Westhorpe, Clare L V; Maisa, Anna; Spelman, Tim; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Crowe, Suzanne M; Lewin, Sharon R

    2016-08-01

    HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the relationship between innate immune activation and CVD, we investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4 and CD14 and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate measurement for CVD, in HIV-infected individuals on ART and HIV-uninfected controls as a cross-sectional, case-control study. We quantified the frequency of monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16), markers of monocyte activation (CD38, HLA-DR), and endothelial adhesion (CCR2, CX3CR1, CD11b) by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD163, sCD14, sCX3CL1, and sCCL2, were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of TLR4 and CD14 SNPs was also performed. The TT genotype for CD14/-260SNP but not the CC/CT genotype was associated with elevated plasma sCD14, and increased frequency of CD11b+CD14+ monocytes in HIV-infected individuals. The TT genotype was associated with lower cIMT in HIV-infected patients (n = 47) but not in HIV-uninfected controls (n = 37). The AG genotype for TLR4/+896 was associated with increased CX3CR1 expression on total monocytes among HIV-infected individuals and increased sCCL2 and fibrinogen levels in HIV-uninfected controls. SNPs in CD14/-260 and TLR4/+896 were significantly associated with different markers of systemic and monocyte activation and cIMT that differed between HIV-infected participants on ART and HIV-uninfected controls. Further investigation on the relationship of these SNPs with a clinical endpoint of CVD is warranted in HIV-infected patients on ART. PMID:27495090

  18. Chemical speciation of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr in the suspended particulate matter off the Mejerda River Delta (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Fluxes of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and their associated metals were performed off the Mejerda River Delta during both the wet (March) and the dry (July) seasons in 2012, using sediment traps at study stations at depths of 10, 20 and 40 m. Fluxes nearest to the Mejerda outlet were more significant, especially during winter (36 g m-2 day-1), but dissipated further offshore, 24.5-6 g m-2 day-1 at the 20 m and 21.8-4.8 g m-2 day-1 at the 40 m stations. Many variations observed in seasonal and spatial metal fluxes are similar to those of SPM, in particular Pb and Zn, probably because they are associated with the mining activity characteristic of the Mejerda catchment. Chemical speciation reveals that most of the metals (20-100%) are bound to the residual fraction. The most toxic metals (Pb, Zn) are bound in part to the exchangeable fraction (20-50% for Pb and 5-15% for Zn) making them relatively bioavailable and therefore potentially toxic. While Cu and Cd fluxes are not always clearly established according to season, both metals are apparently sequestered deep in the sediment, bound especially to clays (40-80% for Cd and up to 100% for Cu).

  19. Diurnal concentrations variations, size distributions for ambient air particles and metallic pollutants (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb) during summer season at a traffic area.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Kuo, Yu-Chen; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized and discussed particulate ambient air particulate concentrations and seasonal variations for PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 during June 2013-July 2013 at this traffic sampling site. In addition, this study also characterized the ambient air particulates size distributions by using MOUDI-100S4 sampler to collect 1-day the ambient suspended particles (PM18, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) at this sampling site. In addition, the study also showed that the main pollutants contributions were from traffic and residual areas. As for the pollutants seasonal concentrations variations, the results indicated that the average particle concentrations orders were all displayed as daytime > nighttime for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at this characteristic sampling site. The results further indicated that the mean highest of metal concentrations in this study indicated that the average metal concentration were all displayed as Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for PM18, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on daytime and nighttime at this characteristic sampling site. PMID:24619364

  20. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Determination of the Pb, Cr, and Cd distribution patterns with various chlorine additives in the bottom ashes of a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incinerator by chemical sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tzu-Huan; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2015-09-15

    A novel low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed (LTTSFB) incinerator has been successfully developed to control heavy-metal emissions during municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment. However, the characteristics of the residual metal patterns during this process are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the metal patterns in the different partitions of the LTTSFB bottom ash by chemical sequential extraction. Artificial waste was used to simulate the MSW. Different parameters including the first-stage temperature, chloride additives, and operating gas velocity were also considered. Results indicated that during the low-temperature treatment process, a high metal mobility phase exists in the first-stage sand bed. The main patterns of Cd, Pb, and Cr observed were the water-soluble, exchangeable, and residual forms, respectively. With the different Cl additives, the results showed that polyvinyl chloride addition increased metal mobility in the LTTSFB bottom ash, while, sodium chloride addition may have reduced metal mobility due to the formation of eutectic material. The second-stage sand bed was found to have a lower risk of metal leaching. The results also suggested that, the residual ashes produced by the LTTSFB system must be taken into consideration given their high metal mobility. PMID:25885167

  2. Ag(I)-binding to phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R K; Tran, K; Scott, G W; Mulchandani, P; Saini, S S

    1996-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)nGly, where n varies from 2 to 11. A variety of metal ions such as Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) induce PC synthesis in plants and some yeasts. It has generally been assumed that the inducer metals also bind PCs. However, very little information is available on the binding of metals other than Cu(I) and Cd(II) to PCs. In this paper, we describe the Ag(I)-binding characteristics of PCs with the structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly. The Ag(I)-binding stoichiometries of these three peptides were determined by (i) UV/VIS spectrophotometry, (ii) luminescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and (iii) reverse-phase HPLC. The three techniques yielded similar results. ApoPCs exhibit featureless absorption in the 220-340 nm range. The binding of Ag(I) to PCs induced the appearance of specific absorption shoulders. The titration end point was indicated by the flattening of the characteristic absorption shoulders. Similarly, luminescence at 77 K due to Ag(I)-thiolate clusters increased with the addition of graded Ag(I) equivalents. The luminescence declined when Ag(I) equivalents in excess of the saturating amounts were added to the peptides. At neutral pH, (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly, (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly, and (gamma-Glu-Cys)4Gly bind 1.0, 1.5, and 4.0 equivalents of Ag(I), respectively. The Ag(I)-binding capacity of (gamma-Glu-Cys)2Gly and (gamma-Glu-Cys)3Gly was increased at pH 5.0 and below so that Ag(I)/-SH ratio approached 1.0. A similar pH-dependent binding of Ag(I) to glutathione was also observed. The increased Ag(I)-binding to PCs at lower pH is of physiological significance as these peptides accumulate in acidic vacuoles. We also report lifetime data on Ag(I)-PCs. The relatively long decay-times (approximately 0.1-0.3 msec) accompanied with a large Stokes shift in the emission band are indicative of spin-forbidden phosphorescence. PMID

  3. Better CD4+ T cell recovery in Brazilian HIV-infected individuals under HAART due to cumulative carriage of SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-V64I, CCR5-D32 and CCR5-promoter 59029A/G polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Rigato, Paula O; Hong, Marisa A; Casseb, Jorge; Ueda, Mirthes; de Castro, Isac; Benard, Gil; Duarte, Alberto J S

    2008-09-01

    Polymorphisms of chemokines and chemokine-receptors genes have been shown to influence the rate of progression to AIDS; however, their influence on response to HAART remains unclear. We investigated the frequency of the SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-64I, CCR5-D32 and CCR5-Promoter-59029-A/G polymorphisms in Brazilian HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals and their influence on CD4+ T-cell evolution HIV-1 infected individuals before and during HAART. Polymorphism detection was done in a transversal study of 200 HIV-1-infected and 82 uninfected individuals. The rate of CD4+ T cell increase or decrease was studied in a cohort of 155 HIV-1 infected individuals on pre and post-HAART. Polymorphisms were determined by PCR associated with RFLP. The rate of CD4+ T-cell decline or increase was also determined. HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects showed, respectively, frequencies of 0.193 and 0.220 for SDF-1-3'A, of 0.140 and 0.110 for CCR2-V64I, of 0.038 and 0.055 for CCR5-D32, and of 0.442 and 0.390 for CCR5-P-59029-A/G. HIV-1-infected subjects carrying one, two or three of these four polymorphisms showed better CD4+ T-cell recovery than HIV-1-infected subjects carrying the four wild-type alleles (+2.7, +1.6, +3.5, and -0.9 lymphocytes/microl/month, respectively). Regression logistic analysis showed that the CCR5-D32/CCR2-V64I association was predictor of positive CD4+ T cell slope after HAART. The distribution of polymorphisms did not differ between HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals, but differed from more homogenous ethnic groups probably reflecting the miscegenation of the Brazilian population. We add further evidence of the role of these polymorphisms by showing that the CD4 gain was influenced by carriage of one or more of the polymorphisms studied here. These results highlight the possibility that these genetic traits can be useful to identify patients at risk for faster progression to AIDS or therapeutic failure. PMID:18855658

  4. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  5. Cellular and molecular requirements for the recall of IL-4-producing memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(-) T cells during protection induced by attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Dupeh R; Krzych, Urszula

    2002-03-01

    The requirements for maintenance of antigen (Ag)-specific memory T cells in protection to malaria is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated a recall of IL-4-producing memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells with parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) in persons protected by radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (gamma-spz). Using the CD27 marker, we have now identified two subsets of CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells: CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells representing an early memory and CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27() T cells representing a terminally differentiated memory cells. A small subset of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CD27(-) T cells also expressed CD70, the CD27 ligand. The addition of anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to pRBC-stimulated cultures significantly inhibited the conversion of CD27(+) to CD27(-) subset without profoundly affecting IL-4 production. In contrast, the inclusion of anti-CD27 mAb in parallel cultures abrogated IL-4 production without interfering with conscription of T cells into the CD27(-) T cell set. We propose that the persistence of memory CD4(+) T cells depends on Ag-driven conscription of a mature memory phenotype through co-ligation of CD27 and CD70 expressed, respectively, on CD27(+) and CD27(-) T cells. Hence, protracted protection in malaria depends in part on memory CD4(+) T cells that require specific Ag presumably from the repositories of liver-and blood-stage antigens and the delivery of a second signal from the CD27:CD70 interaction. PMID:11857339

  6. Levels of human platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand depend on haplotypes of CD40LG-CD40-ITGA2

    PubMed Central

    Aloui, Chaker; Prigent, Antoine; Tariket, Sofiane; Sut, Caroline; Fagan, Jocelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Chakroun, Tahar; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Increased circulating soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is commonly associated with inflammatory disorders. We aimed to investigate whether gene polymorphisms in CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 are associated with a propensity to secrete sCD40L; thus, we examined this issue at the level of human platelets, the principal source of sCD40L. We performed single polymorphism and haplotype analyses to test for the effect of twelve polymorphisms across the CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 genes in blood donors. ITGA2 presented a positive association with rs1126643, with a significant modification in sCD40L secretion (carriers of C allele, P = 0.02), unlike the investigated CD40LG and CD40 polymorphisms. One CD40LG haplotype (TGGC) showing rs975379 (C/T), rs3092952 (A/G), rs3092933 (A/G) and rs3092929 (A/C) was associated with increased sCD40L levels (1.906 μg/L (95% CI: 1.060 to 2.751); P = 0.000009). The sCD40L level was associated with the inter-chromosomal CD40LG/CD40/ITGA2 haplotype (ATC), displaying rs3092952 (A/G), rs1883832 (C/T) and rs1126643 (C/T), with increased sCD40L levels (P = 0.0135). Our results help to decipher the genetic role of CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 with regard to sCD40L levels found in platelet components. Given the crucial role of sCD40L, this haplotype study in a transfusion model may be helpful to further determine the role of haplotypes in inflammatory clinical settings. PMID:27094978

  7. Effects of smoking, aromatic amines, and chromates on CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T lymphocytes in male workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Takeshi; Araki, Shunichi; Sata, Fumihiro; Nakata, Akinori; Araki, Takaharu

    1998-07-01

    To investigate effects of smoking, aromatic amines (AAs), and chromates (CRs) on Tlymphocyte subpopulations, the authors measured CD3{sup +}, CD4{sup +}, and CD8{sup +} T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 33 nonexposed workers, 25 AA-use workers, 27 AA-production workers, and 19 CR workers (all subjects were males). The number of CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes in smokers of nonexposed workers was significantly larger than that of the nonsmokers; also, the numbers of CD4{sup +} and CD3{sup +} T lymphocytes in smokers of each group of AA-production and AA-use workers were significantly larger than those in nonsmokers. Numbers of CD4{sup +} and CD3{sup +} T lymphocytes in nonsmokers of AA-production and CR workers were significantly smaller than those in nonsmokers of nonexposed workers; the number of CD8{sup +} T lymphocytes in nonsmokers of CR workers was significantly smaller than that in nonsmokers of nonexposed workers.

  8. A metal-organic framework with immobilized Ag(i) for highly efficient desulfurization of liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minhui; Chang, Ganggang; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-08-01

    A metal-organic framework immobilized with Ag(i) sites, namely, (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3Ag, was successfully developed as a highly efficient desulfurization adsorbent because of the strong binding of these Ag(i) sites for thiophene derivatives. PMID:26136210

  9. The Role of Crop Cd Bioavailability in Potential for Transfer of Soil Cd Risk to Humans and Wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cd is a common contaminant in soils affected by mining and smelting of Zn, Pb, Cu and Ag ores and where biosolids, composts and manures are applied. Zn is usually present at 100-200 times higher concentrations than Cd. Because of this relationship of Cd and Zn in ores and contaminated soils, Zn is...

  10. One-step synthesis of size-tunable Ag nanoparticles incorporated in electrospun PVA/cyclodextrin nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Celebioglu, Asli; Aytac, Zeynep; Umu, Ozgun C O; Dana, Aykutlu; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    One-step synthesis of size-tunable silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) incorporated into electrospun nanofibers was achieved. Initially, in situ reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) to Ag-NP was carried out in aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Here, PVA was used as reducing agent and stabilizing polymer as well as electrospinning polymeric matrix for the fabrication of PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers. Afterwards, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) was used as an additional reducing and stabilizing agent in order to control size and uniform dispersion of Ag-NP. The size of Ag-NP was ∼8 nm and some Ag-NP aggregates were observed for PVA/Ag-NP nanofibers, conversely, the size of Ag-NP decreased from ∼8 nm down to ∼2 nm within the fiber matrix without aggregation were attained for PVA/HPβCD nanofibers. The PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HPβCD/Ag-NP nanofibers exhibited surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Moreover, antibacterial properties of PVA/Ag-NP and PVA/HPβCD/Ag-NP nanofibrous mats were tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. PMID:24274573

  11. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus-mediated capping of CD21/CR2 by alpha interferon (IFN-alpha): immediate antiviral activity of IFN-alpha during the early phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Delcayre, A X; Lotz, M; Lernhardt, W

    1993-01-01

    Early events of human B-lymphocyte infection by Epstein-Barr virus involve the virus binding to CD21, capping, and subsequent internalization of the virus-receptor complex. We show here that alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) inhibits the capping of Epstein-Barr virus-CD21 complexes. Synthetic peptides with the CD21 binding motif of IFN-alpha mimic IFN-alpha activity, suggesting that this effect may be mediated by IFN-alpha-CD21 interaction. Our findings demonstrate a novel and immediate mechanism of IFN-alpha action. PMID:8386282

  12. Novel CD control of HTPSM by advanced process for sub-20nm tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sangjin; Choi, Chungseon; Oh, Sunghyun; Ha, Taejoong; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    As the design rule of the semiconductor shrinks, the CD MTT (Critical Dimension Mean-to-Target) specification for photomask becomes tighter. So, more precise control of CD MTT is required. We have investigated the CD MTT control and applied it to the attenuated PSM (Phase Shift Mask) successfully for several years. We can control the CD MTT of MoSi pattern by measuring Cr/MoSi pattern to estimate MoSi pattern CD and additional etch to shrink MoSi pattern as reported in previous study. At first, the MoSi pattern CD can be estimated with the Cr/MoSi pattern CD because the CD gap between MoSi pattern and Cr/MoSi pattern is relatively constant. Additional MoSi etch is performed to shrink the MoSi pattern CD after then. The CD gap alwasys exists and the variation of the CD gap is enough small to be not considered in conventional photomask production until now. However, the variation of the CD gap is not ignorable in case of sub-20 nm tech. In this study, we investigated new method to measure MoSi pattern CD before Cr strip process to eliminate the CD gap between MoSi pattern and Cr/MoSi pattern. To eliminate the CD gap, we attempt three solutions - 1) Optimize etch process to perform perfect Cr/MoSi pattern profile without the CD gap, 2) Improve CD measurement accuracy by developing new SEM measuring mechanism, 3) Develop of new process to modify Cr/MoSi pattern profile to be measured without the CD gap. It was found that the CD gap can be eliminated and MoSi pattern CD can be measured perfectly. Finally, MoSi pattern CD control was improved because of CD gap elimination.

  13. Kinetic analysis of the interactions of complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) with its ligands C3d, iC3b, and the EBV glycoprotein gp350/220.

    PubMed

    Sarrias, M R; Franchini, S; Canziani, G; Argyropoulos, E; Moore, W T; Sahu, A; Lambris, J D

    2001-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of complement receptor 2 (CR2) with its natural ligands iC3b and C3d are still not well understood. In addition, studies regarding the binding site(s) of the receptor on C3 as well as the affinities of the C3 fragments for CR2 have produced contradictory results. In the present study, we have used surface plasmon resonance technology to study the interaction of CR2 with its ligands C3d, iC3b, and the EBV surface glycoprotein gp350/220. We measured the kinetics of binding of the receptor to its ligands, examined the influence of ionic contacts on these interactions, and assessed whether immobilized and soluble iC3b bound with similar kinetics to CR2. Our results indicate that 1) gp350 binding to CR2 follows a simple 1:1 interaction, whereas that of the C3 fragments is more complex and involves more than one intramolecular component; 2) kinetic differences exist between the binding of C3d and iC3b to CR2, which may be due to an additional binding site found on the C3c region of iC3b; and 3) iC3b binds to CR2 with different kinetics, depending on whether the iC3b is in solution or immobilized on the surface. These findings suggest that binding of CR2 to iC3b and C3d is more complex than previously thought. PMID:11466369

  14. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II results in alterations of cellular receptors, including the up-modulation of T-cell counterreceptors CD40, CD54, and CD80 (B7-1).

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, C S; Rudolph, D L; Lal, R B

    1995-01-01

    To examine the phenotypic alterations associated with human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and -II) infection, long-term cell lines (n = 12 HTLV-I cell lines; n = 11 HTLV-II cell lines; n = 6 virus-negative cell lines) were analyzed for the cell surface expression of various lineage markers (i.e., myeloid, progenitor, and leukocyte), integrin receptors, and receptor-counterreceptor (R-CR) pairs responsible for cellular activation. As expected, all cell lines expressed the markers characterizing the leukocyte lineage (CD43, CD44, and CD53). Of the progenitor-myeloid markers examined (CD9, CD13, CD33, CD34, and CD63), only the percent expression of CD9 was significantly increased on HTLV-I and -II-infected cell lines as compared with that on virus-negative cell lines. Analysis of the beta 1 integrin subfamily (CD29, CD49b, CD49d, CD49e, and CD49f) showed no significant change, except that CD49e was significantly decreased on the HTLV-infected cell lines. For the beta 2 integrin subfamily, the cell surface density was increased for CD18 and CD11a, while the CD11c molecule was expressed exclusively on the HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected cell lines. Analysis of several R-CR pairs (CD2-CD58, CD45RO-CD22, CD5-CD72, CD11a-CD54, gp39-CD40, and CD28-CD80) demonstrated that comparable levels of expression of the Rs (CD2, CD45RO, CD5, and CD28) and of some of the CRs (CD58, CD22, and CD72) were in all cell lines; however, CD54, CD40, and CD80 were expressed constitutively on the HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected cell lines. Functionally, the expression of these R-CR pairs did not appear to affect the autologous proliferation since monoclonal antibodies to these R-CR pairs were not able to inhibit proliferation of the infected cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that HTLV-I and -II can modulate the expression of several T-cell activation molecules and CRs normally expressed on alternate cell types. PMID:7545080

  15. Selective Divalent Cobalt Ions Detection Using Ag2O3-ZnO Nanocones by ICP-OES Method for Environmental Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Marwani, Hadi M.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have synthesized Ag2O3-ZnO nanocones (NCs) by a wet-chemical route using reducing agents at low temperature. The structural, optical and morphological properties of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs were investigated by several conventional techniques such as powder XRD, XPS, FESEM, XEDS, FTIR and UV/vis. spectroscopy. The analytical parameters of prepared NCs were also calculated for a selective detection of divalent cobalt [Co(II)] prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The selectivity of NCs toward various metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Zn(II) was studied. Results of the selectivity study demonstrated that Ag2O3-ZnO NC phase was the most selective towards Co(II) ion. The uptake capacity for Co(II) ion was experimentally calculated to be ∼76.69 mgg−1. Moreover, adsorption isotherm data provided that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer on homogeneous adsorbent surfaces of Ag2O3-ZnO NCs. Kinetic study revealed that the adsorption of Co(II) on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs phase followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, thermodynamic results provided that the adsorption mechanism of Co(II) ions on Ag2O3-ZnO NCs was a spontaneous process and thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the proposed method was validated by applying it to real environmental water samples with reasonable results. PMID:25464507

  16. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  17. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity, little is known about CD1 protein expression in dogs, notably due to lack of isoform-specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only recognized canine CD1a8 and CD1a9 isoforms, and Fe1.5F4 mAb solely recognized canine CD1a6. Anti-CD1b mAbs recognized the canine CD1b protein, but also bound CD1a2, CD1a8, and CD1a9. Interestingly, Ca9.AG5 showed allele specificity based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 321. Our findings have refined the structure of the canine CD1 locus and available antibody specificity against canine CD1 proteins. These are important fundamentals for future investigation of the role of canine CD1 in lipid immunity. PMID:26687789

  18. MoOx modified Ag anode for top-emitting organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jin; Jiang, XueYin; Zhang, ZhiLin

    2006-12-01

    Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TOLEDs) using a thin MoOx layer modified Ag as the effective hole-injection anode are demonstrated. With tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline)aluminum as emitting layer and trilayer LiF /Al/Ag as semitransparent cathode, the Ag /MoOx based TOLED shows a tune-on voltage of 2.67V and a maximum current efficiency of 7.27cd/A, which are much better than those (3.92V, 6.12cd/A) obtained from Ag /Ag2O based TOLED and those (5.25V, 3.5cd/A) obtained from the corresponding bottom-emitting organic light-emitting devices. Contact potential difference measurement shows that the work function of Ag /MoOx is higher than those of Ag /Ag2O and ozone-treated indium tin oxide, leading to a stronger hole injection. The good performance of Ag /MoOx based TOLED is attributed to the efficient hole injection from the Ag /MoOx anode as well as a microcavity effect.

  19. Autoantibodies to CD59, CD55, CD46 or CD35 are not associated with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Rachael; Wearmouth, Emma; McLoughlin, Amy-Claire; Jackson, Arthur; Ward, Sophie; Bertram, Paula; Bennaceur, Karim; Barker, Catriona E.; Pappworth, Isabel Y.; Kavanagh, David; Lea, Susan M.; Atkinson, John P.; Goodship, Timothy H.J.; Marchbank, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibody formation against Factor H (FH) is found in 7–10% of patients who are diagnosed with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). These autoantibodies predominately target the C-terminal cell binding recognition domain of FH and are associated with absence of FHR1. Additional autoantibodies have also been identified in association with aHUS, for example autoantibodies to Factor I. Based on this, and that there are genetic mutations in other complement regulators and activators associated with aHUS, we hypothesised that other complement regulator proteins, particularly surface bound regulators in the kidney, might be the target for autoantibody formation in aHUS. Therefore, we assayed serum derived from 89 patients in the Newcastle aHUS cohort for the presence of autoantibodies to CD46 (membrane cofactor protein, MCP), CD55 (decay accelerating factor, DAF), CD35 (complement receptor type 1, CR1; TP10) and CD59. We also assayed 100 healthy blood donors to establish the normal levels of reactivity towards these proteins in the general population. Recombinant proteins CD46 and CD55 (purified from Escherichia coli) as well as soluble CR1 (CD35) and oligomeric C4BP-CD59 (purified from eukaryotic cell media) were used in ELISA to detect high responders. False positive results were established though Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. After excluding false positive responders to bacterial proteins in the CD46 and CD55 preparations, and responses to blood group antigens in CD35, we found no significant level of patient serum IgG reactivity with CD46, CD55, CD35 or CD59 above that detected in the normal population. These results suggest that membrane anchored complement regulators are not a target for autoantibody generation in aHUS. PMID:25150608

  20. Positive selection of self-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells by hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hisakata; Shibata, Kensuke; Sakuraba, Koji; Fujimura, Kenjiro; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2013-08-01

    In contrast to thymic epithelial cells, which induce the positive selection of conventional CD8(+) T cells, hematopoietic cells (HCs) select innate CD8(+) T cells whose Ag specificity is not fully understood. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells expressing an H-Y Ag-specific Tg TCR were able to develop in mice in which only HCs expressed MHC class I, when HCs also expressed the H-Y Ag. These HC-selected self-specific CD8(+) T cells resemble innate CD8(+) T cells in WT mice in terms of the expression of memory markers and effector functions, but are phenotypically distinct from the thymus-independent CD8(+) T-cell population. The peripheral maintenance of H-Y-specific CD8(+) T cells required presentation of the self-Ag and IL-15 on HCs. HC-selected CD8(+) T cells in mice lacking the Tg TCR also showed these features. Furthermore, by using MHC class I tetramers with a male Ag peptide, we found that self-Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in TCR non-Tg mice could develop via HC-induced positive selection, supporting results obtained from H-Y TCR Tg mice. These findings indicate the presence of self-specific CD8(+) T cells that are positively selected by HCs in the peripheral T-cell repertoire. PMID:23636825

  1. A colorimetric nitrite detection system with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity based on Ag@Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianhua; Li, Yonglong; Zhang, Yujie; Dong, Chen; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-02-21

    Excessive uptake of NO2(-) is detrimental to human health, but the currently available methods used to sensitively detect this ion in the environment are cumbersome and expensive. In this study, we developed an improved NO2(-) detection system based on a redox etching strategy of CTAB-stabilized Ag-Au core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@AuNPs). The detection mechanism was verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and XPS. The detection system produces a color change from purple to colorless in response to an increase of NO2(-) concentration. The selectivity of detection of NO2(-), both with the unaided eye and by measurement of UV-Vis spectra, is excellent in relation to other ions, including Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), Al(3+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), K(+), F(-), PO4(3-), C2O4(2-), SO3(2-), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-) and CH3-COO(-) (Ac(-)). The limit of detection (LOD) for NO2(-) is 1.0 μM by eye and 0.1 μM by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The LOD by eye is lower than the lowest previously reported value (4.0 μM). There is a good linear relationship between A/A0 and the concentration of NO2(-) from 1.0 to 20.0 μM NO2(-), which permits a quantitative assay. The applicability of our detection system was also verified by analysis of NO2(-) in tap water and lake water. The results demonstrate that our Ag@AuNP-based detection system can be used for the rapid colorimetric detection of NO2(-) in complex environmental samples, with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. PMID:25564225

  2. Characterization of CdS thin film in high efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Miwa; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Hideaki; Hibino, Takeshi; Omura, Kuniyoshi

    2000-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin film is the most commonly used window material for high-efficient cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic devices. High-efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells have been developed using ultra-thin CdS films having a thickness of below 0.1 μm. CdS film is deposited on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film coated glass substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, CdTe film is subsequently deposited by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. Finally, carbon and Ag-In electrodes are fabricated by the screen printing and sintering method. Cell performance depends primarily on the electrical and optical properties of CdS film, and hence we started to develop higher quality CdS film and found out clear differences between high- and low-quality CdS films from various analyses: SEM, AFM, SIMS, TDS and FT-IR. As a result of controlling qualities of CdS films, photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 10.5% has been achieved for a size of 1376 cm 2 of the solar module under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions by the Japan Quality Assurance Organization (JQA).

  3. Millochau Cr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03292 Millochau Cr.

    The floor of Millochau Crater has been filled by material that is now being eroded away.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -21.1N, Longitude 85.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. The Synthesis of Ag-Doped Mesoporous TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2008-04-15

    Ag-doped mesoporous titanium oxide was prepared using non-ionic surfactants and easily handled titanium precursors, under mild reaction conditions. In contrast to the stabilizing effect of Cd-doping on mesoporous TiO2, Ag-doping was found to significantly destabilize the mesoporous structure.

  5. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  6. CD Rainbows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Several papers have been published on the use of a CD as a grating for undergraduate laboratories and/or for high school and college class demonstrations. Four years ago "The Physics Teacher" had a spectacular cover picture showing emission spectrum as viewed through a CD with no coating. That picture gave the impetus to develop a system that can…

  7. The AgNORs.

    PubMed

    Derenzini, M

    2000-04-01

    The structure and the function of interphase AgNORs and the importance of the "AgNOR" parameter in tumor pathology have been reviewed. Interphase AgNORs are structural-functional units of the nucleolus in which all the components necessary for ribosomal RNA synthesis are located. Two argyrophilic proteins involved in rRNA transcription and processing, nucleolin and nucleophosmin, are associated with interphase AgNORs and are responsible for their stainability with silver methods, thus allowing interphase AgNORs to be visulaized at light microscopic level, also in routine cyto-histopathological preparations. The number of interphase AgNORs is strictly related to rRNA transcriptional activity and, in continuously proliferating cells, to the rapidity of cell proliferation. Evaluation of the quantitative distribution of interphase AgNORs has been applied in tumor pathology both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The "AgNOR" parameter has been proved to represent a reliable tool for defining the clinical outcome of cancer disease, being an independent prognostic factor in many types of tumors. PMID:10588056

  8. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  9. Dendritic Cell Migration and Antigen Presentation Are Coordinated by the Opposing Functions of the Tetraspanins CD82 and CD37.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eleanor L; Wee, Janet L; Demaria, Maria C; Blakeley, Jessica; Ho, Po Ki; Vega-Ramos, Javier; Villadangos, Jose A; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Hickey, Michael J; Hämmerling, Günther J; Wright, Mark D

    2016-02-01

    This study supports a new concept where the opposing functions of the tetraspanins CD37 and CD82 may coordinate changes in migration and Ag presentation during dendritic cell (DC) activation. We have previously published that CD37 is downregulated upon monocyte-derived DC activation, promotes migration of both skin and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), and restrains Ag presentation in splenic and BMDCs. In this article, we show that CD82, the closest phylogenetic relative to CD37, appears to have opposing functions. CD82 is upregulated upon activation of BMDCs and monocyte-derived DCs, restrains migration of skin and BMDCs, supports MHC class II maturation, and promotes stable interactions between T cells and splenic DCs or BMDCs. The underlying mechanism involves the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton via a differential activation of small GTPases. Both CD37(-/-) and CD82(-/-) BMDCs lack cellular projections, but where CD37(-/-) BMDCs spread poorly on fibronectin, CD82(-/-) BMDCs are large and spread to a greater extent than wild-type BMDCs. At the molecular level, CD82 is a negative regulator of RhoA, whereas CD37 promotes activation of Rac-1; both tetraspanins negatively regulate Cdc42. Thus, this study identifies a key aspect of DC biology: an unactivated BMDC is CD37(hi)CD82(lo), resulting in a highly motile cell with a limited ability to activate naive T cells. By contrast, a late activated BMDC is CD37(lo)CD82(hi), and thus has modified its migratory, cytoskeletal, and Ag presentation machinery to become a cell superbly adapted to activating naive T cells. PMID:26729805

  10. Performance of Graphite Pastes Doped with Various Materials as Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafusa, Akira; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Morita, Akikatsu

    2001-12-01

    To date the problem of developing a suitable back contact for CdS/CdTe solar cells has yet to be resolved. The Cu-doped graphite paste that is widely used as a back contact is associated with degradation problems due to possible Cu diffusion across the CdS/CdTe junction. This study was designed to find ways to improve the graphite paste for superior electrical contacts. Mixtures of graphite paste with various material constituents and dopants consisting of silver-, lead-, nickel-, antimony-, bismuth-, or phosphor-based compounds, were studied. Results show that the performances of solar cells fabricated from these graphite pastes vary with the change in the composition. In the cases of Ag2Te and Ni2P, we studied their relationship with the solar cell characteristics with regard to dopant quantity, and furthermore in the case of Ag2Te, with regard to the sintering temperature of the graphite electrode. A fill factor (F.F.) of over 0.65 and efficiencies over 13% were obtained with Ag2Te, Ag3PO4, Ag2MoO4, and NiTe, and efficiencies over 12% were obtained with AgF, AgCl, Ni2P, and Ni3P.

  11. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  12. Selective decrease of CD26 expression in T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, M V; Madueño, J A; Gonzalez, R; Jurado, R; Bachovchin, W W; Peña, J; Muñoz, E

    1992-11-01

    The decrease of CD4+ cells in AIDS patients is widely documented, although the selective loss within different subsets of CD4+ cells and the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are controversial. In the present report we have analyzed the proliferative response to Ag and mitogen of peripheral blood T lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals, the phenotype profile of CD26+ and CD26- subset of cells and their infectivity by the HIV. The expression of CD26 Ag, either in CD4+ or CD8+ cells, was clearly diminished in all the patients tested. On the other hand, the expression of CD29 seems not to be affected, nevertheless T cells from these patients were unable to generate a proliferative response against soluble Ag. In 11 out of 13 patients, polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that the CD26- subset of CD4+ cells was the main reservoir for HIV-1 in infected individuals and HIV-1 virus preferentially infected in vitro CD4+/CD26- subpopulation. This capacity for preferential infectivity, together with the selective loss of cells expressing CD26 Ag, helps to explain the progressive impairment in the immune system of these patients and sheds new light on our understanding of the AIDS pathophysiology. PMID:1357035

  13. Pirquitasite, Ag2ZnSnS4

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Benjamin N.; Downs, Robert T.; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Andrade, Marcelo B; Origlieri, Marcus J.

    2013-01-01

    Pirquitasite, ideally Ag2ZnSnS4 (disilver zinc tin tetra­sulfide), exhibits tetra­gonal symmetry and is a member of the stannite group that has the general formula A2BCX 4, with A = Ag, Cu; B = Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Hg; C = Sn, Ge, Sb, As; and X = S, Se. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are used to determine the structure of pirquitasite from a twinned crystal from the type locality, the Pirquitas deposit, Jujuy Province, Argentina, with anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms, and a measured composition of (Ag1.87Cu0.13)(Zn0.61Fe0.36Cd0.03)SnS4. One Ag atom is located on Wyckoff site Wyckoff 2a (symmetry -4..), the other Ag atom is statistically disordered with minor amounts of Cu and is located on 2c (-4..), the (Zn, Fe, Cd) site on 2d (-4..), Sn on 2b (-4..), and S on general site 8g. This is the first determination of the crystal structure of pirquitasite, and our data indicate that the space group of pirquitasite is I-4, rather than I-42m as previously suggested. The structure was refined under consideration of twinning by inversion [twin ratio of the components 0.91 (6):0.09 (6)]. PMID:23424398

  14. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in trophosome and vestimentum of the tube worm Riftia pachyptila from Guaymas basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J.; Páez-Osuna, F.; Soto, Luis A.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty two specimens of vestimentiferan tube worms Riftia pachyptila were collected from Guaymas Basin. The distribution of ten trace metals in trophosome and vestimentum was investigated. Highest mean concentrations of Co, Cu and Fe were detected in the trophosome; while higher mean levels of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the vestimentum. However, the t-student test resulted in significant differences (p<0.05) only in the case of Co. Cd and Fe concentrations in vestimentum increased accordingly with the size of specimens. With respect to vent fluids, extreme uptake seems to be a characteristic of R. pachyptila in the case of Cu and Zn but not for the rest of the analyzed metals. Studies concerning accumulation mechanisms of trace metals in R. pachyptila are needed, particularly on the capacity of this organism to tolerate elevated levels of elements considered as non-essential.

  15. Enhanced room-temperature magnetoresistance in self-assembled Ag-coated multiphasic chromium oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Biswas, S

    2016-09-14

    Self-assembled Ag-coated multiphasic diluted magnetic chromium oxide nanocomposites were developed by a facile chemical synthesis route involving a reaction of CrO3 in the presence of Ag(+) ions in an aqueous solution of poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and sucrose. The tiny ferromagnetic single domains of tetragonal and orthorhombic CrO2 (t-CrO2 and o-CrO2) embedded in a dominantly insulating matrix of antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 and Cr3O8, and paramagnetic CrO3 and Cr2O, with a correlated diamagnetic thin and discontinuous shell layer of Ag efficiently tailor useful magnetic and room-temperature magnetoresistance (RTMR) properties. The t-CrO2, o-CrO2, possible canted ferromagnetism due to spin disorder in the matrix components, and the associated exchange interactions are the elements responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in the composite structure. The chain of ferromagnetic centers embedded in the composite matrix constitutes a type of magnetic tunnel junction through which spin-polarized electrons can effectively move without significant local interruptions. Electrical transport measurements showed that the spin-dependent tunneling (SDT) mechanism in the engineered microstructure of the nanocomposites exists even at room temperature (RT). A typical sample unveils a markedly enhanced RTMR-value, e.g., -80% at an applied field (H) of 3 kOe, compared to the reported values for compacted CrO2 powders or composites. The enhanced RTMR-value observed in the Coulomb blockade regime appears not only due to the considerably suppressed spin flipping at RT but primarily due to a highly effective SDT mechanism through an interlinked structure of Ag-coated multiphasic chromium oxide nanocomposites. PMID:27524510

  16. T Cell-Extrinsic CD18 Attenuates Antigen-Dependent CD4+ T cell Activation In Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xingxin; Lahiri, Amit; Sarin, Ritu; Abraham, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The β2 integrins (CD11/CD18) are heterodimeric leukocyte adhesion molecules expressed on hematopoietic cells. The role of T cell-intrinsic CD18 in trafficking of naïve T cells to secondary lymphoid organs, and in antigen-dependent T cell activation in vitro and in vivo has been well-defined. However, the T cell-extrinsic role for CD18, including on antigen presenting cells (APC), in contributing to T cell activation in vivo is less well understood. We examined the role for T cell-extrinsic CD18 in the activation of WT CD4+ T cells in vivo through the adoptive transfer of DO11.10 Ag-specific CD4+ T cells into CD18−/− mice. We found that T cell-extrinsic CD18 was required for attenuating OVA-induced T cell proliferation in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN). The increased proliferation of WT DO11.10 CD4+ T cells in CD18−/− PLN was associated with a higher percentage of APC, and these APC demonstrated an increased activation profile and increased Ag-uptake, in particular in F4/80+ APC. Depletion of F4/80+ cells both reduced and equalized antigen-dependent T cell proliferation in CD18−/− relative to littermate control PLN, demonstrating that these cells play a critical role in the enhanced T cell proliferation in CD18−/− mice. Consistently, CD11b blockade, which is expressed on F4/80+ macrophages, enhanced the proliferation of DO11.10+ T cells in CD18+/− PLN. Thus, in contrast to the T cell-intrinsic essential role for CD18 in T cell activation, T cell-extrinsic expression of CD18 attenuates antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell activation in PLN in vivo. PMID:25801431

  17. Ag(I)-triggered one-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticles onto natural nanorods as a multifunctional nanocomposite for efficient catalysis and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangyan; Wang, Wenbo; Mu, Bin; Kang, Yuru; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional palygorskite/polyaniline/Ag nanoparticles (PAL/PANI/AgNPs) nanocomposite was prepared at room temperature using a simple one-pot in-situ polymerization reaction of aniline monomers triggered by Ag(I) on the surface of natural PAL nanorods. Ag(I) served as both the oxidant and the precursor of the AgNPs, which initiated the polymerization of aniline monomers on PAL nanorods while simultaneously being reduced to form Ag(0) nanoparticles (AgNPs). The in-situ formed AgNPs were evenly distributed on the surface of the PAL nanorods because the interfacial effect of PAL prevents their aggregation. The density and size of the AgNPs and the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites could be controlled by altering the molar ratio of aniline to Ag(I). The performance evaluation revealed that the nanocomposites could be used as highly active catalysts, which rapidly catalyzed the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) within 2min and Congo red (CR) within 10min. The nanocomposites are also an effective adsorbent for H2PO4(-) able to remove 99.40% of H2PO4(-) (only 61.77% for raw PAL) from a solution with an initial concentration of 50mg/L. This multifunctional nanocomposite synthesized by a simple one-pot approach is a promising material for environmental applications. PMID:27054770

  18. Synthesis of AgatCrO2 core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Preetam K.; Sharma, Priyanka; Biswas, S.; Nagawat, A. K.

    2013-06-01

    Half metallic ferromagnetic Chromium Oxide (CrO2) with 100% spin polarization is thought as an excellent candidate for magnetic nano-tag for Giant magnetoresistive biosensor. We have investigated the chemical synthesis and direct mixing approaches for the synthesis of Ag@CrO2 core shell nanoparticles. For chemical synthesis two mild reducing agents namely polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and ethylene glycol (EG) were used. Our investigations suggest that the direct mixing and subsequent annealing at 300°C for 2 h is the better method to realize Ag@CrO2 core shell nanoparticles.

  19. Longitudinal Requirement for CD4+ T Cell Help for Adenovirus Vector–Elicited CD8+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Borducchi, Erica N.; McNally, Anna; Parenteau, Lily R.; Kaufman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of replication-incompetent recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors as candidate vaccine platforms, the mechanism by which these vectors elicit CD8+ T cell responses remains poorly understood. Our data demonstrate that induction and maintenance of CD8+ T cell responses by Ad vector immunization is longitudinally dependent on CD4+ T cell help for a prolonged period. Depletion of CD4+ T cells in wild type mice within the first 8 d following Ad immunization resulted in dramatically reduced induction of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, decreased T-bet and eomesodermin expression, impaired KLRG1+ effector differentiation, and atypical expression of the memory markers CD127, CD27, and CD62L. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells failed to protect against a lethal recombinant Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Depletion of CD4+ T cells between weeks 1 and 4 following immunization resulted in increased contraction of memory CD8+ T cells. These data demonstrate a prolonged temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cell responses in mice. These findings have important implications in the design of vaccines aimed at eliciting CD8+ T cell responses and may provide insight into the impaired immunogenicity of vaccines in the context of AIDS and other CD4+ T cell immune deficiencies. PMID:24778441

  20. Pattern of distribution of selected trace elements in the marine brown alga, Sargassum filipendula Ag. from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, R

    1994-06-01

    Baseline concentrations together with biological variations of 29 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn and Zr) were investigated in the brown alga, Sargassum filipendula collected from the western coast of Sri Lanka. Several elements (Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Ni, Sc, Se, Th, Zr and the rare earth elements) were found to be enriched in S. filipendula compared to NIES No. 9 Sargasso reference material. Concentration of strontium in S. filipendula was highest at all sites. Chemical abundance of the rare earth elements decreased approximately linearly with increasing atomic numbers. The pattern of elemental distribution appears to be due to the fact that S. filipendula seems capable of concentrating high levels of trace elements under conditions of their very low availability in sea water. Concentration factors for elements in S. filipendula lie in a higher range compared with those reported in the literaure for brown algae. PMID:24197034

  1. Searching for “LiCrIIPO4”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosymow, E.; Glaum, R.; Kremer, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    The two new phosphates LiCrII4(PO4)3 and Li5CrII2CrIII(PO4)4 are discovered as equilibrium phases (ϑ=800 °C) in the quarternary system Li/Cr/P/O. Their crystal structures have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data {LiCrII4(PO4)3: violet-blue, Pnma (no. 62), Z=4, a=6.175(1) Å, b=14.316(3) Å, c=10.277(2) Å, 100 parameters, R1=0.028, wR2=0.08, 2060 unique reflections with Fo>4σ(Fo); Li5CrII2CrIII(PO4)4: greyish-green, P1bar (no. 2), Z=1, a=4.9379(7) Å, b=7.917(2) Å, c=8.426(2) Å, α=109.98(2)°, β=90.71(1)°, γ=104.91(1)°, 131 parameters, R1=0.022, wR2=0.067, 1594 unique reflections with Fo>4σ(Fo)}. Li5CrII2CrIII(PO4)4 adopts an hitherto unknown structure type. The crystal structure of LiCrII4(PO4)3 is isotypic to that of NaCdII4(PO4)3 and related to that of the mineral silicocarnotite Ca5(PO4)2(SiO4). Significant disorder between Li+ and Cr2+ is observed for both crystal structures. The oxidation states assigned to chromium in these two phosphates are in agreement with UV/vis/NIR absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility data recorded for both compounds. Instead of “LiCrIIPO4” mixtures of LiCrII4(PO4)3, Li5CrII2CrIII(PO4)4, Cr2O3, and CrP are observed at equilibrium. Instead of “Li2CrIIP2O7” four-phase mixtures consisting of Li9CrIII3(P2O7)3(PO4)2, Li3CrIII2(PO4)3, LiCrP2O7, and CrP were obtained.

  2. Growth of CdS Nanorods and Deposition of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Yang, Fanghong; Yang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Systematic investigations have been done to deposit silver nanoparticles on seeded CdS nanorods. The CdS nanorods were synthesized by using CdS nanocrystals as seeds being indexed to the cubic structure (zinc-blende) and tetradecylphosphonic acid as surfactants to enable preferential growth on the reactive {001} facets. Ostwald ripening process occurred during the growth of CdS nanorods. Ag/CdS heterostructures were obtained through a facile method in which oleylamine was employed as reducing agents under an elevated temperature. Exposing CdS nanorods to Ag+ ions resulted in Ag domains depositing on the tips of the nanorods or defected sites embedding in the nanorod surfaces. Ag domains formed separate nuclei and grew quickly at a high concentration of AgNO3 solution. We further focused on discussing the morphology formation mechanism and optical properties of the heterostructures and the nanorods. The as-synthesized Ag/CdS heterostructures can facilitate charge separation at the metal-semiconductor interface. Herein, it opens up an application possibility of enhancing photocatalytic processes and other devices. PMID:26505026

  3. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) using silicon nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Ouarda; Barras, Alexandre; Pan, Guo-Hui; Coffinier, Yannick; Hadjersi, Toufik; Maamache, Mustapha; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    We report an efficient visible light-induced reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr(III) by direct illumination of an aqueous solution of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in the presence of hydrogenated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) or silicon nanowires decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs-SiNWs) as photocatalyst. The SiNW arrays investigated in this study were prepared by chemical etching of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Cu NPs were deposited on SiNW arrays via electroless deposition technique. Visible light irradiation of an aqueous solution of K2Cr2O7 (10(-4)M) in presence of H-SiNWs showed that these substrates were not efficient for Cr(VI) reduction. The reduction efficiency achieved was less than 10% after 120 min irradiation at λ>420 nm. Addition of organic acids such as citric or adipic acid in the solution accelerated Cr(VI) reduction in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, Cu NPs-SiNWs was found to be a very efficient interface for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in absence of organic acids. Almost a full reduction of Cr(VI) was achieved by direct visible light irradiation for 140 min using this photocatalyst. PMID:26610097

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Salmonid CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Sandino, Ana María; Zou, Jun; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Imarai, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the isolation and functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CD4-1(+) T cells and the establishment of an IL-15-dependent CD4-1(+) T cell line. By using Abs specific for CD4-1 and CD3ε it was possible to isolate the double-positive T cells in spleen and head kidney. The morphology and the presence of transcripts for T cell markers in the sorted CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) cells were studied next. Cells were found to express TCRα, TCRβ, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (CD40L), T-bet, GATA-3, and STAT-1. The sorted CD4-1(+) T cells also had a distinctive functional attribute of mammalian T lymphocytes, namely they could undergo Ag-specific proliferation, using OVA as a model Ag. The OVA-stimulated cells showed increased expression of several cytokines, including IFN-γ1, IL-4/13A, IL-15, IL-17D, IL-10, and TGF-β1, perhaps indicating that T cell proliferation led to differentiation into distinct effector phenotypes. Using IL-15 as a growth factor, we have selected a lymphoid cell line derived from rainbow trout head kidney cells. The morphology, cell surface expression of CD4-1, and the presence of transcripts of T cell cytokines and transcription factors indicated that this is a CD4-1(+) T cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) T cells in salmonids. As in mammals, CD4-1(+) T cells may be the master regulators of immune responses in fish, and therefore these findings and the new model T cell line developed will contribute to a greater understanding of T cell function and immune responses in teleost fish. PMID:27053758

  5. T Cell CX3CR1 Mediates Excess Atherosclerotic Inflammation in Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Nordlohne, Johannes; Ge, Shuwang; Hertel, Barbara; Melk, Anette; Rong, Song; Haller, Hermann; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle

    2016-06-01

    Reduced kidney function increases the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death. Leukocytes in the arterial wall contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation. We investigated the role of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in atherosclerotic inflammation in renal impairment. Apoe(-/-) (apolipoprotein E) CX3CR1(-/-) mice with renal impairment were protected from increased aortic atherosclerotic lesion size and macrophage accumulation. Deficiency of CX3CR1 in bone marrow, only, attenuated atherosclerosis in renal impairment in an independent atherosclerosis model of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice as well. Analysis of inflammatory leukocytes in atherosclerotic mixed bone-marrow chimeric mice (50% wild-type/50% CX3CR1(-/-) bone marrow into LDLr(-/-) mice) showed that CX3CR1 cell intrinsically promoted aortic T cell accumulation much more than CD11b(+)CD11c(+) myeloid cell accumulation and increased IL-17-producing T cell counts. In vitro, fewer TH17 cells were obtained from CX3CR1(-/-) splenocytes than from wild-type splenocytes after polarization with IL-6, IL-23, and TGFβ Polarization of TH17 or TREG cells, or stimulation of splenocytes with TGFβ alone, increased T cell CX3CR1 reporter gene expression. Furthermore, TGFβ induced CX3CR1 mRNA expression in wild-type cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In atherosclerotic LDLr(-/-) mice, CX3CR1(+/-) T cells upregulated CX3CR1 and IL-17A production in renal impairment, whereas CX3CR1(-/-) T cells did not. Transfer of CX3CR1(+/-) but not Il17a(-/-) T cells into LDLr(-/-)CX3CR1(-/-) mice increased aortic lesion size and aortic CD11b(+)CD11c(+) myeloid cell accumulation in renal impairment. In summary, T cell CX3CR1 expression can be induced by TGFβ and is instrumental in enhanced atherosclerosis in renal impairment. PMID:26449606

  6. Controllable synthesis of metal selenide heterostructures mediated by Ag2Se nanocrystals acting as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiangcong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-10-21

    Ag2Se nanocrystals were demonstrated to be novel semiconductor mediators, or in other word catalysts, for the growth of semiconductor heterostructures in solution. This is a result of the unique feature of Ag2Se as a fast ion conductor, allowing foreign cations to dissolve and then to heterogrow the second phase. Using Ag2Se nanocrystals as catalysts, dimeric metal selenide heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe, and even multi-segment heterostructures such as Ag2Se-CdSe-ZnSe and Ag2Se-ZnSe-CdSe, were successfully synthesized. Several interesting features were found in the Ag2Se based heterogrowth. At the initial stage of heterogrowth, a layer of the second phase forms on the surface of an Ag2Se nanosphere, with a curved junction interface between the two phases. With further growth of the second phase, the Ag2Se nanosphere tends to flatten the junction surface by modifying its shape from sphere to hemisphere in order to minimize the conjunct area and thus the interfacial energy. Notably, the crystallographic relationship of the two phases in the heterostructure varies with the lattice parameters of the second phase, in order to reduce the lattice mismatch at the interface. Furthermore, a small lattice mismatch at the interface results in a straight rod-like second phase, while a large lattice mismatch would induce a tortuous product. The reported results may provide a new route for developing novel selenide semiconductor heterostructures which are potentially applicable in optoelectronic, biomedical, photovoltaic and catalytic fields. PMID:24056899

  7. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. IV. Analysis of surface expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) molecule.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Ercolani, R; Bistoni, O; Tognellini, R; Mariggió, M A; Spinozzi, F; Bertotto, A

    1994-04-15

    A role for CD26 surface antigen (Ag) in both CD3- and CD2-mediated T cell activation has been previously demonstrated. To analyze the functional role of CD26 in the CD3- and CD2-induced activation pathways of cord T cells, which represent the most reliable source of Ag-unprimed T cells, we employed a newly developed anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, termed anti-1F7, anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 in activating T lymphocytes. The results showed that CD26 Ag is expressed on the surface of almost all resting cord T cells and that its fluorescence intensity is enhanced by activation. The binding of anti-1F7 induced a decrease in CD26 membrane expression, with no detectable effect on the surface expression of other cord T cell-related molecules. Moreover, the modulation of CD26 resulted in an increase in anti-CD3-mediated cord T cell activation through an enhancement in intracellular calcium levels, IL-2 receptor expression, and IL-2 synthesis, whereas it had no effect on cord T cell activation induced by anti-CD2 or anti-CD2 plus exogenous IL-2. The fact that the selective involvement of CD26 in the activation pathway triggered by anti-CD3, but not anti-CD2, could be reversed by prior stimulation of cord T cells with anti-CD3 suggests that this functional feature, which resembles that of mature thymocytes, may be linked to the Ag-unprimed cell phenotype of cord T lymphocytes. PMID:7909498

  8. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G F; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; den Haan, Joke M M

    2015-03-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169(+) macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood-borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169(+) macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype-switched, high-affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long-term persistence of Ag-specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169(+) macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B-cell responses. Our results identify CD169(+) macrophages as promoters of high-affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  9. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Eliot D; Ma, Jie; Delaire, Olivier A; Budai, John D; May, Andrew F; Karapetrova, Evguenia A.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  10. Efficacy evaluation of two synthetic lysine lipidated tripeptides as vaccine adjuvants against HBsAg.

    PubMed

    Sidiq, Tabasum; Khajuria, Anamika; Shafi, Syed; Ismail, Tabasum; Sampath Kumar, Halmathur; Kannappa Srinivas, Vellimedu; Krishna, Ella; Kamal Johri, Rakesh

    2013-04-01

    In the present investigation, adjuvant potential of two novel lipidated tripeptide lysine derivatives (KKSM and KKSMB) was evaluated using various in vitro and animal-derived models of humoral and cell-mediated immune events in response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results were compared with alum adjuvanted with HBsAg. Both these molecules were found to stimulate anti-HBsAg IgG and neutralizing (IgG1 and IgG2a) antibody titres in mice sera. The two molecules stimulated the proliferation of T-lymphocyte sub-sets (CD4/CD8) as well as the production of soluble mediators of Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 response (IL-4) in spleen cell culture supernatant. Furthermore, the two lipidated tripeptides enhanced the CD4, CD8, CD3 and CD19 cell populations as well as CD4/CD8 derived IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α in whole blood of treated mice. There was found to be the significant enhancement in the release of IL-12, IFN-γ and nitrite content in macrophage supernatant. Moreover, the two lipidated tripeptides enhanced the population of CD80 and CD86 in spleen-derived macrophages and did not show any hemolytic effect on rabbit RBCs. Taken together, these results suggest that both these molecules are the potent enhancers of anti-HBsAg immune response via augmenting Th1/Th2 response in a dose dependent manner. PMID:23474022

  11. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  12. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α− conventional dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)+ B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c+ cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c+ cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α− conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4+ T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α+ cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α− cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:27306570

  13. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4(+) T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α(-) conventional dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4(+) T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)(+) B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c(+) cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c(+) cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α(-) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α(+) cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α(-) cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27306570

  14. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Nomoto, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, H.; Yagi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Ag loaded Ga2O3 (Ag/Ga2O3) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO2 with water. Ag L3-edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga2O3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO2-like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga2O3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d-orbitals by interacting with the Ga2O3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity.

  15. CX3CR1(+) B Cells Show Immune Suppressor Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The immune regulatory functions of B cells are not fully understood yet. The present study aims to characterize a subtype of B cells that expresses CX3CR1. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with food allergies and healthy subjects. Peripheral B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. T cell proliferation was assessed by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assay. The results showed that the CX3CR1+ B cells were detected in the peripheral blood samples of healthy subjects and were significantly less in patients with food allergies. CX3CR1+ B cells expressed high levels of TGF-β and integrin αvβ6. CX3CR1+ B cells could efficiently suppress other effector CD4+ T cell activation. We conclude that human peripheral CX3CR1+ B cells have immune suppressor properties. PMID:24970890

  16. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  17. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  18. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  19. Shortened Intervals during Heterologous Boosting Preserve Memory CD8 T Cell Function but Compromise Longevity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily A; Beura, Lalit K; Nelson, Christine E; Anderson, Kristin G; Vezys, Vaiva

    2016-04-01

    Developing vaccine strategies to generate high numbers of Ag-specific CD8 T cells may be necessary for protection against recalcitrant pathogens. Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunization has been shown to result in large quantities of functional memory CD8 T cells with protective capacities and long-term stability. Completing the serial immunization steps for heterologous prime-boost-boost can be lengthy, leaving the host vulnerable for an extensive period of time during the vaccination process. We show in this study that shortening the intervals between boosting events to 2 wk results in high numbers of functional and protective Ag-specific CD8 T cells. This protection is comparable to that achieved with long-term boosting intervals. Short-boosted Ag-specific CD8 T cells display a canonical memory T cell signature associated with long-lived memory and have identical proliferative potential to long-boosted T cells Both populations robustly respond to antigenic re-exposure. Despite this, short-boosted Ag-specific CD8 T cells continue to contract gradually over time, which correlates to metabolic differences between short- and long-boosted CD8 T cells at early memory time points. Our studies indicate that shortening the interval between boosts can yield abundant, functional Ag-specific CD8 T cells that are poised for immediate protection; however, this is at the expense of forming stable long-term memory. PMID:26903479

  20. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  1. Retrogenic ICOS Expression Increases Differentiation of KLRG-1hiCD127loCD8+ T Cells during Listeria Infection and Diminishes Recall Responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danya; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2016-02-01

    Following T cell encounter with Ag, multiple signals are integrated to collectively induce distinct differentiation programs within Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell populations. Several factors contribute to these cell fate decisions, including the amount and duration of Ag, exposure to inflammatory cytokines, and degree of ligation of cosignaling molecules. The ICOS is not expressed on resting T cells but is rapidly upregulated upon encounter with Ag. However, the impact of ICOS signaling on programmed differentiation is not well understood. In this study, we therefore sought to determine the role of ICOS signaling on CD8(+) T cell programmed differentiation. Through the creation of novel ICOS retrogenic Ag-specific TCR-transgenic CD8(+) T cells, we interrogated the phenotype, functionality, and recall potential of CD8(+) T cells that receive early and sustained ICOS signaling during Ag exposure. Our results reveal that these ICOS signals critically impacted cell fate decisions of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, resulting in increased frequencies of KLRG-1(hi)CD127(lo) cells, altered BLIMP-1, T-bet, and eomesodermin expression, and increased cytolytic capacity as compared with empty vector controls. Interestingly, however, ICOS retrogenic CD8(+) T cells also preferentially homed to nonlymphoid organs and exhibited reduced multicytokine functionality and reduced ability to mount secondary recall responses upon challenge in vivo. In sum, our results suggest that an altered differentiation program is induced following early and sustained ICOS expression, resulting in the generation of more cytolyticly potent, terminally differentiated effectors that possess limited capacity for recall response. PMID:26729800

  2. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. III. Role of LFA-1/ICAM-1 and CD2/LFA-3 adhesion molecules in CD3-induced proliferative response.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Tognellini, R; Fiorucci, G; Spinozzi, F; Cernetti, C; Bertotto, A

    1993-04-15

    As cord T cells, a model of antigen (Ag)-unprimed cell, display a functional defect when stimulated through the CD3 molecule, the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1(LFA-1)/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and CD2/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) receptor-ligand pairs in cord CD3-triggered T-cell activation was analyzed using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against each adhesion molecule. The addition of anti-CD11a, anti-CD18, or anti-CD2 to both adult and cord peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultures led to a decrease in CD3-induced proliferation. In contrast, CD3-stimulated cord, but not adult, PBMC proliferation was markedly enhanced when anti-CD54 or anti-CD58 were added. Despite the fact that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 molecules were virtually absent on cord resting T cells, mAb against these two molecules boosted both mitogenesis of and interleukin (IL)-2 production by purified cord T cells stimulated with plastic immobilized anti-CD3. Cord T-cell supernatant levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were undetectable with CD3 stimulation, slightly raised with CD58/CD3 costimulation, but normal when T cells were preincubated with IL-2 for 24 hr before being costimulated with anti-CD3/CD58. Evidence that IL-2 and IFN-gamma play a pivotal role in fully activating cord T cells came from the demonstration that IL-2 and IFN-gamma are able to bypass the CD3-proliferative defect through differential up-regulation of the adhesion molecules. It would, therefore, seem that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 molecules are crucially implicated in the CD3-activation pathway of Ag-unprimed T cells. PMID:7684326

  3. Surface recombination velocity at n-CdSe semiconductor-electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessler-Podorowski, Pnina

    1989-06-01

    The influence of the concentration of divers electrolyte solutions on the surface recombination velocity of n-CdSe immersed in them was investigated. The semiconductor was irradiated with a 25-psec, 532-nanometer laser pulse and photoluminescence decays from the crystal surface were measured. Surface recombination velocities were evaluated by fitting the experimental decay curves to simulated decay curves. A crystal which had been chemically etched showed a significantly longer photoluminescence decay time than a mechanically polished one, when immersed in distilled water, and a surface recombination velocity of less than 1,000 cm/sec. The surface recombination velocity increased when the crystal was immersed in aqueous solutions of CuSO4, NaI, NaI/I2, AgNO3 and HgCl2, and methanol solutions of bromide. The velocity increased with solution concentration, to a maximum of 100,000-1,000,000 cm/sec. Immersion in aqueous solutions of LiCl and Cr(NO3)3 induced recombination velocity increases, but only at high concentrations; these changes were attributed to impurities. In aqueous ZnSO4 solutions, there was no velocity change until the concentration reached 0.01M, when the velocity decreased. The surface recombination velocity increases are caused by surface states which result from intrinsic states of the crystal, unsaturated bonds on the surface, defects, or adsorption of ions from the solution. Only molecules having a negative free energy of absorption can be adsorbed, and the solubility product of the adsorbed cation with Se, the semiconductor anion, must be lower than the solubility product of the semiconductor, CdSe. When an anion is adsorbed, the solubility product of the adsorbed anion with Cd(2+), the semiconductor cation, must be lower than the solubility product of CdSe. Thus, cations which form selenide salts or anions which form cadmium salts in which the solubility products are higher than the solubility product of CdSe would not be adsorbed on the Cd

  4. CD measurement evaluation on periodic patterns between optic tools and CD-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongkyoo; Kim, Munsik; Oh, Sunghyun; Han, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    As feature size is shrinking and MEEF (Mask error enhancement factor) is increasing, CD measurement accuracy is more important, and CD SEM is widely used to replace optic tools because of their resolution. But CD-SEM is not representing the effect of Cr profile or transmittance of light which is transferred to wafer. Recently, new OCD (optic CD) tool which use scatterometry (Spectroscopic Ellipsometry) *1) is introduced to compensate the demerit of SEM of low through-put and reflected surface information of mask. This scatterometry tool can be used only on periodic pattern like DRAM. And this tool must be calibrated on each pattern type and shape. This calibration is the barrier to use this scatterometry method to mask process where all masks are processed one time. In this work, new optical CD measurement method which use conventional optic microscope of transmitted and reflected light with high resolution lens of DUV on periodic patterns is introduced. To enhance the accuracy of measurement, interpolating method and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) are used. CD measurement results of linearity by optic CD, SE and CD-SEM were compared on several patterns. And CD variations on full field of image were evaluated on L/S patterns and active layer of DRAM.

  5. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jun; Zhang Dongming; Zhao Jie

    2011-09-15

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu-Ag) core-shell powders. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of fabricating Cu-Ag particles with good dispersibility using {beta}-CDs as a protective agent was studied because of its special structure. Highlights: > Green supramolecular {beta}-CD used as a protective agent and ascorbic acid(Vc) as a reducing agent to fabricate Cu-Ag powders. > Particles are monodisperse and the diameter is close to nanoscale(100-150 nm). > Resistance of Cu particles to oxidation was higher. > Formation mechanism explained.

  6. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B‐cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G. F.; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez‐Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169+ macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood‐borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype‐switched, high‐affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long‐term persistence of Ag‐specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169+ macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B‐cell responses. Our results identify CD169+ macrophages as promoters of high‐affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  7. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ˜ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  8. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  9. Immediate Dysfunction of Vaccine-Elicited CD8+ T Cells Primed in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael A; Aid, Malika; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Borducchi, Erica N; Yates, Kathleen B; Abbink, Peter; Kirilova, Marinela; Ng'ang'a, David; Bramson, Jonathan; Haining, W Nicholas; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-01

    CD4(+) T cell help is critical for optimal CD8(+) T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. In addition, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8(+) T cell responses in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help, which often coincides with reduced Ag or pathogen clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that absence of CD4(+) T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8(+) T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8(+) T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 d of immunization. Unhelped CD8(+) T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4(+) T cell-deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4(+) T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8(+) T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction. PMID:27448585

  10. Immediate Dysfunction of Vaccine-Elicited CD8+ T Cells Primed in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Aid, Malika; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Borducchi, Erica N.; Yates, Kathleen B.; Abbink, Peter; Kirilova, Marinela; Ng’ang’a, David; Bramson, Jonathan; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help is critical for optimal CD8+ T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. In addition, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of CD4+ T cell help, which often coincides with reduced Ag or pathogen clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that absence of CD4+ T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8+ T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 d of immunization. Unhelped CD8+ T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4+ T cell–deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4+ T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8+ T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction. PMID:27448585

  11. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  12. β-Cyclodextrin coated SiO₂@Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles for SERS detection of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yilin; Yao, Guohua; Sun, Kexi; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    A new type of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate consisting of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) coated SiO2@Au@Ag nanoparticles (SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs) has been achieved. Our protocol was a simplified approach as the fabrication and modification of the silver shell were realized in a single-step reaction by taking advantage of β-CD as both the reducing and stabilizing agents. The as-synthesized SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs were uniform in size and demonstrated high SERS activity and reproducibility. The substrates consisting of the SiO2@Au@Ag@CD NPs were employed for SERS detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including PCB-3, PCB-29 and PCB-77. The SERS detection sensitivity was significantly improved due to enrichment of more PCB molecules captured by β-CD on the substrate surface, as confirmed by the appearance of the new Raman bands which are attributed to the complexes between β-CD and PCBs according to the theoretical simulation. Therefore, this work presents a novel approach to the fabrication of effective SERS substrates that can be employed for rapid determination of trace amounts of PCBs in the environment with high detection sensitivity and recognition selectivity. PMID:25478906

  13. Cutting edge: Failure of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell recruitment to the kidney during systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Wallace, Carol; Reid, Delyth M; Way, Sing Sing; Kaplan, Daniel H; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is the leading cause of systemic candidiasis, a fungal disease associated with high mortality and poor treatment options. The kidney is the target organ during infection and whose control is largely dependent on innate immunity, because lymphocytes appear redundant for protection. In this article, we show that this apparent redundancy stems from a failure of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells to migrate into infected kidneys. In contrast, Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells are recruited normally. Using Ag-loaded immunoliposomes to artificially reverse this defective migration, we show that recruited Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells polarize toward a Th17 phenotype in the kidney and are protective during fungal infection. Therefore, our data explain the redundancy of CD4(+) T cells for defense against systemic infection with C. albicans and have important implications for our understanding of antifungal immunity and the control of renal infections. PMID:25344471

  14. NSOM/QD-Based Direct Visualization of CD3-Induced and CD28-Enhanced Nanospatial Coclustering of TCR and Coreceptor in Nanodomains in T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C.; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W.

    2009-01-01

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2–4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and ∼6–10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70–110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200–500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3–CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289

  15. NSOM/QD-based direct visualization of CD3-induced and CD28-enhanced nanospatial coclustering of TCR and coreceptor in nanodomains in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liyun; Zeng, Gucheng; Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W

    2009-01-01

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2-4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and approximately 6-10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70-110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200-500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3-CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289

  16. CD21(-/low) B cells in human blood are memory cells.

    PubMed

    Thorarinsdottir, K; Camponeschi, A; Cavallini, N; Grimsholm, O; Jacobsson, L; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L

    2016-08-01

    The complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) is part of a complex (CD21/CD19/CD81) acting as a co-receptor to the B cell receptor (BCR). Simultaneous triggering of the BCR and CD21 lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Although CD21 is important, B cells that express low amounts or lack surface CD21 (CD21(-/low) ) are increased in conditions with chronic inflammation, e.g. autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the CD21(-/low) B cell subset in peripheral blood from healthy donors. Here, we show that CD21(-/low) cells represent approximately 5% of B cells in peripheral blood from adults but are barely detectable in cord blood, after excluding transitional B cells. The CD21(-/low) subset can be divided into CD38(-) 24(+) and CD38(-) 24(low) cells, where most of the CD38(-) 24(+) are CD27(+) immunoglobulin (Ig)M(+) IgD(+) and the CD38(-) 24(low) are switched CD27(-) . Expression levels of additional markers, e.g. CD95 and CD62L, are similar to those on classical memory B cells. In contrast to naive cells, the majority of CD21(-/low) cells lack expression of the ABCB1 transporter. Stimulation with a combination of BCR, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 and interleukin (IL)-2 induces proliferation and differentiation of the CD21(-/low) B cells comparable to CD21(+) CD27(+) memory B cells. The response excluding BCR agonist is not on par with that of classical memory B cells, although clearly above that of naive B cells. This is ascribed to a weaker response by the CD38(-) 24(low) subset, implying that some memory B cells require not only TLR but also BCR triggering. We conclude that the CD21(-/low) cells in healthy donors are memory B cells. PMID:27010233

  17. Bimetallic Pt-Ag and Pd-Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Debdutta; Bunker, Bruce; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Zhang, Zhenyuan; Meisel, Dan; Doudna, C. M.; Bertino, M. F.; Blum, Frank D.; Tokuhiro, A. T.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Terry, Jeff

    2005-04-19

    We report studies of bimetallic nanoparticles with 15%–16% atomic crystal parameters size mismatch. The degree of alloying was also probed in a 2-nm Pt core ssmallest attainable core sized of Pt–Ag nanoparticles scompletely immiscible in bulkd and 20-nm-diameter Pd–Ag nanowires scompletely miscible in bulkd. Particles were synthesized radiolytically, and depending on the initial parameters, they assume spherical or cylindrical snanowired morphologies. In all cases, the metals are seen to follow their bulk alloying characteristics. Also, Pt and Ag segregate in both spherical and wire forms, which indicates that strain due to crystallographic mismatch overcomes the excess surface free energy in the small particles. The Pd–Ag nanowires alloy similar to previously reported spherical Pd–Ag particles of similar diameter and composition

  18. Bimetallic Pt-Ag and Pd-Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Debdutta; Bunker, Bruce; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Zhang, Zhenyuan; Meisel, Dan; Doudna, C.M.; Bertino, M. F.; Blum, Frank D.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Terry, Jeff

    2005-05-01

    We report studies of bimetallic nanoparticles with 15%-16% atomic crystal parameters size mismatch. The degree of alloying was probed in a 2-nm Pt core (smallest attainable core size) of Pt-Ag nanoparticles (completely immiscible in bulk) and 20-nm-diameter Pd-Ag nanowires (completely miscible in bulk). Particles were synthesized radiolytically, and depending on the initial parameters, they assume spherical or cylindrical (nanowire) morphologies. In all cases, the metals are seen to follow their bulk alloying characteristics. Pt and Ag segregate in both spherical and wire forms, which indicates that strain due to crystallographic mismatch overcomes the excess surface free energy in the small particles. The Pd-Ag nanowires alloy similar to previously reported spherical Pd-Ag particles of similar diameter and composition.

  19. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of hydrogenated chromium-doped CdO films

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhel, A.A.; Hamad, H.

    2013-12-15

    Cadmium oxide thin films doped with different amounts of chromium and annealed in hydrogen atmosphere have been grown on glass substrates by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the prepared Cr-doped CdO (CdO:Cr–H) films were systematically studied. The structural investigations show that the incorporated Cr ions mainly occupied locations in interstitial positions of CdO lattice. The bandgap engineer by Cr incorporation and hydrogenation were studied. The variations of the electrical parameters of CdO:Cr–H films with Cr incorporation and hydrogenation were investigated. It was established that among the investigated samples, the largest mobility and conductivity were measured with 1.5%:Cr–H film. Therefore, hydrogenated CdO:Cr films can be effectively used in different applications of near infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR-TCO). - Graphical abstract: Optoelectronic properties of synthesised chromium-doped CdO thin films. It was established that the largest mobility (53.4 cm{sup 2}/V.s) and conductivity (2136.8 S/cm) were measured in 1.5%:Cr–H doped CdO film. Therefore, such films can be effectively used in near infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR-TCO). - Highlights: • The properties of CdO films annealed in H{sub 2} gas were systematically studied. • Cr{sup 3+} ions most likely occupied interstitial locations in CdO lattice and as donors. • Improvement of conductivity parameters with Cr doping and H annealing. • Bandgap narrowing observed with Cd-doping.

  20. CD83 Modulates B Cell Activation and Germinal Center Responses.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Urbat, Anne; Hutzler, Stefan; Ostalecki, Christian; Gläsner, Joachim; Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André; Winkler, Thomas H; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Nitschke, Lars

    2016-05-01

    CD83 is a maturation marker for dendritic cells. In the B cell lineage, CD83 is expressed especially on activated B cells and on light zone B cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. The function of CD83 during GC responses is unclear. CD83(-/-) mice have a strong reduction of CD4(+) T cells, which makes it difficult to analyze a functional role of CD83 on B cells during GC responses. Therefore, in the present study we generated a B cell-specific CD83 conditional knockout (CD83 B-cKO) model. CD83 B-cKO B cells show defective upregulation of MHC class II and CD86 expression and impaired proliferation after different stimuli. Analyses of GC responses after immunization with various Ags revealed a characteristic shift in dark zone and light zone B cell numbers, with an increase of B cells in the dark zone of CD83 B-cKO mice. This effect was not accompanied by alterations in the level of IgG immune responses or by major differences in affinity maturation. However, an enhanced IgE response was observed in CD83 B-cKO mice. Additionally, we observed a strong competitive disadvantage of CD83-cKO B cells in GC responses in mixed bone marrow chimeras. Furthermore, infection of mice with Borrelia burgdorferi revealed a defect in bacterial clearance of CD83 B-cKO mice with a shift toward a Th2 response, indicated by a strong increase in IgE titers. Taken together, our results show that CD83 is important for B cell activation and modulates GC composition and IgE Ab responses in vivo. PMID:26983787

  1. Detection of Foreign Antigen-specific CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells by MHC Class II Tetramer and Intracellular CD154 Staining

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Young

    2013-01-01

    The unrestricted population of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have been known to control the expression of autoimmune diseases and protective immunity to inflammatory reactions, has led to greater appreciation of functional plasticity. Detecting and/or isolating Ag-specific CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs at the single cell level are required to study their function and plasticity. In this study, we established and compared both MHC class II tetramer and intracellular CD154 staining, in order to detect CD4+Foxp3+ Treg specific for foreign Ag in acute and chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Our results revealed that MHC class II tetramer staining showed a lower detection rate of LCMV GP66-77-specific CD4+ T cells because most of MHC class II tetramers were unbound and unstable when combined staining was performed with intracellular cytokines. In contrast, intracellular CD154 staining was revealed to be easier and simple for detecting LCMV GP66-77-specific CD4+ T cells, compared to MHC class II tetramer staining. Subsequently, we employed intracellular CD154 staining to detect LCMV GP66-77-specific CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs using Foxp3GFP knock-in mouse, and found that LCMV GP66-77-specific CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs and polyclonal CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs showed differential expansion in mice infected with LCMV Arms or Cl13 at acute (8 and 13 days pi) and chronic phases (35 days pi). Therefore, our results provide insight into the valuable use of intracellular CD154 staining to detect and characterize foreign Ag-specific CD4+Foxp3+ Treg in various models. PMID:24385945

  2. Photovoltaic mechanism of Pb2CrO5 ceramic disk with a pair of planar electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Kohji; Yoshida, Shinzo

    1988-03-01

    The photovoltaic mechanism of a Pb2CrO5 ceramic disk with a pair of planar metal electrodes is described. A theoretical relation between open-circuit photovoltage and short-circuit photocurrent for the device is considered in the device constructed of two metal-Pb2CrO5 contacts with a high resistivity Pb2CrO5 ceramic layer between them. The contact is regarded as one of metal-semiconductor contacts. From the measurement of the spectral photoresponse, we find that a light absorption in the metal electrode dominates in the photovoltaic effect of the device with Au or Ag electrode. The Schottky barrier heights are estimated to be 2.04 and 2.14 eV for the Au-Pb2CrO5 and Ag-Pb2CrO5 contacts, respectively.

  3. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  4. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  5. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  6. Dendritic cell vaccine modified by Ag85A gene enhances anti-tumor immunity against bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Jinyan; Wang, Danan; Wang, Huan; Shan, Fengping; Chen, Liudan; Hou, Ying; Wang, Enhua; Lu, Chang-Long

    2012-11-01

    The ability of dendritic cells to provide all the signals required for T-cell activation makes them an ideal cancer vaccine platform. With the use of established DC2.4 cell line, originated from C57BL/6 mice and developed by superinfecting GM-CSF transduced bone marrow cells with myc and raf oncogenes, we investigated whether the DC 2.4 cell line transfected with Ag85A gene could enhance immunity against bladder cancer. Both phenotypic and functional analyses of Ag85A-DCs were done with use of FCM and T cell proliferation test. The cytotoxicity of Ag85A-DCs loaded with tumor cell lysate was verified by LDH. Finally, the production of interferon gamma was assayed by both ELISA and FCM. The immunotherapeutic effect of DC vaccine on murine bladder cancer was assessed pharmacologically and pathologically. Our results showed that Ag85A gene transfected DCs expressed high levels of key surface markers such as CD80, CD86 and MHC-II. The CTL primed with MB49 lysate-pulsed Ag85A-DCs elicits higher activity against MB49 tumor cells and upregulated level of IFN-γ production. Furthermore, the significant inhibitive effect on tumor growth in mice was found in the group of Ag85A-DC vaccine. The infiltration of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell within established tumor treated by Ag85A-DC vaccine significantly increased as compared with control groups. It is therefore concluded that DCs engineered by Ag85A gene exerts enhanced anti-tumor immunity against bladder cancer and this study might provide a meaningful mode of action with the use of Ag85A engineered DC vaccination in anti-cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22884511

  7. Magnesium and cadmium containing Heusler phases REPd2Mg, REPd2Cd, REAg2Mg, REAu2Mg and REAu2Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnscher, Michael; Stein, Sebastian; Niehaus, Oliver; Benndorf, Christopher; Heletta, Lukas; Kersting, Marcel; Höting, Christoph; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-eight new Heusler phases REPd2Mg, REPd2Cd, REAg2Mg, REAu2Mg and REAu2Cd with different rare earth elements were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules in a water-cooled sample chamber of an induction furnace. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The cell volumes show the expected lanthanide contraction. The structures of YPd2Cd, GdPd2Cd, GdAu2Cd, Y1.12Ag2Mg0.88 and GdAg2Mg were refined based on single crystal diffractometer data. The magnetic properties were determined for fifteen phase pure samples. LuAu2Mg is a weak Pauli paramagnet with a susceptibility of 1.0(2) × 10-5 emu mol-1 at room temperature. The remaining samples show stable trivalent rare earth ions and most of them order magnetically at low temperatures. The ferromagnet GdAg2Mg shows the highest ordering temperature of TC = 98.3 K. 113Cd and 89Y MAS NMR spectra of YAu2Cd and YPd2Cd confirm the presence of unique crystallographic sites. The resonances are characterized by large Knight shifts, whose magnitude can be correlated with electronegativity trends.

  8. Combined removal of Cr, Cd, and Ni from wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sater, V.E.

    1984-02-01

    The results are presented of pilot-plant tests on treating electroplating wastes by alkaline reduction, precipitation, and upflow filtration. Experimental evidence shows that hexavalent chromium is stoichiometrically reduced to trivalent chromium and precipitated by the addition of ferrous sulfate at an alkaline pH. The oxidized iron precipitates as ferric hydroxide and aids flocculation of the solids produced in the process. Sodium sulfide used as the sole reducing agent of chromium was shown to be oxidized to elemental sulfur. Upflow filtration was effective in removing the high concentration of solids. The filter was most effective when operating at a loading rate of 3 gpm/ft/sup 2/.

  9. Gut Microbial Membership Modulates CD4 T Cell Reconstitution and Function after Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Babcock, Jeffrey C; Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Murphy, Katherine A; Kucaba, Tamara A; Badovinac, Vladimir P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2016-09-01

    Transient lymphopenia is one hallmark of sepsis, and emergent data indicate the CD4 T cell compartment in sepsis survivors is numerically and functionally altered (when examined at the Ag-specific level) compared with nonseptic control subjects. Previous data from our laboratory demonstrated Ag-independent, lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation to be a contributing mechanism by which CD4 T cells numerically recover in sepsis survivors. However, we reasoned it is also formally possible that some CD4 T cells respond directly to Ag expressed by gut-resident microbes released during polymicrobial sepsis. The effect of gut microbiome leakage on CD4 T cells is currently unknown. In this study, we explored the number and function of endogenous CD4 T cells specific for segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB) after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using mice that either contained or lacked SFB as a normal gut-resident microbe. Interestingly, SFB-specific CD4 T cells underwent Ag-driven proliferation in CLP-treated SFB(+), but not in SFB(-), mice. Moreover, CLP-treated SFB(+) mice showed resistance to secondary lethal infection with recombinant SFB Ag-expressing virulent Listeria (but not wild-type virulent Listeria), suggesting the CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis primed for a protective response by the SFB-specific CD4 T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that the numerical recovery and functional responsiveness of Ag-specific CD4 T cells in sepsis survivors is, in part, modulated by the intestinal barrier's health discreetly defined by individual bacterial populations of the host's microbiome. PMID:27448587

  10. Dual effect of CD85/leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1/Ig-like transcript 2 and CD152 (CTLA-4) on cytokine production by antigen-stimulated human T cells.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Daniele; Merlo, Andrea; Bruno, Silvia; Pistoia, Vito; Grossi, Carlo E; Ciccone, Ermanno

    2002-01-01

    The functional outcome of a T cell response to Ag is the result of a balance between coactivation and inhibitory signals. In this study we have investigated the effects of the CD85/leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LIR)-1/Ig-like transcript (ILT) 2 and of CD152 (CTLA-4) inhibitory receptors on the modulation of cell-mediated immune responses to specific Ags, both at the effector and at the resting/memory cell level. Proliferation and cytokine production of CD4+ T lymphocytes stimulated by recall Ags have been evaluated. Cross-linking of CD85/LIR-1/ILT2 or CD152 molecules on cultured T cells using specific mAb and goat anti-mouse antiserum inhibits Ag-specific T cell proliferation. This inhibition is always paralleled by increased production of cytokines that down-regulate immune responses, e.g., IL-10 and TGF-beta. In contrast, the production of cytokines that support T cell expansion and function (e.g., IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-13) is significantly decreased. A long-term effect of CD85/LIR-1/ILT2 and of CD152 occurs during Ag-specific T cell activation and expansion. T cells, primed in the presence of anti-CD85/LIR-1/ILT2 and anti-CD152 blocking mAb (but in the absence of cross-linking), proliferate at higher rates and produce higher amounts of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-13, in comparison with T cells stimulated with the Ag alone. We also show that the inhibitory receptors exert a similar effect during Ag activation of specific CD4+ effector T cells. Ag-specific polyclonal CD4+ T cell lines exhibit increased proliferation and IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-13 production when the CD85/LIR-1/ILT2 receptor is blocked by specific mAb. In contrast, cross-linking of this receptor down-regulates Ag-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and increases IL-10 and TGF-beta production. PMID:11751964

  11. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G. P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-08-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO2 (˜18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2-3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO2-polymer complex with Ag+ ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300-400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO2 such that it no longer converts to Cr2O3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (-) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO2 nanorods.

  12. Chromium segregation in CoCrTa/Cr and CoCrPt/Cr thin films for longitudinal recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Wittig, J.E.; Nolan, T.P.; Ross, C.A.; Schabes, M.E.; Tang, K.; Sinclair, R.; Bentley, J.

    1998-07-01

    Analytical electron microscopy is employed to correlate Cr segregation in Co{sub 84}Cr{sub 12}Ta{sub 4}/Cr and Co{sub 76}Cr{sub 12}Pt{sub 12}/Cr films with specific microstructural features such as grain boundary mis-orientation. Energy-filtered (EFTEM) chemical maps show that Cr segregation occurs independently of the Cr underlayer, and is highly alloy dependent. The CoCrTa film contained extensive grain boundary Cr enrichment whereas EFTEM images from the CoCrPt media show homogeneous Cr distribution. No statistically significant Ta or Pt segregation was observed. EFTEM elemental maps and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that grain boundary Cr segregation depends on the type of boundary. Quantitative analysis of the Cr levels using nanoprobe EDS shows that the random angle grain boundaries contain more Cr (23 +/{minus}4 at.%) than 90{degree} boundaries (17 +/{minus}4 at.%). EDS and EFTEM composition profiles show Cr enriched grain boundaries surrounded by regions of Cr depletion.

  13. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  14. Antigen-dependent and –independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew D.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses. PMID:26658291

  15. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  16. CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+ monocyte subpopulations in kidney allograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes represent a heterogeneous population of cells subdivided according to the expression level of membrane antigens. A pro-inflammatory (intermediate/nonclassical) subpopulation of monocytes is defined by expression of CD16. CD163 seems to be characteristically preferentially expressed by immunosuppressive monocytes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the distribution of monocyte subpopulations in 71 patients with kidney allograft transplantation. Results The phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry in defined time points. The proportions of peripheral CD14+CD16+ monocytes were downregulated immediately after the kidney transplantation and basiliximab treatment partially attenuated this trend. The transient downregulation of the CD14+CD16+ subpopulation was adjusted to basal values in two months. The proportions of CD14+CD163+ monocytes were transiently upregulated early after the kidney transplantation and remained higher during the first month in most patients. In ATG treated patients, the expansion of CD14+CD163+ monocytes was delayed but their upregulation lasted longer. In vitro data showed the direct effect of ATG and methylprednisolone on expression of CD16 and CD163 molecules while basiliximab did not affect the phenotype of cultured monocytes. Conclusions We assume from our data that kidney allograft transplantation is associated with modulation of monocyte subpopulations (CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+) partially affected by an immunosuppressive regime used. PMID:24499053

  17. THE AGS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTUM.

    SciTech Connect

    HOCK,J.RUSSO,T.GLEN,J.BROWN,K.

    2003-05-12

    The previous slow beam extraction electro static septum in the AGS was designed in 1981. Research documented at the Fermi Laboratory was used as the base line for this design. The septum consisted of a ground plane of .002 inch diameter wire tungsten-rhenium alloy (75%W 25%Re) with a hollow welded titanium cathode assembly. The vacuum chamber is stationary and the septum is moved with a pair of high vacuum linear feed throughs. After years of beam time, the frequency of failures increased. The vacuum system design was poor by today's standards and resulted in long pump down times after repairs. The failures ranged from broken septum wires to a twisted cathode. In addition to the failures, the mechanical drive system had too much backlash, making the operating position difficult to repeat. The new septum needed to address all of these issues in order to become a more reliable septum.

  18. EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Hans-Peter; Kluge, Peter; Mauch, Simon

    2005-07-01

    EPIDAUROS Biotechnologie AG is a leading provider of pharmacogenetic consulting, genotyping and research services to the international pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, contract research organizations and healthcare providers. The company's mission is to improve safety, efficacy and predictability in drug development and drug therapy. EPIDAUROS determines its customers' needs in the field of pharmacogenetics using an in-depth consultancy process. The development and conduct of genotyping assays for drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug targets (for example, receptors)--all performed under stringent quality standards--are a major activity at EPIDAUROS. The company offers its research services to academic and industrial partners for the development of innovative diagnostic solutions by using its intellectual property. PMID:16014003

  19. AgH, Ag/sub 2/, and AgO revisited: Basis set extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    An extended basis set has been developed for Ag which significantly improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental spectroscopic parameters for AgH, AgO, and Ag/sub 2/. The major improvement comes about as a result of the improved treatment of electron correlation in the Ag d shell upon the introduction of f functions. Their inclusion produces very slight differences at the SCF level, but significant reductions in r/sub e/ and increases in ..omega../sub e/ and D/sub e/ in the Mo-dash-barller--Plesset perturbation theory expansion. At the MP4(SDTQ) level, typical results are 0.02 A too long for r/sub e/, 4% too low for ..omega../sub e/, and 10 kcal too small for D/sub e/. From a pragmatic standpoint, MP2 give results very similar to this at a much reduced level of effort.

  20. Stable core/shell CdTe/Mn-CdS quantum dots sensitized three-dimensional, macroporous ZnO nanosheet photoelectrode and their photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Sheng, Pengtao; Feng, Hongyan; Yin, Xuehua; Zhu, Xuewei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Qingyun

    2014-08-13

    A novel photoelectrode based on ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS-sensitized three-dimensional macroporous ZnO nanosheet (NS) has been prepared by electrodeposition and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The photoelectrode performances were significantly improved through the coupling of the core/shell CdTe/Mn-CdS quantum dots (QDs) with ZnO NS, and the introduction of the ZnS layer as a potential barrier. The photocurrent density systematically increases from ZnO NS (0.45 mA/cm(2)), CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnO NS (4.98 mA/cm(2)), to ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS/ZnO (6.23 mA/cm(2)) under the irradiation of AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. More important, the ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS-sensitized ZnO NS photoelectrode provides a remarkable photoelectrochemical cell efficiency of 4.20% at -0.39 V vs Ag/AgCl. PMID:25010851

  1. Geochemistry of the Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit (paguanta, NE Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchilla Benavides, D.; Merinero Palomares, R.; Piña García, R.; Ortega Menor, L.; Lunar Hernández, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Patricia Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit is located within the Paguanta mining project, situated at the northern end of the Andean Oligocene Porphyry Copper Belt of Chile. The sulfide mineralization occurs as W-E oriented veins hosted in volcanic rocks, mainly andesite (pyroclastic, ash and lavas), of Upper Cretaceous to Middle Tertiary age. The ore mineralogy (obtained by EMPA analyses) comprises in order of abundance, pyrite, sphalerite (5.5 - 10.89 wt % Fe, 9.8-19 % molar FeS and 0.52 wt % Cd), galena, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ag-bearing sulfosalts. The veins show a zoned and banded internal structure with pyrite at the edges and sphalerite in the center. The Ag occurs mostly as Ag-Cu-Sb sulfosalts, in order of abundance: series freibergite - argentotennantite -polybasite and stephanite. Other minor Ag phases such as argentite, pyrargirite and diaphorite were also identified. These Ag phases are typically associated with the base-metal sulfides. Freibergite occurs filling voids within sphalerite, chalcopyrite and at the contact between sphalerite and galena. Polybasite, stephanite, pyrargirite and argentite are mostly in close association with freibergite. In the case of diaphorite, it commonly occurs filling voids between galena crystals or as inclusions within galena. Some minor Ag-bearing sulfosalts are also identified between pyrite crystals. The alteration minerals are dominated by chlorite, illite and kaolinite. The gangue minerals consist of quartz and carbonates identified by XRD as kutnahorite. We obtained linear correlation statistically significant only for Ag, As Au, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn and therefore we generated an enhanced scatter plot matrix of these elements. Bulk rock analyses (ICP/MS and XRF) of drill cores show that Ag is strongly and positively correlated with Pb and As, moderately with Cd, Sb, Au and Zn and weakly with Cu, while Au is moderately and positively correlated with Ag, As, Cd, Sb and Zn and weakly with Cu and Pb. These results

  2. The influence of grain boundary diffusion on the electro-optical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, D.H.; Albin, D.S.; Gessert, T.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Woods, L.M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on a study of the effects of diffusion of metals through polycrystalline CdTe thin films. The metals Ni, Pd, Cu, Cr, and Te are deposited onto the back surface of 10-{micro}m thick CdTe/CdS device structures using room-temperature evaporation. The authors found that four out of the five metals produce significant changes in the photoluminescence (PL) of the near-junction CdTe material. These changes are explained in terms of spatial variations of the photoexcited carrier distribution and spatial variations in the sulfur composition of the CdTeS alloy material near the CdTeS interface. The changes in carrier distribution appear to be associated with band bending and electric fields induced by diffusion of the metals to the CdTe/CdS interface. In addition to PL measurements, the authors have also utilized a technique for detaching the CdTe film from the CdS/TCO/glass superstrate to directly access the front surface of the CdTe absorber layer. The authors have used secondary ion mass spectroscopy to measure the metal diffusion profiles from this interface.

  3. Heterologous vaccination against human tuberculosis modulates antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Dintwe, One B; Day, Cheryl L; Smit, Erica; Nemes, Elisa; Gray, Clive; Tameris, Michele; McShane, Helen; Mahomed, Hassan; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Heterologous prime-boost strategies hold promise for vaccination against tuberculosis. However, the T-cell characteristics required for protection are not known. We proposed that boost vaccines should induce long-lived functional and phenotypic changes to T cells primed by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and/or natural exposure to mycobacteria. We characterized changes among specific CD4(+) T cells after vaccination with the MVA85A vaccine in adults, adolescents, and children. CD4(+) T cells identified with Ag85A peptide-bearing HLA class II tetramers were characterized by flow cytometry. We also measured proliferative potential and cytokine expression of Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T cells. During the effector phase, MVA85A-induced specific CD4(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-γ and IL-2, skin homing integrins, and the activation marker CD38. This was followed by contraction and a transition to predominantly IL-2-expressing, CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) CD27(+) or CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) CD27(+) specific CD4(+) T cells. These surface phenotypes were similar to Ag85A-specific T cells prior to MVA85A. However, functional differences were observed postvaccination: specific proliferative capacity was markedly higher after 6-12 months than before vaccination. Our data suggest that MVA85A vaccination may modulate Ag85A-specific CD4(+) T-cell function, resulting in greater recall potential. Importantly, surface phenotypes commonly used as proxies for memory T-cell function did not associate with functional effects of vaccination. PMID:23737382

  4. Multifunctional human CD56low CD16low natural killer cells are the prominent subset in bone marrow of both healthy pediatric donors and leukemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Helena; Nisti, Paolo; Morrone, Stefania; Pagliara, Daria; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; Santoni, Angela; Gismondi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    We phenotypically and functionally characterized a distinct CD56low natural killer cell subset based on CD16 expression levels in bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy children and pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells are more abundant in bone marrow than in peripheral blood and that their frequency is further increased in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells compared with CD56lowCD16high natural killer cells express lower levels of killer inhibitory receptors, higher levels of CD27, CD127, CD122, CD25, but undetectable levels of CD57, suggesting that they have a higher proliferative and differentiation potential. Moreover, CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells display higher levels of CXCR4 and undetectable levels of CX3CR1 and can be consistently and rapidly mobilized in peripheral blood in response to CXCR4 antagonist. Unlike CD56lowCD16high, both bone marrow and peripheral blood CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells release IFNγ following cytokine stimulation, and represent the major cytotoxic natural killer cell population against K562 or acute lymphoblastic leukemia target cells. All these data suggest that CD56lowCD16low natural killer cells are multifunctional cells, and that the presence of hematologic malignancies affects their frequency and functional ability at both tumor site and in the periphery. PMID:25596273

  5. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  6. Thermal Effects on a Low Cr Modification of PS304 Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Yanke, Anne M.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    PS304 is a high temperature composite solid lubricant coating composed of Ni-Cr, Cr2O3, BaF2-CaF2 and Ag. The effect of reducing chromium content on the formation of voids in the Ni-Cr particles after heat treatment in PS304 coating was investigated. Coatings were prepared with Ni-20Cr or Ni-10Cr powder and in various combinations with the other constituents of PS304 (i.e., chromia, silver and eutectic BaF2-CaF2 powders) and deposited on metal substrates by plasma spray. Specimens were exposed to 650 C for 24 hr or 1090 C for 15 hr and then examined for changes in thickness, coating microstructure and adhesion strength. Specimens with Ni-10Cr generally had less thickness increase than specimens with Ni-20Cr, but there was great variance in the data. Reduction of chromium concentration in Ni-Cr powder tended to reduce the appearance of voids in the Ni-Cr phase after heat exposure. The presence of BaF2-CaF2 resulted in a significant increase in coating adhesion strength after heat treatment, while coatings without BaF2-CaF2 had no significant change. Chemical composition analysis suggested that the void formation was due to oxidation of chromium in the Ni-Cr constituent.

  7. NK Cells Help Induce Anti-Hepatitis B Virus CD8+ T Cell Immunity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meijuan; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-05-15

    Although recent clinical studies demonstrate that NK cell function is impaired in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-persistent patients, whether or how NK cells play a role in anti-HBV adaptive immunity remains to be explored. Using a mouse model mimicking acute HBV infection by hydrodynamic injection of an HBV plasmid, we observed that although serum hepatitis B surface Ag and hepatitis B envelope Ag were eliminated within 3 to 4 wk, HBV might persist for >8 wk in CD8(-/-) mice and that adoptive transfer of anti-HBV CD8(+) T cells restored the ability to clear HBV in HBV-carrier Rag1(-/-) mice. These results indicate that CD8(+) T cells are critical in HBV elimination. Furthermore, NK cells increased IFN-γ production after HBV plasmid injection, and NK cell depletion led to significantly increased HBV persistence along with reduced frequency of hepatitis B core Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer of IFN-γ-sufficient NK cells restored donor CD8(+) T cell function, indicating that NK cells positively regulated CD8(+) T cells via secreting IFN-γ. We also observed that NK cell depletion correlated with decreased effector memory CD8(+) T cell frequencies. Importantly, adoptive transfer experiments showed that NK cells were involved in anti-HBV CD8(+) T cell recall responses. Moreover, DX5(+)CD49a(-) conventional, but not DX5(-)CD49a(+) liver-resident, NK cells were involved in improving CD8(+) T cell responses against HBV. Overall, the current study reveals that NK cells, especially DX5(+)CD49a(-) conventional NK cells, promote the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cell responses via secreting IFN-γ in a mouse model mimicking acute HBV infection. PMID:27183639

  8. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  9. Oxidation behavior of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Pint, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    Oxidation of hypoeutectic Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloys containing 6 and 12% Nb at 950 C resulted in formation of a multiproduct scale consisting of a continuous Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} outer layer and an inner region of discrete CrNbO{sub 4} products interspersed with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Overall oxidation behavior resembled that of Cr as reactions with the Cr-rich phase tended to dominate. Oxidation resistance, in terms of reaction kinetics and scale adherence, increased with increasing volume fraction of the Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb eutectic phase. A model for the oxidation of these alloys based on the growth of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the Cr-rich matrix regions and the formation of a slower growing CrNbO{sub 4} on the Cr{sub 2}Nb-enriched phase can qualitatively explain the development of the multiproduct scale and the observed gravimetric and spallation results. Possible microstructural/compositional modifications to improve oxidation resistance are suggested.

  10. Investigation on the interaction of nanoAg with Cu-Zn SOD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Ruijing; Liu, Yang; Liu, Rutao

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nanoAg) are used more and more widely, particularly because of their antimicrobial properties. The effect of exposure to nanoAg on the structure of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was thoroughly investigated using fluorescence measurements, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS), circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Through van der Waal's force, nanoAg interacted with Cu-Zn SOD and influenced the active site by inducing structural changes, which influenced the function of SOD. The fluorescence studies show that both static and dynamic quenching processes occur. This paper provides reference data for toxicological studies of nanoAg, which are important in the future development of nanotechnology. PMID:25754791

  11. A novel rosamine based fluorescent sensor for Ag+ recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lian-Qing; Gao, Le-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Rosamine derivative, N-(9-(4-(bis(2-(ethylthio)ethyl)amino)phenyl)-6-(diethylamino)-3H-xanthen-3-ylidene)-N-ethylethanaminium hexafluorophosphate, L, bearing an NS2 group as receptor, was synthesized as a turn on chemosensor for silver ion in ethanol solution. Sensor L exhibited high selectivity toward Ag+ in comparison to other metal cations (Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Na+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, and Zn2+). The detection limit for Ag+ was in 10-7 level. The binding properties between silver ion and L were further studied by 1HNMR titration experiments. The chemosensor L can be used as a potential material for silver recognition.

  12. Metal release and speciation of released chromium from a biomedical CoCrMo alloy into simulated physiologically relevant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of released Co, Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Mo from a biomedical high-carbon CoCrMo alloy exposed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), without and with the addition of 10 µM H2 O2 (PBS + H2 O2 ), and 10 g L(-1) bovine serum albumin (PBS + BSA) for time periods up to 28 days. Comparative studies were made on AISI 316L for the longest time period. No Cr(VI) release was observed for any of the alloys in either PBS or PBS + H2 O2 at open-circuit potential (no applied potential). However, at applied potentials (0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl), Cr was primarily released as Cr(VI). Co was preferentially released from the CoCrMo alloy at no applied potential. As a consequence, Cr was enriched in the utmost surface oxide reducing the extent of metal release over time. This passivation effect was accelerated in PBS + H2 O2 . As previously reported for 316L, BSA may also enhance metal release from CoCrMo. However, this was not possible to verify due to the precipitation of metal-protein complexes with reduced metal concentrations in solution as a consequence. This was particularly important for Co-BSA complexes after sufficient time and resulted in an underestimation of metals in solution. PMID:24155151

  13. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  14. NMR investigation of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwanghyo; Jang, Zeehoon

    2013-01-01

    109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and relaxation measurements have been performed on two powder samples of Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of 20 nm and 80 nm. The measurements have been done in an external field of 9.4 T and in the temperature range 10 K < T < 280 K. The 109Ag NMR spectra for both samples have close to Lorentzian shapes and turn out to be mixtures of homogeneous and inhomogeneous lines. The linewidth Δ ν at room temperature is 1.3 kHz for both samples and gradually increases with decreasing temperature. Both the Knight shift ( K) and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/ T 1) are observed to be almost identical to the values reported for the bulk Ag metal, whereby the Korringa ratio R(= K 2 T 1 T/S) is found to be 2.0 for both samples in the investigated temperature range.

  15. Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces CD4+ T Cell Anergy via GRAIL.

    PubMed

    Sande, Obondo J; Karim, Ahmad F; Li, Qing; Ding, Xuedong; Harding, Clifford V; Rojas, Roxana E; Boom, W Henry

    2016-01-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall glycolipid, lipoarabinomannan, can inhibit CD4(+) T cell activation by downregulating the phosphorylation of key proximal TCR signaling molecules: Lck, CD3ζ, ZAP70, and LAT. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling can result in T cell anergy, in which T cells are inactivated following an Ag encounter, yet remain viable and hyporesponsive. We tested whether mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-induced inhibition of CD4(+) T cell activation resulted in CD4(+) T cell anergy. The presence of LAM during primary stimulation of P25 TCR-transgenic murine CD4(+) T cells with M. tuberculosis Ag85B peptide resulted in decreased proliferation and IL-2 production. P25 TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T cells primed in the presence of LAM also exhibited decreased response upon restimulation with Ag85B. The T cell anergic state persisted after the removal of LAM. Hyporesponsiveness to restimulation was not due to apoptosis, generation of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells, or inhibitory cytokines. Acquisition of the anergic phenotype correlated with upregulation of gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL) protein in CD4(+) T cells. Inhibition of human CD4(+) T cell activation by LAM also was associated with increased GRAIL expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL before LAM treatment abrogated LAM-induced hyporesponsiveness. In addition, exogenous IL-2 reversed defective proliferation by downregulating GRAIL expression. These results demonstrate that LAM upregulates GRAIL to induce anergy in Ag-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Induction of CD4(+) T cell anergy by LAM may represent one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades T cell recognition. PMID:26667170

  16. A Brucella spp. Protease Inhibitor Limits Antigen Lysosomal Proteolysis, Increases Cross-Presentation, and Enhances CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Coria, Lorena M; Ibañez, Andrés E; Tkach, Mercedes; Sabbione, Florencia; Bruno, Laura; Carabajal, Marianela V; Berguer, Paula M; Barrionuevo, Paula; Schillaci, Roxana; Trevani, Analía S; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Pasquevich, Karina A; Cassataro, Juliana

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the unlipidated (U) outer membrane protein (Omp) 19 from Brucella spp. is a competitive inhibitor of human cathepsin L. U-Omp19 inhibits lysosome cathepsins and APC-derived microsome activity in vitro and partially inhibits lysosomal cathepsin L activity within live APCs. Codelivery of U-Omp19 with the Ag can reduce intracellular Ag digestion and increases Ag half-life in dendritic cells (DCs). U-Omp19 retains the Ag in Lamp-2(+) compartments after its internalization and promotes a sustained expression of MHC class I/peptide complexes in the cell surface of DCs. Consequently, U-Omp19 enhances Ag cross-presentation by DCs to CD8(+) T cells. U-Omp19 s.c. delivery induces the recruitment of CD11c(+)CD8α(+) DCs and monocytes to lymph nodes whereas it partially limits in vivo Ag proteolysis inside DCs. Accordingly, this protein is able to induce CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo against codelivered Ag. Antitumor responses were elicited after U-Omp19 coadministration, increasing survival of mice in a murine melanoma challenge model. Collectively, these results indicate that a cysteine protease inhibitor from bacterial origin could be a suitable component of vaccine formulations against tumors. PMID:27084100

  17. Systemic immunological tolerance to ocular antigens is mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-expressing CD8+ T cells*

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Thomas S.; Brincks, Erik L.; Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Ferguson, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic immunological tolerance to Ag encountered in the eye restricts the formation of potentially damaging immune responses that would otherwise be initiated at other anatomical locations. We previously demonstrated that tolerance to Ag administered via the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye required FasL-mediated apoptotic death of inflammatory cells that enter the eye in response to the antigenic challenge. Moreover, the systemic tolerance induced after AC injection of Ag was mediated by CD8+ regulatory T cells. The present study examined the mechanism by which these CD8+ regulatory T cells mediate tolerance after AC injection of Ag. AC injection of Ag did not prime CD4+ T cells, and led to increased TRAIL expression by splenic CD8+ T cells. Unlike wildtype mice, Trail−/− or Dr5−/− mice did not develop tolerance to Ag injected into the eye, even though responding lymphocytes underwent apoptosis in the AC of the eyes of these mice. CD8+ T cells from Trail−/− mice that were first injected AC with Ag were unable to transfer tolerance to naïve recipient wildtype mice, but CD8+ T cells from AC-injected wildtype or Dr5−/− mice could transfer tolerance. Importantly, the transferred wildtype (Trail+/+) CD8+ T cells were also able to decrease the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells into the eye; however, Trail−/− CD8+ T cells were unable to limit the inflammatory cell ingress. Together, our data suggest that “helpless” CD8+ regulatory T cells generated after AC injection of Ag enforce systemic tolerance in a TRAIL-dependent manner to inhibit inflammation in the eye. PMID:21169546

  18. CD103+ dendritic cells suppress Helminth-driven Type 2 immunity through constitutive expression of IL-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batf3-dependent CD103+ and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the development of type 1 immune responses. However, their role in type 2 immunity remains unclear. We found that Th2 cell responses were enhanced in Batf3-/- mice responding to helminth parasite antigens (Ag). As a r...

  19. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br- and I-), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10-8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface.

  20. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong Jun; Chen, Zhao Yang; Zhao, Yong Mei; Lv, Ming Yang; Shi, Chun An; Wu, Zheng Long; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Wang, Ming Li; Xu, Hai Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br(-) and I(-)), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd(2+) at 10(-8) M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface. PMID:26412773

  1. Ag@Au core-shell dendrites: a stable, reusable and sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    PubMed Central

    Jun Yin, Hong; Yang Chen, Zhao; Mei Zhao, Yong; Yang Lv, Ming; An Shi, Chun; Long Wu, Zheng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Luo; Li Wang, Ming; Jun Xu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on fabricated Ag@Au core-shell dendrite was achieved. Ag dendrites were grown on Si wafer by the hydrothermal corrosion method and Au nanofilm on the surface of Ag dendritic nanostructure was then fabricated by chemical reduction. With the help of sodium borohydride in water, Au surface absorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br– and I–), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can be completely and rapidly removed. After four repeatable experiments, the substrate SERS function did not decrease at all, indicating that the Ag@Au dendrite should be of great significance to SERS application because it can save much resource. Six-month-duration stability tests showed that the Ag@Au core-shell dendrite substrate is much more stable than the Ag dendrite substrates. We have also experimented on fast detection of Cd2+ at 10−8  M concentration by decorating single-stranded DNA containing adenine and guanine bases on the surface of this Ag@Au dendrite. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of Au nanolayer on Ag dendrites, which showed that the local electric fields and enhancement factor are hardly affected when a 4 nm Au nanolayer is coated on Ag dendrite surface. PMID:26412773

  2. Strong magnetization damping induced by Ag nanostructures in Ag/NiFe/Ag trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley Domínguez, D.; da Silva, G. L.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2013-07-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance has been used to investigate the magnetization relaxation in trilayers of Ag(t)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ag(t), sputter deposited on Si(001) where the thickness of the Ag layer varied from 0 nm to 24 nm. In the first stages of formation, the Ag layers form islands that work as mold to imprint defects or inhomogeneities on the NiFe film surface. The magnetic inhomogeneities and defects imprinted on the surface of the NiFe film act as extrinsic sources of magnetization relaxation in addition to the intrinsic Gilbert damping mechanism. Weak inhomogeneities are associated to the two-magnon scattering source and the strong inhomogeneities are associated to the fluctuations of the local magnetization. By adding the three different sources of magnetization damping, we were able to explain the azimuthal dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth.

  3. Fluorescent Polyamide-Based Rhodamine Hydrazide Moieties with Oxethyl as Spacer for Detection of Cr(3+), Fe(3+), and Hg(2+) Ions in Water.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tong-Mou; Wang, Xie; Jiang, Hui; Song, Wan; Ni, Ruo-Fan; Chen, Jian; Wang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    An acrylic monomer bearing xanthene group, N-oxethyl acrylate-N'-rhodamine B hydrazide (ARBHE) was synthesized from N-hydroxyl ethyl-N'-rhodamine hydrazide (RBHE) and acryloyl chloride (Ac) in the presence of triethylamine in dry dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) at room temperature. The synthesized ARBHE was identified by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectra and elementary analysis. Copolymer poly(AM-ARBHE) of ARBHE and AM was synthesized with thermal initiator by free radical precipitation polymerization and it was characterized by the method of FTIR and (1)H NMR. Its molecular weights (Mη) was 7.03 × 10(3) g mol(-1) and the content of rhodamine units in the polymer chains was 1.44 % in mole fraction. The ability of the poly(AM-ARBHE) to detect different metal cations (Ag(+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+) Co(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Co(2+) K(+), La(3+), Mg(2+), Na(+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+)) in water was investigated. Upon addition of Cr(3+), Fe(3+) or Hg(2+) ions to the aqueous solution, visual color change and fluorescence enhancement were observed. Moreover, other metal ions did not induce obvious changes to the fluorescence spectra except to Fe(2+). The detection limit of poly(AM-ARBHE) was less than 1 × 10(-11) M. The results suggest that this copolymer may offer potential as a polymeric sensor for Cr(3+), Fe(3+) and Hg(2+) ions in water. PMID:26979056

  4. CD8+ CD28− and CD8+ CD57+ T cells and their role in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Strioga, Marius; Pasukoniene, Vita; Characiejus, Dainius

    2011-01-01

    Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to gradual accumulation of late-differentiated, antigen-specific, oligoclonal T cells, particularly within the CD8+ T-cell compartment. They are characterized by critically shortened telomeres, loss of CD28 and/or gain of CD57 expression and are defined as either CD8+CD28− or CD8+CD57+ T lymphocytes. There is growing evidence that the CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population plays a significant role in various diseases or conditions, associated with chronic immune activation such as cancer, chronic intracellular infections, chronic alcoholism, some chronic pulmonary diseases, autoimmune diseases, allogeneic transplantation, as well as has a great influence on age-related changes in the immune system status. CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population is heterogeneous and composed of various functionally competing (cytotoxic and immunosuppressive) subsets thus the overall effect of CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell-mediated immunity depends on the predominance of a particular subset. Many articles claim that CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T cells have lost their proliferative capacity during process of replicative senescence triggered by repeated antigenic stimulation. However recent data indicate that CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T cells can transiently up-regulate telomerase activity and proliferate under certain stimulation conditions. Similarly, conflicting data is provided regarding CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell sensitivity to apoptosis, finally leading to the conclusion that this T-cell population is also heterogeneous in terms of its apoptotic potential. This review provides a comprehensive approach to the CD8+CD28− (CD8+CD57+) T-cell population: we describe in detail its origins, molecular and functional characteristics, subsets, role in various diseases or conditions, associated with persistent antigenic stimulation. PMID:21711350

  5. Spin dynamics of an individual Cr atom in a semiconductor quantum dot under optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the spin dynamics of a Cr atom incorporated in a II-VI semiconductor quantum dot using photon correlation techniques. We used recently developed singly Cr-doped CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots to access the spin of an individual magnetic atom. Auto-correlation of the photons emitted by the quantum dot under continuous wave optical excitation reveals fluctuations of the localized spin with a timescale in the 10 ns range. Cross-correlation gives quantitative transfer time between Cr spin states. A calculation of the time dependence of the spin levels population in Cr-doped quantum dots shows that the observed spin dynamics is dominated by the exciton-Cr interaction. These measurements also provide a lower bound in the 20 ns range for the intrinsic Cr spin relaxation time.

  6. Targeting with bovine CD154 enhances humoral immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine in sheep.

    PubMed

    Manoj, Sharmila; Griebel, Philip J; Babiuk, Lorne A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2003-01-15

    CD40-CD154 interactions play an important role in regulating humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, these interactions have been exploited for the development of therapeutic and preventive treatments. The objective of this study was to test the ability of bovine CD154 to target a plasmid-encoded Ag to CD40-expressing APCs. To achieve this, a plasmid coding for bovine CD154 fused to a truncated secreted form of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D (tgD), pSLIAtgD-CD154, was constructed. The chimeric tgD-CD154 was expressed in vitro in COS-7 cells and reacted with both glycoprotein D- and CD154-specific Abs. Both tgD and tgD-CD154 were capable of binding to epithelial cells, whereas only tgD-CD154 bound to B cells. Furthermore, dual-labeling of ovine PBMCs revealed that tgD-CD154 was bound by primarily B cells. The functional integrity of the tgD-CD154 chimera was confirmed by the induction of both IL-4-dependent B cell proliferation and tgD-specific lymphoproliferative responses in vitro. Finally, sheep immunized with pSLIAtgD-CD154 developed a more rapid primary tgD-specific Ab response and a significantly stronger tgD-specific secondary response when compared with animals immunized with pSLIAtgD and control animals. Similarly, virus-neutralizing Ab titers were significantly higher after secondary immunization with pSLIAtgD-CD154. These results demonstrate that using CD154 to target plasmid-expressed Ag can significantly enhance immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine. PMID:12517965

  7. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Two Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys and NARloy-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1996-01-01

    A series of creep tests were conducted on Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb (Cu-4 at.% Cr-2 at% Nb), and NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) samples to determine their creep properties. In addition, a limited number of low cycle fatigue and thermal conductivity tests were conducted. The Cu-Cr-Nb alloys showed a clear advantage in creep life and sustainable load over the currently used NARloy-Z. Increases in life at a given stress were between 100% and 250% greater for the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys depending on the stress and temperature. For a given life, the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys could support a stress between 60% and 160% greater than NARloy-Z. Low cycle fatigue lives of the Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy were equivalent to NARloy-Z at room temperature. At elevated temperatures (538 C and 650 C), the fatigue lives were 50% to 200% longer than NARloy-Z samples tested at 538 C. The thermal conductivities of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys remained high, but were lower than NARloy-Z and pure Cu. The Cu-Cr-Nb thermal conductivities were between 72% and 96% that of pure Cu with the Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy having a significant advantage in thermal conductivity over Cu-8 Cr4 Nb. In comparison, stainless steels with equivalent strengths would have thermal conductivities less than 25% the thermal conductivity of pure Cu. The combined results indicate that the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys offer an attractive alternative to current high temperature Cu-based alloys such as NARloy-Z.

  8. Synthesis of Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms and their use as DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ma, Zhanfang

    2011-06-01

    A simple synthetic route to prepare Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms consists of the facile addition of Na(2) S to a solution of triangular Ag nanoprisms. The resulting Ag(2) S-Ag nanoparticles are more stable in solution than the original Ag nanoprisms, and two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the original Ag nanoprisms still remain. In addition, the SPR bands of the Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms are tunable over a wide range. The Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms can be directly bioconjugated via well-established stable Ag(2) S surface chemistry with readily available sulfur coupling agents. The nanoprisms are used in the hybridization of functionalized oligonucleotides, and show promise as probes for future biosensing applications. PMID:21538868

  9. Mechanical properties and chemical bonding characteristics of Cr7C3 type multicomponent carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, B.; Feng, J.; Zhou, C. T.; Jiang, Y. H.; Zhou, R.

    2011-01-01

    The first principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to investigate the mechanical properties and chemical bonding features of several Cr7C3 type multicomponent carbides (Fe16Cr12C12, Fe12Cr12W4C12, Fe12Cr12Mo4C12, Fe12Cr12W4C8B4, and Fe12Cr12Mo4C8B4). The full set elastic constants are calculated using stress-strain method. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation is used to evaluate the mechanical moduli. The mechanical anisotropy is characterized by calculating several different anisotropic indexes and factors, such as universal anisotropic index (AU), shear anisotropic factors (A1, A2, and A3), and percent anisotropy (AB and AG). The surface constructions of bulk and Young's moduli are illustrated to indicate the mechanical anisotropy. The obtained results indicate that the presence of B could deteriorate the mechanical moduli of (Fe,Cr)7C3 phase in Cr cast iron slightly. On the other hand, the chemical stability of (Fe,Cr)7C3 carbides is improved due to chemical bonding modifications through doping with B. These conclusions are in agreement with experimental results.

  10. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  11. Supported liquid membrane system for Cr(III) separation from Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Religa, P; Rajewski, J; Gierycz, P; Swietlik, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses of the chromium(III) transport process from mixtures of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions using supported liquid membranes (SLM), in which dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) were used as carriers. In both cases the membrane worked as a selective barrier for Cr(VI) ions. The increase in both the time of Cr(VI) ions-carrier interaction and the Cr(VI) concentration in the feed phase negatively influenced the Cr(III) separation. The polarizing layer consisting of Cr(VI) ions prevents the access of Cr(III) ions to the inter phase surface and leads to the deactivation of the carrier, which is the result of the strong oxidation properties of Cr(VI) ions. These factors meant that, in the case of the membrane with DNNSA, the membrane could not be used for the effective separation of Cr(III) from the Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixture. On the other hand, the membrane with D2EHPA can be used for fast and efficient transport of Cr(III) ions, but only for strictly defined process parameters, i.e. where the level of chromium(VI) concentration is below 10(-3)M and with intensive feed phase mixing. PMID:24960010

  12. Immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a defined ratio of CD8+ and CD4+ CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells.

    PubMed

    Turtle, Cameron J; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Berger, Carolina; Hudecek, Michael; Pender, Barbara; Robinson, Emily; Hawkins, Reed; Chaney, Colette; Cherian, Sindhu; Chen, Xueyan; Soma, Lorinda; Wood, Brent; Li, Daniel; Heimfeld, Shelly; Riddell, Stanley R; Maloney, David G

    2016-09-01

    CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have antitumor activity in B cell malignancies, but factors that affect toxicity and efficacy have been difficult to define because of differences in lymphodepletion and heterogeneity of CAR-T cells administered to individual patients. We conducted a clinical trial in which CD19 CAR-T cells were manufactured from defined T cell subsets and administered in a 1:1 CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio of CAR-T cells to 32 adults with relapsed and/or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based lymphodepletion chemotherapy with or without fludarabine (Flu). Patients who received Cy/Flu lymphodepletion had increased CAR-T cell expansion and persistence, and higher response rates [50% complete remission (CR), 72% overall response rate (ORR)] than patients who received Cy-based lymphodepletion without Flu (8% CR, 50% ORR). The CR rate in patients treated with Cy/Flu at the maximally tolerated dose was 64% (82% ORR; n = 11). Cy/Flu minimized the effects of an immune response to the murine single-chain variable fragment component of the CAR, which limited CAR-T cell expansion and clinical efficacy in patients who received Cy-based lymphodepletion without Flu. Severe cytokine release syndrome (sCRS) and grade ≥3 neurotoxicity were observed in 13 and 28% of all patients, respectively. Serum biomarkers, one day after CAR-T cell infusion, correlated with subsequent sCRS and neurotoxicity. Immunotherapy with CD19 CAR-T cells in a defined CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio allowed identification of correlative factors for CAR-T cell expansion, persistence, and toxicity, and facilitated optimization of lymphodepletion that improved disease response and overall and progression-free survival. PMID:27605551

  13. CdTe and ZnTe metal interface formation and Fermi-level pinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahi, A. K.; Carey, G. P.; Chiang, T. T.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    Interfacial morphology and Fermi-level pinning behavior at the interfaces of Al, Ag, and Pt with UHV-cleaved CdTe and ZnTe are studied using X-ray photoelectron and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopies. Results are compared to metal/HgCdTe interface formation. For Al/CdTe, a case is found where significantly greater intermixing occurs in CdTe than seen on HgCdTe. The Al/ZnTe interface is also more abrupt than Al/CdTe. Band bending results for interfaces of all three metals with p-CdTe and p-ZnTe are presented and implications for metal/HgZnTe interface formation are considered.

  14. Properties of two-dimensional insulators: A DFT study of bimetallic oxide CrW2O9 clusters adsorption on MgO ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Xiong, Wei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yongfan

    2016-08-01

    Periodic density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the electronic properties of bimetallic oxide CrW2O9 clusters adsorbed on MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films (<1 nm). Our results show that after deposition completely different structures, electronic properties and chemical reactivity of dispersed CrW2O9 clusters on ultrathin films are observed compared with that on the thick MgO surface. On the thick MgO(001) surface, adsorbed CrW2O9 clusters are distorted significantly and just a little electron transfer occurs from oxide surface to clusters, which originates from the formation of adsorption dative bonds at interface. Whereas on the MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films, the resulting CrW2O9 clusters keep the cyclic structures and the geometries are similar to that of gas-phase [CrW2O9]-. Interestingly, we predicted the occurrence of a net transfer of one electron by direct electron tunneling from the MgO/Ag(001) films to CrW2O9 clusters through the thin MgO dielectric barrier. Furthermore, our work reveals a progressive Lewis acid site where spin density preferentially localizes around the Cr atom not the W atoms for CrW2O9/MgO/Ag(001) system, indicating a potentially good bimetallic oxide for better catalytic activities with respect to that of pure W3O9 clusters. As a consequence, present results reveal that the adsorption of bimetallic oxide CrW2O9 clusters on the MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films provide a new perspective to tune and modify the properties and chemical reactivity of bimetallic oxide adsorbates as a function of the thickness of the oxide films.

  15. Expression of the Hermes-1 (CD44) and ICAM-1 (CD54) molecule on the surface of thyroid cells from patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, H; Yoshida, K; Ichinohasama, R; Sawai, T; Hiromatsu, Y; Mori, K; Kikuchi, K; Aizawa, Y; Abe, K; Wall, J R

    1993-01-01

    From studies of binding of 51Cr-labeled T cells to human thyroid monolayers, we have postulated the existence of tissue "homing-like" receptors on thyroid cells in patients with Graves' disease (GD). In this study we have investigated whether the CD44 (Hermes-1) protein, well known as a putative human lymphocyte homing receptor, is expressed on thyroid cells in patients with GD, and if so whether its expression is influenced by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Cell surface CD44, as well as CD54 (ICAM-1), another putative homing receptor, antigens were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. CD44 and CD54 were both expressed on thyroid cells from untreated patients with GD, which, in the case of CD44, appeared as two peaks. IFN-gamma treatment enhanced the expression of the CD54 protein on Graves' thyroid cells and inhibited the expression of the larger of the two CD44 peaks, but not the other. Only small amounts of CD44 and CD54 were detected on normal thyroid cells, neither of which was affected by IFN-gamma. The CD44 protein was also demonstrated on both GD and normal thyroid cells by immunohistochemistry. These findings suggest that CD44, and possibly CD54, may induce putative adhesion pathways that lead to the homing of lymphocytes to the thyroid in patients who develop Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. PMID:7509669

  16. Cytomegalovirus-Associated CD4(+) CD28(null) Cells in NKG2D-Dependent Glomerular Endothelial Injury and Kidney Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shabir, S; Smith, H; Kaul, B; Pachnio, A; Jham, S; Kuravi, S; Ball, S; Chand, S; Moss, P; Harper, L; Borrows, R

    2016-04-01

    Emerging data suggest that expansion of a circulating population of atypical, cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells lacking costimulatory CD28 (CD4(+) CD28(null) cells) is associated with latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The purpose of the current study was to increase the understanding of the relevance of these cells in 100 unselected kidney transplant recipients followed prospectively for a median of 54 months. Multicolor flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells before transplantation and serially posttransplantation was undertaken. CD4(+) CD28(null) cells were found predominantly in CMV-seropositive patients and expanded in the posttransplantation period. These cells were predominantly effector-memory phenotype and expressed markers of endothelial homing (CX3CR1) and cytotoxicity (NKG2D and perforin). Isolated CD4(+) CD27(-) CD28(null) cells proliferated in response to peripheral blood mononuclear cells previously exposed to CMV-derived (but not HLA-derived) antigens and following such priming incubation with glomerular endothelium resulted in signs of endothelial damage and apoptosis (release of fractalkine and von Willebrand factor; increased caspase 3 expression). This effect was mitigated by NKG2D-blocking antibody. Increased CD4(+) CD28(null) cell frequencies were associated with delayed graft function and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at end follow-up. This study suggests an important role for this atypical cytotoxic CD4(+) CD28(null) cell subset in kidney transplantation and points to strategies that may minimize the impact on clinical outcomes. PMID:26603521

  17. Characterization of Highly Efficient CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells by Low-Temperature Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Matsuzaki, Yuichi; Amin, Nowshad; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    1998-07-01

    Highly efficient CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method with a glass/ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu-doped carbon/Ag structure were characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement. A broad 1.42 eV band probably due to VCd Cl defect complexes appeared as a result of CdCl2 treatment. CdS/CdTe junction PL revealed that a CdSxTe1-x mixed crystal layer was formed at the CdS/CdTe interface region during the deposition of CdTe by CSS and that CdCl2 treatment promoted the formation of the mixed crystal layer. Furthermore, in the PL spectra of the heat-treated CdTe after screen printing of the Cu-doped carbon electrode, a neutral-acceptor bound exciton (ACu0, X) line at 1.590 eV was observed, suggesting that Cu atoms were incorporated into CdTe as effective acceptors after the heat treatment.

  18. CR reliability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  19. Preferential induction of CD4+ T cell responses through in vivo targeting of antigen to dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1.

    PubMed

    Carter, Robert W; Thompson, Clare; Reid, Delyth M; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F

    2006-08-15

    Targeting of Ags and therapeutics to dendritic cells (DCs) has immense potential for immunotherapy and vaccination. Because DCs are heterogeneous, optimal targeting strategies will require knowledge about functional specialization among DC subpopulations and identification of molecules for targeting appropriate DCs. We characterized the expression of a fungal recognition receptor, DC-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1), on mouse DC subpopulations and investigated the ability of an anti-Dectin-1 Ab to deliver Ag for the stimulation of immune responses. Dectin-1 was shown to be expressed on CD8alpha-CD4-CD11b+ DCs found in spleen and lymph nodes and dermal DCs present in skin and s.c. lymph nodes. Injection of Ag-anti-Dectin-1 conjugates induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and Ab responses at low doses where free Ag failed to elicit a response. Notably, qualitatively different immune responses were generated by targeting Ag to Dectin-1 vs CD205, a molecule expressed on CD8alpha+CD4-CD11b- DCs, dermal DCs, and Langerhans cells. Unlike anti-Dectin-1, anti-CD205 conjugates failed to elicit an Ab response. Moreover, when conjugates were injected i.v., anti-Dectin-1 stimulated a much stronger CD4+ T cell response and a much weaker CD8+ T cell response than anti-CD205. The results reveal Dectin-1 as a potential targeting molecule for immunization and have implications for the specialization of DC subpopulations. PMID:16887988

  20. Magnetically induced phonon splitting in A Cr2O4 spinels from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, Aleksander L.; Birol, Turan

    2016-04-01

    We study the magnetically-induced phonon splitting in cubic A Cr2O4 (A =Mg , Zn, Cd) spinels from first principles and demonstrate that the sign of the splitting, which is experimentally observed to be opposite in CdCr2O4 compared to ZnCr2O4 and MgCr2O4 , is determined solely by the particular magnetic ordering pattern observed in these compounds. We further show that this interaction between magnetism and phonon frequencies can be fully described by the previously proposed spin-phonon coupling model [C. J. Fennie and K. M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 205505 (2006)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.205505 that includes only the nearest neighbor exchange. Using this model with materials specific parameters calculated from first principles, we provide additional insights into the physics of spin-phonon coupling in this intriguing family of compounds.

  1. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells efficiently capture HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins via CD4 for antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Kerrie J; Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Forsell, Mattias N; Soldemo, Martina; Adams, William C; Liang, Frank; Perbeck, Leif; Koup, Richard A; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Loré, Karin

    2013-07-01

    Advances in HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials and preclinical research indicate that the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely to be an essential component of a prophylactic vaccine. Efficient Ag uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) is important for strong CD4(+) Th cell responses and the development of effective humoral immune responses. In this study, we examined the capacity of distinct primary human DC subsets to internalize and present recombinant Env to CD4(+) T cells. Consistent with their specific receptor expression, skin DCs bound and internalized Env via C-type lectin receptors, whereas blood DC subsets, including CD1c(+) myeloid DCs, CD123(+) plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs), and CD141(+) DCs exhibited a restricted repertoire of C-type lectin receptors and relied on CD4 for uptake of Env. Despite a generally poor capacity for Ag uptake compared with myeloid DCs, the high expression of CD4 on PDCs allowed them to bind and internalize Env very efficiently. CD4-mediated uptake delivered Env to EEA1(+) endosomes that progressed to Lamp1(+) and MHC class II(+) lysosomes where internalized Env was degraded rapidly. Finally, all three blood DC subsets were able to internalize an Env-CMV pp65 fusion protein via CD4 and stimulate pp65-specific CD4(+) T cells. Thus, in the in vitro systems described in this paper, CD4-mediated uptake of Env is a functional pathway leading to Ag presentation, and this may therefore be a mechanism used by blood DCs, including PDCs, for generating immune responses to Env-based vaccines. PMID:23729440

  2. CD3+CD8+CD28− T Lymphocytes in Patients with Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies on the CD3+CD8+CD28− cells in SLE are inconsistent since several analyses describe CD3+CD8+CD28− as either immunosuppressive or cytotoxic. The aim of this study is to inquire whether the quantitative changes of CD3+CD8+CD28− T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression on CD3+CD8+CD28− cells may shed some light on functional properties of these cells. 54 adult SLE patients and 19 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. There were 15 patients in inactive (SLEDAI ≤ 5) and 39 in active (SLEDAI > 5) phase of disease. We determined absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− and CD3+CD8+CD28−Foxp3+ subpopulations by flow cytometry. We observed a statistically significant increase in absolute count and percentage of CD3+CD8+CD28− in SLE patients compared to HC (p < 0.001). Moreover there was significant positive correlation between increasing absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells and disease activity measured by SLEDAI (rs = 0.281, p = 0.038). Active LN patients had increased absolute count of CD3+CD8+CD28− cells compared to HC. Positive correlation of CD3+CD8+CD28− number with disease activity, and lack of Foxp3 expression on these cells, suggests that CD3+CD8+CD28− lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. PMID:27446964

  3. CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) T Lymphocytes in Patients with Lupus Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Żabińska, Marcelina; Krajewska, Magdalena; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies on the CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) cells in SLE are inconsistent since several analyses describe CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) as either immunosuppressive or cytotoxic. The aim of this study is to inquire whether the quantitative changes of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression on CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) cells may shed some light on functional properties of these cells. 54 adult SLE patients and 19 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. There were 15 patients in inactive (SLEDAI ≤ 5) and 39 in active (SLEDAI > 5) phase of disease. We determined absolute count of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) and CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-)Foxp3(+) subpopulations by flow cytometry. We observed a statistically significant increase in absolute count and percentage of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) in SLE patients compared to HC (p < 0.001). Moreover there was significant positive correlation between increasing absolute count of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) cells and disease activity measured by SLEDAI (rs = 0.281, p = 0.038). Active LN patients had increased absolute count of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) cells compared to HC. Positive correlation of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) number with disease activity, and lack of Foxp3 expression on these cells, suggests that CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. PMID:27446964

  4. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb. PMID:9400820

  5. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au+ ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures.

  6. Effect of Ag Templates on the Formation of Au-Ag Hollow/Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shih-Yun; Song, Jenn-Ming; Haruta, Mitsutaka; Kurata, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Au-Ag alloy nanostructures with various shapes were synthesized using a successive reduction method in this study. By means of galvanic replacement, twined Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and single-crystalline Ag nanowires (NWs) were adopted as templates, respectively, and alloyed with the same amount of Au(+) ions. High angle annular dark field-scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM) images observed from different rotation angles confirm that Ag NPs turned into AuAg alloy rings with an Au/Ag ratio of 1. The shifts of surface plasmon resonance and chemical composition reveal the evolution of the alloy ring formation. On the other hand, single-crystalline Ag NWs became Ag@AuAg core-shell wires instead of hollow nanostructure through a process of galvanic replacement. It is proposed that in addition to the ratio of Ag templates and Au ion additives, the twin boundaries of the Ag templates were the dominating factor causing hollow alloy nanostructures. PMID:26563266

  7. Enhancement of photoluminescence of different quantum dots by Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ya-Hsing; Lu, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Kan-Sen

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Enhancement effects of CdS/ZnS, Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S and ZnS QDs linked to Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied. ► There existed an optimal thickness of SiO{sub 2} shell on the enhancement. ► The enhancement factor was in the range of 2.5–3 for CdS/ZnS and Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S QDs. ► The PL intensity of ZnS QD was totally quenched due to absorption by silver particles. - Abstract: The enhancement of photoluminescence of several quantum dots, namely CdS/ZnS, Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S and pure ZnS, by Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles is studied and reported in this work. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) was used to link QDs to the core–shell nanoparticles. For CdS/ZnS, the Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed a maximum enhancement of about 2.5 due to surface plasmon resonance of silver particles when the shell thickness was 16 nm. When the shell thickness increased to 30 nm, the enhancement effect became negligible. Conversely, when the thickness decreased to 6 nm, the effect was also smaller due to possible capture of excited electrons by silver particles. For Cd{sub 0.3}Pb{sub 0.7}S, a similar enhancement effect was observed. However when pure ZnS was the QD, the photoluminescence went zero after the QD was linked to Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. This was caused by the fact that for ZnS QDs, the emission wavelength was 415 nm, which also corresponds to the absorbance peak of silver particles.

  8. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  9. Characteristics of differentiated CD8(+) and CD4 (+) T cells present in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Joost; Remmerswaal, Ester B M; Schuurman, Karianne G; Melief, Jeroen; van Eden, Corbert G; van Lier, René A W; Huitinga, Inge; Hamann, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    Immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) by T cells is important to keep CNS-trophic viruses in a latent state, yet our knowledge of the characteristics of CNS-populating T cells is incomplete. We performed a comprehensive, multi-color flow-cytometric analysis of isolated T cells from paired corpus callosum (CC) and peripheral blood (PB) samples of 20 brain donors. Compared to PB, CC T cells, which were mostly located in the perivascular space and sporadically in the parenchyma, were enriched for cells expressing CD8. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the CC had a late-differentiated phenotype, as indicated by lack of expression of CD27 and CD28. The CC contained high numbers of T cells expressing chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and CXCR3 that allow for homing to inflamed endothelium and tissue, but hardly cells expressing the lymph node-homing receptor CCR7. Despite the late-differentiated phenotype, CC T cells had high expression of the IL-7 receptor α-chain CD127 and did not contain the neurotoxic cytolytic enzymes perforin, granzyme A, and granzyme B. We postulate that CNS T cells make up a population of tissue-adapted differentiated cells, which use CX3CR1 and CXCR3 to home into the perivascular space, use IL-7 for maintenance, and lack immediate cytolytic activity, thereby preventing immunopathology in response to low or non-specific stimuli. The presence of these cells in this tightly regulated environment likely enables a fast response to local threats. Our results will enable future detailed exploration of T-cell subsets in the brain involved in neurological diseases. PMID:23880787

  10. Expression of CR2/EBV receptors on human thymocytes detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, C D; Lambris, J D

    1988-08-01

    The biologic effects of the third component of complement, C3, are mediated via receptors which specifically bind the enzymatic degradation products resulting from the cleavage of C3. One of the products, C3d, has been associated with binding to the second complement receptor CR2 (CD21). This receptor, which is identical to the receptor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), has been primarily found on cells of the B lineage, but not on mature T cells or other cells of erythroid or myeloid lineages. In the present investigation, we report the presence of CR2 on human thymocytes. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis employing monoclonal anti-CR2 antibodies revealed a range of thymocyte reactivity from 15% to 63% in thirteen experiments using cells of different donors. Reactivity was always greater with the monoclonal anti-CR2 (CD21) antibody HB-5 than with two other antibodies which recognize distinct epitopes on the CR2 molecule. Two-color immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the brightest of the HB-5-stained thymocytes also reacted with the monoclonal anti-CD1 antibody T6 (immature thymocyte marker) while some of the duller HB-5-staining cells reacted with the monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody Leu-4 (mature thymocyte marker). Immunoprecipitation of CR2 on thymocytes with antibody HB-5 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed a protein of 145 kDa molecular mass which is consistent with the size of CR2 found on B lymphocytes. These findings raise several questions regarding the biologic role of CR2-EBV receptor on cells of the T lineage. PMID:2970972

  11. The AGS Booster control system

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper.

  12. Measurement of Quadrupole Interactions in LaMO3 (M = Cr, Fe, Co) Perovskites by TDPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, A. C.; Dogra, R.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Moralles, M.

    2001-11-01

    The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique has been used to study the electric field gradient (EFG) in LaCoO3 perovskite. The results are compared with those for LaCrO3, LaFeO3 measured earlier. The PAC probe, 111In → 111Cd, was introduced in the oxide lattice by means of chemical reaction during sample preparation. In the present work, the temperature dependence of the electric quadrupole interaction parameters, for LaCoO3 was investigated. The resulting systematics of EFG at 111Cd, in La(Cr,Fe,Co)O3 perovskites, reveals a linear dependence with temperature.

  13. CD13 mediates phagocytosis in human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Ileana; Garay-Canales, Claudia A; Muñoz-Paleta, Ofelia; Ortega, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    CD13 is a membrane-bound ectopeptidase, highly expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is involved in diverse functions, including degradation of peptide mediators, cellular adhesion, migration, viral endocytosis, signaling, and positive modulation of phagocytosis mediated by FcγRs and other phagocytic receptors. In this work, we explored whether besides acting as an accessory receptor, CD13 by itself is a primary phagocytic receptor. We found that hCD13 mediates efficient phagocytosis of large particles (erythrocytes) modified so as to interact with the cell only through CD13 in human macrophages and THP-1 monocytic cells. The extent of this phagocytosis is comparable with the phagocytosis mediated through the canonical phagocytic receptor FcγRI. Furthermore, we demonstrated that hCD13 expression in the nonphagocytic cell line HEK293 is sufficient to enable these cells to internalize particles bound through hCD13. CD13-mediated phagocytosis is independent of other phagocytic receptors, as it occurs in the absence of FcγRs, CR3, and most phagocytic receptors. Phagocytosis through CD13 is independent of its enzymatic activity but is dependent on actin rearrangement and activation of PI3K and is partially dependent on Syk activation. Moreover, the cross-linking of CD13 with antibodies rapidly induced pSyk in human macrophages. Finally, we observed that antibody-mediated cross-linking of hCD13, expressed in the murine macrophage-like J774 cell line, induces production of ROS. These results demonstrate that CD13 is a fully competent phagocytic receptor capable of mediating internalization of large particles. PMID:25934926

  14. Comparison between Elecsys HBsAg II and Architect HBsAg QT Assays for Quantification of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Patients Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maylin, Sarah; Boyd, Anders; Delaugerre, Constance; Zoulim, Fabien; Lavocat, Fabien; Simon, François; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification has been steadily gaining interest as a clinical marker of therapeutic efficacy, for which two commercial assays are currently available: Architect HBsAg QT (Architect) and Elecsys HBsAg II (Elecsys). HBsAg quantification was evaluated using both assays in 126 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients initiating treatment with tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate. Linear regression and correlation were used to establish the relationship between the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine mean between-assay difference and limits of agreement (LOA) (±2 standard deviations [SD]) both overall and stratified on HBV (hepatitis B envelope antigen [HBeAg] status, replication, genotype, HBV mutants) or HIV (CD4+ cell count) cofactors. There was a significant correlation between Elecsys and Architect assays (correlation coefficient, r = 0.959; P < 0.001). HBsAg quantification using the Elecsys assay was on average 0.200 log10 IU/ml (LOA, −0.500, 0.800) higher than that using Architect, which was consistent across levels of CD4+ cell count, presence of precore and YMDD mutations, and HBeAg status. A slightly larger mean between-assay difference was observed with genotypes A and G (0.196 and 0.201, respectively) versus HBV genotypes D and E (0.036 and 0.030, respectively). Mutations on the S region at position s120/s145 were the only determinant in which the mean between-assay difference in HBsAg quantification was lower than the null value (−0.078). In conclusion, the Elecsys assay, with automatic on-board dilution, is capable of quantifying serum HBsAg levels in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, with very high correlation with the Architect assay. PMID:22190396

  15. Comparison between Elecsys HBsAg II and architect HBsAg QT assays for quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen among patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Maylin, Sarah; Boyd, Anders; Delaugerre, Constance; Zoulim, Fabien; Lavocat, Fabien; Simon, François; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification has been steadily gaining interest as a clinical marker of therapeutic efficacy, for which two commercial assays are currently available: Architect HBsAg QT (Architect) and Elecsys HBsAg II (Elecsys). HBsAg quantification was evaluated using both assays in 126 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients initiating treatment with tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate. Linear regression and correlation were used to establish the relationship between the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to determine mean between-assay difference and limits of agreement (LOA) (±2 standard deviations [SD]) both overall and stratified on HBV (hepatitis B envelope antigen [HBeAg] status, replication, genotype, HBV mutants) or HIV (CD4(+) cell count) cofactors. There was a significant correlation between Elecsys and Architect assays (correlation coefficient, r = 0.959; P < 0.001). HBsAg quantification using the Elecsys assay was on average 0.200 log(10) IU/ml (LOA, -0.500, 0.800) higher than that using Architect, which was consistent across levels of CD4(+) cell count, presence of precore and YMDD mutations, and HBeAg status. A slightly larger mean between-assay difference was observed with genotypes A and G (0.196 and 0.201, respectively) versus HBV genotypes D and E (0.036 and 0.030, respectively). Mutations on the S region at position s120/s145 were the only determinant in which the mean between-assay difference in HBsAg quantification was lower than the null value (-0.078). In conclusion, the Elecsys assay, with automatic on-board dilution, is capable of quantifying serum HBsAg levels in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, with very high correlation with the Architect assay. PMID:22190396

  16. Diet composition, not calorie intake, rapidly alters intrinsic excitability of hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Pham, Kevin; Gammons, Jesse W.; Sutherland, Daniel; Liu, Yanyun; Smith, Alana; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; O’Connell, Kristen M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition resulting from a long-term pattern of poor diet and lifestyle. Long-term consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) leads to persistent activation and leptin resistance in AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, for the first time, we demonstrate acute effects of HFD on AgRP neuronal excitability and highlight a critical role for diet composition. In parallel with our earlier finding in obese, long-term HFD mice, we found that even brief HFD feeding results in persistent activation of ARH AgRP neurons. However, unlike long-term HFD-fed mice, AgRP neurons from short-term HFD-fed mice were still leptin-sensitive, indicating that the development of leptin-insensitivity is not a prerequisite for the increased firing rate of AgRP neurons. To distinguish between diet composition, caloric intake, and body weight, we compared acute and long-term effects of HFD and CD in pair-fed mice on AgRP neuronal spiking. HFD consumption in pair-fed mice resulted in a significant increase in AgRP neuronal spiking despite controls for weight gain and caloric intake. Taken together, our results suggest that diet composition may be more important than either calorie intake or body weight for electrically remodeling arcuate AgRP/NPY neurons. PMID:26592769

  17. Photoreduction of Ag+ in Ag/Ag2S/Au memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, N. I.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag2S/Au memristors using a green laser (473-523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from -0.8 V to -0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag2S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  18. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2011-04-01

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  19. Ag-Ag2S Hybrid Nanoprisms: Structural versus Plasmonic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahjamali, Mohammad M; Zhou, Yong; Zaraee, Negin; Xue, Can; Wu, Jinsong; Large, Nicolas; McGuirk, C Michael; Boey, Freddy; Dravid, Vinayak; Cui, Zhifeng; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-05-24

    Recently, Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their enhanced chemical and thermal stability, in addition to their morphology- and composition-dependent tunable local surface plasmon resonances. Although Ag-Ag2S nanostructures can be synthesized via sulfidation of as-prepared anisotropic Ag nanoparticles, this process is poorly understood, often leading to materials with anomalous compositions, sizes, and shapes and, consequently, optical properties. In this work, we use theory and experiment to investigate the structural and plasmonic evolution of Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms during the sulfidation of Ag precursors. The previously observed red-shifted extinction of the Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanoprism as sulfidation occurs contradicts theoretical predictions, indicating that the reaction does not just occur at the prism tips as previously speculated. Our experiments show that sulfidation can induce either blue or red shifts in the extinction of the dipole plasmon mode, depending on reaction conditions. By elucidating the correlation with the final structure and morphology of the synthesized Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms, we find that, depending on the reaction conditions, sulfidation occurs on the prism tips and/or the (111) surfaces, leading to a core(Ag)-anisotropic shell(Ag2S) prism nanostructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the direction of the shift in the dipole plasmon is a function of the relative amounts of Ag2S at the prism tips and Ag2S shell thickness around the prism. PMID:27148792

  20. CD90 is upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and inhibits gastric cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the expression level of SPARC protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang Chao; Gao, Lu; He, Junyu; Long, Yuehua; Liao, Shan; Wang, Haiyun; Li, Xujuan; Yi, Wei; Pei, Zhen; Wu, Minghua; Xiang, Juanjuan; Peng, Shuping; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Ming; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Xiang, Bo; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Ke; Cao, Li; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2015-11-01

    Cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90) (Thy-1) plays important roles in the oncogenesis in various types of malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CD90 in gastric cancer (GC) tissues by q-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot technologies. The results showed that CD90 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with the level in the adjacent non‑cancerous tissues. To explore the possible mechanism of CD90 in GC, we elucidated the effect of CD90 on the apoptosis of AGS gastric cancer cells, and found that a considerable decrease in apoptotic cells was observed for AGS cells with CD90 overexpression. Meanwhile, the rate of apoptotic cells was increased in the AGS cells with CD90 interference (siCD90) compared with that in the AGS cells. Cell apoptosis is closely related to a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations. Our results showed that overexpression of CD90 in the AGS gastric cancer cells led to an increase in ΔΨm and a decrease in intracellular ROS and Ca2+ concentrations. At the same time, siCD90 reduced ΔΨm and the increase in intracellular ROS and Ca2+ concentrations. Furthermore, we identified and confirmed that CD90 functions by modulating the expression level of secreted protein, acidic, cysteine‑rich (osteonectin) (SPARC) in vitro through LC‑MS/MS analyses and western blot technology. In summary, our results suggest that CD90 is upregulated in gastric cancer and inhibits gastric cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the expression level of SPARC protein. PMID:26329007

  1. Potential and frequency effects on fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo surfaces.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2013-09-01

    Fretting corrosion has been reported at the metal-metal interfaces of a wide range of medical devices, including total joint replacements, spinal devices, and overlapping cardiovascular stents. Currently, the fretting corrosion phenomenon associated with metal-on-metal contacts is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of potential and fretting frequency on the fretting corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V/CoCrMo, and CoCrMo/CoCrMo alloy combinations at fixed normal load and displacement conditions using a custom built fretting corrosion test system. The results showed that the fretting current densities increased with increases in potential and were highest for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple (1.5 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The coefficient of friction varied with potential and was about two times higher for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V (0.71 V at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). In most of the potential range tested, the fretting corrosion behavior of CoCrMo/Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo/CoCrMo was similar and dominated by the CoCrMo surface. Increase in applied fretting frequency linearly increased the fretting current densities in the regions where the passive film is stable. Also, the model-based fretting current densities were in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Overall, Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple was more susceptible to fretting corrosion compared with other couples. However, the effects of these processes on the biological system were not assessed. PMID:23404905

  2. TAG CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Myrna Syamara

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to produce a CD-ROM for the Technology Applications Group. The CD was being developed to allow interested people, organizations, or companies to view the technologies available to them that were developed by NASA research. The CD's main audience however, is any small business. The CD will give the small business an opportunity to see what technologies are available in an inexpensive manner. Most companies probably have a CD-ROM drive on their computers but may not have access to the internet. By using only the internet to inform on the technologies, NASA was not considering a large segment of the population. The CD-ROM can now cover that group of the population.

  3. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  4. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linley, Judy; Mylne, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Ag-Ed, an agricultural education project for upper elementary students, was held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show in Queensland, Australia. Agriculture industry representatives provided 20 interactive agricultural presentations for class groups, which were supplemented with a teacher resource-package containing a directory and 13 sections of…

  5. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  6. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  7. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  8. Furin-processed antigens targeted to the secretory route elicit functional TAP1-/-CD8+ T lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Medina, Francisco; Ramos, Manuel; Iborra, Salvador; de León, Patricia; Rodríguez-Castro, Marta; Del Val, Margarita

    2009-10-01

    Most pathogen-derived peptides recognized by CD8+ CTL are produced by proteasomes and delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum by the TAP transporters associated with Ag processing. Alternative proteases also produce antigenic peptides, but their actual relevance is unclear. There is a need to quantify the contribution of these supplementary pathways in vitro and in vivo. A well-defined TAP-independent secretory route of Ag processing involves the trans-Golgi network protease furin. Quantitation of this route by using OVA constructs encoded by vaccinia viruses indicates that it provides approximately one-third of all surface complexes of peptide and MHC class I molecules. Generation of the epitope carboxyl terminus is a dramatic rate-limiting step, since bypassing it increased efficiency by at least 1000-fold. Notably, the secretory construct activated a similar percentage of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in wild type as in TAP1-deficient mice, which allow only secretory routes but which have a 10- to 20-fold smaller CD8 compartment. Moreover, these TAP1(-/-) OVA-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes accomplished elimination of epitope-bearing cells in vivo. The results obtained with this experimental system underscore the potential of secretory pathways of MHC class I Ag presentation to elicit functional CD8+ T lymphocytes in vivo and support the hypothesis that noncytosolic processing mechanisms may compensate in vivo for the lack of proteasome participation in Ag processing in persons genetically deficient in TAP and thus contribute to pathogen control. PMID:19752221

  9. Cd Isotope Fractionation During Adsorption Varies with Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Montanez, G.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    compositions were measured using MC-ICP-MS with a Ag spike for mass bias correction. The fractionation between dissolved and adsorbed Cd was ~0.3‰ in terms of δ114/110Cd (relative to our ICP standard solution) for the KNO3-only experiments (adsorbed Cd is lighter) and very near zero for the NaCl-rich experiments. Our NaCl-rich result is consistent with the results of [4] and [6]. In addition, our KNO3-only result suggests that adsorption of Cd to mineral surfaces in low salinity waters, such as riverine water or groundwater, could be one of the few abiotic processes that can significantly fractionate Cd isotopes. We hypothesize that NaCl concentration affects Cd fractionation in this system by changing Cd speciation. Cd likely complexes with Cl in predominantly tetrahedral molecules, in contrast to the octahedral hydrated Cd cations present in low-Cl solutions. [1] Boyle et al. (1976) Nature 263, 42. [2] Lacan et al. (2006) GCA 70, 5104. [3] Ripperger et al. (2007) EPSL 261, 670. [4] Rehkämper et al. (2008) GCA 72 Suppl., A392. [5] Wombacher et al. (2003) GCA 67, 4639. [6] Schmitt et al. GCA 71 Suppl., A898.

  10. CD40 ligand preferentially modulates immune response and enhances protection against influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Anwar M; Gravel, Caroline; Chen, Ze; Yi, Yinglei; Tocchi, Monika; Jaentschke, Bozena; Fan, Xingliang; Li, Changgui; Rosu-Myles, Michael; Pereboev, Alexander; He, Runtao; Wang, Junzhi; Li, Xuguang

    2014-07-15

    CD40L, a key regulator of the immune system, was studied as both a targeting ligand and a molecular adjuvant in nucleoprotein (NP)-based host defense against influenza in mouse models with different genetic backgrounds. Adenoviral vectors secreting NP-CD40L fusion protein (denoted as rAd-SNP40L) afforded full protection of immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice (CD40L(-/-) and CD4(-/-)) against lethal influenza infection. Mechanistically, rAd-SNP40L preferentially induced early and persistent B cell germinal center formation, and accelerated Ig isotype-switching and Th1-skewed, NP-specific Ab response. Moreover, it drastically augmented primary and memory NP-specific CTL activity and polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells. The markedly enhanced nonneutralizing Abs and CTLs significantly reduced viral burdens in the lungs of mice upon lethal virus challenge. Data generated from CD40L(-/-) and CD4(-/-) mice revealed that the protection was indeed CD40L mediated but CD4(+) T cell independent, demonstrating the viability of the fusion Ags in protecting immunodeficient hosts. Notably, a single dose of rAd-SNP40L completely protected mice from lethal viral challenge 4 mo after immunization, representing the first report, to our knowledge, on NP in conjunction with a molecular adjuvant inducing a robust and long-lasting memory immune response against influenza. This platform is characterized by an increased in vivo load of CD40-targeted Ag upon the secretion of the fusion protein from adenovirus-infected cells and may represent a promising strategy to enhance the breadth, durability, and potency of Ag-specific immune responses. PMID:24928989

  11. Antigen-Induced Increases in Pulmonary Mast Cell Progenitor Numbers Depend on IL-9 and CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tatiana G.; Hallgren, Jenny; Humbles, Alison; Burwell, Timothy; Finkelman, Fred D.; Alcaide, Pilar; Austen, K. Frank; Gurish, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary mast cell progenitor (MCp) numbers increase dramatically in sensitized and aerosolized Ag-challenged mice. This increase depends on CD4+ T cells, as no MCp increase occurs in the lungs of sensitized wild-type (WT) mice after mAb depletion of CD4+ but not CD8+ cells before aerosol Ag challenge. Neither the genetic absence of IL-4, IL-4Rα chain, STAT-6, IFN-γ, or IL-12p40 nor mAb blockade of IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-12p40, or IL-12p40Rβ1 before Ag challenge in WT mice reduces the pulmonary MCp increase. However, sensitized and Ag-challenged IL-9-deficient mice and sensitized WT mice given mAb to IL-9 just before Ag challenge show significant reductions in elicited lung MCp/106 mononuclear cells of 47 and 66%, respectively. CD1d-deficient mice and WT mice receiving anti-CD1d before Ag challenge also show significant reductions of 65 and 59%, respectively, in elicited lung MCp/106 mononuclear cells, revealing an additional requirement for MCp recruitment. However, in Jα18-deficient mice, which lack only type 1 or invariant NKT cells, the increase in the numbers of lung MCp with Ag challenge was intact, indicating that their recruitment must be mediated by type 2 NKT cells. Furthermore, anti-CD1d treatment of IL-9-deficient mice or anti-IL-9 treatment of CD1d-deficient mice does not further reduce the significant partial impairment of MCp recruitment occurring with a single deficiency. These findings implicate type 2 NKT cells and IL-9 as central regulators that function in the same pathway mediating the Ag-induced increase in numbers of pulmonary MCp. PMID:19783672

  12. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation by CdSe/CdS Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fen; Han, Zhiji; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Odoi, Michael Y; Sowers, Kelly L; Krauss, Todd D

    2016-09-14

    The photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) production activity of various CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles was compared including CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs), CdSe quantum rods (QRs), and CdSe/CdS dot-in-rods (DIRs). With equivalent photons absorbed, the H2 generation activity orders as CdSe QDs ≫ CdSe QRs > CdSe/CdS QDs > CdSe/CdS DIRs, which is surprisingly the opposite of the electron-hole separation efficiency. Calculations of photoexcited surface charge densities are positively correlated with the H2 production rate and suggest the size of the nanoparticle plays a critical role in determining the relative efficiency of H2 production. PMID:27478995

  13. Human CD4+CD39+ regulatory T cells produce adenosine upon co-expression of surface CD73 or contact with CD73+ exosomes or CD73+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, P J; Saze, Z; Hong, C-S; Muller, L; Gillespie, D G; Cheng, D; Harasymczuk, M; Mandapathil, M; Lang, S; Jackson, E K; Whiteside, T L

    2014-01-01

    While murine CD4+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg) co-express CD73 and hydrolyze exogenous (e) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to immunosuppressive adenosine (ADO), surface co-expression of CD73 on human circulating CD4+CD39+ Treg is rare. Therefore, the ability of human Treg to produce and utilize ADO for suppression remains unclear. Using mass spectrometry, we measured nucleoside production by subsets of human CD4+CD39+ and CD4+CD39(–)CD73+ T cells or CD19+ B cells isolated from blood of 30 volunteers and 14 cancer patients. CD39 and CD73 expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, Western blots, confocal microscopy or reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Circulating CD4+CD39+ Treg which hydrolyzed eATP to 5′-AMP contained few intracytoplasmic granules and had low CD73 mRNA levels. Only ∼1% of these Treg were CD39+CD73+. In contrast, CD4+CD39negCD73+ T cells contained numerous CD73+ granules in the cytoplasm and strongly expressed surface CD73. In vitro-generated Treg (Tr1) and most B cells were CD39+CD73+. All these CD73+ T cell subsets and B cells hydrolyzed 5′-AMP to ADO. Exosomes isolated from plasma of normal control (NC) or cancer patients carried enzymatically active CD39 and CD73+ and, when supplied with eATP, hydrolyzed it to ADO. Only CD4+CD39+ Treg co-incubated with CD4+CD73+ T cells, B cells or CD39+CD73+ exosomes produced ADO. Thus, contact with membrane-tethered CD73 was sufficient for ADO production by CD4+CD39+ Treg. In microenvironments containing CD4+CD73+ T cells, B cells or CD39+CD73+ exosomes, CD73 is readily available to CD4+CD39+CD73neg Treg for the production of immunosuppressive ADO. PMID:24749746

  14. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  15. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  16. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  17. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells can develop from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Bismarck, Doris; Moore, Peter F; Alber, Gottfried; von Buttlar, Heiner

    2014-12-15

    For a long time the expression of the CD4 and CD8 receptor on peripheral blood T cells was thought to be mutually exclusive. However, in canine peripheral blood, similar to other species as swine or human for example, mature CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (dp) T cells exist which simultaneously express both surface receptors and have features of activated T cells. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+)dp T cells are heterogeneous and can be divided into three subpopulations by their intensity of CD4 and CD8α expression: CD4(bright)CD8α(bright), CD4(dim)CD8α(bright) and CD4(dim)CD8α(dim). The number of CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells increases after in vitro stimulation of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) raising the question of their progenitor(s). Thus, the aim of our study was to characterize the progenitor(s) of canine CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells. By cell tracing experiments we identified both CD4(+) single-positive (sp) and also CD8α(+)sp T cells as progenitors of canine CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells after in vitro stimulation. CD4(+)sp T cells almost exclusively upregulate a CD8αα homodimer, whereas CD8α(+)sp T cells can become CD4(+)CD8αβ(+) or CD4(+)CD8αα(+). Even in the absence of other cells, highly purified CD4(+)sp T cells can become double-positive upon in vitro stimulation, whereas highly purified CD8α(+)sp T cells fail to do so. However, CD8α(+)sp T cells can additionally express CD4 when stimulated in the presence of CD4(-)CD8α(-) double-negative (dn) cells or more efficiently when stimulated in the presence of CD4(+)sp T cells. Soluble factors secreted by CD4(+)sp T cells are sufficient for the upregulation of CD4 on CD8α(+)sp T cells, but direct cell-cell contact between CD4(+)sp and CD8α(+)sp T cells is more efficient. mRNA analysis shows that additional CD4 expression on CD8α(+)sp T cells results from de novo synthesis. Thus, uptake of soluble CD4 or trogocytosis is less likely as mechanism for generation of canine double-positive T cells. CD4(+)CD

  18. Enhanced piezoelectric output voltage and Ohmic behavior in Cr-doped ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Godara, Sanjay; Gupta, Manoj K.; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized. • Enhancement in dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were observed. • A high output voltage was obtained in AFM. • Cr-doping resulted in enhanced conductivity and better Ohmic behavior in ZnO/Ag contact. - Abstract: Highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by solution technique. The size distribution was analyzed by high resolution tunneling electron microscope (HRTEM) and particle size analyzer. In atomic force microscope (AFM) studies, peak to peak 8 mV output voltage was obtained on the application of constant normal force of 25 nN. It showed high dielectric constant (980) with phase transition at 69 °C. Polarization vs. electric field (P–E) loops with remnant polarization (6.18 μC/cm{sup 2}) and coercive field (0.96 kV/cm) were obtained. In I–V studies, Cr-doping was found to reduce the rectifying behavior in the Ag/ZnO Schottky contact which is useful for field effect transistor (FET) and solar cell applications. With these excellent properties, Cr-doped ZnO NRs can be used in nanopiezoelectronics, charge storage and ferroelectric applications.

  19. Influence of Ag-Au microstructure on the photoelectrocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyao; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Miao; Li, Guihua; Gao, Shanmin; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Yiqing

    2016-02-01

    In this work, vertically-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were grown on Ti substrates via a facile electrochemical anodization method followed by calcinations. Then, Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles and Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles were deposited on the obtained TiO2 NTs via UV reduction and displacement reaction, respectively. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles and Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles grew uniformly on the walls of TiO2 NTs. Investigation results from removal of methyl orange (MO) and Cr(IV) ions indicated that the as-prepared bimetal plasmonic photocatalysts exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activities. The influences of Ag-Au alloy and core-shell microstructures on PEC properties of TiO2 NTs were investigated and the TiO2 NTs/Ag@Au photocatalyst showed more outstanding PEC removal efficiency than that of TiO2 NTs/Ag-Au due to the regular core-shell microstructure and low recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:26555961

  20. Use of MHC class II tetramers to investigate CD4+ T cell responses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Virginia; Moro, Monica; Del Mare, Sara; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    MHC-class I tetramers technology enabled the characterization of peptide-specific T cells at the single cell level in a variety of studies. Several laboratories have also developed MHC-class II multimers to characterize Ag-specific CD4+ T cells. However, the generation and use of MHC-class II multimers seems more problematic than that of MHC-I multimers. We have generated HLA-DR*1101 tetramers in a versatile empty form, which can be loaded after purification with peptides of interest. We discuss the impact of critical biological and structural parameters for the optimal staining of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells using HLA-DR*1101 tetramers, such as: (i) activation state of CD4+ T cells; (ii) membrane trafficking in the target CD4+ T cells; (iii) binding characteristics of the loaded CD4 epitope. Our data indicate that reorganization of TCR on the plasma membrane upon CD4+ T cell activation, as well as an homogenous binding frame of the CD4 epitopes to the soluble HLA-DR monomer, are critical for a stable TCR/MHC-class II tetramer interaction. These factors, together with the low frequencies and affinities of specific CD4+ T cells, explain the need for in vitro expansion or ex vivo enrichment of specific T cells for the optimal visualization with MHC-class II tetramers. PMID:18612991

  1. Intranasal vaccination with proinsulin DNA induces regulatory CD4+ T cells that prevent experimental autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Every, Alison L; Kramer, David R; Mannering, Stuart I; Lew, Andrew M; Harrison, Leonard C

    2006-04-15

    Insulin, an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, when administered mucosally to diabetes-prone NOD mice induces regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that protect against diabetes. Compared with protein, Ag encoded as DNA has potential advantages as a therapeutic agent. We found that intranasal vaccination of NOD mice with plasmid DNA encoding mouse proinsulin II-induced CD4+ T(reg) that suppressed diabetes development, both after adoptive cotransfer with "diabetogenic" spleen cells and after transfer into NOD mice given cyclophosphamide to accelerate diabetes onset. In contrast to prototypic CD4+ CD25+ T(reg), CD4+ T(reg) induced by proinsulin DNA were both CD25+ and CD25- and not defined by markers such as glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), CD103, or Foxp3. Intriguingly, despite induction of T(reg) and reduced islet inflammation, diabetes incidence in proinsulin DNA-treated mice was unchanged. However, diabetes was prevented when DNA vaccination was performed under the cover of CD40 ligand blockade, known to prevent priming of CTL by mucosal Ag. Thus, intranasal vaccination with proinsulin DNA has therapeutic potential to prevent diabetes, as demonstrated by induction of protective T(reg), but further modifications are required to improve its efficacy, which could be compromised by concomitant induction of pathogenic immunity. PMID:16585551

  2. Identification of CD14 transcript in blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes and functional variation in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, J M; Wang, X G; Jiang, Q; Sun, Y; Yang, C H; Ju, Z H; Hao, H S; Wang, C F; Zhong, J F; Zhu, H B

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) leukocytes are primary phagocytic cells of the bovine mammary gland and a first line of defense against invading pathogens during bovine mastitis infection. Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is mainly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils and acts as a co-receptor that binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recruits PMNs to CD14-LPS complexes in mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we identified a novel splice variant in PMNs, named CD14-SV, characterized by a deleted region from c.143-579 nt compared to the CD14 reference mRNA sequence. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.523 A>G) in exon 2 of CD14 was identified and found to modify the secondary structure and hydrophilicity of the CD14 protein. Association analysis also showed that the milk somatic cell score, an indicator of mastitis, of cows with the GG genotype was lower than that of cows with the AA and AG genotypes. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD14 in bovine blood PMNs is regulated by alternative splicing, and that CD14-SV is a candidate functional marker that may influence mastitis-resistance in dairy cows. PMID:27173290

  3. BaCdSnS4 and Ba3CdSn2S8: syntheses, structures, and non-linear optical and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ni; Wu, Kui; Wang, Ying; Li, Qiang; Gao, Wenhui; Hou, Dianwei; Yang, Zhihua; Jiang, Huaidong; Dong, Yongjun; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-28

    Two non-centrosymmetric metal chalcogenides, BaCdSnS4 and Ba3CdSn2S8, were synthesized using a high temperature solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica tube. Although the two compounds have the same building units in their structures, namely CdS4, SnS4 and BaS8 units, both of them have different structures. BaCdSnS4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Fdd2 and its structure can be characterized by the two-dimensional ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layers composed of corner- and edge-sharing CdS4 and SnS4 tetrahedra with Ba atoms located between the two adjacent ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layers. Ba3CdSn2S8 crystallizes in the space group I4[combining macron]3d of the orthorhombic system and the CdS4 and SnS4 groups are connected with each other via corner-sharing to form a three-dimensional framework, which is different from the 2D ∞[Cd-Sn-S] layer structure in BaCdSnS4. The UV-vis-NIR diffuse-reflectance spectra show that the experimental band gaps are about 2.30 eV for BaCdSnS4 and 2.75 eV for Ba3CdSn2S8, respectively. IR and Raman measurement results indicate that their transparent ranges are up to 25 μm. Second-order NLO measurements show that BaCdSnS4 exhibits strong powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) intensities at 2.09 μm laser pumping that are ∼5 and 0.7 times that of AgGaS2 in the particle size 38-55 and 150-200 μm, respectively, whereas Ba3CdSn2S8 only exhibits SHG intensities of about 0.8 and 0.1 times that of AgGaS2 at the same particle sizes. The origin of the NLO response in BaCdSnS4 may originate from the macroscopic arrangement of the SnS4 and CdS4 tetrahedra. Furthermore, the photoluminescence properties of the two compounds have also been investigated and show obvious blue and green light emission. PMID:27272926

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of a Ag/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sandwich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Alexson, D. M.; Prokes, Sharka; Glembocki, Orest; Vivoni, Alberto; Hosten, Charles

    2011-02-01

    α,ω-Dithiols are a useful class of compounds in molecular electronics because of their ability to easily adsorb to two metal surfaces, producing a molecular junction. We have prepared Ag nanosphere/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNS/OPE/Ag sol) and Ag nanowire/oligo(phenyleneethynylene)/Ag sol (AgNW/OPE/Ag sol) sandwiches to simulate the architecture of a molecular electronic device. This was achieved by self-assembly of OPE on the silver nanosurface, deprotection of the terminal sulfur, and deposition of Ag sol atop the monolayer. These sandwiches were then characterized by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The resulting spectra were compared to the bulk spectrum of the dimer and to the Ag nanosurface/OPE SERS spectra. The intensities of the SERS spectra in both systems exhibit a strong dependence on Ag deposition time and the results are also suggestive of intense interparticle coupling of the electromagnetic fields in both the AgNW/OPE/Ag and the AgNS/OPE/Ag systems. Three previously unobserved bands (1219, 1234, 2037 cm -1) arose in the SER spectra of the sandwiches and their presence is attributed to the strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field which is predicted from the COSMOL computational package. The 544 cm -1 disulfide bond which is observed in the spectrum of solid OPE but is absent in the AgNS/OPE/Ag and AgNW/OPE/Ag spectra is indicative of chemisorption of OPE to the nanoparticles through oxidative dissociation of the disulfide bond.

  5. Acquisition of a CD19-negative myeloid phenotype allows immune escape of MLL-rearranged B-ALL from CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rebecca; Wu, David; Cherian, Sindhu; Fang, Min; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Finney, Olivia; Smithers, Hannah; Jensen, Michael C; Riddell, Stanley R; Maloney, David G; Turtle, Cameron J

    2016-05-19

    Administration of lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is a remarkably effective approach to treating patients with relapsed and refractory CD19(+) B-cell malignancies. We treated 7 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. All patients achieved complete remission (CR) in the bone marrow by flow cytometry after CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy; however, within 1 month of CAR-T-cell infusion, 2 of the patients developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that was clonally related to their B-ALL, a novel mechanism of CD19-negative immune escape. These reports have implications for the management of patients with relapsed and refractory MLL-B-ALL who receive CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy. PMID:26907630

  6. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell function in children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection is critically influenced by age and the state of the CD4+ T cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Johan K; Fast, Noam M; Jordan, Kimberly A; Furlan, Scott N; Barbour, Jason D; Fennelly, Glenn; Dobroszycki, Joanna; Spiegel, Hans M L; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael G; Nixon, Douglas F

    2003-04-15

    The immunology of vertical HIV transmission differs from that of adult infection in that the immune system of the infant is not fully matured, and the factors that influence the functionality of CD8(+) T cell responses against HIV in children remain largely undefined. We have investigated CD8(+) T cell responses in 65 pediatric subjects with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection. Vigorous, broad, and Ag dose-driven CD8(+) T cell responses against HIV Ags were frequently observed in children who were older than 3 years of age and maintained CD4(+) T cell counts >400 cells/ micro l. In contrast, younger age or a CD4(+) T cell count <400 cells/ micro l was associated with poor CD8(+) T cell responses and high HIV loads. Furthermore, subjects with a severely depleted and phenotypically altered CD4(+) T cell compartment had circulating Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired IFN-gamma production. When viral load was not suppressed by antiviral treatment, subjects that fell below the putative age and CD4(+) T cell count thresholds had significantly reduced CD8(+) T cell responses and significantly higher viral loads. Thus, the data suggest that fully effective HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses take years to develop despite an abundance of Ag in early life, and responses are further severely impaired, independent of age, in children who have a depleted or skewed CD4(+) T cell compartment. The results are discussed in relation to differences between the neonatal and adult immune systems in the ability to respond to HIV infection. PMID:12682278

  7. CD26 surface molecule involvement in T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis in rheumatoid and other inflammatory synovitis.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bertotto, A; Bistoni, O; Agea, E; Tognellini, R; Fiorucci, G; Cesarotti, M; Bombardieri, S

    1996-07-01

    T cell surface expression and the functional role of CD26 antigen (Ag), a surface ectoenzyme involved in T cell activation and migration across the extracellular matrix, were analyzed in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with inflammatory arthritides. CD26 membrane expression on T cells was detected by cytofluorometry using two different monoclonal antibodies, anti-Ta1 and anti-1F7, while cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma production were evaluated in anti-CD3- or anti-CD2-stimulated cell cultures after Ag surface modulation with anti-1F7. The results showed that Ta1 and 1F7 Ag expression were increased on T cells from PB of patients with active, but not inactive, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most SF T cells from RA or other inflammatory arthritides displayed the memory marker CD45R0 and the Ta1 Ag, but lacked the 1F7 molecule. In addition, in vitro 1F7 modulation, which enhanced RA PB T cell proliferation and both IL-2 and IFN-gamma synthesis, did not synergize with anti-CD3 or anti-CD2 in inducing IL-2-dependent activation of SF T cells, but reduced IFN-gamma production. A spontaneous reappearance of 1F7 Ag on the SF T cell surface was seen after 2-5 days in culture. Phorbol myristate acetate, able to accelerate its reexpression, also restored a normal response of SF T cells to anti-1F7 comitogenic effects. These data confirm a role of the CD26 surface molecule in regulating T cell activation and lymphokine synthesis. This observation may have important implications in the regulation of T cell activity at the joint level during chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:8674237

  8. Molecular-like Ag clusters sensitized near-infrared down-conversion luminescence in oxyfluoride glasses for broadband spectral modification

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hang; Chen, Daqin; Yu, Yunlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-08-26

    Molecular-like Ag clusters sized at 1–4 nm have been stabilized in Pb/Cd-free oxyfluoride glasses, showing broadband excitation/emission characteristics and unique wavelength-dependent luminescent performance with a maximal quantum yield of 26.9%. It was experimentally demonstrated that an energy transfer route of Ag clusters → Tb{sup 3+} → Yb{sup 3+} occurs in Ag{sup +}/Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} tri-doped sample, wherein Ag clusters act as sensitizers for near-infrared down-conversion spectral modification. Hopefully, the proposed strategy that noble metal clusters being applied for harvesting solar radiation may potentially solve the sticky problems of the narrow excitation bandwidth and the low excitation efficiency in rare earth ions doped down-conversion materials.

  9. Molecular-like Ag clusters sensitized near-infrared down-conversion luminescence in oxyfluoride glasses for broadband spectral modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hang; Chen, Daqin; Yu, Yunlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-08-01

    Molecular-like Ag clusters sized at 1-4 nm have been stabilized in Pb/Cd-free oxyfluoride glasses, showing broadband excitation/emission characteristics and unique wavelength-dependent luminescent performance with a maximal quantum yield of 26.9%. It was experimentally demonstrated that an energy transfer route of Ag clusters → Tb3+ → Yb3+ occurs in Ag+/Tb3+/Yb3+ tri-doped sample, wherein Ag clusters act as sensitizers for near-infrared down-conversion spectral modification. Hopefully, the proposed strategy that noble metal clusters being applied for harvesting solar radiation may potentially solve the sticky problems of the narrow excitation bandwidth and the low excitation efficiency in rare earth ions doped down-conversion materials.

  10. Combinations of CD45 isoforms are crucial for immune function and disease.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Liu, Zhe; Wraith, David; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2006-03-15

    Expression of the CD45 Ag in hemopoietic cells is essential for normal development and function of lymphocytes, and both mice and humans lacking expression exhibit SCID. Human genetic variants of CD45, the exon 4 C77G and exon 6 A138G alleles, which alter the pattern of CD45 isoform expression, are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases. We constructed transgenic mice expressing either an altered level or combination of CD45 isoforms. We show that the total level of CD45 expressed is crucial for normal TCR signaling, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production. Most importantly, transgenic lines with a normal level, but altered combinations of CD45 isoforms, CD45(RABC/+) and CD45(RO/+) mice, which mimic variant CD45 expression in C77G and A138G humans, show more rapid onset and increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CD45(RO/+) cells produce more TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Thus, for the first time, we have shown experimentally that it is the combination of CD45 isoforms that affects immune function and disease. PMID:16517710

  11. Discover IDEA CD 2002. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    This Macintosh and PC compatible CD-ROM includes key resources about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) amendments of 1997. It is designed as a research and training tool for administrators, professors and students in higher education, families, advocates, policy makers, and service providers who strive for quality education…

  12. Discover IDEA CD '99. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Regional Resource Center, Eugene, OR.

    Designed for educators, related service providers, parents, and others, this CD-ROM provides information on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997. Contents include the statute in its entirety, complete final regulations and analysis of comments taken verbatim from the Federal Register of March 12, 1999. Also included are topical…

  13. Valence band structure of the icosahedral Ag-In-Yb quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, H. R.; Simutis, G.; Dhanak, V. R.; Nugent, P. J.; McGrath, R.; Cui, C.; Shimoda, M.; Tsai, A. P.; Ishii, Y.

    2010-03-01

    The valence band structure of the icosahedral (i) Ag-In-Yb quasicrystal, which is isostructural to the binary i-Cd-Yb system, is investigated by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Experimental results are compared with electronic-structure calculations of a cubic approximant of the same phase. UPS spectra from the fivefold, threefold, and twofold i-Ag-In-Yb surfaces reveal that the valence band near to the Fermi level is dominated by Yb 4f-derived states, in agreement with calculations. The spectra also exhibit peaks which are surface core level shifted, caused by changes in the electronic structure in surface layers. Calculations yield a pseudogap in the density of states due to a hybridization of the Yb 5d band with the Ag 5p and In 5p bands. Both experimental and calculated band features are very similar to those of Cd-Yb. The modification of the band structure after surface treatment by sputtering and by oxidation is also studied. Additionally, the work function of i-Ag-In-Yb measured from the width of UPS spectrum is found to be almost unaffected by surface orientation, but increases after sputtering or oxidation.

  14. Surface plasmon polariton enhanced ultrathin nano-structured CdTe solar cell.

    PubMed

    Luk, Ting S; Fofang, Nche T; Cruz-Campa, Jose L; Frank, Ian; Campione, Salvatore

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate numerically that two-dimensional arrays of ultrathin CdTe nano-cylinders on Ag can serve as an effective broadband anti-reflection structure for solar cell applications. Such devices exhibit strong absorption properties, mainly in the CdTe semiconductor regions, and can produce short-circuit current densities of 23.4 mA/cm(2), a remarkable number in the context of solar cells given the ultrathin dimensions of our nano-cylinders. The strong absorption is enabled via excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) under plane wave incidence. In particular, we identified the key absorption mechanism as enhanced fields of the SPP standing waves residing at the interface of CdTe nano-cylinders and Ag. We compare the performance of Ag, Au, and Al substrates, and observe significant improvement when using Ag, highlighting the importance of using low-loss metals. Although we use CdTe here, the proposed approach is applicable to other solar cell materials with similar absorption properties. PMID:25322192

  15. Peptidases released by necrotic cells control CD8+ T cell cross-priming

    PubMed Central

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Kapanadze, Tamar; Han, Miaojun; Wissing, Josef; Ma, Chi; Jaensch, Lothar; Manns, Michael P.; Armstrong, Todd; Jaffee, Elizabeth; White, Ayla O.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells and generation of effector immune responses is pivotal for tumor immunity as well as for successful anticancer vaccination and therapy. Dead and dying cells produce signals that can influence Ag processing and presentation; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the immunogenicity of necrotic cell death. We used a mouse model of sterile necrosis, in which mice were injected with sterile primary necrotic cells, to investigate a role of these cells in priming of CD8+ T cells. We discovered a molecular mechanism operating in Ag donor cells that regulates cross-priming of CD8+ T cells during primary sterile necrosis and thereby cont