Science.gov

Sample records for ag group compared

  1. Development of a Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB Specific Gene Model Enables Comparative Genome Analyses between Phytopathogenic R. solani AG1-IA, AG1-IB, AG3 and AG8 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Rupp, Oliver; Blom, Jochen; Jelonek, Lukas; Kröber, Magdalena; Verwaaijen, Bart; Goesmann, Alexander; Albaum, Stefan; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, a soil-born plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, affects various economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. The draft genome sequence for the R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 as well as a corresponding transcriptome dataset (Expressed Sequence Tags--ESTs) were established previously. Development of a specific R. solani AG1-IB gene model based on GMAP transcript mapping within the eukaryotic gene prediction platform AUGUSTUS allowed detection of new genes and provided insights into the gene structure of this fungus. In total, 12,616 genes were recognized in the genome of the AG1-IB isolate. Analysis of predicted genes by means of different bioinformatics tools revealed new genes whose products potentially are involved in degradation of plant cell wall components, melanin formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites. Comparative genome analyses between members of different R. solani anastomosis groups, namely AG1-IA, AG3 and AG8 and the newly annotated R. solani AG1-IB genome were performed within the comparative genomics platform EDGAR. It appeared that only 21 to 28% of all genes encoded in the draft genomes of the different strains were identified as core genes. Based on Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) analyses, considerable sequence differences between isolates representing different anastomosis groups were identified. However, R. solani isolates form a distinct cluster in relation to other fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota. The isolate representing AG1-IB encodes significant more genes featuring predictable functions in secondary metabolite production compared to other completely sequenced R. solani strains. The newly established R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene layout now provides a reliable basis for post-genomics studies.

  2. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of the Broad Host-Range Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    PubMed Central

    Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Williams, Angela H.; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level “hypermutation” of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the

  3. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    PubMed Central

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  4. Refocusing resolution based on negative refractive-photonic crystal group with Ag defects for target detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yingfei; Zhu, Na; Fang, Yuntuan; Sun, Jiwen; Chen, Junlv; Qian, Huili

    2015-03-01

    Negative refractive-photonic crystal (NR-PC) lenses that can exceed the diffraction limit of focus resolution for imaging and target detection in the near field have gotten more and more special attention in recent years. Three flat lens groups with Ag defects based on NR-PC are designed, and the focusing imaging in the NR-PC three flat lens groups is concluded with the extension of Snell's law, and the influence on the resolution for a target detection dynamic scanning scheme is simulated by using the finite difference time domain method. An optimal-doped structure with Ag defects is achieved by different simulation combinations. The refocusing resolution 0.18834λ is achieved in the optimal structure and there is approximately a 0.06806λ improvement in the refocusing resolution compared to those undoped with Ag (0.2564λ) it also possesses distinct smaller side-lobes than a single flat lens doped with Ag. This means the optimal detecting ability for the three NR-PC flat lens groups with Ag defects is more improved than that for a single undoped and doped with Ag. This is significant for the perfect imaging being achieved for a particle structure.

  5. A comparative study about electronic structures at rubrene/Ag and Ag/rubrene interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Sumona Mukherjee, M.

    2015-10-15

    The contact between the electrode and the organic semiconductor is one of the most crucial factors in determining the organic device performance. The development and production technology of different organic devices require the understanding of different types of metal/organic semiconducting thin film interfaces. Comparisons about the electronic structures at Rubrene/Ag and Ag/Rubrene interfaces have been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. The Ag on rubrene interfaces is found to show more interesting and complex natures than its counterpart. The vacuum level (VL) was shifted about 0.51 eV from push back effect for deposition of 5 Å rubrene onto Ag film whereas the electronic features of silver was only suppressed and no energy shift was resulted. While the deposition of 5 Å Ag onto rubrene film leads to the diffusion of the Ag atoms, as a cluster with quantum size effect, inside the film. Angle dependent XPS measurement indicates that diffused metal clusters were present at entire probed depth of the film. Moreover these clusters dope the uppermost surface of the rubrene film which consequences a shift of the electronic states of thick organic film towards higher binding energy. The VL was found to shift about 0.31 eV toward higher binding energy whereas the shift was around 0.21 eV for the electronic states of rubrene layer.

  6. A comparative study about electronic structures at rubrene/Ag and Ag/rubrene interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sumona; Mukherjee, M.

    2015-10-01

    The contact between the electrode and the organic semiconductor is one of the most crucial factors in determining the organic device performance. The development and production technology of different organic devices require the understanding of different types of metal/organic semiconducting thin film interfaces. Comparisons about the electronic structures at Rubrene/Ag and Ag/Rubrene interfaces have been studied using photoemission spectroscopy. The Ag on rubrene interfaces is found to show more interesting and complex natures than its counterpart. The vacuum level (VL) was shifted about 0.51 eV from push back effect for deposition of 5 Å rubrene onto Ag film whereas the electronic features of silver was only suppressed and no energy shift was resulted. While the deposition of 5 Å Ag onto rubrene film leads to the diffusion of the Ag atoms, as a cluster with quantum size effect, inside the film. Angle dependent XPS measurement indicates that diffused metal clusters were present at entire probed depth of the film. Moreover these clusters dope the uppermost surface of the rubrene film which consequences a shift of the electronic states of thick organic film towards higher binding energy. The VL was found to shift about 0.31 eV toward higher binding energy whereas the shift was around 0.21 eV for the electronic states of rubrene layer.

  7. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  8. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  9. Comparative Genomics of the Campylobacter lari Group

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Chapman, Mary H.; Smith, Timothy P.L.; Bono, James L.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.; Vandamme, Peter; Luong, Khai; Korlach, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The C. lari group is currently composed of five species (C. lari, Campylobacter insulaenigrae, Campylobacter volucris, Campylobacter subantarcticus, and Campylobacter peloridis), as well as a group of strains termed the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and other C. lari-like strains. Here we present the complete genome sequences of 11 C. lari group strains, including the five C. lari group species, four UPTC strains, and a lari-like strain isolated in this study. The genome of C. lari subsp. lari strain RM2100 was described previously. Analysis of the C. lari group genomes indicates that this group is highly related at the genome level. Furthermore, these genomes are strongly syntenic with minor rearrangements occurring only in 4 of the 12 genomes studied. The C. lari group can be bifurcated, based on the flagella and flagellar modification genes. Genomic analysis of the UPTC strains indicated that these organisms are variable but highly similar, closely related to but distinct from C. lari. Additionally, the C. lari group contains multiple genes encoding hemagglutination domain proteins, which are either contingency genes or linked to conserved contingency genes. Many of the features identified in strain RM2100, such as major deficiencies in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, are conserved across all 12 genomes, suggesting that these common features may play a role in the association of the C. lari group with coastal environments and watersheds. PMID:25381664

  10. A comparative investigation of the behaviors of H in Au and Ag from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Quan-Fu; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Yuming; Liu, Yue-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen (H) is a common impurity in metals and has a significant effect on their purification, even at concentrations of only a few parts per million. Here we present a comparative analysis of the behaviors of H in Au and Ag based on first-principles calculations. In bulk Au and Ag, the results demonstrate that the tetrahedral position is energetically more stable for a single H atom than the octahedral site. The concentration of H dissolving in the interstitial sites as a function of temperature is calculated in both metals. To characterize the dynamic behaviors, in bulk Au and Ag we determine the theoretical diffusivity and permeation of H, which are in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Further, we investigate the role of vacancy on the formation of the H n -vacancy (H n V) via a clustering reaction. One vacancy can accommodate up to 9 H atoms in Au and capture as many as 7 H atoms in Ag. The H2 molecule in the vacancy is energetically unstable in both metals. These research results will provide a very useful reference for the refinement of Ag/Au as noble metals in industry.

  11. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  12. Two new polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type cluster modified by (Ag{sub 4}) group

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiaowei; Han, Zhangang; Zhao, Chuan; Yu, Haitao; Zhai, Xueliang

    2013-11-15

    Two new supramolecular polyoxometalate compounds [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (1) and [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structural feature of 1–2 is in the cationic moiety of a tetra-core (Ag{sub 4}) cluster through weak Ag…Ag interactions. The silver(I) centers show three-, four- and five-coordinated geometries. In 1 the tetrameric silver atoms in ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} covalently bind to [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−} anion via Ag3O bonds, while there is only intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} and [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−} in 2. The coordination environments of the tetrameric silver cations have a great influence on the structure richness of the Keggin-based hybrids. The fluorescence properties of compounds 1 and 2 also have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: New polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type clusters modified by (Ag{sub 4}) groups had been synthesized and characterized, and their photoluminescence properties were also discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two Keggin-type polyoxometalates consisting of (Ag{sub 4}) clusters through weak Ag…Ag interactions have been synthesized. • There exist face-to-face and dot-to-face π…π interactions in (Ag-ligand){sub 4} fragment. • The fluorescence properties of (Ag{sub 4}) modified POMs are also discussed.

  13. AGS SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY ACCELERATOR AND TARGET SYSTEM DESIGN (NEUTRINO WORKING GROUP REPORT-II).

    SciTech Connect

    DIWAN,M.; MARCIANO,W.; WENG,W.; RAPARIA,D.

    2003-04-21

    This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also

  14. Comparative modular analysis of two complex sulfosalt structures: sterryite, Cu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56, and parasterryite, Ag4Pb20(Sb,As)24S58.

    PubMed

    Moëlo, Yves; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Evain, Michel; Orlandi, Paolo; Biagioni, Cristian

    2012-10-01

    The crystal structures of two very close, but distinct complex minerals of the lead sulfosalt group have been solved: sterryite, Cu(Ag,Cu)(3)Pb(19)(Sb,As)(22)(As-As)S(56), and parasterryite, Ag(4)Pb(20)(Sb,As)(24)S(58). They are analyzed and compared according to modular analysis. The fundamental building block is a complex column centred on a Pb(6)S(12) triangular prismatic core, with two additional long and short arms. The main chemical and topological differences relate to the short arm, which induces a relative a/4 shift (~2 Å along the elongation parameter) of the constitutive rod layers, as illustrated by distinct cell settings within the same space group (P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively). Selection of the shortest (i.e. strongest) (Sb,As)-S bonds permitted to enhance the polymeric organization of (Sb,As) atoms with triangular pyramidal coordination. These two quasi-homeotypic structures are expanded derivatives of owyheeite, Ag(3)Pb(10)Sb(11)S(28). The hierarchy of organization levels from zero- to three-dimensional entities is subordinated to building operators, which appear as the driving force for the construction of such complex structures. Minor cations (Ag, Cu) or the As-As pair in sterryite secure the final locking, which favours the formation of one or the other compound. PMID:22992793

  15. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). RESULTS The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa). PMID:25352959

  16. Dehydrocyclization of peripheral alkyl groups in porphyrins at Cu(100) and Ag(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher G.; Wang, Miao; Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Kesmodel, Larry L.; Tait, Steven L.

    2016-11-01

    The self-assembly of organic and metal-organic species at metal surfaces is a topic of high interest for applications that can benefit from tunable surface functionalization through organic building block design. As the complexity of molecular building blocks increases to direct ordering and function, thermal stability of the adsorbate often increases opening up new surface-catalyzed reaction pathways. We report dehydrocyclization of octaethylporphyrin to tetrabenzoporphyrin on the Cu(100) and Ag(111) surfaces at 500-600 K. Dehydrocyclization of smaller species is not typically observed on these surfaces at low pressure due to short adsorption lifetimes. The dehydrocyclization of peripheral ethyl groups forms benzo groups which then undergo additional dehydrogenation. The reaction products are characterized by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These results extend our understanding of reaction pathways that may be encountered as molecular building blocks increase in size and complexity on relatively inert surfaces.

  17. 75 FR 13672 - Implementation of Both the Understandings Reached at the 2009 Australia Group (AG) Plenary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...; a.10. Machupo virus; a.11. Marburg virus; a.12. Monkey pox virus; a.13. Rift Valley fever virus; a... pox'' virus from the AG ``List of Biological Agents for Export Control.'' DATES: This rule is... remove ``white pox'' virus from the AG ``List of Biological Agents for Export Control.'' Consistent...

  18. Two-dimensional topological insulators in group-11 chalcogenide compounds: M2Te (M =Cu ,Ag )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) are recently recognized states of quantum matter that are highly interesting for lower-power-consuming electronic devices owing to their nondissipative transport properties protected from backscattering. So far, only few 2D TIs, suffering from small bulk band gap (<10 meV ), have been experimentally confirmed. Here, through first-principles calculations, we propose a family of 2D TIs in group-11 chalcogenide 2D crystals, M2Te (M =Cu ,Ag ) . The nontrivial topological states in C u2Te and A g2Te 2D crystals, identified by topological invariant and edge state calculations, exhibit sizeable bulk gaps of 78 and 150 meV, respectively, suggesting that they are candidates for room-temperature applications. Moreover, strain engineering leads to effective control of the nontrivial gaps of C u2Te and A g2Te , and a topological phase transition can be realized in C u2Te , while the nontrivial phase in A g2Te is stable against strain. Their dynamic and thermal stabilities are further confirmed by employing phonon calculations and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations.

  19. Clinical evaluation comparing the efficacy of aquacel ag hydrofiber dressing versus petrolatum gauze with antibiotic ointment in partial-thickness burns in a pediatric burn center.

    PubMed

    Saba, Salim Charles; Tsai, Roger; Glat, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We conducted this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study to compare Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing (Aquacel Ag) to a standard dressing for the treatment of partial thickness burns in children. We used the St. Christopher's Hospital burn center registry to identify 20 pediatric patients who had sustained partial thickness burns over a 10-month period. Ten of these patients had been treated with Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing and 10 were treated with conventional Xeroflo gauze with Bacitracin Zinc ointment, the institutional standard of care for nonoperative partial-thickness burn wounds. Inclusion criteria included anyone with partial-thickness burns below the age of 18 years and in excellent baseline health. Exclusion criteria included inhalation injury, presence of full-thickness burns necessitating surgical debridement, cellulitic, or infected wounds, and percentage total body surface area involvement greater than 40%. Outcomes measured for the Aquacel Ag versus the Xeroflo gauze with Bacitracin Zinc ointment group included hospital length of stay (2.4 vs. 9.6 days), total number of in-house dressing changes (2.7 vs. 17.1), pain on a 10-point scale associated with dressing changes (6.4 vs. 8.2), total number of intravenous narcotic administrations (2.3 vs. 14.4), nursing time adjusted for percentage total body surface area (1.9 vs. 3.5 min), time to wound reepithelialization (10.3 vs. 16.3 days), and patient primary caregiver satisfaction score using a 4-point scale--with four delineating maximum satisfaction (3.8 vs. 1.8). Aquacel Ag proved to be a safe and effective means of treating partial thickness burns with a significant reduction in nursing time and patient pain involved with dressing changes.

  20. pairheatmap: comparing expression profiles of gene groups in heatmaps.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new visualization software called pairheatmap, which is able to generate and compare two heatmaps so as to compare expression patterns of gene groups. It adds a conditioning variable such as time to the heatmap, and provides separate clustering for row groups in the first heatmap in order to visualize pattern changes between two heatmaps. pairheatmap is developed in R statistical environment. It provides: (1) the flexible framework for comparing two heatmaps; and (2) high-quality figures based on R package grid. The general architecture can be efficiently incorporated into bioinformatics pipeline. The package and user documentation are free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pairheatmap/index.html.

  1. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann-Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test

  2. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann–Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed

  3. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  4. Transmission of the M2 double-stranded RNA in Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Nikki D; Cubeta, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal transmission of the 3.57 kb M2 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) between mycelia of somatically incompatible isolates of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3), an economically important pathogen of cultivated plants in the family Solanaceae, was investigated. Nine donor isolates of R. solani AG-3 containing the M2 dsRNA were paired on potato-dextrose agar with each of three different recipient isolates where the M2 dsRNA was absent. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect horizontal transmission of the M2 dsRNA via hyphal anastomosis from donor to recipient isolates by examining hyphal explants taken 3 cm from the hyphal interaction zone. PCR-RFLP genetic-based markers of two nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus were used to confirm identity and transmission between donor and recipient isolates of R. solani AG-3. The frequency of transmission observed between 72 pairings of the eight donor and three recipient isolates was approximately 4% of the total pairings, and differences in the phenotype of the recipient isolates after acquisition of the M2 dsRNA via horizontal transmission were observed. To our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of transmission of dsRNA between genetically different individuals of R. solani confirmed with nuclear and mitochondrial markers. These results suggest that transmission can occur between somatically incompatible isolates of R. solani AG-3 but that maintenance of the dsRNA in the recipient isolates was not stable after repeated subculturing on nutrient medium.

  5. Development and comparative investigation of Ag-sensitive layer based SAW and QCM sensors for mercury sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Kabir, K M Mohibul; Sabri, Ylias M; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Ippolito, Samuel J; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2016-04-21

    Piezoelectric acoustic wave devices integrated with noble metal surfaces provide exciting prospects for the direct measurement of toxic gas species such as mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere. Even though gold (Au) based acoustic wave sensors have been utilized extensively for detecting Hg, the potential of using other metal surfaces such as silver (Ag) is yet to be thoroughly studied. Here, we developed Ag sensitive layer-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors and focused on their comparative analysis for Hg sensing applications with parameters such as the sensor sensitivity, selectivity, adsorption/desorption isotherm and Hg diffusion into the surface thoroughly studied. The SAW sensor was fabricated with nickel (Ni) interdigitated transducer (IDT) electrodes and a Ag thin film on the delay line of the device. In the case of the QCM sensor, the electrodes were constructed of Ag thin film and simultaneously employed as a sensitive layer. Mercury sensing experiments were conducted for a range of concentrations between 24-365 ppbv without/with the presence of some common industrial interfering gas species (i.e. ammonia, acetaldehyde, ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, methyl ethyl ketone and humidity) at various operating temperatures in the range of 35-95 °C. The SAW sensor was found to possess up to 70 times higher response magnitudes than its QCM counterpart at 35 °C while up to 30 and 23 times higher response magnitudes were observed for the SAW sensor at elevated temperatures of 75 and 95 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the SAW sensor showed good selectivity (>89%) toward Hg(0) vapor in the presence of all the interferents tested at an operating temperature of 75 °C while the QCM sensor exhibited significant cross-sensitivity when ethyl mercaptan was introduced along with Hg(0) vapor. Overall, it is indicative that Ag-based acoustic wave sensors do have great potential for Hg sensing applications, given that right

  6. Moluccensins A-G, phragmalins with a conjugated C-30 carbonyl group from a Krishna mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Yi; Yang, Sheng-Xin; Pan, Jian-Yu; Xiao, Qiang; Satyanandamurty, Tirumani; Wu, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Seven new phragmalins with a C-30 carbonyl moiety, named moluccensins A-G (1-7), among which moluccensins A-F, possessing a Delta(8,14) double bond, and moluccensin G (7), containing conjugated Delta(8,9) and Delta(14,15) double bonds, were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and spectroscopic data. This is the first report of phragmalins with a conjugated C-30 carbonyl group.

  7. A comparative study of dip coating and spray pyrolysis methods for synthesizing ITO nanolayers by using Ag colloidal sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Negar; Heshmatpour, Felora; Malekfar, Rasoul; Bahari-Poor, Hamid-Reza; Abyar, Selda

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating and thermal pyrolysis methods. Sn (IV) is often used in the spray method as a precursor salt, but in this research we have employed a new procedure that uses Sn (II) and In(NO3)3 for preparation of transparent conductive thin films. Then, colloidal Ag was deposited on the ITO layers in order to compare the two synthesis methods, and the structural and electrical properties of the resultant films were investigated by FESEM, XRD, and four-terminal resistometry. The obtained films are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation of (200). The XRD patterns of the films indicate that in both films, the Sn phase is crystallized separately from In2O3. The presence of a Sn peak and the overall low intensity of XRD peaks suggest relative crystallization of ITO structure. For this reason, Ag films were deposited by dip coating method using a colloidal sol. By analyzing the XRD patterns of Ag-ITO films after eliminating the Sn peak, the increased intensity of the peaks confirmed the relatively good crystallization of the ITO films. The results show that the films with a sheet resistance as low as 2 × 10-2 Ω·cm, which is beneficial for solar cells, were achieved.

  8. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups – Categorical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ2) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ2 distribution and hence are referred to as χ2 tests. Examples include Pearson's χ2 test (or simply the χ2 test), McNemar's χ2 test, Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test and others. The Pearson's χ2 test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ2 test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ2 statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ2 test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ2 test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  9. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups - Categorical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ(2)) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ(2) distribution and hence are referred to as χ(2) tests. Examples include Pearson's χ(2) test (or simply the χ(2) test), McNemar's χ(2) test, Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test and others. The Pearson's χ(2) test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ(2) test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ(2) statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ(2) test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ(2) test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  10. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups - Categorical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ(2)) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ(2) distribution and hence are referred to as χ(2) tests. Examples include Pearson's χ(2) test (or simply the χ(2) test), McNemar's χ(2) test, Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test and others. The Pearson's χ(2) test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ(2) test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ(2) statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ(2) test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ(2) test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables.

  11. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  12. A comparative study of the effects of Ag2S films prepared by MPD and HRTD methods on the performance of polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yong; Li, Fumin; Ling, Lanyun; Chen, Chong

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the Ag2S nanocrystalline thin films are deposited on ITO glass via molecular precursor decomposition (MPD) method and newly developed HRTD method for organic solar cells (ITO/Ag2S/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Au) as an electron selective layer and a light absorption material. The surface morphology, structure characterization, and optical property of the Ag2S films prepared by these two methods were compared and the effect of the prepared Ag2S film on the device performance is investigated. It is found that the Ag2S films prepared by HRTD method have lower roughness and better uniformity than the corresponding films prepared by the MPD method. In addition, a more effective and rapid transporting ability for the electrons and holes in the ITO/Ag2S(HRTD, n)/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Au cells is found, which reduces the charge recombination, and thus, improves the device performance. The highest efficiency of 3.21% achieved for the ITO/Ag2S(HRTD, 50)/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Au cell is 93% higher than that of the ITO/Ag2S(MPD, 2)/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Au cell.

  13. Compare study cellulose/Ag hybrids using fructose and glucose as reducing reagents by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Yan; Li, Shu-Ming; Ma, Ming-Guo; Yao, Ke; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-06-15

    The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of reducing reagents on the hybrids from cellulose and Ag, which have been successfully synthesized by using fructose and glucose as reducing reagents via a hydrothermal method, respectively. The hybrids were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The influences of the various reaction parameters including the heating time, heating temperature, and types of reducing reagents on the hybrids were investigated. Silver particles can be better dispersed in the cellulose matrix by adjusting reaction parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that the types of reducing reagents played an important role in the shape and dispersion of silver particles in hybrids.

  14. UV-VIS Absorption Spectra of Molten AgCl and AgBr and of their Mixtures with Group I and II Halide Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greening, Giorgio G. W.

    2015-10-01

    The UV-VIS absorption spectra of (Ag1-X[Li-Cs, Ba]X)Cl and of (Ag1-X[Na, K, Cs]X)Br at 823 K at the concentrations X=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 have been measured. The findings show that on adding the respective halides to molten silver chloride and silver bromide, shifts of the fundamental absorption edge to shorter wavelengths result. A correlation between the observed shifts and the expansion of the silver sub-lattice is found, which is valid for both silver halide systems studied in this work.

  15. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  16. Group and Family Day Care: A Comparative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    The point is made that studies of day-care use consistently confirm that the most common form of day care is in-home day care by a relative or another person. Group care as it now functions is most practical for a mother who works regular daytime hours and lives within manageable commuting distance of a center. The yearly costs per child reported…

  17. Undergraduates with Employer-Sponsored Aid: Comparing Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney G.; Wang, Zhenlei

    2014-01-01

    Tuition assistance offered by employers is an understudied area of financial aid research. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographic, socioeconomic, academic and financial aid characteristics of college students who receive employer-sponsored financial aid with students who receive traditional financial aid (institutional, state, or…

  18. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  19. Comparative Genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group of Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Beatson, Scott A.; van den Broek, Adri H. M.; Thoday, Keith L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation. PMID:22919635

  20. Rapidly solidified Ag-Cu eutectics: A comparative study using drop-tube and melt fluxing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Mullis, A. M.; Cochrane, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of rapid solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy processed via melt fluxing and drop-tube techniques is presented. A computational model is used to estimate the cooling rate and undercooling of the free fall droplets as this cannot be determined directly. SEM micrographs show that both materials consist of lamellar and anomalous eutectic structures. However, below the critical undercooling the morphologies of each are different in respect of the distribution and volume of anomalous eutectic. The anomalous eutectic in flux- undercooled samples preferentially forms at cell boundaries around the lamellar eutectic in the cell body. In drop-tube processed samples it tends to distribute randomly inside the droplets and at much smaller volume fractions. That the formation of the anomalous eutectic can, at least in part, be suppressed in the drop-tube is strongly suggestive that the formation of anomalous eutectic occurs via remelting process, which is suppressed by rapid cooling during solidification.

  1. [Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Cheng-Chen; He, Jin; Zhang, Qing-Ye; Yu, Zi-Niu

    2011-10-01

    A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hotspot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. anthracis,,6 strain of B. thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides a new way to study and use food toxin, anthrax toxin, and insecticidal toxin of these strains in future.

  2. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  3. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  4. [Immunosuppressive therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic active hepatitis B?].

    PubMed

    Maier, K P; Lepiorz, H; Berthold, H; Gerok, W

    1982-08-01

    The course of HBsAg-positive chronic active hepatitis was followed in 36 patients who were treated by immunosuppression and in 45 controls by means of serial determinations of HBeAg titers and by repeated biopsies of the liver. In the treated group remission occurred in 52% (HBeAg negative) resp. 48% (HBeAg positive); in the control group these percentages were almost identical, that is to say 61% resp. 41%. During therapy 5 out of 9 HBeAg positive patients and 7 out of 12 HBeAg negative patients developed cirrhosis of the liver as compared to 5 resp. 10, and 2 resp. 12 patients in the control group. Judging from these results it seems unlikely, that the course of HBsAg positive, chronic-active hepatitis in patients, whose serum shows a positive HBeAg titer by immunodiffusion, might be influenced in a positive way by immunosuppressive therapy.

  5. [A simple ELISA method for the detection of HBsAg: Organon Teknika HBsAg Uniform II screening and confirmation test. Comparative study using the HBsAg Hapanostika method. A multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Pár, A; Mihály, I; Kömives, K

    1994-09-25

    An one-step enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent method, named as HBsAg Uniform II has been described for the detection of serum HBsAg, and a comparison was made with a widely used ELISA technique HBsAg Hepanostika test, to evaluate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the method. A total of 531 serum samples from patients with liver disease and with renal failure, as well as 1065 samples from blood donors have been investigated. While the sensitivity of Uniform II vs. Hepanostika was 99.5% vs. 72.7%, the specificity was 99.2% of both methods. The positive predictive values did not differ (99.5% vs. 99.2%), however, the negative predictive values were 99.2% vs. 71.7%, respectively, in favour of Uniform II test. The Uniform II confirmatory test confirmed the positive HBsAg results in 94%, this rate was 74% using Hepanostika system. The new method proved to be a simple, quick, reliable test, which can be useful as a valuable tool in both the clinical diagnosis and blood donor screening.

  6. Nanosized Fe3O4 an efficient PCR yield enhancer-Comparative study with Au, Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kambli, Priyanka; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials-assisted PCR is a promising field of nanobiotechnology that amalgamates nanomaterials into the conventional PCR system to achieve better amplification of desired product. With literature documenting the variable effects of these nanomaterials on the PCR yield and amplification; it was thought worthwhile to compare the PCR enhancing efficiency of three transition metal nanoparticles in form of stable colloidal suspensions at varying concentrations.The nanoparticles(NPs) of silver, gold and magnetite were chemically synthesized by reducing their respective salts and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. Their morphology was assessed using nanoparticle tracking system and AFM. The effect of these nanofluids on amplification of 800 bp prokaryotic DNA template with 30% GC content was studied using conventional thermal cycler. The reaction kinetics for all the three nanofluids yielded a Gaussian curve of amplification with varying concentrations. The ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.72 × 10(-2)nM and average size of 33 nm demonstrated highest amplification efficiency of 190% as compared to the citrate stabilized AgNP-25 nm (45%) and AuNP-15.19 nm (134%) using a conventional PCR system. The major reasons that allow Fe3O4 NPs outperform the other 2 transition metal NP's seem to be attributed to its heat conduction property as well as effective adsorption of PCR components onto the ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite nanofluids. The data from our study offers valuable information for the application of ferrofluids as economically, efficient and effective alternative for nanomaterial-assisted PCR yield enhancers.

  7. Nanosized Fe3O4 an efficient PCR yield enhancer-Comparative study with Au, Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kambli, Priyanka; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials-assisted PCR is a promising field of nanobiotechnology that amalgamates nanomaterials into the conventional PCR system to achieve better amplification of desired product. With literature documenting the variable effects of these nanomaterials on the PCR yield and amplification; it was thought worthwhile to compare the PCR enhancing efficiency of three transition metal nanoparticles in form of stable colloidal suspensions at varying concentrations.The nanoparticles(NPs) of silver, gold and magnetite were chemically synthesized by reducing their respective salts and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. Their morphology was assessed using nanoparticle tracking system and AFM. The effect of these nanofluids on amplification of 800 bp prokaryotic DNA template with 30% GC content was studied using conventional thermal cycler. The reaction kinetics for all the three nanofluids yielded a Gaussian curve of amplification with varying concentrations. The ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.72 × 10(-2)nM and average size of 33 nm demonstrated highest amplification efficiency of 190% as compared to the citrate stabilized AgNP-25 nm (45%) and AuNP-15.19 nm (134%) using a conventional PCR system. The major reasons that allow Fe3O4 NPs outperform the other 2 transition metal NP's seem to be attributed to its heat conduction property as well as effective adsorption of PCR components onto the ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite nanofluids. The data from our study offers valuable information for the application of ferrofluids as economically, efficient and effective alternative for nanomaterial-assisted PCR yield enhancers. PMID:26896662

  8. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag(+), C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag(+), and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs. PMID:27615743

  9. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs. PMID:27615743

  10. The role of exopolymeric substances in the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles to algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kaijun; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Lin, Daohui

    2016-09-01

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag+, C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces. With EPS removed, the total bioaccumulations and surface adsorptions for the three Ag species decreased but the cell internalizations increased; the 96 h half growth inhibition concentrations decreased, indicating EPS alleviated the algal toxicity of Ag. The cell-internalized but not the adsorbed AgNPs could contribute to the nanotoxicity. The EPS could bind both AgNPs and Ag+, and thus inhibited the cell internalization and the nanotoxicity. However, the EPS-bound Ag on the cell surfaces would migrate along with the algae and be biologically amplified in the aquatic food chains, presenting ecological risks. These results are helpful for understanding the fate and ecological effects of NPs.

  11. Synthesis and comparative study on the antimicrobial activity of hybrid materials based on silver nanoparticles (AgNps) stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).

    PubMed

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Pencheva, Daniela; Nikolov, Stanislav; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid materials based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were synthesized applying two different strategies based on thermal or chemical reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles using PVP as a stabilizer. The formation of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 9 to 16 nm was confirmed by TEM analysis. UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy were also applied to confirm the successful formation of AgNps. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs/PVP against etalon strains of three different groups of bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli; gram-negative bacteria), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa; non-ferment gram-negative bacteria), as well as against spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) was studied. AgNps/PVP were tested for the presence of fungicidal activity against different yeasts and mold such as Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The hybrid materials showed a strong antimicrobial effect against the tested bacterial and fungal strains and therefore have potential applications in biotechnology and biomedical science.

  12. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  13. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1991 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Cirino, Anna Marie

    Comparative financial information, derived from two national surveys of 503 public two-year colleges, is presented in this report for fiscal year (FY) 1990-91. The report includes statistics for the national sample and six peer groups, space for colleges to compare their institutional statistics with national and peer groups, and tables, bar…

  14. The antimony-group 11 chemical bond: Dissociation energies of the diatomic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, V.; Ciccioli, A. E-mail: andrea.ciccioli@uniroma1.it; Gigli, G. E-mail: andrea.ciccioli@uniroma1.it

    2014-02-14

    The intermetallic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb were identified in the effusive molecular beam produced at high temperature under equilibrium conditions in a double-cell-like Knudsen source. Several gaseous equilibria involving these species were studied by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature in the overall range 1349–1822 K, and the strength of the chemical bond formed between antimony and the group 11 metals was for the first time measured deriving the following thermochemical dissociation energies (D{sub 0}{sup ∘}, kJ/mol): 186.7 ± 5.1 (CuSb), 156.3 ± 4.9 (AgSb), 241.3 ± 5.8 (AuSb). The three species were also investigated computationally at the coupled cluster level with single, double, and noniterative quasiperturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The spectroscopic parameters were calculated from the potential energy curves and the dissociation energies were evaluated at the Complete Basis Set limit, resulting in an overall good agreement with experimental values. An approximate evaluation of the spin-orbit effect was also performed. CCSD(T) calculations were further extended to the corresponding group 11 arsenide species which are here studied for the first time and the following dissociation energies (D{sub 0}{sup ∘}, kJ/mol): 190 ± 10 (CuAs), 151 ± 10 (AgAs), 240 ± 15 (AuAs) are proposed. Taking advantage of the new experimental and computational information here presented, the bond energy trends along group 11 and 4th and 5th periods of the periodic table were analyzed and the bond energies of the diatomic species CuBi and AuBi, yet experimentally unobserved, were predicted on an empirical basis.

  15. The antimony-group 11 chemical bond: Dissociation energies of the diatomic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, V.; Ciccioli, A.; Gigli, G.

    2014-02-01

    The intermetallic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb were identified in the effusive molecular beam produced at high temperature under equilibrium conditions in a double-cell-like Knudsen source. Several gaseous equilibria involving these species were studied by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature in the overall range 1349-1822 K, and the strength of the chemical bond formed between antimony and the group 11 metals was for the first time measured deriving the following thermochemical dissociation energies (D_0°, kJ/mol): 186.7 ± 5.1 (CuSb), 156.3 ± 4.9 (AgSb), 241.3 ± 5.8 (AuSb). The three species were also investigated computationally at the coupled cluster level with single, double, and noniterative quasiperturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The spectroscopic parameters were calculated from the potential energy curves and the dissociation energies were evaluated at the Complete Basis Set limit, resulting in an overall good agreement with experimental values. An approximate evaluation of the spin-orbit effect was also performed. CCSD(T) calculations were further extended to the corresponding group 11 arsenide species which are here studied for the first time and the following dissociation energies (D_0°, kJ/mol): 190 ± 10 (CuAs), 151 ± 10 (AgAs), 240 ± 15 (AuAs) are proposed. Taking advantage of the new experimental and computational information here presented, the bond energy trends along group 11 and 4th and 5th periods of the periodic table were analyzed and the bond energies of the diatomic species CuBi and AuBi, yet experimentally unobserved, were predicted on an empirical basis.

  16. THE EPOCH OF ASSEMBLY OF TWO GALAXY GROUPS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-10-01

    Nearby galaxy groups of comparable mass to the Local Group show global variations that reflect differences in their evolutionary history. Satellite galaxies in groups have higher levels of gas deficiency as the distance to their host decreases. The well established gas-deficiency profile of the Local Group reflects an epoch of assembly starting at z ∼< 10. We investigate whether this gas-deficiency profile can be used to determine the epoch of assembly for other nearby groups. We choose the M81 group as this has the most complete inventory, both in terms of membership and multi-wavelength observations. We expand our earlier evolutionary model of satellite dwarf galaxies to not only confirm this result for the Local Group but also show that the more gas-rich M81 group is likely to have assembled at a later time (z ∼< 1-3) than the Local Group.

  17. Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients.

    PubMed

    Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.

  18. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  19. Formation of core-shell Au@Ag nanorods induced by catecholamines: A comparative study and an analytical application.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, M V; Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Garshev, A V

    2016-09-14

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were synthesized and an interaction of catecholamines (CAs) with silver ions in the presence of the obtained AuNRs was studied. The reaction results into formation of core-shell Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) and leads to a hypsochromic shift of the long-wave surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the absorption spectrum of AuNRs. The influence of a CA structure, excess of CTAB, interaction time, pH, concentration of AuNRs, silver ions and CAs on this interaction was studied. Based on correlation of the NRs spectral characteristics with the concentration of CAs, a method for spectrophotometric determination of dobutamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine with detection limits 27, 18, 16 and 13 μg L(-1), respectively, has been developed. The method can be applied to the analysis of medicines. PMID:27566354

  20. Formation of core-shell Au@Ag nanorods induced by catecholamines: A comparative study and an analytical application.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, M V; Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Garshev, A V

    2016-09-14

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were synthesized and an interaction of catecholamines (CAs) with silver ions in the presence of the obtained AuNRs was studied. The reaction results into formation of core-shell Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) and leads to a hypsochromic shift of the long-wave surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the absorption spectrum of AuNRs. The influence of a CA structure, excess of CTAB, interaction time, pH, concentration of AuNRs, silver ions and CAs on this interaction was studied. Based on correlation of the NRs spectral characteristics with the concentration of CAs, a method for spectrophotometric determination of dobutamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine with detection limits 27, 18, 16 and 13 μg L(-1), respectively, has been developed. The method can be applied to the analysis of medicines.

  1. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  2. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  3. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  4. Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting members of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus group phages infecting B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis (Bt) have been studied at the molecular level and, recently, at the genomic level to control the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and to prevent phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. A comparative phylogenetic analysis has revealed three different major phage groups with different morphologies (Myoviridae for group I, Siphoviridae for group II, and Tectiviridae for group III), genome size (group I > group II > group III), and lifestyle (virulent for group I and temperate for group II and III). A subsequent phage genome comparison using a dot plot analysis showed that phages in each group are highly homologous, substantiating the grouping of B. cereus phages. Endolysin is a host lysis protein that contains two conserved domains: a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and an enzymatic activity domain (EAD). In B. cereus sensu lato phage group I, four different endolysin groups have been detected, according to combinations of two types of CBD and four types of EAD. Group I phages have two copies of tail lysins and one copy of endolysin, but the functions of the tail lysins are still unknown. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group II, the B. anthracis phages have been studied and applied for typing and rapid detection of pathogenic host strains. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group III, the B. thuringiensis phages Bam35 and GIL01 have been studied to understand phage entry and lytic switch regulation mechanisms. In this review, we suggest that further study of the B. cereus group phages would be useful for various phage applications, such as biocontrol, typing, and rapid detection of the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and for the prevention of phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt.

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  6. Application of a Newly Developed High-Sensitivity HBsAg Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis B Patients with HBsAg Seroclearance

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring. PMID:23946517

  7. Application of a newly developed high-sensitivity HBsAg chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Murakami, Shuko; Iio, Etsuko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    We modified and automated a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for surface antigen (HBsAg) detection using a combination of monoclonal antibodies, each for a specific epitope of HBsAg, and by improving an earlier conjugation technique. Of 471 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers seen in our hospital between 2009 and 2012, 26 were HBsAg seronegative as determined by the Abbott Architect assay. The Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was used to recheck those 26 patients who demonstrated seroclearance by the Abbott Architect assay. The performance of the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay was compared with that of a quantitative HBsAg detection system (Abbott Architect) and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HBV DNA assay (CTM) (lower limit of detection, 2.1 log copies/ml) using blood serum samples from patients who were determined to be HBsAg seronegative by the Abbott Architect assay. Ten patients had spontaneous HBsAg loss. Of 8 patients treated with nucleotide analogues (NAs), two were HBsAg seronegative after stopping lamivudine therapy and 6 were HBsAg seronegative during entecavir therapy. Eight acute hepatitis B (AH) patients became HBsAg seronegative. Of the 26 patients, 16 were HBsAg positive by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay but negative by the Abbott Architect assay. The differences between the two assays in terms of detectable HBsAg persisted over the long term in the spontaneous loss group (median, 10 months), the NA-treated group (2.5 months), and the AH group (0.5 months). In 9 patients, the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay detected HBsAg when HBV DNA was negative by the CTM assay. HBsAg was also detected by the Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ assay in 4 patients with an anti-HBs concentration of >10 mIU/ml, 3 of whom had no HBsAg escape mutations. The automatic, highly sensitive HBsAg CLEIA Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ is a convenient and precise assay for HBV monitoring.

  8. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  9. Comparative cytogenetics and molecular phylogeography in the group astyanax altiparanae--Astyanax aff. bimaculatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Kavalco, K F; Pazza, R; Brandão, K D O; Garcia, C; Almeida-Toledo, L F

    2011-01-01

    The genus Astyanax comprises small characin fish of the neotropical region. The so-called 'yellow-tailed characins' compose one of the most widely distributed Astyanax groups. A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus, are evolutionarily closely related and commonly found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins. In the present work, chromosomal data of specimens of A. altiparanae and A. aff. bimaculatus from 4 hydrographic basins in the states of São Paulo (Upper Tietê, Paranapanema, Ribeira de Iguape) and Rio de Janeiro (Guapimirim) are shown. All the populations showed 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formula. Although only a single Ag-NOR bearing chromosome pair was observed, all populations possess multiple cistrons of 18S rDNA. FISH with the 5S rDNA probe showed single signals at the interstitial position of one metacentric chromosome pair. C-bands are distributed in the terminal and interstitial regions of several chromosomes. However, the As-51 satDNA are frugally located in a few chromosomes of fishes from Upper Tietê, Paranapanema and Guapimirim Rivers, being absent in individuals of A. aff. bimaculatus from Ribeira de Iguape River basin. Beside these 4 populations, molecular phylogeography studies were also performed in individuals from Middle and Lower Tietê River basin and from 2 additional collection sites in the Paranapanema and Ribeira de Iguape River basins. The phylogeographic analysis using 2 mtDNA regions (totalizing 1.314 bp of ND2 and ATPase6/8 genes) of 8 populations of the group of 'yellow-tailed characins' from 3 major hydrographic basins showed structuring of populations, suggesting a correlation between chromosomal (nuclear) and molecular (mitochondrial) data. PMID:21447941

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  11. A Comparative Perspective on Intermarriage: Explaining Differences Among National-Origin Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    KALMIJN, MATTHIJS; VAN TUBERGEN, FRANK

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are “closed,” whereas others are relatively “open.” We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the United States, using pooled data from the Current Population Surveys, 1994–2006, and multilevel models in which individual and contextual determinants of intermarriage are included simultaneously. Our analyses show large differences in endogamy across groups. After taking compositional effects into account, we find that both structural and cultural group-level factors have significant effects on endogamy. Cultural explanations (which focus on the role of norms and preferences) play a more important role than structural explanations (which focus on meeting and mating opportunities). Our results reinforce the common but untested interpretation of endogamy in terms of group boundaries. PMID:20608106

  12. Karyotype diversity of four species of the incertae sedis group (Characidae) from different hydrographic basins: analysis of AgNORs, CMA3 and 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M M; da Rosa, R; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L

    2011-01-01

    A large number of genera in the tropical fish family Characidae are incertae sedis. Cytogenetic analysis was made of four of these species: Astyanax eigenmanniorum, Deuterodon stigmaturus, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, and H. anisitsi, collected from various hydrographic basins: hydrographic system from Laguna dos Patos/RS, Tramandaí basin/RS and Tibagi River basin/PR. The first two species were collected in their type locality in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The 2n = 48 karyotype was observed only in A. eigenmanniorum, while the other species had 2n = 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formulas. There was weak heterochromatin staining in the pericentromeric region of A. eigenmanniorum, D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenni chromosomes. In H. anisitsi, heterochromatin appeared to be more abundant and distributed in the pericentromeric and terminal regions of the chromosomes; three pairs showed more evident heterochromatic blocks. There were multiple Ag-NORs in all populations, visualized by FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. While D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenii had conserved AgNOR, CMA3 and 18S rDNA sites, the other two species showed intra- and interindividual variation at these sites. The karyotype variability was high, as is common in this group of fish. Different species arising from isolated hydrographic basins maintain an elevated level of karyotype differentiation, mainly with respect to chromosome structure, heterochromatin distribution and rDNA localization. This is the first report with cytogenetic data for D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenii. PMID:22179995

  13. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  14. Impact of CCL2 and Its Receptor CCR2 Gene Polymorphism in North Indian Population: A Comparative Study in Different Ethnic Groups Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vibha; Srivastava, Neena; Srivastava, Priyanka; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2013-07-01

    Chemokine are small, inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in many biological processes, such as migration of leukocytes, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. Chemokine are also known to influence tumor cell's activity. Specifically, tumor cells express chemokine receptors in a non random manner suggesting a role of chemokine in metastatic destination of tumor cells. The present study was conducted to determine distribution of (Chemokine receptor 2) CCR2 V64I, Chemokine ligand 2 CCL2 I/D, and CCL2 2518 A>G gene polymorphisms in North Indian population and compare with different populations globally. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis was conducted in 200 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. Allelic frequencies in wild type (GG) of CCR2 V64I G>A were 63 % G; CCL2 I/D 42 % II; CCL2 2518 A>G 40.5 % A. The minor variant allele frequency in our population was as follows: 19.5 % for CCR2 V64I, 35.5 % for CCL2 I/D, 35.3 % for CCL2 2518 A>G. We further compared frequency distribution for these genes with various published studies in different ethnicity. Our results suggested that frequency in chemokine genes exhibit distinctive pattern in India that could be attributed to ethnicity variation. This could assist in high-risk screening of human exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups. Thus, they signify an impact of ethnicity and provide a basis for future epidemiological and clinical studies.

  15. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5-25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance

  16. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  17. Comparative Efficacy of Group and Individual Feedback in Gross Anatomy for Promoting Medical Student Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Christopher L.; Gregory, Jeremy K.; Lachman, Nirusha; Chen, Laura P.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of medical training that requires students to develop the skills of providing and receiving feedback. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of delivering feedback in a group setting compared with an individual setting. The first-year class of Mayo medical students (n = 49) enrolled in gross anatomy (in…

  18. The Adequacy of Different Robust Statistical Tests in Comparing Two Independent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pero-Cebollero, Maribel; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated various robust statistical methods for comparing two independent groups. Two scenarios for simulation were generated: one of equality and another of population mean differences. In each of the scenarios, 33 experimental conditions were used as a function of sample size, standard deviation and asymmetry. For each…

  19. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  20. Comparing Brief and Extended Wait-Time during Small Group Instruction for Children with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction. Brief wait-time increased children's response opportunities, academic responses, and accuracy in comparison to extended…

  1. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1994 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 427 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1993-94, including data for the national sample and 6 groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, reviewing the objectives of the study and potential uses of…

  2. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1995 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 405 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1994-95, including data for the national sample and for 6groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, discussing the study sample and the use of study…

  3. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1993 Peer Group Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 516 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1992-93, including statistics for the national sample and for six peer groups. The report's nine sections focus on: (1) introductory information about the study's background, objectives, and sample; the National…

  4. A comparative study on in situ grown superconducting YBCO and YBCO-Ag thin films by PLD on polycrystalline SmBa2NbO6 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, J.; John, Asha M.; Wariar, P. R. S.; Sajith, P. K.; Koshy, J.; Pai, S. P.; Pinto, R.

    2000-02-01

    The development and characterization of SmBa2NbO6, which is a new ceramic substrate material for the YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> superconductor, are reported. SmBa2NbO6 has a complex cubic perovskite structure with lattice constant a = 8.524 Å. The dielectric properties of SmBa2NbO6 are in a range suitable for its use as a substrate for microwave applications. SmBa2NbO6 was found to have a thermal conductivity of 77 W m-1 K-1 and a thermal expansion coefficient of 7.8 × 10-6 °C-1 at room temperature. Superconducting YBa2 Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> -Ag thin films have been grown in situ on polycrystalline SmBa2NbO6 by the pulsed laser ablation technique. The films exhibited (00l) orientation of an orthorhombic YBa2 Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> phase and gave a zero resistivity superconducting transition (TC(0)) at 90 K with a transition width of ~1.5 K. The critical current density of YBCO-Ag thin films grown on polycrystalline SmBa2NbO6 substrate was ~3 × 105 A cm-2 at 77 K. A comparative study of YBCO and YBCO-Ag thin films developed on polycrystalline SmBa2NbO6 substrate by PLD based on the crystallinity, orientation and critical current density of the YBCO film is discussed in detail.

  5. Comparative historical biogeography of three groups of Nearctic freshwater fishes across central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, R; Domínguez-Domínguez, O; Doadrio, I; Cuevas-García, E; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2015-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns of the three main Nearctic groups of continental fishes inhabiting river drainages in central Mexico (livebearing goodeids, southern Mexican notropins and species of Algansea, the last two representing independent lineages of cyprinids) were obtained and compared by following two approaches: an estimate of divergence times and using a well-defined biogeographic method. Three concordant biogeographic events were identified among the three groups, showing some evidence of a partially congruent evolutionary history. The analysed groups show at least three independent colonization events into central Mexico: two western routes, followed by the Goodeinae and members of Algansea, and an early Plateau route followed by southern notropins. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of each of the three freshwater fish groups diversified in central Mexico in the Late Miocene. The lack of a strong congruence in their biogeographic patterns, and the differences in species richness among the three clades might be evidence for distinct patterns of diversification. PMID:25644334

  6. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of the 936 group of lactococcal Siphoviridae phages

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James; Bottacini, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Kelleher, Philip; Neve, Horst; Zomer, Aldert; Nauta, Arjen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of bacteriophage collections has greatly enhanced our understanding regarding their prevalence, phage-host interactions as well as the overall biodiversity of their genomes. This knowledge is very relevant to phages infecting Lactococcus lactis, since they constitute a significant risk factor for dairy fermentations. Of the eighty four lactococcal phage genomes currently available, fifty five belong to the so-called 936 group, the most prevalent of the ten currently recognized lactococcal phage groups. Here, we report the genetic characteristics of a new collection of 936 group phages. By combining these genomes to those sequenced previously we determined the core and variable elements of the 936 genome. Genomic variation occurs across the 936 phage genome, such as genetic elements that (i) lead to a +1 translational frameshift resulting in the formation of additional structures on the phage tail, (ii) specify a double neck passage structure, and (iii) encode packaging module-associated methylases. Hierarchical clustering of the gene complement of the 936 group phages and nucleotide alignments allowed grouping of the ninety 936 group phages into distinct clusters, which in general appear to correspond with their geographical origin. PMID:26892066

  7. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  8. Comparative genomic hybridisation divides retinoblastomas into a high and a low level chromosomal instability group

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, J E; Hermsen, M A J A; Gille, H J P; Schouten-Van Meeteren, N Y N; Moll, A C; Imhof, S M; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P A; van der Valk, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood and is responsible for approximately 1% of all deaths caused by childhood cancer. Aims/methods: Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed on 13 consecutive, histologically confirmed retinoblastomas to analyse patterns of chromosomal changes and correlate these to clinicopathological variables. Six cases were hereditary and seven cases were sporadic. Results: In 11 of the 13 tumours chromosomal abnormalities were detected, most frequently gains. Frequent chromosomal gains concerned 6p (46%), 1q (38%), 2p, 9q (30%), 5p, 7q, 10q, 17q, and 20q (23%). Frequent losses occurred at Xq (46%), 13q14, 16q, and 4q (23%). High level copy number gains were found at 5p15 and 6p11–12. A loss at 13q14 occurred in three cases only. Relatively few events occurred in the hereditary cases (27) compared with the non-hereditary cases (70 events). The number of chromosomal aberrations in these 13 retinoblastomas showed a bimodal distribution. Seven tumours showed less than four chromosomal aberrations, falling into a low level chromosomal instability (CIN) group, and six tumours showed at least eight aberrations, falling into a high level CIN group. In the low level CIN group the mean age was half that seen in the high level CIN group, there were less male patients, and there were more hereditary and bilateral cases. Microsatellite instability was not detected in either of the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the complex pattern of genetic changes in retinoblastomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected preferentially. On the basis of the number of genetic events, retinoblastomas can be divided in low and a high level chromosomal instability groups, which have striking differences in clinical presentation. PMID:12499428

  9. Risk Factors for Acute Stroke among South Asians Compared to Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Methods Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. Results South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Discussion Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke. PMID:25268987

  10. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  11. Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Coexistence of HBsAg and Anti-HBs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Le; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Pan, Jinshun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) comprises an atypical serological profile in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, in total 94 patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs and 94 age- and sex-matched patients with positive HBsAg were characterized by quantitatively measuring HBsAg and HBV DNA, sequencing large S genes, and observing clinical features. Compared with common hepatitis B patients, the patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs had lower HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. These two groups had similar rate of pre-S deletion mutations. However, in patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs, more amino acid substitutions in the a determinant of S gene were observed in HBV genotype C, but not in genotype B. Fourteen patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs were followed up for an average of 15.5 months. There were no significant changes in the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBV DNA and ALT over the follow-up period. Compared with the baseline sequences, amino acid substitutions in the MHR of HBsAg occurred in 14.3% (2/14) patients. In conclusion, coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs may be associated with higher frequency of mutations in the a determinant of HBV genotype C.

  12. Comparative Study of Aerobic Performance Between Football and Judo Groups in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Triki, Moez; Rebai, Haithem; Shamssain, Mohammed; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Fellmann, Nicole; Zouari, Hela; Zouari, Nouri; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the practice of football and judo on lung function and aerobic performance of prepubertal boys. Methods A total of ninety six prepubertal boys were studied. They assessed a measure of body composition using the skin folds method. They performed lung plethysmography at rest, followed by an incremental exercise test. Results There was no significant difference in baseline spirometry between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] and the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold [VT] were similar between all groups (P>0.05). The maximal minute ventilation [VEmax] of judokas was significantly higher than footballers (P<0.01) and similar at the [VT]. The Heart rate [HR] at [VT] of footballers and judokas was similar and significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). VO2max was significantly related to LM and negatively associated with FM. At the [VT] there was a significant relationship between P[VT] and LM and mainly with VE to VO2 [VT], P[VT] and HR[VT] in all groups. Conclusion Training in football and judo does not affect lung volumes and capacities, VO2max and VO2 at the [VT]. PMID:24427474

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  14. Randomized Comparative Trial of a Social Cognitive Skills Group for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soorya, Latha V.; Weinger, Paige M.; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A. Ting

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Method Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and three months posttreatment. Results Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ and age moderated the interaction effect on social behavior with higher verbal IQ and older age associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at three-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n=34). Conclusion These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. PMID:25721186

  15. Phage Morphology Recapitulates Phylogeny: The Comparative Genomics of a New Group of Myoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Tremblay, Denise; Moineau, Sylvain; Rattei, Thomas; Kushkina, Alla I.; Tovkach, Fedor I.; Krisch, Henry M.; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Among dsDNA tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales), members of the Myoviridae family have the most sophisticated virion design that includes a complex contractile tail structure. The Myoviridae generally have larger genomes than the other phage families. Relatively few “dwarf” myoviruses, those with a genome size of less than 50 kb such as those of the Mu group, have been analyzed in extenso. Here we report on the genome sequencing and morphological characterization of a new group of such phages that infect a diverse range of Proteobacteria, namely Aeromonas salmonicida phage 56, Vibrio cholerae phages 138 and CP-T1, Bdellovibrio phage φ1422, and Pectobacterium carotovorum phage ZF40. This group of dwarf myoviruses shares an identical virion morphology, characterized by usually short contractile tails, and have genome sizes of approximately 45 kb. Although their genome sequences are variable in their lysogeny, replication, and host adaption modules, presumably reflecting differing lifestyles and hosts, their structural and morphogenesis modules have been evolutionarily constrained by their virion morphology. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that these phages, along with related prophage genomes, form a new coherent group within the Myoviridae. The results presented in this communication support the hypothesis that the diversity of phages may be more structured than generally believed and that the innumerable phages in the biosphere all belong to discrete lineages or families. PMID:22792219

  16. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  17. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  18. Manifestations of Perihepatic Lymph Nodes in Acute Flare of Chronic Hepatitis B: Association with HBeAg Status and with HBeAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yen-Ling; Sun, Chi-Shu; Chung, Kun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Min; Feng, I-Che; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Koay, Lok-Beng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Ho, Chung-Han; Kuo, Hsing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that enlargement of perihepatic lymph nodes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B, particularly during acute flares of CHB. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the nodal change patterns in CHB patients with acute flare and HBeAg status. Perihepatic lymph node sizes of 87 patients with acute flares of CHB were documented, with a median follow up of 43 months. Patients were separated into 3 groups, HBeAg-positive with HBe seroconversion (group 1), HBeAg-positive without HBe seroconversion (group 2), and HBeAg-negative (group 3). Group 1 has the highest incidence of enlarged lymph nodes (92.3%) compared with group 2 (75.8%) and group 3 (46.8%) (p = 0.003). And if nodal width at acute flare was > 8mm and interval change of nodal width was >3mm, the incidence of HBeAg seroconversion will be 75% (p<0.001). Conclusion Larger perihepatic lymph nodes are seen in CHB acute flare patients with positive HBeAg and the magnitude of nodal width change may predict HBeAg seroconversion at recovery. PMID:25689069

  19. Comparative growth of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. strains in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Duré, Ana Íris de Lima; Lopéz, Diego Montenegro; Nogueira, Rita de Maria Seabra; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri related species are the etiological agents of spotted fever rickettsiosis. However, the SFG, Rickettsia rhipicephali, that infects humans, has never been reported. The study of growth dynamics can be useful for understanding the infective and invasive capacity of these pathogens. Here, the growth rates of the Brazilian isolates R. rickettsii str. Taiaçu, R. parkeri str. At#24, and R. rhipicephali HJ#5, were evaluated in Vero cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. R. rhipicephali showed different kinetic growth compared to R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. PMID:27508322

  20. Comparative growth of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. strains in Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Duré, Ana Íris de Lima; Lopéz, Diego Montenegro; Nogueira, Rita de Maria Seabra; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri related species are the etiological agents of spotted fever rickettsiosis. However, the SFG, Rickettsia rhipicephali, that infects humans, has never been reported. The study of growth dynamics can be useful for understanding the infective and invasive capacity of these pathogens. Here, the growth rates of the Brazilian isolates R. rickettsii str. Taiaçu, R. parkeri str. At#24, and R. rhipicephali HJ#5, were evaluated in Vero cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. R. rhipicephali showed different kinetic growth compared to R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. PMID:27508322

  1. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  2. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min.

  3. Comparative Study of Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness Between Football and Judo Groups in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Triki, Moez; Rebai, Haithem; Aouichaoui, Chirine; Shamssain, Mohammed; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Fellmann, Nicole; Zouari, Hela; Zouari, Nouri; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly occurs during exercise. The comparative effects of different sports on airway responsiveness among prepubertal boys remain to be determined. Objectives: To assess differences in post exercise spirometry between footballers, judokas and a control group in prepubertal boys. Patients and Methods: A total of ninety six prepubertal boys were studied. Bronchial hyper responsiveness (BHR) to exercise challenge test was defined by a diagnosis of baseline spirometry, followed by an incremental exercise test. To date, the best test to confirm EIB may simply be standard pulmonary function testing before and after high-intensity exercise. A 10% or greater post-challenge fall in forced expiratory volume in FEV1 is used as a diagnostic criterion. Results: There was no significant difference in baseline spirometry between all groups (P > 0.05). The post exercise spirometry test revealed the presence of EIB in 16 of 32 (50%) footballers against 9 out of 32 (28.12%) in both judokas and control subjects at 5 min after the exercise. Also, there was a significantly higher decrease (P < 0.05) in mean FEV1 at 5 minuts in footballers (-9.60 ± 6.18) compared to judokas (-5.41 ± 5.85). Conclusions: The footballers have more BHR than judokas, especially at 5min after the exercise. This may be due to prolonged hyperventilation, atopy and increased exposure to inhaled allergens and pollutants during training and competition. PMID:26448837

  4. Psoriasis Risk Genes of the Late Cornified Envelope-3 Group Are Distinctly Expressed Compared with Genes of Other LCE Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bergboer, Judith G.M.; Tjabringa, Geuranne S.; Kamsteeg, Marijke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M.J.J.; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A.M.; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Narita, Masashi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the late cornified envelope (LCE) genes LCE3B and LCE3C has recently been identified as a risk factor for psoriasis. Expression of 16 LCE genes of LCE groups 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 was examined in vivo and in vitro. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that moderate to high LCE expression was largely confined to skin and a few oropharyngeal tissues. Genes of the LCE3 group demonstrated increased expression in lesional psoriatic epidermis and were induced after superficial injury of normal skin, whereas expression of members of other LCE groups was down-regulated under these conditions. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that LCE2 protein expression was restricted to the uppermost granular layer and the stratum corneum. Stimulation of in vitro reconstructed skin by several psoriasis-associated cytokines resulted in induction of LCE3 members. The data suggest that LCE proteins of groups 1, 2, 5, and 6 are involved in normal skin barrier function, whereas LCE3 genes encode proteins involved in barrier repair after injury or inflammation. These findings may provide clues to the mechanistic role of LCE3B/C deletion in psoriasis. PMID:21435436

  5. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Group and Individual Prenatal Care on Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    STEINKA-FRY, Katarzyna T.; GESELL, Sabina B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. METHODS We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76% African-American, 13% Latina, 11% White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics RESULTS Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = −.99, 95% CI [−1.92, −.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54% of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care. PMID:24343309

  7. A comparative study of the magnetic properties of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) and the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14).

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Stadnik, Z M; Al-Qadi, K; Przewoźnik, J

    2009-10-28

    We report on measurements of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, (155)Gd Mössbauer spectra, and specific heat of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14), and of the ac magnetic susceptibility of the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14). These alloys are shown to be spin glasses. For the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14), spin freezing occurs at T(f) = 4.3 K, and the frequency dependence of T(f) is well accounted for by the Vogel-Fulcher and power laws. Spin freezing in the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) occurs in two stages: at T(f(1)) = 3.7 K, Gd spins develop short-range correlations but continue to fluctuate, and then long-range freezing is achieved at T(f(2)) = 2.4 K. The frequency dependences of T(f(1)) and T(f(2)) can be accounted for by means of the Vogel-Fulcher law and the critical slowing down dynamics. It is shown that the spin freezing in both alloys is a nonequilibrium phenomenon rather than a true equilibrium phase transition. The (155)Gd Mössbauer spectra of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) confirm that the Gd spins are frozen at 1.5 K and are fluctuating at 4.6 K. The magnetic specific heat exhibits a maximum at a temperature that is 30% larger than T(f(1)), but the temperature derivative of the magnetic entropy peaks at T(f(1)). The Debye temperature of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) is 199(1) K as determined from the Mössbauer data, and 205(2) K as determined from the specific heat data.

  8. A comparative study of the magnetic properties of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) and the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14).

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Stadnik, Z M; Al-Qadi, K; Przewoźnik, J

    2009-10-28

    We report on measurements of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, (155)Gd Mössbauer spectra, and specific heat of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14), and of the ac magnetic susceptibility of the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14). These alloys are shown to be spin glasses. For the icosahedral quasicrystal Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14), spin freezing occurs at T(f) = 4.3 K, and the frequency dependence of T(f) is well accounted for by the Vogel-Fulcher and power laws. Spin freezing in the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) occurs in two stages: at T(f(1)) = 3.7 K, Gd spins develop short-range correlations but continue to fluctuate, and then long-range freezing is achieved at T(f(2)) = 2.4 K. The frequency dependences of T(f(1)) and T(f(2)) can be accounted for by means of the Vogel-Fulcher law and the critical slowing down dynamics. It is shown that the spin freezing in both alloys is a nonequilibrium phenomenon rather than a true equilibrium phase transition. The (155)Gd Mössbauer spectra of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) confirm that the Gd spins are frozen at 1.5 K and are fluctuating at 4.6 K. The magnetic specific heat exhibits a maximum at a temperature that is 30% larger than T(f(1)), but the temperature derivative of the magnetic entropy peaks at T(f(1)). The Debye temperature of the 1/1 approximant Ag(50)In(36)Gd(14) is 199(1) K as determined from the Mössbauer data, and 205(2) K as determined from the specific heat data. PMID:21832453

  9. Destabilization of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) by adsorbed sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Mingmin; Russell, Selena M.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2011-10-17

    Sulfur accelerates coarsening of Ag nanoislands on Ag(100) at 300 K, and this effect is enhanced with increasing sulfur coverage over a range spanning a few hundredths of a monolayer, to nearly 0.25 monolayers. We propose that acceleration of coarsening in this system is tied to the formation of AgS{sub 2} clusters primarily at step edges. These clusters can transport Ag more efficiently than can Ag adatoms (due to a lower diffusion barrier and comparable formation energy). The mobility of isolated sulfur on Ag(100) is very low so that formation of the complex is kinetically limited at low sulfur coverages, and thus enhancement is minimal. However, higher sulfur coverages force the population of sites adjacent to step edges, so that formation of the cluster is no longer limited by diffusion of sulfur across terraces. Sulfur exerts a much weaker effect on the rate of coarsening on Ag(100) than it does on Ag(111). This is consistent with theory, which shows that the difference between the total energy barrier for coarsening with and without sulfur is also much smaller on Ag(100) than on Ag(111).

  10. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  11. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  12. Health workforce remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Republic of South Africa (RSA), Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA)). The main aim is to examine to what extent the wage rankings, standardized wage levels, and wage dispersion are similar between the 16 occupational groups and across the selected countries and what factors can be shown to be related to the differences that emerge. Method The pooled data from the continuous, worldwide, multilingual WageIndicator web survey between 2008 and 2011 (for selected HRH occupations, n=49,687) have been aggregated into a data file with median or mean remuneration values for 300 occupation/country cells. Hourly wages are expressed in standardized US Dollars (USD), all controlled for purchasing power parity (PPP) and indexed to 2011 levels. Results The wage ranking of 16 HRH occupational groups is fairly similar across countries. Overall Medical Doctors have the highest and Personal Care Workers the lowest median wages. Wage levels of Nursing & Midwifery Professionals vary largely. Health Care Managers have lower earnings than Medical Doctors in all except six of the 20 countries. The largest wage differences are found for the Medical Doctors earning 20 times less in Ukraine than in the US, and the Personal Care Workers, who earn nine times less in the Ukraine than in the Netherlands. No support is found for the assumption that the ratio across the highest and lowest earning HRH occupations is similar between countries: it varies from 2.0 in Sweden to 9.7 in Brazil. Moreover, an increase in the percentage of women in an occupation has a large downward effect on its wage rank

  13. Comparative studies on group III σ-hole and π-hole interactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zeng, Yanli; Zhang, Xueying; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-05-30

    The σ-hole of M2 H6 (M = Al, Ga, In) and π-hole of MH3 (M = Al, Ga, In) were discovered and analyzed, the bimolecular complexes M2 H6 ···NH3 and MH3 ···N2 P2 F4 (M = Al, Ga, In) were constructed to carry out comparative studies on the group III σ-hole interactions and π-hole interactions. The two types of interactions are all partial-covalent interactions; the π-hole interactions are stronger than σ-hole interactions. The electrostatic energy is the largest contribution for forming the σ-hole and π-hole interaction, the polarization energy is also an important factor to form the M···N interaction. The electrostatic energy contributions to the interaction energy of the σ-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those of the π-hole interactions. However, the polarization contributions for the π-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those for the σ-hole interactions.

  14. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    PubMed

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  15. Does College Matter for Emerging Adulthood? Comparing Developmental Trajectories of Educational Groups.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lauren L; Syed, Moin

    2015-11-01

    Critics of emerging adulthood theory have suggested that it only applies to college students, but this assertion has largely gone untested. The purpose of the present study was to compare developmental trajectories of non-students versus college-educated youth in theoretically relevant domains of work, love, and financial independence. Using data from the Youth Development Study (N = 1139, 49.6 % female, 63.3 % White, 10.9 % Southeast Asian, 1.5 % Other Asian, 8.6 % Black, 5.3 % Mixed Race, 4.0 % Latino, 0.8 % Native American), latent growth curve models were fitted to chart each group's development, from ages 14 to 30. Different trajectories were revealed for hours worked, children, and financial dependence on parents, spouses, and government aid. No differences were found in employment rates, marriage rates, or financial dependence on own income. These results provide a clearer picture of emerging adulthood for non-students, and highlight problems with generalizing college student research to all emerging adults. PMID:26199078

  16. Visible-light-driven photocatalysts Ag/AgCl dispersed on mesoporous Al2O3 with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhouzhou; Yu, Jiajie; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Tianhe

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, Ag/AgCl and Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 photocatalysts were synthesized via a precipitation reaction between NaCl and CH3COOAg or Ag(NH3)2NO3, wherein Ag/AgCl was immobilized into mesoporous Al2O3 medium. The Ag/AgCl-based nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and so on. The photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradations of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) pollutants under visible light irradiation. The Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 sample exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, degrading 99% MO after 9min of irradiation, which was 1.1 times, 1.22 times and 1.65 times higher than that of Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3)/Al2O3, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg) and Ag/AgCl(Ag(NH3)2NO3) photocatalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, Ag/AgCl(CH3COOAg)/Al2O3 also showed excellent capability of MB degradation. Compared to the data reported for Ag/AgCl/TiO2, the Ag/AgCl/Al2O3 prepared in this work exhibited a good performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The results suggest that the dispersion of Ag/AgCl on mesoporous Al2O3 strongly affected their photocatalytic activities. O2(-), OH radicals and Cl(0) atoms are main active species during photocatalysis. PMID:27442145

  17. High frequency of circulating HBcAg-specific CD8 T cells in hepatitis B infection: a flow cytometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, S; Yamamoto, K; Shimada, N; Okano, N; Okamoto, R; Suzuki, T; Hakoda, T; Mizuno, M; Higashi, T; Tsuji, T

    2001-01-01

    Viral antigen-specific T cells are important for virus elimination. We studied the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell response using flow cytometry. Three phases of HBV infection were studied: Group A, HBeAg (+) chronic hepatitis; Group B, HBeAb (+) HBV carrier after seroconversion; and Group C, HBsAb (+) phase. Peripheral T cells were incubated with recombinant HB core antigen (HBcAg), and intracytoplasmic cytokines were analysed by flow cytometry. HBcAg-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were identified in all three groups and the number of IFN-γpositive T cells was greater than TNF-α-positive T cells. The frequency of IFN-γ-positive CD4 and CD8 T cells was highest in Group C, compared with Groups A and B. No significant difference in the HBcAg-specific T cell response was observed between Group A and Group B. The HBcAg-specific CD8 T cell response was diminished by CD4 depletion, addition of antibody against human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I, class II or CD40L. Cytokine-positive CD8 T cells without HBcAg stimulation were present at a high frequency (7 of 13 cases) in Group B, but were rare in other groups. HBcAg-specific T cells can be detected at high frequency by a sensitive flow cytometric analysis, and these cells are important for controlling HBV replication. PMID:11472405

  18. Ethnic American Groups in Four Specialized Encyclopedic Works: A Comparative and Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the treatment of ethnic groups in the United States in four encyclopedic works: (1) "Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups"; (2) "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America"; (3) "Encyclopedia of New York City"; and (4) "American Immigrant Culture." (SLD)

  19. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  20. Comparing Family Counseling and Group Counseling: An Interview with George Gazda, James Hansen, and Alan Hovestadt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Contains edited excerpts from a panel discussion held at the 1984 American Association for Counseling and Development convention and sponsored by the Association for Specialists in Group Work. Focuses on the therapeutic process in family and group counseling and on the delineation of the similarities and differences in the group dynamics in the…

  1. Comparative Study of Certain Social and School Adjustments of Children in Two Grouping Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Milly; And Others

    This paper reviews previous research into ability grouping and describes a study of the relationship of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping plans on children's concepts of their interpersonal relationships with other students and their academic success. Most studies on the emotional impact of ability grouping indicated that being placed in the…

  2. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  3. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lynn M; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA.

  4. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lynn M.; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA. PMID:21317360

  5. Antibacterial activity and reusability of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Yun, Hyosuk; Kim, Gwui Cheol; Lee, Chul Won; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to the synthesis of novel CNT-Ag and GO-Ag antibacterial materials, in which thiol groups are utilized as linkers to secure silver (Ag) nanoparticles to the CNT and GO surfaces without agglomeration, is reported. The resulting CNT-Ag and GO-Ag samples were characterized by performing TEM, XRD, Auger, XPS, and Raman measurements, which revealed that in these antibacterial materials size-similar and quasi-spherical Ag nanoparticles are anchored to the CNT and GO surfaces. The Ag nanoparticles in CNT-Ag and GO-Ag have narrow size distributions with average diameters of 2.6 and 3.5 nm respectively. The antibacterial activities of CNT-Ag and GO-Ag against Escherichia coli were assessed with the paper-disk diffusion method and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). CNT-Ag was found to have higher antibacterial activity than the reference Ag colloid. Moreover, both CNT-Ag and GO-Ag retain more than 50% of their original antibacterial activities after 20 washes with detergent, which indicates their potential as antibacterial materials for laboratory and medical purposes.

  6. A visible-light-driven core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 composite photocatalyst with high performance in pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Zhu, Lihua; Shu, Qing; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    A series of Ag2S-Ag2CO3 (4%, 8%, 16%, 32% and 40% Ag2S), Ag2CO3@Ag2S (32%Ag2S) and Ag2S@Ag2CO3 (32%Ag2S) composite photocatalysts were fabricated by coprecipitation or successive precipitation reaction. The obtained catalysts were analyzed by N2 physical adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photocurrent test. Under visible light irradiation, the influences of Ag2S content and core-shell property on photocatalytic activity and stability were evaluated in studies focused on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, phenol, and bisphenol A. Results showed that excellent photocatalytic performance was obtained over Ag2S/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts with respect to Ag2S and Ag2CO3. With optimal content of Ag2S (32 wt%), the Ag2S-Ag2CO3 showed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the structured property of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 greatly influenced the activity. Compared with Ag2S-Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3@Ag2S, core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 demonstrated the highest activity and stability. The main reason for the boosting of photocatalytic performance was due to the formation of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 well contacted interface and unique electron structures. Ag2S/Ag2CO3 interface could significantly increase the separation efficiency of the photo-generated electrons (e(-)) and holes (h(+)), and production of OH radicals. More importantly, the low solubility of Ag2S shell could effectively protect the core of Ag2CO3, which further guarantees the stability of Ag2CO3. PMID:27236845

  7. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  8. A Comparative Study of Collaborative Learning in "Paper Scribbles" and "Group Scribbles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Chen Fang

    2010-01-01

    "Paper Scribbles" (PS) consisting of markers, vanguard sheets and 3M "Post-It" notes, is a pedagogical tool to harness collective intelligence of groups for collaborative learning in the classroom. Borrowing the key features of PS and yet avoiding some of their physical limitations, a computer-based tool called "Group Scribbles" (GS) was designed…

  9. The Educational Gradient in Intermarriage: A Comparative Analysis of Immigrant Groups in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    A common claim in the literature is that higher-educated persons are more likely to marry outside their ethnic/racial group than lower-educated persons. We re-examine this "educational gradient" with a multilevel analysis of 46 immigrant groups in the Current Population Survey. We find that there are positive effects not only of individual…

  10. Teacher Commitment: A Comparative Study of Malaysian Ethnic Groups in Three Types of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2014-01-01

    Commitment is a complex attitude that is potentially influenced by the nature of the groups and is contingent on the context in which an individual functions. Thus, different sociocultural environments will prescribe different imperatives for individuals' or groups' attitudes toward their work, particularly teachers' commitment in a…

  11. Comparing Productive Online Dialogue in Two Group Styles: Cooperative and Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of group structures upon six groups of distributed graduate students as they pursued a six-week problem-based learning activity by communicating in an asynchronous computer conference. Henri and Rigault's (1996) content analysis framework and Howell-Richardson and Mellar's (1996) guidelines for interconnectedness…

  12. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment. PMID:26581474

  13. Toxicokinetics of Ag in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus exposed to Ag NPs and AgNO₃ via soil and food.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used in numerous consumer products and may enter the soil through the land application of biosolids. However, little is known about the relationship between Ag NP exposure and their bioavailability for soil organisms. This study aims at comparing the uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag upon exposures to different Ag forms (NPs and ionic Ag (as AgNO3)) in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus. Isopods were exposed to contaminated Lufa 2.2 soil or alder leaves as food. Uptake and elimination rate constants for soil exposure did not significantly differ between Ag NPs and ionic Ag at 30 and 60 mg Ag/kg. For dietary exposure, the uptake rate constant was up to 5 times higher for Ag NPs than for AgNO3, but this was related to feeding activity and exposure concentrations, while no difference in the elimination rate constants was found. When comparing both routes, dietary exposure resulted in lower Ag uptake rate constants but elimination rate constants did not differ. A fast Ag uptake was observed from both routes and most of the Ag taken up seemed not to be eliminated. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence showed Ag in the S-cells of the hepatopancreas, thus supporting the observations from the kinetic experiment (i.e. low elimination). In addition, our results show that isopods have an extremely high Ag accumulation capacity, suggesting the presence of an efficient Ag storage compartment.

  14. [Comparative study of 2 groups of paranoid syndromes appearing at different ages].

    PubMed

    Gilliéron, E; Müller, C

    1976-01-01

    Clinical study of two groups of females beyond age of 65, institutionalized for delusional manifestations of schizophrenic nature and presenting also, at the time of examination, a pronounced paranoid state. In the first group: the manifestations had arisen before the age of 45. In the second group, after the age of 65. This study has demonstrated certain psychopathological characteristics suggesting the presence of personality problems definitely more profound in patients of the first group: autistic state, asthenia, thought disorder, incoherence and vagueness of delusional subjects, ordinarily much more unreal are characteristics of the first group in comparison to the second. This seems to bring evidence that these two paranoid states (paranoid schizophrenia in adult age and paranoid state in senility) are, at first sight, pathological entities based on personality problems of very different intensity.

  15. Conceptual and methodological issues in the comparative study of collective group movements.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter

    2010-07-01

    In our commentary, we highlight several conceptual and methodological problems that have hampered broader integration of studies of collective group movements. Specifically, we argue that studies of captive animals should only be used to elucidate behavioural mechanisms. Moreover, the diversity of physical environments in which group movements occur as well as the social diversity of groups deserve more consideration in integrative studies. Furthermore, tests of predictions based on modelling studies are often hampered by the fact that models include variables that are difficult or impossible to measure in real animals. We also advocate the use of an empirical, rather than subjective establishment of operational definitions of group movements and the associated individual roles. Finally, we emphasize the utility of controlled experiments in the study of collective decision-making and group movements and encourage their wider application.

  16. A comparative study of optical and radiative characteristics of X-ray-induced luminescent defects in Ag-doped glass and LiF thin films and their applications in 2-D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurobori, T.; Miyamoto, Y.; Maruyama, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Sasaki, T.

    2014-05-01

    We report novel disk-type X-ray two-dimensional (2-D) imaging detectors utilising Ag-doped phosphate glass and lithium fluoride (LiF) thin films based on the radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and photoluminescence (PL) phenomena, respectively. The accumulated X-ray doses written in the form of atomic-scale Ag-related luminescent centres in Ag-doped glass and F-aggregated centres in LiF thin films were rapidly reconstructed as a dose distribution using a homemade readout system. The 2-D images reconstructed from the RPL and PL detectors are compared with that from the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detector. In addition, the optical and dosimetric characteristics of LiF thin films are investigated and evaluated. The possibilities of dose distributions with a high spatial resolution on the order of microns over large areas, a wide dynamic range covering 11 orders of magnitude and a non-destructive readout are successfully demonstrated by combining the Ag-doped glass with LiF thin films.

  17. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  18. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R0, asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size Neq) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R0, λ or Neq) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R0 showed the lowest EDR10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h(-1) in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h(-1) in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h(-1) in fish to 12,000 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 1800 μGy h(-1) in

  19. Comparing Three Years of Well-Being Outcomes for Youth in Group Care and Nonkinship Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Lee, Bethany R.; Barth, Richard P.; Rauktis, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examines differences in cognitive, academic, and affective well-being of youth first placed in nonkinship foster care (N=259) and youth first placed in group care (N=89). To compare nonrandomized groups, propensity score matching was used. Results…

  20. Ab initio ro-vibrational spectroscopy of the group 11 cyanides: CuCN, AgCN, and AuCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Hill, J.; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate near-equilibrium potential energy and dipole moment functions have been calculated for the linear coinage-metal cyanides CuCN, AgCN, and AuCN using coupled cluster methods and sequences of correlation consistent basis sets. The explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method is used for the potential energy surfaces (PESs) with inclusion of core correlation, and is combined with contributions from molecular spin-orbit coupling, scalar relativity, and effects due to higher order electron correlation. The resulting composite PESs are used in both perturbative and variational calculations of the ro-vibrational spectra. In addition to accurate equilibrium geometries, the ro-vibrational spectra are predicted, which are found to be relatively intense in the 200-600 cm-1 range due to the bending and metal-carbon stretching modes. The CN stretch near 2165 cm-1 is also predicted to carry enough intensity to allow its observation by experiment. A strong Fermi-resonance is predicted between the first overtone of the bend and the fundamental of the metal-carbon stretch for both CuCN and AgCN. The heats of formation at 0 K are predicted from their calculated atomization energies to be 89.8, 88.6, and 104.5 kcal mol-1 for CuCN, AgCN, and AuCN, respectively.

  1. Exon skipping of AGAMOUS homolog PrseAG in developing double flowers of Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Di; Li, Fenglan; Lu, Hai

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Two transcript isoforms of AGAMOUS homologs, from single and double flower Prunus lannesiana, respectively, showed different functions. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG) confers stamen and carpel identity. Loss of AG function results in homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and formation of double flowers. In order to present a molecular dissection of a double-flower cultivar in Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae), we isolated and identified a single-copy gene, AG homolog from two genetically cognate P. lannesiana bearing single and double flowers, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the AG homolog, prseag-1, from double flowers showed a 170-bp exon skipping as compared to PrseAG (Prunus serrulata AGAMOUS) from the single flowers. Genomic DNA sequence revealed that abnormal splicing resulted in mutant prseag-1 protein with the C-terminal AG motifs I and II deletions. In addition, protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the PrseAG was grouped into the euAG lineage. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of PrseAG was restricted to reproductive organs of stamens and carpels in single flowers of P. lannesiana 'speciosa', while the prseag-1 mRNA was highly transcribed throughout the petals, stamens, and carpels in double flowers from 'Albo-rosea'. The transgenic Arabidopsis containing 35S::PrseAG displayed extremely early flowering, bigger stamens and carpels and homeotic conversion of petals into staminoid organs, but ectopic expression of prseag-1 could not mimic the phenotypic ectopic expression of PrseAG in Arabidopsis. In general, this study provides evidences to show that double flower 'Albo-rosea' is a putative C functional ag mutant in P. lannesiana.

  2. Comparing principal components analyses of evoked potentials recorded from heterogeneous groups of subjects.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R A; Josiassen, R C; Shagass, C

    1990-01-01

    Principal components analysis of evoked potentials differing between groups presents an interpretive problem, particularly in psychiatric research. Two sets of principal components and associated factor scores may appear to differ. The issue is to determine the extent to which visually differing principal components and resultant factor scores span the same factor space. Sets of evoked potentials from controls and from schizophrenics were each subjected to principal components analysis, from which factor score coefficients were computed for all subjects. This allowed determination of the extent to which (1) the two sets of basis waves were similar and (2) the factor scores resulting from the set of basis waves derived from principal components analysis of the control subjects' evoked potential data adequately represented those of the schizophrenics and vice-versa. Canonical correlation analyses indicated substantial similarities between the principal component structures (sets of basis waves). Multiple correlational analyses confirmed that the basis waves from either group spanned the other group's factor space. Factor scores from either set of basis waves were highly correlated. These results suggest that principal component structures derived from evoked potentials of a control group may be used in computing evoked potential factor scores of psychiatrically diverse populations even though the average evoked potentials of the groups may differ in several ways.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

  4. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  5. Combining Identity and Integration: Comparative Analysis of Schools for Two Minority Groups in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulyk, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses school systems for two of Ukraine's minorities, the Hungarians and the Crimean Tatars with the aim of assessing their success in promoting ethnocultural identity and social integration of the minority youth. I demonstrate that the exclusive instruction in Hungarian ensures the reproduction of group language knowledge and…

  6. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  7. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  8. Reference Group Interaction and Sex Role Orientation: A Comparative Analysis by Sex and Mother's Achieved Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeh, Aida K.; Vasko, Catherine

    This paper examines the role of parents and friends (reference groups) in forming college students' sex-role orientations. Emphasis is placed on the mother's domestic, parental, and achieved (professional/occupational) role and on the mother's modeling transmission effect on her daughter's and son's sex-role attitudes. The hypothesis is that…

  9. Attention to Form in Collaborative Writing Tasks: Comparing Pair and Small Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the opportunities that a collaborative writing task completed in pairs and in small groups offers for attention to form. Previous research suggests that collaborative writing activities encourage learners to focus their attention on language and to collaborate in the resolution of their language-related problems in ways that…

  10. "Right from the Start": Randomized Trial Comparing an Attachment Group Intervention to Supportive Home Visiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Background: Infant attachment security is a protective factor for future mental health, and may be promoted by individual interventions. Given service demands, it is important to determine if a group-based intervention for parents could be used to enhance infant attachment security. Methods: In a randomized trial involving 76 mothers, an 8-session…

  11. 76 FR 20045 - The Ubs Group, a Division Of Ubs Ag, Also Known as Ubs Financial Services, Inc. and/or Ubs-Glb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Division; Group Technology Infrastructure Services, Distributed Systems and Storage Group; Chicago... Services, Distributed Systems and Storage Group, Chicago, Illinois. The workers provide information... Center Division, Group Technology Infrastructure Services, Distributed Systems and Storage...

  12. Culture, perception, and artistic visualization: a comparative study of children's drawings in three Siberian cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Istomin, Kirill V; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with the order in which the focal and background objects are drawn. The results supported these hypotheses, and inspection of the regression relationships suggested that the intergroup variations in test performance were likely to result from differences in the attention accorded to contextual information, as revealed by the drawings. Social and environmental explanations for the group differences in context sensitivity are also discussed. The conclusions support the argument that cultural differences in artistic styles and perceptual tests reflect the same underlying perceptual tendencies, and they are consistent with the argument that these tendencies reflect corresponding differences in patterns of social and environmental interaction.

  13. [Comparative study of the antibiotic sensitivity of Proteus hauseri bacteria belonging to different serological groups].

    PubMed

    Agaeva, R A

    1976-01-01

    Sensitivity to 9 antibiotics of 1040 strains of Proteus belonging to the serological groups 03, 05, 06, 07, 010, 011, 013, 023, 024, 026, 027, 028 and 030 was studied. It was found that the above strains were sensitive and highly sensitive to the aminoglycosides and streptomycin, slightly sensitive to levomycetin and resistant to tetracyclines, erythromycin and penicillin. All the strains were polyresistant and 99.6 per cent of them were resistant to 4--9 antibiotics. Ten types of resistance were found. Proteus strains with the resistance type PETOtCht were most common. No relation between the occurrence of the strains of various serological groups and the character and level of their resistance to the antibiotics was found.

  14. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  16. AGS II

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 ..mu.. amps. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  18. Comparability of TOEFL CBT Writing Prompts for Different Native Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Breland, Hunter; Muraki, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    This study has investigated the comparability of computer-based testing writing prompts in the Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM (TOEFL) for examinees of different native language backgrounds. A total of 81 writing prompts introduced from July 1998 through August 2000 were examined using a 3-step logistic regression procedure for ordinal…

  19. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype. PMID:89163

  20. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype.

  1. [Joy riding and dyssocial behavior. A comparative study based on 84 members of a delinquent group].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    1996-01-01

    Joy riding is the technical term for a specific behavioral pattern consisting of stealing a car without money-making purposes but in order to take it for fast and exciting rides, partially in combination with alcohol or drug consumption. In several cases this behavior can show addiction-like traits. American studies from earlier decades have shown that Joy riding seems to be a typical teenage offense committed by youths stemming from orderly social backgrounds, showing basically prosocial attitudes and seldom ending up in criminal careers. However, the present study provides evidence that Joy riding can also be part of an antisocial lifestyle. The characteristics of the joy riders examined in this trial differed just gradually from the control group of juvenile delinquents. It remains open a question, whether the differences found between our sample and American joy riders are due to sociocultural factors or rather are a consequence of different selection modes.

  2. Comparative Study on the Immobilization of Lipase on Chitosan Gels Modified by Different Hydrophobic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hong-Tao; Lin, Yan; Wang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Zhong-Yang; Ma, Miao; Zheng, Fei

    The hydrophobic surface modification of chitosan gels (CS) was carried out using the amidating reaction of amido groups on a gel surface with propionic acid, stearic acid, and benzoic acid, respectively, activated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized by adsorption on the nascent CS, propionyl-modified gels (PCS), stearyl-modified gels (SCS), and benzoyl-modified gels (BCS), respectively. The adsorption capacity and activity of immobilized lipase were investigated. It was found that the surface modification improved the adsorption capacity of lipase, and the activity retention of immobilized lipase increased from 52.34% for CS to 57.17%, 78.26% and 69.22%, respectively, for PCS, SCS, and BCS.

  3. Variability of "optimal" cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain: neglected problems when comparing groups.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Defining cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain intensity on the basis of differences in functional interference has an intuitive appeal. The statistical procedure to derive them proposed in 1995 by Serlin et al. has been widely used. Contrasting cut points between populations have been interpreted as meaningful differences between different chronic pain populations. We explore the variability associated with optimally defined cut points in a large sample of chronic pain patients and in homogeneous subsamples. Ratings of maximal pain intensity (0-10 numeric rating scale, NRS) and pain-related disability were collected in a sample of 2249 children with chronic pain managed in a tertiary pain clinic. First, the "optimal" cut points for the whole sample were determined. Second, the variability of these cut points was quantified by the bootstrap technique. Third, this variability was also assessed in homogeneous subsamples of 650 children with constant pain, 430 children with chronic daily headache, and 295 children with musculoskeletal pain. Our study revealed 3 main findings: (1) The optimal cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in the whole sample were 4 and 8 (0-10 NRS). (2) The variability of these cut points within the whole sample was very high, identifying the optimal cut points in only 40% of the time. (3) Similarly large variability was also found in subsamples of patients with a homogeneous pain etiology. Optimal cut points are strongly influenced by random fluctuations within a sample. Differences in optimal cut points between study groups may be explained by chance variation; no other substantial explanation is required. Future studies that aim to interpret differences between groups need to include measures of variability for optimal cut points.

  4. Solid state 13C-NMR, infrared, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal studies of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal (Li, Na, K, Ag) n-alkanoates: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter N.; Ellis, Henry A.; White, Nicole A. S.

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of the molecular packing, lattice structures and phase behaviors of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal carboxylates (Li, Na, K and Ag) is carried out via solid state FT-infrared and 13C-NMR spectroscopes, X-rays powder diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light microscopy and variable temperature infrared spectroscopy. It is proposed that, for lithium, sodium and potassium carboxylates, metal-carboxyl coordination is via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding with extensive intermolecular interactions to form tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. However, for silver n-alkanoates, carboxyl moieties are bound to silver ions via syn-syn type bridging bidentate coordination to form dimeric units held together by extensive head group inter-molecular interactions. Furthermore, the fully extended hydrocarbon chains which are crystallized in the all-trans conformation are tilted at ca. 30°, 27°, 15° and 31° with respect to a normal to the metal plane, for lithium, sodium, silver and potassium carboxylates, respectively. All compounds are packed as lamellar bilayer structures, however, lithium compounds are crystallized in a triclinic crystal system whilst silver, sodium and potassium n-alkanoates are all monoclinic with possible P1 bravais lattice. Odd-even alternation observed in various physical features is associated with different inter-planar spacing between closely packed layers in the bilayer which are not in the same plane; a phenomenon controlled by lattice packing symmetry requirements. All compounds, except silver carboxylates, show partially reversibly first order pre-melting transitions; the number of which increases with increasing chain length. These transitions are associated, for the most part, with lamellar collapse followed by increased gauche-trans isomerism in the methylene group assembly, irrespective of chain length. It is proposed that the absence of

  5. Solid state ¹³C-NMR, infrared, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal studies of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal (Li, Na, K, Ag) n-alkanoates: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter N; Ellis, Henry A; White, Nicole A S

    2015-06-15

    A comparative study of the molecular packing, lattice structures and phase behaviors of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal carboxylates (Li, Na, K and Ag) is carried out via solid state FT-infrared and (13)C-NMR spectroscopes, X-rays powder diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light microscopy and variable temperature infrared spectroscopy. It is proposed that, for lithium, sodium and potassium carboxylates, metal-carboxyl coordination is via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding with extensive intermolecular interactions to form tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. However, for silver n-alkanoates, carboxyl moieties are bound to silver ions via syn-syn type bridging bidentate coordination to form dimeric units held together by extensive head group inter-molecular interactions. Furthermore, the fully extended hydrocarbon chains which are crystallized in the all-trans conformation are tilted at ca. 30°, 27°, 15° and 31° with respect to a normal to the metal plane, for lithium, sodium, silver and potassium carboxylates, respectively. All compounds are packed as lamellar bilayer structures, however, lithium compounds are crystallized in a triclinic crystal system whilst silver, sodium and potassium n-alkanoates are all monoclinic with possible P1 bravais lattice. Odd-even alternation observed in various physical features is associated with different inter-planar spacing between closely packed layers in the bilayer which are not in the same plane; a phenomenon controlled by lattice packing symmetry requirements. All compounds, except silver carboxylates, show partially reversibly first order pre-melting transitions; the number of which increases with increasing chain length. These transitions are associated, for the most part, with lamellar collapse followed by increased gauche-trans isomerism in the methylene group assembly, irrespective of chain length. It is proposed that the absence

  6. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  7. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA).

  8. Cardiovascular health in Puerto Ricans compared to other population groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E A

    1991-01-01

    It has been determined that the prevalence and incidence of coronary artery disease has been lower in Puerto Rico than in the United States. In a controlled comparison with a matched cohort of men from Framingham, Mass, Puerto Rican men were found to have lower serum cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure, to smoke less, to be more active physically, and to be less sensitive to coronary risk factors. Community surveys have shown that there is moderately less hypertension but more diabetes and possibly more obesity in Puerto Rico than in the United States. Hispanic groups in the United States have shown similar characteristics. Possible reasons for the relative protection from coronary artery disease in Puerto Rico include genetic factors, diet, and life-style. Recent epidemiologic data show that, although mortality from coronary disease and stroke has been steadily decreasing in the United States, it is increasing in Puerto Rico. Recent life-style and dietary changes, social stress, increased life expectancy, and a high death rate from diabetes and hypertension may be contributing to this reversal. Stronger efforts to control cardiovascular risk factors and to improve the management of diabetes and hypertension are needed in Puerto Rico.

  9. Cardiovascular health in Puerto Ricans compared to other population groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E A

    1994-01-01

    It has been determined that the prevalence and incidence of coronary artery disease has been lower in Puerto Rico than in the United States. In a controlled comparison with a matched cohort of men from Framingham, Mass, Puerto Rican men were found to have lower serum cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure, to smoke less, to be more active physically, and to be less sensitive to coronary risk factors. Community surveys have shown that there is moderately less hypertension but more diabetes and possibly more obesity in Puerto Rico than in the United States. Hispanic groups in the United States have shown similar characteristics. Possible reasons for the relative protection from coronary artery disease in Puerto Rico include genetic factors, diet, and life-style. Recent epidemiologic data show that, although mortality from coronary disease and stroke has been steadily decreasing in the United States, it is increasing in Puerto Rico. Recent life-style and dietary changes, social stress, increased life expectancy, and a high death rate from diabetes and hypertension may be contributing to this reversal. Stronger efforts to control cardiovascular risk factors and to improve the management of diabetes and hypertension are needed in Puerto Rico.

  10. Evaluation of two new automated assays for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) detection: IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernard; Dengler, Thomas; Berger, Annemarie; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Rabenau, Holger

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the diagnostic industry has developed new automated immunoassays for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum and plasma samples that are performed on analyzers that permit a high-speed throughput, random access, and primary tube sampling. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of two new automated HBsAg screening assays, IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, from Diagnostic Products Corporation. The new HBsAg assays were compared to well-established tests (Auszyme Monoclonal [overnight incubation, version B], IMx HBsAg, AxSYM HBsAg, and Prism HBsAg [all from Abbott] and Elecsys HBsAg [Roche Diagnostics]). In the evaluation were included seroconversion panels, sera from the acute and chronic phases of infection, dilution series of various HBsAg standards, HBV subtypes and S gene mutants. To challenge the specificity of the new assays, sera from HBsAg-negative blood donors, pregnant women, and dialysis and hospitalized patients and potentially cross-reactive samples were investigated. IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, although not as sensitive as the Elecsys HBsAg assay, were equivalent to the AxSYM HBsAg assay and showed a higher sensitivity than the Auszyme Monoclonal B and IMx HBsAg systems for detection of acute infection in seroconversion panels. The specificities (100%) of both IMMULITE assays on unselected blood donors and potentially interfering samples were comparable to those of the alternative assays after repeated testing. In conclusion, the new IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg assays show a good sensitivity for HBsAg detection compared to other well-established tests. The specificity on repeatedly tested samples was equivalent to that of the alternative assays. The rapid turnaround time, primary tube sampling, and on-board dilution make it an interesting assay system for clinical laboratory diagnosis.

  11. Theoretical study of the structures and electron affinities of the dimers and trimers of the group IB metals (Cu, Ag, and Au)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1989-01-01

    The molecular structure of both the neutral and negatively charged diatomic and triatomic systems containing the Cu, Ag, and Au metals are determined from ab initio calculations. For the neutral triatomic systems, the lowest energy structure is found to be triangular. The relative stability of the 2A1 and 2B2 structures can be predicted simply by knowing the constituent diatomic bond distances and atomic electron affinities (EAs). The lowest energy structure is linear for all of the negative ions. For anionic clusters containing Au, the Au atom(s) preferentially occupy the terminal position(s). The EAs of the heteronuclear systems can be predicted relatively accurately from a weighted average of the corresponding homonuclear systems. Although the theoretical EAs are systematically too small, accurate predictions for the EAs of the triatomics are obtained by uniformly scaling the ab initio results using the accurate experimental EA values available for the atoms and homonuclear diatomics.

  12. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  13. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Skills Groups at School: A Randomized Trial Comparing Intervention Approach and Peer Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…

  14. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  15. Enhancing First-Grade Students' Addition-Fact Fluency Using Classwide Cover, Copy, and Compare, a Sprint, and Group Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a multiple-probe, across-tasks design to evaluate the effects of a classwide, multicomponent intervention on first-grade students' addition-fact fluency. Intervention components included "cover, copy, and compare," a 2-min math sprint, and a weekly group reward. Results showed that classwide digits correct per minute averages…

  16. Superior neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin in heat stroke following chronic intoxication of Cu or Ag engineered nanoparticles. A comparative study with other neuroprotective agents using biochemical and morphological approaches in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Patnaik, Ranjana; Stan, Adina Dora; Vacaras, Vitalie; Perju-Dumbrav, Laura; Alexandru, Badisor; Buzoianu, Anca; Opincariu, Iulian; Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Sharma, Aruna

    2011-09-01

    The possibility that cerebrolysin, a mixture of several active fragments of neurotrophic factors and peptides induces neuroprotection following nanoparticles induced exacerbation of brain damage in heat stroke was examined in a rat model. For this purpose, the therapeutic efficacy of Cerebrolysin (2.5 or 5 ml/kg) recommended for stroke treatment was used in comparison with other drugs in standard doses recommended for such therapy in clinical situations e.g., levetiracetam (44 mg/kg), pregabalin (200 mg/kg), topiramate (40 mg/kg,i.p.) and valproate (400 mg/kg). Rats subjected to 4 h heat stress in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator at 38 degrees C (Rel Humid 45-47%; Wind vel 22.4 to 25.6 cm/sec) developed profound behavioral symptoms of heat stroke e.g., hyperthermia, profuse salivation, prostration and gastric ulcerations in the stomach. These rats also exhibited marked brain pathology at this time. Thus, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to proteins associated with brain edema formation could be seen in these heat stressed rats as compared to control groups. The edematous brain areas showed profound neuronal damage and/or distortion in large areas of the neuropil. These pathological symptoms were further exacerbated in Cu or Ag nanoparticles treated group (50-60 nm particle size, 50 mg/kg, i.p./day for 7 days) after identical heat stress on the 8th day. Pretreatment with cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) daily for 3 days in normal rats before heat stress significantly reduced the behavioral stress symptoms and the breakdown of the BBB function, edema formation and neuronal injuries. However, the magnitude and intensity of these neuroprotective effects were much less intense in all other drug treated rats after similar heat stress. On the other hand, almost double dose of cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) was needed to achieve comparable neuroprotection in nanoparticles treated animals after heat stress. Whereas, double dose of all other compounds was much less

  17. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy With Treatment as Usual for Opioid Dependents: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah; Noroozi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to high burden of opioid abuse in Iran, Ministry of Health has launched a large-scale opioid maintenance treatment program, delivered through a network of certified drug treatment centers. To promote opioid pharmacotherapies, there is an urgent need to develop and introduce evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the network. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based group therapy to opioid pharmacotherapies as compared to opioid pharmacotherapies alone. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and percentage of weekly morphine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepine negative tests. Discussion: This is the first RCT that explores the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention group therapy among opioid dependent clients in Iran. The feasibility of group therapy and comparison of outcomes in intervention and control groups should be discussed in the outcome article. PMID:26251659

  18. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference

    PubMed Central

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D.; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach’s transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants’ perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts. PMID:27199857

  19. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts. PMID:27199857

  20. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts.

  1. Photon emission intensities in the decay of 108mAg and 110mAg.

    PubMed

    Ferreux, L; Lépy, M-C; Bé, M-M; Isnard, H; Lourenço, V

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on two radioisotopes of silver, (108m)Ag and (110m)Ag, characterized by a complex decay scheme. Each isotope has two disintegration modes, the isomeric transition leading to the daughter isotope ((108)Ag and (110)Ag, respectively) with a short half-life. The radioactive solution was obtained by neutron activation on silver powder enriched in (109)Ag. Gamma-spectrometry was carried out using a calibrated high purity germanium detector. The main relative photon emission intensities for both radionuclides were obtained and compared with previously published values.

  2. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  3. Perinatal outcome of ICSI pregnancies compared with a matched group of natural conception pregnancies in Flanders (Belgium): a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, Willem; Peeraer, Karen; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; Bosmans, Eugene; Martens, Guy; Ruyssinck, Gunther; Defoort, Paul; Molenberghs, Geert; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2005-08-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) group and a naturally conceived comparison group. A total of 1655 singleton and 1102 twin ICSI births were studied with regard to perinatal outcome. Control subjects (naturally conceived pregnancies) were selected from a regional registry and were matched for maternal age, parity, place of delivery, year of birth and fetal sex. The main outcome measures were duration of pregnancy, birth weight, Apgar score <5 after 5 min, neonatal complications, perinatal death and congenital malformations. Twin births, when compared with singletons, carry a much higher risk of poor perinatal outcome. For both ICSI singletons and ICSI twins, no significant difference was found between ICSI and naturally conceived pregnancies for all investigated parameters. After excluding like-sex twin pairs, ICSI twin pregnancies were at increased risk for perinatal mortality (OR = 2.74, CI = 1.26-5.98), prematurity (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.10-1.75) and low birth weight (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.06-1.69) compared with spontaneously conceived different-sex twin pairs. In conclusion, the perinatal outcome of ICSI singleton and twin pregnancies was very similar to that of spontaneously conceived pregnancies in this large cohort study. After excluding like-sex twin pairs, ICSI twins were at increased risk for prematurity, low birth weight and higher perinatal mortality compared with the natural conception comparison group.

  4. Single crystal and magnetic structures of maricite-type AgMnVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Gaudin, Etienne; Avdeev, Maxim; Ling, Chris D.

    2015-01-15

    Single crystals of the ternary manganese vanadate AgMnVO{sub 4}, were grown using AgVO{sub 3} flux. The structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The magnetic structure and properties of AgMnVO{sub 4} were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and low-temperature neutron powder diffraction measurements. AgMnVO{sub 4} crystallizes in the maricite-type structure with space group Pnma, a=9.5393(12), b=6.8132(9), c=5.3315(7) Å and Z=4. AgMnVO{sub 4} contains MnO{sub 4} chains made up of edge-sharing MnO{sub 6} octahedra, and these chains are interlinked by the VO{sub 4} and AgO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The specific heat measurements indicate a 3D-antiferromagnetic ordering at ∼12.1 K and the neutron powder diffraction measurements at 5 K show that the Mn{sup 2+}magnetic moments are antiferromagnetically coupled within the chains which are antiferromagnetically coupled to each other. - Graphical abstract: The AgMnVO{sub 4} crystals could be grown in AgVO{sub 3} flux and the magnetic structure was determined from neutron powder diffraction data. The spins in each MnO{sub 4} chain along [0 1 0] are antiferromagnetically coupled, while these antiferromagnetic chains are antiferromagnetically coupled along [0 0 1] but have a non-collinear arrangement along [1 0 1]. - Highlights: • We have been able to grow AgMnVO{sub 4} single crystals, using AgVO{sub 3} flux. • We solved its crystal structure using single crystal data. • We carried out magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. • We solved the magnetic structure from low-temperature neutron powder diffraction data. • We compared the magnetic structure to that of NaFePO{sub 4}.

  5. Tribological properties of ag-based amphiphiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ag-based materials are amphiphilic because they comprise polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule. One of the major categories of amphiphilic ag-based materials are seed oils, which are actively investigated as substitutes for petroleum in a wide variety of consumer and industrial a...

  6. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  7. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  8. A Comparative Study of Diet in Good and Poor Glycemic Control Groups in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Mi-Hye; Park, Soojin; Woo, Jeong-Taek

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of dietary patterns is important for glycemic management in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Elderly T2DM patients (> 65 years of age, n = 48) were categorized based on their concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Subjects with HbA1c levels below 7% were placed in the good control (GC) group and those with HbA1c levels equal to or above 8% were placed in the poor control (PC) group. Anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake records were compared between the groups. Statistical analysis included Student's t-test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results Anthropometric data, including body mass index (24.7 ± 2.9 kg/m2), did not differ between the GC and PC groups. Significant abnormalities in blood glucose levels (P < 0.01), lean body mass (P < 0.01), and plasma protein and albumin levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) were found in the PC group. In contrast to the GC group, the PC group depended on carbohydrate (P = 0.014) rather than protein (P = 0.013) or fat (P = 0.005) as a major source of energy, and had a lower index of nutritional quality for nutrients such as protein (P = 0.001), and all vitamins and minerals (P < 0.001, 0.01, or 0.05 for individual nutrients), except vitamin C, in their usual diet. Negative correlations between HbA1c levels and protein (r = -0.338, P < 0.05) or fat (r = -0.385, P < 0.01) intakes were also found. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should encourage elderly diabetic patients to consume a balanced diet to maintain good glycemic control. PMID:21076578

  9. Direction to an Internet Support Group Compared With Online Expressive Writing for People With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jeremy; Potts, Henry WW

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common, often comorbid, conditions, and Internet support groups for them are well used. However, little rigorous research has been conducted on the outcome of these groups. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet support group in reducing depression and anxiety, and increasing social support and life satisfaction. Methods A randomized trial compared direction to an existing Internet support group for depression and anxiety with an online expressive writing condition. A total of 863 (628 female) United Kingdom, United States, and Canadian volunteers were recruited via the Internet. Online, self-report measures of depression, anxiety, social support, and satisfaction with life were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Results All four outcomes – depression, anxiety, social support, and satisfaction with life – improved over the 6 months of the study (all P<.001). There was no difference in outcome between the two conditions: participants responded similarly to the expressive writing and the Internet support group. Engagement with the Internet support group was low, it had high 6-month attrition (692/795, 87%) and low adherence, and it received mixed and often negative feedback. The main problems reported were a lack of comfort and connection with others, negative social comparisons, and the potential for receiving bad advice. Expressive writing had lower attrition (194/295, 65%) and participants reported that it was more acceptable. Conclusions Until further evidence accumulates, directing people with depression and anxiety to Internet support groups cannot be recommended. On the other hand, online expressive writing seems to have potential, and its use for people with depression and anxiety warrants further investigation. Trial Registration Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01149265; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01149265 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h

  10. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  11. Simulation study comparing exposure matching with regression adjustment in an observational safety setting with group sequential monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelly G; Cook, Andrea J; Jackson, Lisa A; Nelson, Jennifer C

    2015-03-30

    Sequential methods are well established for randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and their use in observational settings has increased with the development of national vaccine and drug safety surveillance systems that monitor large healthcare databases. Observational safety monitoring requires that sequential testing methods be better equipped to incorporate confounder adjustment and accommodate rare adverse events. New methods designed specifically for observational surveillance include a group sequential likelihood ratio test that uses exposure matching and generalized estimating equations approach that involves regression adjustment. However, little is known about the statistical performance of these methods or how they compare to RCT methods in both observational and rare outcome settings. We conducted a simulation study to determine the type I error, power and time-to-surveillance-end of group sequential likelihood ratio test, generalized estimating equations and RCT methods that construct group sequential Lan-DeMets boundaries using data from a matched (group sequential Lan-DeMets-matching) or unmatched regression (group sequential Lan-DeMets-regression) setting. We also compared the methods using data from a multisite vaccine safety study. All methods had acceptable type I error, but regression methods were more powerful, faster at detecting true safety signals and less prone to implementation difficulties with rare events than exposure matching methods. Method performance also depended on the distribution of information and extent of confounding by site. Our results suggest that choice of sequential method, especially the confounder control strategy, is critical in rare event observational settings. These findings provide guidance for choosing methods in this context and, in particular, suggest caution when conducting exposure matching.

  12. Theoretical analysis of NMR shieldings of group-11 metal halides on MX (M = Cu, Ag, Au; X = H, F, Cl, Br, I) molecular systems, and the appearance of quasi instabilities on AuF.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Alejandro F; Melo, Juan I; Aucar, Gustavo A

    2015-10-14

    Accurate calculations of nuclear magnetic shieldings of group-11 metal halides, σ(M; MX) (M = Cu, Ag, Au; X = H, F, Cl, Br, I), were performed with relativistic and nonrelativistic theoretical schemes in order to learn more about the importance of the involved electronic mechanisms that underlie such shieldings. We applied state of the art schemes: polarization propagators at a random phase level of approach (PP-RPA); spin-free Hamiltonian (SF); linear response elimination of small component (LRESC) and density functional theory (DFT) with two different functionals: B3LYP and PBE0. The results from DFT calculations are not close to those from the relativistic polarization propagator calculations at the RPA level of approach (RelPP-RPA), in line with previous results. The spin-orbit (SO) contribution to a shielding constant is important only for MF molecules (M = Cu, Ag, Au). Different electronic mechanisms are considered within the LRESC method, bunched into two groups: core- and ligand-dependent. For the analysed shieldings the core-dependent electronic mechanisms are the most important ones; the ligand-dependent being only important for MF molecules. An out of range value for σ(Au) is found in AuF. It was previously reported in the literature, either originated in the large fluorine electronegativity together with large spin-orbit coupling contributions; or, due to Fermi-contact contributions. We argue here that such an unexpected large value is an artifact originated in the appearance of quasi instabilities, and show how to handle this apparent problem.

  13. A comparative study of obsessive beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder patients and a normal group.

    PubMed

    Shams, Giti; Milosevic, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that specific kinds of dysfunctional beliefs underlie the development of this disorder. The aim of present study was to determine whether these beliefs are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients than by those with other anxiety disorders and by community samples. A battery of questionnaires, including the OBQ-44, MOCI, BDI-II, BAI, STAI, used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression and anxiety in 39 OCD patients (OC), 46 anxious patients (AC) and 41 community controls (CC). Compared to CCs and ACs, OC patients more strongly endorsed beliefs related to importance and control of thoughts. Both OC and AC patients scored higher than CC participants did on belief domains about responsibility/threat estimation and perfectionism/certainty. Therefore, the domain that seems to be specific to OCD is a set of beliefs that revolves around the contention that it is possible and necessary to control one's thoughts. Results regarding group differences on particular items of the OBQ-44 indicated that 21 items discriminated between the OC and CC groups and 7 items discriminated between the OC and AC groups, suggesting that these items are more specific to the OC group. Additional research warranted because it is plausible that these cognitive factors relate differently to OCD phenomena across different cultures.

  14. Quantitation of HBsAg predicts response to entecavir therapy in HBV genotype C patients

    PubMed Central

    Orito, Etsuro; Fujiwara, Kei; Kanie, Hiroshi; Ban, Tesshin; Yamada, Tomonori; Hayashi, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analysis the factors that predict the response to entecavir therapy in chronic hepatitis patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C. METHODS: Fifty patients [hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative:HBeAg-positive = 26:24] with HBV genotype C, who received naïve entecavir therapy for > 2 years, were analyzed. Patients who showed HBV DNA levels ≥ 3.0 log viral copies/mL after 2 years of entecavir therapy were designated as slow-responders, while those that showed < 3.0 log copies/mL were termed rapid-responders. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels (qHBsAg) were determined by the Architect HBsAg QT immunoassay. Hepatitis B core-related antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Pre-C and Core promoter mutations were determined using by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Drug-resistance mutations were detected by the PCR-Invader method. RESULTS: At year 2, HBV DNA levels in all patients in the HBeAg-negative group were < 3.0 log copies/mL. In contrast, in the HBeAg-positive group, 41.7% were slow-responders, while 58.3% were rapid-responders. No entecavir-resistant mutants were detected in the slow-responders. When the pretreatment factors were compared between the slow- and rapid-responders; the median qHBsAg in the slow-responders was 4.57 log IU/mL, compared with 3.63 log IU/mL in the rapid-responders (P < 0.01). When the pretreatment factors predictive of HBV DNA-negative status at year 2 in all 50 patients were analyzed, HBeAg-negative status, low HBV DNA levels, and low qHBsAg levels were significant (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the low qHBsAg level was the most significant predictive factor (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Quantitation of HBsAg could be a useful indicator to predict response to entecavir therapy. PMID:23112549

  15. Exposure-dependent Ag+ release from silver nanoparticles and its complexation in AgS2 sites in primary murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, G.; Aude-Garcia, C.; Kieffer, I.; Gallon, T.; Delangle, P.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Rabilloud, T.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides the fraction of Ag+ ions released from the AgNPs under a given exposure condition and highlights their complexation with thiolate groups; the ab initio modelling of the extended spectra allows measuring the Ag-S bond length in cellulo. Dissolution rates depend on the exposure scenario, chronicity leading to higher Ag+ release than acute exposure; Ag-S bond lengths are 2.41 +/- 0.03 Å and 2.38 +/- 0.01 Å in acute and chronic exposure respectively, compatible with digonal AgS2 coordination. Glutathione is identified as the most likely putative ligand for Ag+. The proposed method offers a scope for the investigation of metallic nanoparticle dissolution and recombination in cellular models.Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides

  16. A multicentre randomised, 1-year comparative effectiveness, parallel-group trial protocol of a physical therapy approach compared to corticosteroid injections

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W; Rhon, Daniel I; Allen, Chris S; Allison, Stephen C; Hando, Ben R; Petersen, Evan J; Dusenberry, Douglas I; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are commonly used as an initial or a primary intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consistent evidence indicates CSIs offer symptom relief with conflicting reports regarding long-term efficacy. Physical therapy (PT) offers a non-invasive alternative. There is moderate evidence suggesting short-term and long-term symptom relief and functional improvement with PT interventions. Patients with knee OA are more commonly prescribed CSI than PT prior to total joint replacement. UnitedHealthcare and Military Health System data show substantially more total knee replacement patients receive preoperative CSI than PT. There are no studies comparing CSI to a PT approach in individuals with knee OA. The primary objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of CSI to PT in individuals with knee OA at 1, 2 and 12 months. Methods and analysis We plan to recruit 156 participants meeting established knee OA criteria. Following informed consent, participants will be randomised to receive either CSI or PT. All participants will receive instruction on recommended exercise and weight control strategies plus usual medical care. The CSI intervention consisting of 3 injections and the PT intervention consisting of 8–12 sessions will be spaced over 12 months. Measures of the dependent variables (DVs) will occur at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post enrolment. This pragmatic, randomised clinical trial will be a mixed-model 2×5 factorial design. The independent variables are treatment (CSI and PT) and time with five levels from baseline to 1 year. The primary DV is the Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). We will also compare healthcare utilisation between the 2 groups. Ethics and Dissemination The protocol was approved by the Madigan Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board. The authors intend to publish the results in a peer-reviewed source. Trial Registration

  17. Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, Tl) from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Gröting, Melanie Albe, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of enhancing chemical order in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} upon substitution of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations M{sup +} using total energy calculations based on density functional theory. All chemically available monovalent cations M{sup +}, which are Li, Na, Ag, K, Tl, Rb and Cs, are considered and an analysis of the structurally relaxed structures in terms of symmetry-adapted distortion modes is given in order to quantify the chemically induced structural distortions. We demonstrate that the replacement of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations can hardly alter the tendency of chemical order with respect to Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Only Tl{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} show enhanced tendency for chemical ordering. Both heavy metals behave similar to the light alkali metals in terms of structural relaxations and relative stabilities of the ordered configurations. Although a comparison of the Goldschmidt factors of components (M TiO{sub 3}){sup −} reveals for Tl a value above the upper stability limit for perovskites, the additional lone-pair effect of Tl{sup +} stabilizes the ordered structure. - Graphical abstract: Amplitudes of chemically induced distortion modes in different ordered perovskites M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and visualisation of atomic displacements associated with distortion mode X{sup +}{sub 1} in the 001-ordered compounds Li{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Cs{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Due to a substantial size mismatch between bismuth (green) and caesium (dark blue), incorporation of the latter leads to enhanced displacements of oxygen atoms (red) and suppresses displacements of titanium (silver) as compared to lithium (light blue) or other smaller monovalent cations. - Highlights: • Lead-free A-site mixed bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} are studied by first-principles calculations. • Investigation

  18. Hypothesis of Long-Term Outcome after Coronary Revascularization in Japanese Patients Compared to Multiethnic Groups in the US

    PubMed Central

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Goto, Masashi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Fukushima, Masanori; Sakata, Ryuzo; Elayda, MacArthur; Wilson, James M.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnicity has a significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the long-term outcomes of Japanese patients undergoing revascularization compared with US patients belonging to multiple ethnic groups. Methods and Results We evaluated clinical outcomes, based on ethnicity, of patients included in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome (CREDO-Kyoto) and the Texas (US) Heart Institute Research Database (THIRDBase) registries. For the analysis, we included 8871 patients from the CREDO-Kyoto registry (median follow-up period [FU], 3.5 years; interquartile range [IQR], 2.6–4.3) and 6717 patients from the THIRDBase registry (FU, 5.2 years; IQR, 3.8–6.5) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to compare the adjusted long-term outcomes for each ethnic group. A total of 8871 Japanese, 5170 Caucasians, 648 African-Americans, 817 Hispanics, and 82 Asian-Americans were identified. When adjusted, Japanese patients had significantly better outcomes than US patients, classified by ethnicity (Caucasians: hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–1.79; Hispanics: HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.22–1.93; African-Americans: HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.62–2.56), except for Asian-Americans (HR, 0.84; 95% CI. 0.38–1.89) who had outcomes similar to Japanese patients. Conclusion Our findings indicate better survival outcomes in re-vascularized Japanese CAD patients compared to major ethnic groups in the US, including Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American CAD patients. The characteristics and outcomes of Japanese CAD patients were similar to those of Asian-Americans, despite the sample size limitations in the US dataset. PMID:26023784

  19. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linley, Judy; Mylne, Lee

    1998-01-01

    Ag-Ed, an agricultural education project for upper elementary students, was held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show in Queensland, Australia. Agriculture industry representatives provided 20 interactive agricultural presentations for class groups, which were supplemented with a teacher resource-package containing a directory and 13 sections of…

  20. Thromboprophylaxis in hip fracture surgery: a pilot study comparing danaparoid, enoxaparin and dalteparin. The TIFDED Study Group.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to compare the thromboprophylactic effect of danaparoid, enoxaparin and dalteparin in patients with hip fracture. The study was a prospective, randomised assessor-blind, four-centre trial. Prophylaxis was given for 9-11 days, whereafter bilateral phlebography was performed. A total of 197 patients were randomised. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of deep vein thrombosis, in blood loss or bleeding complications between the three prophylaxis groups. In conclusion, this moderately sized study revealed no statistically significant difference in efficacy or safety between danaparoid, enoxaparin and dalteparin in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. PMID:10844404

  1. Comparing two independent groups: a test based on a one-step M-estimator and bootstrap-t.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, A Fırat

    2013-05-01

    A new test is proposed for the problem of comparing two independent groups in terms of some measure of location. The proposed test () uses a one-step M-estimator and a bootstrap-t method with the procedure proposed by Özdemir and Kurt (2006). Eight methods were compared in terms of actual Type I error and power when the underlying distributions differ in skewness and kurtosis under heterogeneity of variances. For the 21 theoretical distributions, the Yuen test with the bootstrap-t method was the most favourable, followed by test. For the five real data sets, the proposed test and percentile bootstrap method with the one-step M-estimator performed best.

  2. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  3. Substantivity of Ag-Ca-Si mesoporous nanoparticles on dentin and its ability to inhibit Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Wu, Yujie; Ma, Tengjiao; Li, Yanyun; Fan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the substantivity of Ag-Ca-Si mesoporous nanoparticles (Ag-MCSNs) on dentin and its residual antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. Ag-MCSNs were fabricated and characterized, ion release profile and pH were tested, and the ability to inhibit planktonic E. faecalis as well as the cytotoxicity was evaluated. Dentin slices were medicated with Ca(OH)2 paste, 2 % chlorhexidine gel and Ag-MCSNs paste for 7 days and then irrigated. Dentin slices were then immersed in E. faecalis suspension for 6 days and then transferred to fresh brain heart infusion solution. The optical density value within 10 h after immersing and transferring were measured and compared among groups. Results indicated that Ag-MCSNs showed high pH, sustained Ag(+)-Ca(2+)-SiO3 (2-) ion release, and high substantivity on dentin. The Ag-MCSNs exhibited strong antibacterial effects against planktonic E. faecalis and much better residual inhibition effects against E. faecalis growth on dentin than Ca(OH)2 paste (P < 0.05). The Ag-MCSNs showed excellent antibacterial ability against E. faecalis and high substantivity on dentin, which might be developed to a new effective intra-canal medicament for human teeth.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Relative Achievement of a First Grade Group Using Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program Material and a First Grade Using Traditional Mathematics Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budgy, Joseph Vincent

    Reported are the results of a study which compared achievement following use of Greater Cleveland Mathematics Program (GCMP) materials with achievement following traditional materials. Growth in mathematical competency was used to compare treatment groups, groups subdivided by intelligence, and groups determined by sex. Three elementary school…

  5. Breast Cancer in Latinas: Gene Expression, Differential Response to Treatments, and Differential Toxicities in Latinas Compared with Other Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Bueno Hume, Celyne; Copland, John A.; Perez, Edith A.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in clinical outcomes of breast cancer have been described among different racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. Convincing data exist showing that Latina women have a lower incidence of breast cancer but a higher breast cancer–related mortality rate compared with white women. Noticeable differences in breast cancer incidence are present even within different Latina subsets with a higher incidence in second- and third-generation women compared with foreign born. An increasing amount of data exists pointing to significant differences in the genetics and biology of breast cancer in Latinas as a significant contributor to the higher mortality, including a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancers (which do not overexpress HER-2 protein and are negative for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors). Other social and environmental factors are likely to play a significant role as well, including a lower rate of screening mammography, variable access to medical care, among others. Recent data are inconclusive regarding differences among racial/ethnic groups in the response to chemotherapy. Data on racial/ethnic variations in the pharmacogenomics of chemotherapy, endocrine treatments, and toxicity are more limited, with some data suggesting differences in frequencies of polymorphisms of genes involved in the metabolism of some of these agents. Further studies are needed on this subject. PMID:20427382

  6. Breast cancer in Latinas: gene expression, differential response to treatments, and differential toxicities in Latinas compared with other population groups.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tejal A; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Bueno Hume, Celyne; Copland, John A; Perez, Edith A

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in clinical outcomes of breast cancer have been described among different racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. Convincing data exist showing that Latina women have a lower incidence of breast cancer but a higher breast cancer-related mortality rate compared with white women. Noticeable differences in breast cancer incidence are present even within different Latina subsets with a higher incidence in second- and third-generation women compared with foreign born. An increasing amount of data exists pointing to significant differences in the genetics and biology of breast cancer in Latinas as a significant contributor to the higher mortality, including a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancers (which do not overexpress HER-2 protein and are negative for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors). Other social and environmental factors are likely to play a significant role as well, including a lower rate of screening mammography, variable access to medical care, among others. Recent data are inconclusive regarding differences among racial/ethnic groups in the response to chemotherapy. Data on racial/ethnic variations in the pharmacogenomics of chemotherapy, endocrine treatments, and toxicity are more limited, with some data suggesting differences in frequencies of polymorphisms of genes involved in the metabolism of some of these agents. Further studies are needed on this subject.

  7. Anomalous evolution of interfaces in Fe/Ag magnetic multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Gagan; Gupta, Ranjeeta; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Ajay

    2013-12-01

    Interfaces greatly influence the magnetic properties of multilayer nanostructures. In the present work, the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique along with conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy have been used to study the evolution of interfaces in Fe/Ag system as a function of thermal annealing. The XSW technique has sufficient depth resolution so as to determine the concentration profiles of Fe across the two interfaces, namely Fe-on-Ag and Ag-on-Fe independently. In as-deposited Ag/Fe/Ag trilayer, Fe-on-Ag interface has a substantially higher roughness of 1.3 nm as compared to 0.9 nm of Ag-on-Fe interface. It is shown that the observed difference in the roughness of the two interfaces is due to a substantial intermixing between Fe and Ag occurring preferentially at Fe-on-Ag interface. With thermal annealing, the two interfaces exhibit opposite behaviour; while Fe-on-Ag interface exhibits an initial sharpening, Ag-on-Fe interface exhibits a monotonous broadening. Two competing processes occur at the interfaces, (i) interface sharpening as a result of de-mixing, driven by a large positive heat of mixing between Fe and Ag and (ii) increase in topological roughness due to increased thermal agitation. This results in a non-monotonous variation in the roughness of Fe-on-Ag interface. At sufficiently high temperature the layered structure is completely destroyed, leading to formation of Fe and Ag nanoparticles.

  8. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information. PMID:16438787

  9. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information.

  10. HBsAg Positive Patient Characteristics in Hospital and Blood Donation Camps

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Joseph, Jensingh; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prevention of the residual risk of transfusion transmitted hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is mostly dependant on serological screening of blood donors for HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc Ab). This study aimed to study the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc Ab and to compare the profile of blood donors attending a blood donation camp and people attending a hospital based camp. Methods. In the blood donor camp, all the blood units were screened for HBV, (HBsAg and anti-HBc), and in the hospital based camp, screening was done for HBsAg alone. Baseline demographic characteristics were noted. Results. The number of blood bank donors was 363 (47.5%) and hospital camp attendees was 402 (52.5%). Prevalence of HBsAg positivity was similar in both the groups at 1.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Anti-HBc Ab positivity (Total) was 6% among the blood donors; Overall prevalence of HBV infection in this group was 3.2%. Conclusion. Policy for checking the collected blood unit by 3 tests for anti-HBc, anti-HBsAb, and HBsAg should be reconsidered to possibly achieve the zero risk goal of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. Blood obtained from a vaccinated donor may give an added protection to the recipient. PMID:24083029

  11. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K.

    2014-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41–11.54% during 2009–2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005–2011 (1.58–1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  12. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth.

  13. Enzymatic properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca group V, IIA and IB phospholipases A(2): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we have purified the group V phospholipase from the heart of cartilaginous fish stingray Dasyatis pastinaca and compared its biochemical properties with group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) and IB (sPLA2-IB) phospholipases previously purified from pancreas and intestine, respectively. Group V phospholipase (sPLA2-V) was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation and RP-HPLC. The N-terminal sequence of the purified sPLA2-V exhibits a high degree of homology with those of mammal. The enzyme was found to be monomeric with a molecular mass estimation of 14 kDa. The specific activity of the purified enzyme, measured at pH 8 and 37 °C was 52 U/mg. Like sPLA2-IB and sPLA2-IIA, the sPLA2-V is found to be stable between pH 3 and 11 after 30 min of incubation. The purified sPLA2-V retained 65% of its activity after 10 min of incubation at 70 °C and it absolutely requires Ca(2+) for enzymatic activity. In addition it displayed high tolerance to organic solvents. Kinetic parameters Kmapp, kcat and the deduced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Kmapp) of the purified group-V, -IB and -IIA PLA2s were determined using phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) as substrate. The three enzymes hydrolyze the zwiterionic PE and PC substrates more efficiently than anionic PS substrate. PMID:24120965

  14. An evaluation of self-reported mobile phone use compared to billing records among a group of engineers and scientists.

    PubMed

    Shum, Mona; Kelsh, Michael A; Sheppard, Asher R; Zhao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of potential health impacts of mobile phones rely on self-reported information, which can lead to exposure misclassification. We compared self-reported questionnaire data among 60 participants, and phone billing records over a 3-year period (2002-2004). Phone usage information was compared by the calculation of the mean and median number of calls and duration of use, as well as correlation coefficients and associated P-values. Average call duration from self-reports was slightly lower than billing records (2.1 min vs. 2.8 min, P = 0.01). Participants reported a higher number of average daily calls than billing records (7.9 vs. 4.1, P = 0.002). Correlation coefficients for average minutes per day of mobile phone use and average number of calls per day were relatively high (R = 0.71 and 0.69, respectively, P < 0.001). Information reported at the monthly level tended to be more accurate than estimates of weekly or daily use. Our findings of modest correlations between self-reported mobile phone usage and billing records and substantial variability in recall are consistent with previous studies. However, the direction of over- and under-reporting was not consistent with previous research. We did not observe increased variability over longer periods of recall or a pattern of lower accuracy among older age groups compared with younger groups. Study limitations included a relatively small sample size, low participation rates, and potential limited generalizability. The variability within studies and non-uniformity across studies indicates that estimation of the frequency and duration of phone use by questionnaires should be supplemented with subscriber records whenever practical.

  15. Adjuvant Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin Compared With Observation in Stage IB Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: CALGB 9633 With the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gary M.; Herndon, James E.; Maddaus, Michael A.; Johnstone, David W.; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Harpole, David H.; Gillenwater, Heidi H.; Watson, Dorothy M.; Sugarbaker, David J.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Vokes, Everett E.; Green, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now accepted on the basis of several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that demonstrated improved survival. Although there is strong evidence that adjuvant chemotherapy is effective in stages II and IIIA NSCLC, its utility in stage IB disease is unclear. This report provides a mature analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9633, the only RCT designed specifically for stage IB NSCLC. Patients and Methods Within 4 to 8 weeks of resection, patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed T2N0 NSCLC and had undergone lobectomy or pneumonectomy. Chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 hours and carboplatin at an area under the curve dose of 6 mg/mL per minute intravenously over 45 to 60 minutes every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary end point was overall survival. Results Three hundred-forty-four patients were randomly assigned. Median follow-up was 74 months. Groups were well-balanced with regard to demographics, histology, and extent of surgery. Grades 3 to 4 neutropenia were the predominant toxicity; there were no treatment-related deaths. Survival was not significantly different (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; CI, 0.64 to 1.08; P = .12). However, exploratory analysis demonstrated a significant survival difference in favor of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who had tumors ≥ 4 cm in diameter (HR, 0.69; CI, 0.48 to 0.99; P = .043). Conclusion Because a significant survival advantage was not observed across the entire cohort, adjuvant chemotherapy should not be considered standard care in stage IB NSCLC. Given the magnitude of observed survival differences, CALGB 9633 was underpowered to detect small but clinically meaningful improvements. A statistically significant survival advantage for patients who had tumors ≥ 4 cm supports consideration of adjuvant paclitaxel

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors from Bombay.

    PubMed

    Satoskar, A; Ray, V

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of serum samples from 3104 blood donors from Bombay screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. HBsAg was detected in 4.7% of the subjects. Relatives showed a significantly higher prevalence of HBsAg than volunteer donors. There was no significant association between HBsAg positivity and a particular blood group.

  17. Comparative studies of color fields, visual acuity fields, and movement perception limits among varsity athletes and non-varsity groups.

    PubMed

    Mizusawa, K; Sweeting, R L; Knouse, S B

    1983-06-01

    This paper examined effects of sports practice on patterns of color fields, limits of peripheral movement perception, and visual acuity field by comparing varsity ball players and non-varsity control groups. The first study measured extent of color fields and limits of horizontal and vertical meridians for peripheral movement perception of 139 college students. The second study tested visual acuity fields of female and male basketball players and female and male controls. The first study indicated that athletes had wider limits for horizontal movement perception, while the non-athletes had better vertical movement perception limits. Basketball players demonstrated color fields and limits for peripheral movement perception superior to those of soccer players. In the second study, athletes did not have any wider visual acuity fields than non-athletes, but their movement-perception limits were significantly wider than those of non-athletes.

  18. Highly efficient and stable Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites for destruction of Escherichia coli under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2013-08-01

    A series of Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites were prepared by a sol-gel method followed by photoreduction. Effect of Ag-AgBr content on the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites was investigated. These composites showed intrinsic antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the dark attributed to the Ag nanoparticles dispersed in the composites. Under visible light irradiation, inactivation of E. coli over these Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites was attributed to both their photocatalytic disinfection activities and intrinsic antibacterial properties. The Ag-AgBr/TiO2 with an optimum Ti/Ag atomic ratio of 10 exhibited superior visible-light photocatalytic activities for ibuprofen degradation and mineralization as compared to the other Ag-AgBr/TiO2 composites and also Ag-AgBr/P25, Ag/TiO2 and TiO2. It is probably because of the coexistence of two visible-light active components (AgBr and Ag nanoparticles) and the most effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes in this photocatalyst. Correspondingly, the photocatalyst achieved a much higher efficiency of E. coli destruction than Ag-AgBr/P25 and TiO2. E. coli was almost completely inactivated (7-log reduction) within 60 min by the photocatalyst with a rather low dosage of 0.05 g L(-1) under white LED irradiation. Furthermore, the Ag-AgBr/TiO2 showed high stability for photocatalytic destruction of E. coli and the dark repair and photoreactivation did not occur after the photocatalytic process. Finally, the action spectrum of this photocatalyst for E. coli inactivation and the influence of several inorganic ions present in surface water were also investigated.

  19. Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    le Croteau, Marie-Noe; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag+) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag+ than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag+ (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag+. Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag+ or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks.

  20. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample.

  1. Species specificity and interspecies relatedness of NSP4 genetic groups by comparative NSP4 sequence analyses of animal rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Ciarlet, M; Liprandi, F; Conner, M E; Estes, M K

    2000-01-01

    Previous sequence analyses of the rotavirus nonstructural NSP4 from human and some animal rotavirus strains revealed the presence of three distinct NSP4 alleles or genetic groups. To examine the species of origin relatedness and diversity of NSP4, the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene encoding the NSP4 from 15 animal rotavirus strains of porcine, equine, bovine, lapine and canine origin were determined and compared to human and other animal strains sequenced previously. Lapine and equine strains were shown to belong to the NSP4 genotype A. Murine NSP4 sequences formed a previously unrecognized fourth distinct NSP4 genotype (genotype D) that was more divergent compared to NSP4 genotype A, B, and C than the latter three are among each other. Within NSP4 genotypes, strains isolated from rabbits, horses, cows (genotype A) and pigs (genotype B) clustered according to species of origin, suggesting a conserved pattern of evolution within species. NSP4 sequence comparison among one wildtype and two tissue culture-adapted lapine strains, known to cause disease in neonatal rabbits, failed to identify amino acid changes within the variable region spanning amino acids 130 to 141, suggesting that disease in rabbits is the result of the lapine virus infection and replication, including production of the NSP4 enterotoxin. PMID:10752559

  2. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of some species of the Dendropsophus microcephalus group (Anura, Hylidae) in the light of phylogenetic inferences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendropsophus is a monophyletic anuran genus with a diploid number of 30 chromosomes as an important synapomorphy. However, the internal phylogenetic relationships of this genus are poorly understood. Interestingly, an intriguing interspecific variation in the telocentric chromosome number has been useful in species identification. To address certain uncertainties related to one of the species groups of Dendropsophus, the D. microcephalus group, we carried out a cytogenetic analysis combined with phylogenetic inferences based on mitochondrial sequences, which aimed to aid in the analysis of chromosomal characters. Populations of Dendropsophus nanus, Dendropsophus walfordi, Dendropsophus sanborni, Dendropsophus jimi and Dendropsophus elianeae, ranging from the extreme south to the north of Brazil, were cytogenetically compared. A mitochondrial region of the ribosomal 12S gene from these populations, as well as from 30 other species of Dendropsophus, was used for the phylogenetic inferences. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Results The species D. nanus and D. walfordi exhibited identical karyotypes (2n = 30; FN = 52), with four pairs of telocentric chromosomes and a NOR located on metacentric chromosome pair 13. In all of the phylogenetic hypotheses, the paraphyly of D. nanus and D. walfordi was inferred. D. sanborni from Botucatu-SP and Torres-RS showed the same karyotype as D. jimi, with 5 pairs of telocentric chromosomes (2n = 30; FN = 50) and a terminal NOR in the long arm of the telocentric chromosome pair 12. Despite their karyotypic similarity, these species were not found to compose a monophyletic group. Finally, the phylogenetic and cytogenetic analyses did not cluster the specimens of D. elianeae according to their geographical occurrence or recognized morphotypes. Conclusions We suggest that a taxonomic revision of the taxa D. nanus and D. walfordi is quite necessary. We also

  3. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  4. Functional and structural characterisation of AgMNPV ie1.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Marcos Fabián; Pilloff, Marcela Gabriela; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Da Ros, Vanina Gabriela; Rodrigues, Julio Carlyle; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Romanowski, Víctor; Lozano, Mario Enrique; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2007-12-01

    We have located and cloned the Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genomic DNA fragment containing the immediate early 1 ORF and its flanking regions. Computer assisted analysis of the complete ie1 locus nucleotide sequence information was used to locate regulatory signals in the upstream region and conserved nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Comparative studies led to the identification of several characteristic protein motifs and to the conclusion that AgMNPV-2D is more closely related to Choristoneura fumiferana defective NPV than to other Group I nucleopolyhedrovirus. We have also shown that the AgMNPV IE1 protein was able to transactivate an early Autographa californica MNPV promoter and its own promoter in transient expression assays. In order to investigate the biological functionality of the ie1 promoter, the ie1 upstream activating region (UAR) was molecularly dissected and cloned upstream of the E. coli lacZ ORF. The results obtained, after transfection of UFL-AG-286 insect cells, leading us to find that the -492 and -357 versions contains sequence motifs important for the level of the lacZ reporter gene expression. PMID:17682932

  5. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Maria, Vera L.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g., CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for 7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag+ ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect. PMID:26287225

  6. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  7. The AGS synchrotron with four helical magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas N.; Huang, H.; Roser, T.; MacKay, W.W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    The idea of using two partial helical magnets was applied successfully to the AGS synchrotron to preserve the proton beam polarization. In this paper we explore in details the idea of using four helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. The placement of four helical magnets in the AGS ring provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets allows for a better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection, second, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical, and third, it provides for a larger 'spin tune gap', which allows the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed, and prevent the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS to occur during the acceleration cycle. Although the same spin gap can be obtained with a single or two partial helices, the required high field strength of a single helix makes its use impractical, and that of the double helix rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare these results with the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets.

  8. Facile synthesis of novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were controllably synthesized via a facile ion-exchange followed by photoreduction strategy by using hierarchical BiOI microflower as substrate. The as-prepared Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were studied by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (λ>420 nm), Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed highly enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to the pure hierarchical BiOI, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through the closely contacted interfaces in the Ag/AgI/BiOI ternary system. - Graphical abstract: Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed excellent photocatalytic activities for methyl orange degradation under visible light, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through Z-scheme pathway. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed higher visible light activities than those of pure BiOI and AgI. • ·O{sub 2}{sup −} and h{sup +}, especially ·O{sub 2}{sup −}, dominated the photodegradation process of MO. • A Z-scheme pattern was adopted for Ag/AgI/BiOI activity enhancement.

  9. Differentiation and grouping of isolates of the Ganoderma lucidum complex by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR compared with grouping on the basis of internal transcribed spacer sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, R S; Wang, H H; Wang, H F; Moncalvo, J M

    1996-01-01

    Laccate polypores of the Ganoderma lucidum species complex are widespread white rot fungi of economic importance, but isolates cannot be identified by traditional taxonomic methods. Parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) distinguished six lineages in this species complex. Each ITS lineage may represent one or more putative species. While some isolates have identical ITS sequences, all of them could be clearly differentiated by genetic fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). To investigate the suitability of RAPD markers for taxonomic identification and grouping of isolates of the G. lucidum complex, RAPD fragments (RAPDs) were used as phenotypic characters in numerical and parsimony analyses. Results show that data from RAPDS do not distinguish the same clades as ITS data do. Groupings based on analysis of RAPD data were very sensitive to the choice of the grouping method used, and no consistent grouping of isolates could be proposed. However, analysis with RAPDs did resolve several robust terminal clades containing putatively conspecific isolates, suggesting that RAPDs might be helpful for systematics at the lower taxonomic levels that are unresolved by ITS sequence data. The limitations of RAPDs for systematics are briefly discussed. The conclusion of this study is that ITS sequences can be used to identify isolates of the G. lucidum complex, whereas RAPDs can be used to differentiate between isolates having identical ITS sequences. The practical implications of these results are briefly illustrated. PMID:8919797

  10. Preliminary result of transport properties calculation molten Ag-based superionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oztek, H. O.; Yılmaz, M.; Kavanoz, H. B.

    2016-03-01

    We studied molten Ag based superionics (AgI, Ag2S and Ag3S I) which are well defined with Vashista-Rahman potential. Molecular Dynamic simulation code is Moldy which is used for canonical ensemble (NPT). Thermal properties are obtained from Green-Kubo formalism with equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulation. These calculation results are compared with the experimentals results.

  11. Structure Determination of an Ag(I) -Mediated Cytosine-Cytosine Base Pair within DNA Duplex in Solution with (1) H/(15) N/(109) Ag NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dairaku, Takenori; Furuita, Kyoko; Sato, Hajime; Šebera, Jakub; Nakashima, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Jiro; Yamanaka, Daichi; Kondo, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Itaru; Ono, Akira; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Kojima, Chojiro; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    The structure of an Ag(I) -mediated cytosine-cytosine base pair, C-Ag(I) -C, was determined with NMR spectroscopy in solution. The observation of 1-bond (15) N-(109) Ag J-coupling ((1) J((15) N,(109) Ag): 83 and 84 Hz) recorded within the C-Ag(I) -C base pair evidenced the N3-Ag(I) -N3 linkage in C-Ag(I) -C. The triplet resonances of the N4 atoms in C-Ag(I) -C demonstrated that each exocyclic N4 atom exists as an amino group (-NH2 ), and any isomerization and/or N4-Ag(I) bonding can be excluded. The 3D structure of Ag(I) -DNA complex determined with NOEs was classified as a B-form conformation with a notable propeller twist of C-Ag(I) -C (-18.3±3.0°). The (109) Ag NMR chemical shift of C-Ag(I) -C was recorded for cytidine/Ag(I) complex (δ((109) Ag): 442 ppm) to completed full NMR characterization of the metal linkage. The structural interpretation of NMR data with quantum mechanical calculations corroborated the structure of the C-Ag(I) -C base pair. PMID:27505707

  12. Structure Determination of an Ag(I) -Mediated Cytosine-Cytosine Base Pair within DNA Duplex in Solution with (1) H/(15) N/(109) Ag NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dairaku, Takenori; Furuita, Kyoko; Sato, Hajime; Šebera, Jakub; Nakashima, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Jiro; Yamanaka, Daichi; Kondo, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Itaru; Ono, Akira; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Kojima, Chojiro; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    The structure of an Ag(I) -mediated cytosine-cytosine base pair, C-Ag(I) -C, was determined with NMR spectroscopy in solution. The observation of 1-bond (15) N-(109) Ag J-coupling ((1) J((15) N,(109) Ag): 83 and 84 Hz) recorded within the C-Ag(I) -C base pair evidenced the N3-Ag(I) -N3 linkage in C-Ag(I) -C. The triplet resonances of the N4 atoms in C-Ag(I) -C demonstrated that each exocyclic N4 atom exists as an amino group (-NH2 ), and any isomerization and/or N4-Ag(I) bonding can be excluded. The 3D structure of Ag(I) -DNA complex determined with NOEs was classified as a B-form conformation with a notable propeller twist of C-Ag(I) -C (-18.3±3.0°). The (109) Ag NMR chemical shift of C-Ag(I) -C was recorded for cytidine/Ag(I) complex (δ((109) Ag): 442 ppm) to completed full NMR characterization of the metal linkage. The structural interpretation of NMR data with quantum mechanical calculations corroborated the structure of the C-Ag(I) -C base pair.

  13. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effects of okadaic acid-group toxins on human intestinal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic

    2014-08-21

    The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-κB) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2.

  14. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. PMID:27282078

  15. A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Peer Assessment of Individuals' Contributions to Group Projects in Undergraduate Construction Management Core Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various forms of group work have been introduced in university courses across various subject domains, including construction management courses. Although the use of group work in higher education has sound pedagogical reasons and advantages, group work has its own drawbacks. Therefore, the acceptance by students and the success…

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Group IV Personnel Assigned to the U.S.S. Catskill; Followup Performance Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

    A followup performance evaluation was conducted on a sample of Group 4 (low ability) personnel who had served 14 months aboard the mine contermeasures support ship U.S.S. Catskill (MCS-1). Shipboard assessments were made of the Group 4 sample and the non-Group 4 comparison sample in terms of performance test proficiency, supervisors' ratings, and…

  17. Enhanced Raman scattering and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunction nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongqi; Zheng, Yuanhui; Zhan, Yingying; Lin, Xingyi; Zheng, Qi; Wei, Kemei

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunctions with an Ag content of 1 at.%, which were synthesized by photochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto pre-synthesized ZnO nanorods. A strong interaction between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals were evidenced by XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The binding energy of Ag nanoparticles shifts toward lower energy compared to that of pure Ag nanoparticles, revealing that electrons transfer from Ag to the ZnO nanocrystals. The red shift of the plasmon absorption peak of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/ZnO heterojunctions further confirms the strong interaction between the two components. This strong interaction, arising from the coupling between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals, is responsible for the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of the Ag/ZnO heterojunctions. PMID:21847472

  18. Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glasses against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Wu, Daming; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Ag-loaded mesoporous bioactive glass (Ag-MBG) powders were synthesized and characterized. The ions release of Ag-MBGs in Tris-HCl and the pH stability of simulated body fluids after immersing Ag-MBGs were tested. Root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 4 weeks, and the antibacterial activity of MBGs, Ag-MBGs and calcium hydroxide against E. faecalis biofilm were evaluated. Results showed that Ag-MBGs possessed highly ordered mesoporous structure with silver nanoparticles deposited in the mesopores, which enabled a sustained Ag ions released. The biofilms treated with Ag-MBGs showed a significant structural disruption compared with MBGs. These results indicated that Ag-MBGs possess a potent antibacterial effect against E.faecalis biofilm in root canal, and the antibacterial activity was induced by the release of Ag ions from Ag-MBGs.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of AG1-IA specific genes of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srayan; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Jha, Gopaljee

    2014-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important necrotrophic fungal pathogen which causes disease on diverse plant species. It has been classified into 14 genetically distinct anastomosis groups (AGs), however, very little is known about their genomic diversity. AG1-IA causes sheath blight disease in rice and controlling this disease remains a challenge for sustainable rice cultivation. Recently the draft genome sequences of AG1-IA (rice isolate) and AG1-IB (lettuce isolate) had become publicly available. In this study, using comparative genomics, we report identification of 3,942 R. solani genes that are uniquely present in AG1-IA. Many of these genes encode important biological, molecular functions and exhibit dynamic expression during in-planta growth of the pathogen in rice. Based upon sequence similarity with genes that are required for plant and human/zoonotic diseases, we identified several putative virulence/pathogenicity determinants amongst AG1-IA specific genes. While studying the expression of 19 randomly selected genes, we identified three genes highly up-regulated during in-planta growth. The detailed in silico characterization of these genes and extent of their up-regulation in different rice genotypes, having variable degree of disease susceptibility, suggests their importance in rice-Rhizoctonia interactions. In summary, the present study reports identification, functional characterization of AG1-IA specific genes and predicts important virulence determinants that might enable the pathogen to grow inside hostile plant environment. Further characterization of these genes would shed useful insights about the pathogenicity mechanism of AG1-IA on rice.

  20. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  1. Comparative electrochemical degradation of salicylic and aminosalicylic acids: Influence of functional groups on decay kinetics and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Florenza, Xavier; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2016-07-01

    Solutions of 100 mL with 1.20 mM of salicylic acid (SA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were carried out with a stirred tank reactor with a BDD anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H2O2 production. A marked influence of the functional groups of the drugs was observed in their decay kinetics, increasing in the order SA < 5-ASA < 4-ASA in AO-H2O2 and 5-ASA < SA < 4-ASA in EF and PEF, due to the different attack of OH generated at the BDD surface and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction, respectively. This effect was clearly observed when varying the current density between 16.7 and 100 mA cm(-2). The relative mineralization power of the processes always followed the sequence: AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF. The three drugs underwent analogous mineralization abatement up to 88% by AO-H2O2 at 100 mA cm(-2). The mineralization rate in EF and PEF grew in the order: 4-ASA < 5-ASA < SA. The most powerful process was PEF, attaining >98% mineralization for all the drugs at 100 mA cm(-2). Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final short-linear aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC, allowing the fast photolysis of their Fe(III) complexes by UVA light to justify the high power of PEF. PMID:27045634

  2. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres and their high efficient photocatalytic degradation for p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingting; Luo, Shenglian; Yang, Lixia

    2013-10-15

    Flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres were successfully fabricated by the approach of microwave-assisted solvothermal and in situ photo-assisted reduction. A reactive ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 16}mim]Br) was employed as Br source in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgBr/BiOBr towards the decomposition of p-nitrophenol under visible light irradiation was evaluated. The results indicated that Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol, comparing with P25, BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. More than 96% of p-nitrophenol was decomposed in 3.5 h under visible-light irradation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres can be attributed to the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, suitable energy band structure and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species test and band gap structure analysis. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres. • The Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed much higher photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol as compared to BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. • The reasons for the excellent photocatalytic activity are the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. • The O{sub 2}·{sup −}, Br{sup 0} and photogenerated h{sup +} play key roles in the photocatalytic degradation process.

  3. [Comparative study of the antigens of Streptococcus group A. Rport I. Comparative characteristics of the immunologic activity of partially purified M-protien and the cytoplasmic protective antigen].

    PubMed

    Evseev, V A; Avdeeva, Zh I; Kondrashov, G I

    1975-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on mice. A study was made of the protective properties of the cytoplasmic fraction of streptococcus, group A, Type 1 and of an antigen isolated from it by sedimentation with ammonium sulfate, in comparison with M-protein partially purified by the method of Lancefield and Perlman. Cytoplasmic antigen was not inferior by immunogenicity in comparison with M-protein. In difference from the latter, it was thermolabile and sensitive to the action of hydrochloric acid. The protective antigen was revealed in the cytoplasm not only of the virulent, but also of avirulent strains of streptococcus devoid of M-protein.

  4. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to…

  5. Leadership Styles: An Experimental Study to Determine the Comparative Effectiveness of Democratic and Autocratic Leadership in Adult, "Real World" Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, L. Dean; Fadely, Patricia R.

    To study the effect of democratic and autocratic leadership styles upon the commitment and productivity of voluntary adult groups, eight tenant councils, composed of approximately six persons each, were selected to serve as experimental groups. Trained researchers acting as discussion leaders for each council functioned as either democratic or…

  6. XAFS Study on Ag2S Semiconductor Clusters Designed in Nanopores and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Shuai; Tomonari, Masanori; Matsuo, Daisuke; Mori, Kohsuke; Ohmichi, Tetsutaro; Katayama, Iwao; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2007-02-02

    Ag2S clusters were prepared in microporous ZSM-5 and mesoporous AlMCM-41. The state of Ag was analyzed by EXAFS. The pore size of the host has great effects on the photoluminescence property of Ag2S. Compared with Ag2S/ZSM-5, the emission of Ag2S/AlMCM-41 shifts to the longer wavelength region.

  7. Ag(+)-mediated assembly of 5'-guanosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Loo, Kristine; Degtyareva, Natalya; Park, Jihae; Sengupta, Bidisha; Reddish, Michaeal; Rogers, Christopher C; Bryant, Andrea; Petty, Jeffrey T

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphic forms of nucleic acids provide platforms for new nanomaterials, and transition metal cations give access to alternative arrangements of nucleobases by coordinating with electron-rich functional groups. Interaction of Ag(+) with 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) is considered in this work. Ag(+) promotes nucleotide stacking and aggregation, as indicated by the increased viscosity of 5'-GMP solutions with Ag(+), magnification of the circular dichroism response of guanine by Ag(+), and exothermic reactions between Ag(+) and guanine derivatives. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies show that the reaction is favored starting at 10 microM 5'-GMP. Utilizing the exothermic heat change associated with reaction of Ag(+) with 5'-GMP, local structure within the aggregate was assessed. On the basis of the salt dependence of the reaction and comparison with the corresponding nucleoside, the dianionic phosphate of 5'-GMP is one binding site for Ag(+), although this electrostatic interaction is not a dominant contribution to the overall heat change. Another binding site is the N7 on the nucleobase, as determined via studies with 7-deazaguanosine. Besides this binding site, Ag(+) also associates with the O6, as earlier studies deduced from the shift in the carbonyl stretching frequency associated with adduct formation. With these two binding sites on the nucleobase, the empirical stoichiometry of approximately 1 Ag(+):nucleobase derived from the calorimetry studies indicates that Ag(+) coordinates two nucleobases. The proposed structural model is a Ag(+)-mediated guanine dimer within a base stacked aggregate. PMID:20205377

  8. Ag@Ag8W4O16 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-03-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag8W4O16 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag8W4O16) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag8W4O16 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag8W4O16. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV-Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag8W4O16 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag8W4O16 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag8W4O16 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  9. Anti-bactericidal properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca groups V, IIA, and IB phospholipases A2: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Abir Ben

    2014-10-01

    Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (group IIA sPLA2) is known to display potent Gram-positive bactericidal activity in vitro and in vivo. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of the full set of native stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s on several Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. The rank order potency among both marine and mammal sPLA2s against Gram-positive bacteria is group IIA > V > IB, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2.The bactericidal efficiency of groups V and IIA sPLA2s was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s present no cytotoxicity after their incubation with MDA-MB-231cells. stingray groups V and IIA sPLA2s, like mammal ones, may be considered as future therapeutic agents against bacterial infections. PMID:25119545

  10. Origin of the Order-Disorder Transition and the Associated Anomalous Change of Thermopower in AgBiS2 Nanocrystals: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Banerjee, Swastika; Sanyal, Dirtha; Pati, Swapan K; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-06-20

    Bulk AgBiS2 crystallizes in a trigonal crystal structure (space group, P3̅m1) at room temperature, which transforms to a cation disordered rock salt structure (space group, Fm3̅m) at ∼473 K. Surprisingly, at room temperature, a solution-grown nanocrystal of AgBiS2 crystallizes in a metastable Ag/Bi ordered cubic structure, which transforms to a thermodynamically stable disorded cubic structure at 610 K. Moreover, the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2 is associated with an unusual change in thermopower. Here, we shed light on the origin of a order-disorder phase transition and the associated anomalous change of thermopower in AgBiS2 nanocrystals by using a combined experimental, density functional theory based first-principles calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Positron-annilation spectroscopy indicates the presence of higher numbers of Ag vacancies in the nanocrystal compared to that of the bulk cubic counterpart at room temperature. Furthermore, temperature-dependent two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation (S parameter) indicate that the Ag vacancy concentration increases abruptly during the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2. At high temperature, a Ag atom shuttles between the vacancy and interstitial sites to form a locally disordered cation sublattice in the nanocrystal, which is facilitated by the formation of more Ag vacancies during the phase transition. This process increases the entropy of the system at higher vacancy concentration, which, in turn, results in the unusual rise in thermopower. PMID:27276279

  11. Origin of the Order-Disorder Transition and the Associated Anomalous Change of Thermopower in AgBiS2 Nanocrystals: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Banerjee, Swastika; Sanyal, Dirtha; Pati, Swapan K; Biswas, Kanishka

    2016-06-20

    Bulk AgBiS2 crystallizes in a trigonal crystal structure (space group, P3̅m1) at room temperature, which transforms to a cation disordered rock salt structure (space group, Fm3̅m) at ∼473 K. Surprisingly, at room temperature, a solution-grown nanocrystal of AgBiS2 crystallizes in a metastable Ag/Bi ordered cubic structure, which transforms to a thermodynamically stable disorded cubic structure at 610 K. Moreover, the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2 is associated with an unusual change in thermopower. Here, we shed light on the origin of a order-disorder phase transition and the associated anomalous change of thermopower in AgBiS2 nanocrystals by using a combined experimental, density functional theory based first-principles calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Positron-annilation spectroscopy indicates the presence of higher numbers of Ag vacancies in the nanocrystal compared to that of the bulk cubic counterpart at room temperature. Furthermore, temperature-dependent two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation (S parameter) indicate that the Ag vacancy concentration increases abruptly during the order-disorder transition in nanocrystalline AgBiS2. At high temperature, a Ag atom shuttles between the vacancy and interstitial sites to form a locally disordered cation sublattice in the nanocrystal, which is facilitated by the formation of more Ag vacancies during the phase transition. This process increases the entropy of the system at higher vacancy concentration, which, in turn, results in the unusual rise in thermopower.

  12. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}: A highly efficient and stable composite photocatalyst for degradation of organic contaminants under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activities on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light. The improved photocatalytic performance and stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} originated from the synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. ·O{sub 2}−, one of the reactive species, was responsible for the photodegradation of MO compared to H+ and ·OH. - Highlights: • Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was reported. • Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had novel energy band combination between AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. • Electron trapping role of metallic Ag dominated the stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts were constructed via deposition–precipitation method and extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (λ > 420 nm), Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than those of Ag/AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for degradation of methyl orange (MO). 50% Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} presented the best photocatalytic performance, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and the in situ metallic Ag nanoparticles for efficiently separating electron–hole pairs. Furthermore, Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} remained good photocatalytic activity through 5 times of cycle experiments. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that ·O{sub 2}{sup −} was the main reactive species for the MO degradation under visible light.

  13. HBcrAg Identifies Patients Failing to Achieve HBeAg Seroconversion Treated with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Yang, Rui-Feng; Li, Xiao-He; Jin, Qian; Wei, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of serum hepatitis B virus core-related antigens (HBcrAg) for predicting hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients treated with conventional interferon (IFN) alfa-2b or pegylated IFN. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled: 29 for the training group and 29 for the validating group. HBcrAg was measured at baseline, week 12, end of the treatment, and 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Sixteen patients in the training group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up (LTFU), during which time the dynamics of the HBcrAg was monitored. Results: The serum HBcrAg level gradually declined during treatment among the HBeAg seroconversion patients of the training group (from baseline, week 12, end of the treatment, 12-week follow-up to 24-week follow-up were 110,245 kU/ml, 3760 kU/ml, 7410 kU/ml, 715 kU/ml, 200 kU/ml, respectively). HBcrAg <19,565 kU/ml at week 24, HBcrAg <34,225 kU/ml at 12-week follow-up, and HBcrAg decrease ≥0.565 log10 kU/ml from the baseline to the end of treatment (EOT) had negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100% for HBeAg seroconversion at the end of follow-up, whereas the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 30.77%, 26.67%, and 25.00%, respectively. The patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of 24-week follow-up remained in seroconversion during the LTFU, during which time their serum HBcrAg levels steadily declined or even became undetectable, ranging from 0 to 2.1 kU/ml. Conclusions: Effective antiviral treatment can decrease HBcrAg levels in the serum. The NPVs of HBcrAg for predicting HBeAg seroconversion at 24-week follow-up was 100%, but the PPVs were not satisfactory (all <31%). The serum HBcrAg levels of the patients with HBeAg seroconversion at the end of the 24-week follow-up steadily declined or even became undetectable during the LTFU. PMID:27625094

  14. Comparing a Behavioral Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) Intervention to Standard Practice in an Urban Middle School Setting Using an Experimental Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Myers, Diane; Briere, Donald E., III

    2011-01-01

    Students who continue to demonstrate at-risk behaviors after a school implements schoolwide primary (Tier 1) interventions require targeted-group secondary (Tier 2) interventions. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of a targeted-group behavioral check-in/check-out (CICO) intervention with the school's standard practice (SP) with…

  15. AgRISTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program, a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each project, with emphasis on the technical highlights are presented. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included in the appendices, as is a complete bibliography of publication and reports.

  16. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  17. Cause of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in young patients from India as compared with other ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Pai, Navin; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2012-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which consists of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially fatal disease. The existing Asian literature has shown a wide variation in the prevalence of VTE, with very limited data from India. In the present study, the risk factors for VTE in Indian patients were compared with Caucasians and Blacks. We used data prospectively collected from total of 1396 Indian patients (716 males, 680 females) enrolled over a decade and compared with White (n = 2002) and Black (n = 395) patients objectively diagnosed with VTE. When compared with females, males had significantly higher episodes of pulmonary embolism and VTE (P = 0.0001). Amongst the known thrombophilia markers, only homocysteine was found to be significantly higher in males as compared with females (P = 0.006). Males had a higher proportion of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) as compared with females. The prevalence of DVT amongst Indians was significantly higher as compared with Whites and Blacks. However, the rate of pulmonary embolism and VTE was lower in Indians as compared with both the races. Amongst the baseline characteristics identified as risk factors for VTE, Indians had a higher prevalence of infection as compared to both Whites and Blacks, but lower HIV infection as compared to Blacks. As compared to Whites, Indians had lower prevalence of idiopathic VTE (but similar to blacks) and had higher prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary embolism (P < 0.0001). This can be explained by different inherited and environment risk factors between these three populations.

  18. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-10-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  19. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-06-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  20. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Two Forms of Case Management Compared to a Control Group for Persons with Dementia and Their Informal Caregivers from a Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eekhout, Iris; Joling, Karlijn J.; van Mierlo, Lisa D.; Meiland, Franka J. M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article was to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two most prominent types of case management in the Netherlands (intensive case management and linkage models) against no access to case management (control group) for people with already diagnosed dementia and their informal caregivers. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted from a societal perspective embedded within a two year prospective, observational, controlled, cohort study with 521 informal caregivers and community-dwelling persons with dementia. Case management provided within one care organization (intensive case management model, ICMM), case management where care was provided by different care organizations within one region (Linkage model, LM), and a group with no access to case management (control) were compared. The economic evaluation related incremental costs to incremental effects regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), psychological health of the informal caregiver (GHQ-12), and quality adjusted life years (QALY) of the person with dementia and informal caregiver. Results Inverse-propensity-score-weighted models showed no significant differences in clinical or total cost outcomes between the three groups. Informal care costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to both other groups. Day center costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to the control group. For all outcomes, the probability that the ICMM was cost-effective in comparison with LM and the control group was larger than 0.97 at a threshold ratio of 0 €/incremental unit of effect. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the ICMM is cost-effective compared to the control group and the LM. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution since this study was not a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27655234

  2. Culture, Perception, and Artistic Visualization: A Comparative Study of Children's Drawings in Three Siberian Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istomin, Kirill V.; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Attitudes of Key Stakeholder Groups to the Welsh Government's School-Based Counselling Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pybis, Joanne; Hill, Andy; Cooper, Mick; Cromarty, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The success of schools' counselling services often depends on the support of various key stakeholder groups. This study reports on the attitudes of key stakeholders working within the Welsh Government school-based counselling strategy. Using a survey methodology, the opinions of local authority leads/service managers (n=25), school management…

  4. Toluene removal by sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic process: Effects of Ag and Mn impregnation sequence on Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Caihong; Huang, Xuemin; Dang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Jiayu; Teng, Jingjing; Kang, Zhongli

    2016-11-01

    A series of Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3 were prepared under different Ag/Mn impregnation sequence and tested in the sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic removal of toluene. When Mn was impregnated first, the resulting catalyst, Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3, had longer breakthrough time, gave less emission of toluene, had higher CO2 selectivity, and had better carbon balance and COx yield compared to catalysts prepared via other impregnation sequences. After 120 min of NTP treatment, the carbon balance of Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 was 91%, with 87% as COx contributions. A Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that, the impregnation sequence impacts the BET surface area and the ratio and existing state of Ag on the surface of the catalysts. The longer breakthrough time when using Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst is attributed to the large amount of Ag(+) on the surface. Ag(+) is a new active site for toluene adsorption. When Ag was impregnated first (Ag(F)-Mn/γ-Al2O3) or Ag and Mn co-impregnated (Ag-Mn-C/γ-Al2O3), the predominant specie was Ag(+). Both Ag(0) and Ag(+) species were detected on Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3. Ag(0) cooperation with MnOx may promote the migration of surface active oxygen. This would facilitate the oxidation of adsorbed toluene with CC bond already weakened by Ag(+) and would result in higher CO2 selectivity and better carbon balance as seen in the Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 system. PMID:27494312

  5. Toluene removal by sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic process: Effects of Ag and Mn impregnation sequence on Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Caihong; Huang, Xuemin; Dang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Jiayu; Teng, Jingjing; Kang, Zhongli

    2016-11-01

    A series of Ag-Mn/γ-Al2O3 were prepared under different Ag/Mn impregnation sequence and tested in the sequential adsorption-plasma catalytic removal of toluene. When Mn was impregnated first, the resulting catalyst, Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3, had longer breakthrough time, gave less emission of toluene, had higher CO2 selectivity, and had better carbon balance and COx yield compared to catalysts prepared via other impregnation sequences. After 120 min of NTP treatment, the carbon balance of Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 was 91%, with 87% as COx contributions. A Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that, the impregnation sequence impacts the BET surface area and the ratio and existing state of Ag on the surface of the catalysts. The longer breakthrough time when using Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst is attributed to the large amount of Ag(+) on the surface. Ag(+) is a new active site for toluene adsorption. When Ag was impregnated first (Ag(F)-Mn/γ-Al2O3) or Ag and Mn co-impregnated (Ag-Mn-C/γ-Al2O3), the predominant specie was Ag(+). Both Ag(0) and Ag(+) species were detected on Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3. Ag(0) cooperation with MnOx may promote the migration of surface active oxygen. This would facilitate the oxidation of adsorbed toluene with CC bond already weakened by Ag(+) and would result in higher CO2 selectivity and better carbon balance as seen in the Ag-Mn(F)/γ-Al2O3 system.

  6. A Proteomic approach to discover and compare interacting partners of Papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Anderson, D. Eric; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; McBride, Alison A.

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a very successful group of viruses that replicate persistently in localized regions of the stratified epithelium of their specific host. Infection results in pathologies ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign warts, to malignant carcinomas. Despite this diversity, papillomavirus genomes are small (7-8 kbp) and contain at most eight genes. To sustain the complex papillomaviral life cycle, each viral protein has multiple functions and interacts with and manipulates a plethora of cellular proteins. In this study, we use tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify host factors that interact with eleven different papillomavirus E2 proteins from diverse phylogenetic groups. The E2 proteins function in viral transcription and replication and correspondingly interact with host proteins involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and modification, replication and RNA processing. PMID:25758368

  7. Modelling of the three-dimensional architecture of group I catalytic introns based on comparative sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Michel, F; Westhof, E

    1990-12-01

    Alignment of the 87 available sequences of group I self-splicing introns reveals numerous instances of covariation between distant sites. Some of these covariations cannot be ascribed to historical coincidences or the known secondary structure of group I introns, and are, therefore, best explained as reflecting tertiary contacts. With the help of stereochemical modelling, we have taken advantage of these novel interactions to derive a three-dimensional model of the conserved core of group I introns. Two noteworthy features of that model are its extreme compactness and the fact that all of the most evolutionarily conserved residues happen to converge around the two helices that constitute the substrate of the core ribozyme and the site that binds the guanosine cofactor necessary for self-splicing. Specific functional implications are discussed, both with regard to the way the substrate helices are recognized by the core and possible rearrangements of the introns during the self-splicing process. Concerning potential long-range interactions, emphasis is put on the possible recognition of two consecutive purines in the minor groove of a helix by a GAAA or related terminal loop.

  8. AG Pegasi - now a classical symbiotic star in outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T. V.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Zamanov, R. K.

    2016-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy study of the recent AG Pegasi (AG Peg) outburst observed during the second half of 2015 is presented. Considerable variations of the intensity and the shape of the spectral features as well as the changes of the hot component parameters, caused by the outburst, are discussed and certain similarities between the outburst of AG Peg and the outburst of a classical symbiotic stars are shown. It seems that after the end of the symbiotic nova phase, AG Peg became a member of the classical symbiotic stars group.

  9. FMRI Brain Activation in a Finnish Family with Specific Language Impairment Compared with a Normal Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Gundersen, Hilde; Brekke, Cecilie; Thomsen, Tormod; Rimol, Lars Morten; Ersland, Lars; Niemi, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in brain activation in a family with SLI as compared to intact individuals with normally developed language during processing of language stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor changes in neuronal activation in temporal and frontal lobe areas in 5…

  10. Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: a comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability.

    PubMed

    Ruebens, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Population dynamics between and within Pleistocene groups are vital to understanding wider behavioural processes like social transmission and cultural variation. The late Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5d-3, ca. 115,000-35,000 BP [years before present]) permits a novel, data-driven assessment of these concepts through a unique record: bifacial tools made by classic Neanderthals. Previously, studies of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tools were hampered by a convoluted plethora of competing terms, types and regional entities. This paper presents a large-scale intercomparison of this tool type, and bridges typo-technological and spatio-temporal data from across Western Europe (Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Germany). Results indicate a high level of variation among individual bifacial tools and assemblages. Each bifacial tool concept is correlated with various methods of production, resulting in large degrees of morphological variation. Despite such variation, a distinct three-fold, macro-regional pattern was identified: the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) in the southwest dominated by handaxes, the Keilmessergruppen (KMG) in the northeast typified by backed and leaf-shaped bifacial tools, and, finally a new unit, the Mousterian with Bifacial Tools (MBT), geographically situated between these two major entities, and characterised by a wider variety of bifacial tools. Differing local conditions, such as raw material or function, are not sufficient to explain this observed macro-regional tripartite. Instead, the MTA and KMG can be viewed as two distinct cultural traditions, where the production of a specific bifacial tool concept was passed on over generations. Conversely, the MBT is interpreted as a border zone where highly mobile groups of Neanderthals from both the east (KMG) and west (MTA) interacted. Principally, this study presents an archaeological contribution to behavioural concepts such as regionality, culture, social transmission and

  11. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-07-15

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  12. A comparative study of the diagnostic methods for Group A streptococcal sore throat in two reference hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Bomki, Cynthia Mbimenyuy; Djomou, François; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sore throat is a common complaint in general practice which is more frequent in children. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria associated with this infection is Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Test (RADT) facilitates the rapid identification and consequently prompt treatment of patients, prevents complications, and also reduces the risk of spread of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen detection test in patients with sore throat. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January to April 2011 on patients aged 3 to 72 years consulting for pharyngitis or sore throat at the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat units of the University Teaching Hospital Yaounde and the Central Hospital Yaounde. Two throat swabs were collected per patient. One was used for the rapid test and the other for standard bacteriological analysis. Results The prevalence of GAS in the study population was 22.5%. Out of the 71 samples collected, the RADT detected group A streptococcal antigens in 12 of 16 positive cultures giving a sensitivity of 75%. The specificity of the rapid test was 96%, with positive predictive value of 85.7%, and negative predictive value of 93% respectively. Conclusion Rapid test may have an additional value in the management of patients with high risk of having GAS infection. However, tests with a higher sensitivity are needed for accurate and reliable results for early diagnosis of patients with sore throat caused by GAS. PMID:27386017

  13. Diverse anisotropy of phonon transport in two-dimensional group IV-VI compounds: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Qin, Zhenzhen; Fang, Wu-Zhang; Zhang, Li-Chuan; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Yan, Qing-Bo; Hu, Ming; Su, Gang

    2016-05-01

    New classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures, are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and clean energy, where thermal transport is a fundamental physical parameter. In this paper, we systematically investigated the phonon transport properties of the 2D orthorhombic group IV-VI compounds of GeS, GeSe, SnS and SnSe by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations. Despite their similar puckered (hinge-like) structure along the armchair direction as phosphorene, the four monolayer compounds possess diverse anisotropic properties in many aspects, such as phonon group velocity, Young's modulus and lattice thermal conductivity (κ), etc. Especially, the κ along the zigzag and armchair directions of monolayer GeS shows the strongest anisotropy while monolayer SnS and SnSe show almost isotropy in phonon transport. The origin of the diverse anisotropy is fully studied and the underlying mechanism is discussed in details. With limited size, the κ could be effectively lowered, and the anisotropy could be effectively modulated by nanostructuring, which would extend the applications to nanoscale thermoelectrics and thermal management. Our study offers fundamental understanding of the anisotropic phonon transport properties of 2D materials, and would be of significance for further study, modulation and applications in emerging technologies.

  14. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  15. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  16. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  17. Identification, characterization, and comparative genomic distribution of the HERV-K (HML-2) group of human endogenous retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integration of retroviral DNA into a germ cell may lead to a provirus that is transmitted vertically to that host's offspring as an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). In humans, ERVs (HERVs) comprise about 8% of the genome, the vast majority of which are truncated and/or highly mutated and no longer encode functional genes. The most recently active retroviruses that integrated into the human germ line are members of the Betaretrovirus-like HERV-K (HML-2) group, many of which contain intact open reading frames (ORFs) in some or all genes, sometimes encoding functional proteins that are expressed in various tissues. Interestingly, this expression is upregulated in many tumors ranging from breast and ovarian tissues to lymphomas and melanomas, as well as schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and other disorders. Results No study to date has characterized all HML-2 elements in the genome, an essential step towards determining a possible functional role of HML-2 expression in disease. We present here the most comprehensive and accurate catalog of all full-length and partial HML-2 proviruses, as well as solo LTR elements, within the published human genome to date. Furthermore, we provide evidence for preferential maintenance of proviruses and solo LTR elements on gene-rich chromosomes of the human genome and in proximity to gene regions. Conclusions Our analysis has found and corrected several errors in the annotation of HML-2 elements in the human genome, including mislabeling of a newly identified group called HML-11. HML-elements have been implicated in a wide array of diseases, and characterization of these elements will play a fundamental role to understand the relationship between endogenous retrovirus expression and disease. PMID:22067224

  18. Does who you know in the positional hierarchy protect or hurt? Social capital, comparative reference group, and depression in two societies.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Does the socioeconomic status (SES) that one's (ego's) network members (alters) occupy indicate social resources or social comparison standards in the dynamics of health across culture? Using nationally representative data simultaneously collected from the United States and urban China, this study examines two competing theories-social capital and comparative reference group-in the two societies and compares their different application across the two societies using two cultural explanations, relational dependence and self-evaluation motive. Social capital theory expects absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions to protect health, and the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions to harm health. But comparative reference group theory predicts the opposite. Additionally, the relational dependence explanation anticipates social capital theory to be more applicable to urban China and comparative reference group theory to be more applicable to the United States. The self-evaluation motive explanation expects the same pattern across the two societies in the examination of the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions but the opposite pattern in the analysis of absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions. This study focuses on depressive symptoms and measures accessed occupational status. Results are consistent with the self-evaluation motive explanation. They support both social capital theory and comparative reference group theory in the United States but only the latter theory in urban China.

  19. Comparing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Recognition and Group Stress Surmounting Techniques Instructions on Changing University Students' Positive Attitudes towards Opiate Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most important strategies in preventing addiction is changing positive attitudes and stabilizing negative attitudes towards opiate abuse. Current research has been comparing the effectiveness of behavioral recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions on changing students' positive attitudes towards opiate abuse. Methods To determine the effectiveness of behavioral-recognition and group stress surmounting instructions on changing student’s positive attitudes towards opiate abuse, 90 students (45 boys and 45 girls) who had got good grades in attitude measuring questionnaire were chosen and were randomly assigned in 3 groups (two test groups and the control group) and then, were randomly replaced in 15 person groups with sex distinction. The research data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis method. Findings The results of pot-test analyses showed significant improvement compared with pretest analysis in both training methods and in both genders (P < 0.05). Then, the surmounting methods group training and recognition-behavioral group training both significantly improved positive attitudes towards opiate abuse in male and female students. Conclusion Behavioral-recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions brought about changes in students attitudes towards opiate abuse and these changes were more prominent in female students than in males. PMID:24494119

  20. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    PubMed

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work

  1. Impedance studies of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag. Technical report No. 15, August 1987-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, M.W.; Drstak, H.; Maly-Schreiber, M.

    1988-07-01

    The construction of the cell Ag/AgI/Ag beta alumina/AgI/Ag is described. The impedance of this cell was measured between .001 and 10000 Hz at temperatures between 20 and 550 C. At temperatures below 100 C the cell impedance is determined to a large extent by the bulk resistance of the AgI layer and to a smaller extent by the impedance of the interface Ag/Agi. At temperatures between 160 and 350 C the impedance is controlled by the bulk resistance of the Ag beta alumina and an impedance due to contact problems between Ag and AgI. The bulk resistance of the beta' alumina becomes predominant between 350 and 550 C. A hindrance due to the transfer of silver ions from AgI to Ag beta' alumina was not observable in the whole temperature range.

  2. A Randomized Trial Comparing Mail versus In-Office Distribution of the CAHPS Clinician and Group Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anastario, Michael P; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gallagher, Patricia M; Cleary, Paul D; Shaller, Dale; Rogers, William H; Bogen, Karen; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of survey distribution protocol (mail versus handout) on data quality and measurement of patient care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Multisite randomized trial of survey distribution protocols. Analytic sample included 2,477 patients of 15 clinicians at three practice sites in New York State. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mail and handout distribution modes were alternated weekly at each site for 6 weeks. Principal Findings Handout protocols yielded an incomplete distribution rate (74 percent) and lower overall response rates (40 percent versus 58 percent) compared with mail. Handout distribution rates decreased over time and resulted in more favorable survey scores compared with mailed surveys. There were significant mode–physician interaction effects, indicating that data cannot simply be pooled and adjusted for mode. Conclusions In-office survey distribution has the potential to bias measurement and comparison of physicians and sites on patient care experiences. Incomplete distribution rates observed in-office, together with between-office differences in distribution rates and declining rates over time suggest staff may be burdened by the process and selective in their choice of patients. Further testing with a larger physician and site sample is important to definitively establish the potential role for in-office distribution in obtaining reliable, valid assessment of patient care experiences. PMID:20579126

  3. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wijit, Adulsak; Taai, Kritsana; Dedkhad, Watcharatip; Hempolchom, Chayanit; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Srisuka, Wichai; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Saeung, Atiporn

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri), Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS) values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters) and males (wing and genitalia) indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species. PMID:27023618

  4. Comparing approaches for using climate projections in assessing water resources investments for systems with multiple stakeholder groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, Anthony; Harou, Julien

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has challenged conventional methods of planning water resources infrastructure investment, relying on stationarity of time-series data. It is not clear how to best use projections of future climatic conditions. Many-objective simulation-optimisation and trade-off analysis using evolutionary algorithms has been proposed as an approach to addressing complex planning problems with multiple conflicting objectives. The search for promising assets and policies can be carried out across a range of climate projections, to identify the configurations of infrastructure investment shown by model simulation to be robust under diverse future conditions. Climate projections can be used in different ways within a simulation model to represent the range of possible future conditions and understand how optimal investments vary according to the different hydrological conditions. We compare two approaches, optimising over an ensemble of different 20-year flow and PET timeseries projections, and separately for individual future scenarios built synthetically from the original ensemble. Comparing trade-off curves and surfaces generated by the two approaches helps understand the limits and benefits of optimising under different sets of conditions. The comparison is made for the Tana Basin in Kenya, where climate change combined with multiple conflicting objectives of water management and infrastructure investment mean decision-making is particularly challenging.

  5. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Gaur, Anshu; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2016-05-01

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  6. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Gennett, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  7. Allelic frequencies of the HLA-B17 antigen group: comparative analysis by serology, IEF and PCR-SSOP typing.

    PubMed

    Levine, J E; Yang, S Y

    1995-11-01

    Current typing technology for class I HLA antigens uses serological and/or isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. DNA typing for the HLA class I antigens can accurately identify the class I genotype of individuals and cell lines. Here, we report correlation of DNA typing results with serological and IEF results for the B17 group. The B17 antigens are relatively common, being carried by almost 9% of Caucasians and 28% of blacks. In this study, five 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop cell lines carrying B17 and 106 individuals in 61 families carrying B17 were DNA typed for B17 using B17-allele-specific amplification and sequence specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization pattern analysis. 38 (55.07%) out of 69 unrelated haplotypes had B*5701, 23 (33.33%) had B*5801, 6 (8.70%) had B*5702, and 2 (2.90%) had B*5802. DNA typing results correlated well with serological and isoelectric focusing results. In general, there was high degree of agreement between all three methods, although heterozygosity for B17 poses a particular problem for serological and IEF methodology. Both B*5701 and B*5801 have the same electrophoretic mobility on IEF gel, corresponding to B17.2, B*5702 corresponds to B17.1, while B*5802 corresponds to B17.3.

  8. Synthesis of functionalized Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) and the comparative study of their pendant groups on the cellular internalization behavior.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengzhen; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Meidong

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on the synthesis of Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) bearing benzyl-oxycarbonylmethyl and carboxylic groups and the comparative study to investigate the influence of the different pendant groups on the cellular behavior. The functionalized Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) bearing two kinds of pendant groups are synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and 6-(benzyl-oxycarbonyl methyl)-ε-caprolactone and followed by deprotection respectively. The structure of the copolymers is confirmed and the polymeric micelles are formed by an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The critical micelle concentrations are improved compared with Pluronic F127, the morphologies of the micelles are spherical with the diameter on nano scale and good colloidal stability. The copolymers have good cytocompatibility and the comparative study reveals that cellular internalization, digesting by lysosome and intracellular distribution are affected by the pendant groups, moreover, the endocytosis pathway is determined by the pendant groups. Therefore, the definite internalization mechanism is beneficial for the design of polymeric micellar carriers to achieve intra- or extracellular modes of drug delivery and provide better access to either cell membrane or intracellular organelles.

  9. A randomized study comparing three groups of vein harvesting methods for coronary artery bypass grafting: endoscopic harvest versus standard bridging and open techniques

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvaneswari; Critchley, William R.; Glover, Alex T.; Nair, Janesh; Jones, Mark T.; Waterworth, Paul D.; Fildes, James E.; Yonan, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The use of an open vein harvesting (OVH) technique for saphenous vein harvesting (SVH) is associated with wound complications and delayed patient mobilization. This has led to the development of minimally invasive vein harvesting (MIVH) techniques, such as standard bridging and endoscopic SVH (EVH). This randomized trial was established to assess immediate clinical outcome and patient satisfaction in our centre. METHODS A total of 150 consecutive patients were prospectively randomized into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 50 patients who underwent OVH, Group 2 consisted of 50 patients who underwent a standard bridging technique (SBT) and Group 3 consisted of 50 patients who underwent EVH. Each group was assessed for the incidence of wound infection, postoperative pain and satisfaction and the number of vein repairs using previously validated scoring systems. RESULTS The MIVH techniques reduced the pain at hospital (P < 0.001) and at 6 weeks (P < 0.001), and improved cosmesis (P < 0.001), compared with the OVH group. Patient satisfaction was greatest in the EVH group followed by the SBT and then the OVH group. The clinical markers of inflammation were reduced with an MIVHt. There were more vein repairs in the EVH compared with the OVH (P < 0.001) and the SBT (P = 0.04) groups. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that MIVH reduces wound morbidity. We believe that each technique has advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered during the selection of a harvesting procedure by both the patient and the surgeon. PMID:22611182

  10. Scanning for satisfaction or digging for dismay? Comparing findings from a postal survey with those from a focus group-study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite growing support for mixed methods approaches we still have little systematic knowledge about the consequences of combining surveys and focus groups. While the methodological aspects of questionnaire surveys have been researched extensively, the characteristics of focus group methodology are understudied. We suggest and discuss whether the focus group setting, as compared to questionnaire surveys, encourages participants to exaggerate views in a negative direction. Discussion Based on an example from our own research, where we conducted a survey as a follow up of a focus group study, and with reference to theoretical approaches and empirical evidence from the literature concerning survey respondent behaviour and small group dynamics, we discuss the possibility that a discrepancy in findings between the focus groups and the questionnaire reflects characteristics of the two different research methods. In contrast to the survey, the focus group study indicated that doctors were generally negative to clinical guidelines. We were not convinced that this difference in results was due to methodological flaws in either of the studies, and discuss instead how this difference may have been the result of a general methodological phenomenon. Summary Based on studies of how survey questionnaires influence responses, it appears reasonable to claim that surveys are more likely to find exaggerated positive views. Conversely, there are some indications in the literature that focus groups may result in complaints and overly negative attitudes, but this is still an open question. We suggest that while problematic issues tend to be under-communicated in questionnaire surveys, they may be overstated in focus groups. We argue for the importance of increasing our understanding of focus group methodology, for example by reporting interesting discrepancies in mixed methods studies. In addition, more experimental research on focus groups should be conducted to advance the

  11. Comparative transcriptome resources of eleven Primulina species, a group of 'stone plants' from a biodiversity hot spot.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Gao, Yong; Zhang, Xiaolong; Tao, Junjie; Kang, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-05-01

    The genus Primulina is an emerging model system in studying the drivers and mechanisms of species diversification, for its high species richness and endemism, together with high degree of habitat specialization. In this study, we sequenced transcriptomes for eleven Primulina species across the phylogeny of the genus using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 336 million clean reads were processed into 355 573 unigenes with a mean length of 1336 bp and an N50 value of 2191 bp after pooling and reassembling twelve individual pre-assembled unigene sets. Of these unigenes, 249 973 (70%) were successfully annotated and 256 601 (72%) were identified as coding sequences (CDSs). We identified a total of 38 279 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 367 123 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker validation assay revealed that 354 (27.3%) of the 1296 SSR and 795 (39.6%) of the 2008 SNP loci showed successful genotyping performance and exhibited expected polymorphism profiles. We screened 834 putative single-copy nuclear genes and proved their high effectiveness in phylogeny construction and estimation of ancestral population parameters. We identified a total of 85 candidate orthologs under positive selection for 46 of the 66 species pairs. This study provided an efficient application of RNA-seq in development of genomic resources for a group of 'stone plants' from south China Karst regions, a biodiversity hot spot of the World. The assembled unigenes with annotations and the massive gene-associated molecular markers would help guide further molecular systematic, population genetic and ecological genomics studies in Primulina and its relatives.

  12. Comparative trial of doxazosin and atenolol on cardiovascular risk reduction in systemic hypertension. The Alpha Beta Canada Trial Group.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, G; Dessain, P; Fodor, G; Newman, C; Palmer, W; Sim, D

    1993-03-01

    The impact of treating hypertension on coronary artery disease has been less than anticipated from epidemiologic studies of cardiovascular risk factors. It has been suggested that adverse effects on lipids of traditional diuretic or beta-blocker regimens may diminish the potential benefits of antihypertensive therapy. Patients with mild to moderate systemic hypertension and normal serum lipids (n = 191) were randomly assigned to doxazosin or atenolol. After dose titration to goal diastolic blood pressure of < or = 90 mm Hg, patients continued treatment for a further 24 weeks. The principal outcome measurement was overall coronary artery disease risk using the Framingham formula. Relative risk of coronary artery disease was reduced to 92.4% of baseline (p = 0.144) for evaluable patients taking atenolol (n = 71), and to 74.6% (p = 0.0001) for patients taking doxazosin (n = 51): atenolol versus doxazosin, p = 0.0074. In patients who met the strict Framingham criteria for age, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, the relative risk of coronary artery disease for patients taking atenolol (n = 23) was reduced to 86.2% of baseline (p = 0.082), and to 67.4% (p = 0.0004) for patients taking doxazosin (n = 18): atenolol versus doxazosin, p = 0.049. Alpha blockade with doxazosin was more effective than beta blockade with atenolol in reducing the risk of coronary artery disease in hypertensive patients because of the beneficial effects of doxazosin on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Overall withdrawal rate was greater in the alpha-blocker group because of a lower response rate and more adverse events.

  13. Comparing Multiple-Group Multinomial Log-Linear Models for Multidimensional Skill Distributions in the General Diagnostic Model. Research Report. ETS RR-08-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xueli; von Davier, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The general diagnostic model (GDM) utilizes located latent classes for modeling a multidimensional proficiency variable. In this paper, the GDM is extended by employing a log-linear model for multiple populations that assumes constraints on parameters across multiple groups. This constrained model is compared to log-linear models that assume…

  14. Ab inito study of Ag-related defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qixin; Xiong, Zhihua; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Guodong

    2008-12-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the structure and electronic properties of Ag-related defects in ZnO. The calculation results indicate that AgZn behaves as acceptor. Simultaneously, by comparing the formation energy and electronic structure of Ag-related defects in ZnO, Oi-AgZn behaves as acceptor in Ag-doped ZnO and it is better to gain p-type ZnO. However, Hi-AgZn complex has the lowest formation energy. Thus, the formation of the other point defects is greatly suppressed by the formation of Hi in Ag-doped ZnO. Moreover, the H atoms can be easily dissociated from hydrogen-passivated complexes by post-annealing at moderate temperatures, thus, codoping Ag with H may be a good method to achieve p-type in Ag-doped ZnO.

  15. Group service in macaques (Macaca fuscata), capuchins (Cebus apella) and marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): a comparative approach to identifying proactive prosocial motivations.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith Maria; van Schaik, Carel

    2013-05-01

    Proactive, that is, spontaneous, prosociality reflects a psychological interest in the welfare of others and has been reported in callitrichid monkeys, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and humans, but not in chimpanzees. One explanation for the co-occurrence of proactive prosociality in these species is that it is linked to shared infant care (cooperative breeding); alternatively, it might merely reflect unusually high social tolerance or be mediated by advanced cognitive abilities. To date, distinguishing between these alternative explanations is difficult, partly because available evidence is restricted to only a handful of species and partly because methodological differences thwart comparisons across studies. Here, we present an experimental paradigm called group service, which allows estimation of both social tolerance and proactive prosociality in group settings. Its simplicity makes it intuitively plausible to subjects and allows testing a broad variety of species, including in zoos. We applied the test to independently breeding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and capuchin monkeys with an intermediate breeding system. Social tolerance was slightly higher in marmosets than capuchins and much higher in both compared to macaques, but only marmosets provided a service to other group members. Furthermore, we validated the group service paradigm in the common marmosets by comparing their performance to earlier data. Although our results are consistent with the cooperative breeding hypothesis, a comprehensive evaluation requires adding data from additional groups and species, which should be facilitated by the group service approach.

  16. Contact Resistance of Ti-Si-C-Ag and Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarius, N. G.; Lauridsen, J.; Lewin, E.; Jansson, U.; Högberg, H.; Öberg, Å.; Sarova, G.; Staperfeld, G.; Leisner, P.; Eklund, P.; Hultman, L.

    2012-03-01

    Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd and Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings were deposited by direct-current magnetron sputtering on Cu substrates with an electroplated Ni layer. Analytical electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanocomposites consist of TiC, Ag:Pd, and amorphous SiC. The contact resistance of these coatings against a spherical Au-Co surface was measured for applied contact forces up to 5 N. Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd coatings with Ag:Pd top coating had ~10 times lower contact resistance at contact forces below 1 N (~10 mΩ at ~0.1 N), and 2 to 3 times lower for contact forces around 5 N (<1 mΩ at 5 N), compared with the Ti-Si-C-Ag coating.

  17. Effects of Ag nanomaterials (NM300K) and Ag salt (AgNO3) can be discriminated in a full life cycle long term test with Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Rita C; Ribeiro, Tânia; Rodrigues, Natália P; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2016-11-15

    Information on effects of silver nanoparticles on soil invertebrates, especially using long-term exposures, is scarce. In this study we investigated the effects of the reference Ag (NM300K) (compared to AgNO3) using the full life cycle test (FLCt) of the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus. Results showed that effects were higher compared to the standard reproduction test, which is shorter and does not cover the FLC. Both Ag forms caused a reduction on hatching success, juvenile and adult survival and reproduction with similar ECx. Differences between AgNO3 and Ag NM300K could be discriminated using the FLCt: AgNO3 decreased hatching success was shown to be a delay in the process, whereas Ag NM300K caused irreversible effects during the same time frame. These effects may have occurred during the embryo development, hatching (inhibition) or survival of hatched juveniles. Ag NM300K caused non-monotonic concentration-response effect as observed by the high effect of the lowest concentration (20mgkg-1). It is known that dispersion is higher at lower concentrations - this could explain the increased effect at low concentration. Non monotonic responses are well described in the literature, where effects of high cannot predict for low concentrations, hence special attention should be given for NMs low concentration effects. PMID:27474850

  18. Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices Determine the Rhizoctonia Anastomosis Groups Associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  19. Effectiveness of a psychological support program for relatives of people with mental disorders compared to a control group: a prandomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Polo-López, Rocío; Salaberría, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-05-01

    Families of people affected by mental illness may suffer an adverse effect on well-being. In this study, the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed for relatives of people with mental health problems was evaluated. The sample comprised 50 individuals: 30 in the experimental group, who completed assessment measures in pre-posttreatment and 6 months later, and 20 participants in the control group, who were assessed at baseline and 6 months later. In the experimental group, significant improvements in well-being were observed following the treatment and 6 months later, when compared to the control group, which did not demonstrate any significant changes in outcomes between the baseline and the second assessment 6 months later. This program has proven to be effective as a treatment for the relatives of people with mental disorders. Finally, several topics that may contribute to future research are discussed.

  20. Spectrophotometry of the shell around AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, P. Mila; Dufour, Reginald J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatially-resolved long-slit spectrophotometry are presented for two regions of the shell nebula around the P-Cygni variable star AG Carinae. The spectra cover the 3700-6800 A wavelength range. Emission-line diagnostics are used to derive extinction, electron temperatures, and densities for various positions in the nebula. The chemical abundances and ionization structure are calculated and compared with other types of planetary nebulae and shells around other luminous stars. It is found that the N/O and N/S ratios of Ag Car are high compared to solar neighborhood ISM values. The O/H depletion found for the AG Car shell approaches that found in the condensations of the Eta Car system.

  1. Spherical and sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures: interesting photocatalysts with unusual facet-dependent yet substrate-sensitive reactivity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunfan; Chen, Penglei; Xiao, Dan; Chen, Chuncheng; Zhu, Mingshan; Li, Tiesheng; Ma, Wangong; Liu, Minghua

    2015-01-13

    We herein report that spherical and sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures could be controllably synthesized by means of chemical reactions between AgNO3 and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant. In this synthesis system, AgNO3 works as the silver source, while CTAC serves not only as the chlorine source but also as the directing reagent for a controllable nanofabrication. We show that compared to the spherical Ag/AgCl nanostructures, the sheetlike counterparts, wherein the AgCl nanospecies are predominantly enriched with {111} facets, could exhibit superior catalytic performances toward the photodegradation of methyl orange. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that when 4-chlorophenol or phenol is used as the substrate, the sheetlike Ag/AgCl nanostructures exhibit inferior catalytic reactivity, whereas the spherical counterparts display superior catalytic performances comparatively. Our results disclose new insights on the facet-dependent catalytic performances with regard to a facet-selective but substrate-sensitive photoinduced electron-hole separation.

  2. Read-only memory disk with AgOx and AgInSbTe superresolution mask layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yang; Xu, Wendong; Gan, Fuxi

    2005-06-01

    Two novel read-only memory (ROM) disks, one with an AgOx mask layer and the other with an AgInSbTe mask layer, are proposed and studied. The AgOx and the AgInSbTe films sputtered on the premastered substrates with pit depths of 50 nm and pit lengths (space) of 380 nm are studied by atomic force microscopy. Disk readout measurement is carried out using a dynamic setup with a laser wavelength of 632.8 nm and an object lens numerical aperture (NA) of 0.40. Results show that the superresolution effect happens only at a suitable oxygen flow ratio for the AgOx ROM disk. The best superresolution readout effect is achieved at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.5 with the smoothest film surface. Compared with the AgOx ROM disk, the AgInSbTe ROM disk has a much smoother film surface and better superresolution effect. A carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of above 40 dB can be obtained at an appropriate readout power and readout velocity. The readout CNR of both the AgOx and AgInSbTe ROM disks have a nonlinear dependence on the readout power. The superresolution readout mechanisms for these ROM disks are analyzed and compared as well.

  3. Stability of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in amphiphilic organic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Elena I.; Klechkovskaya, Vera V.; Kopeikin, Victor V.; Buffat, Philippe A.

    2005-02-01

    Nano- and thin-film technologies based on novel systems associating metals particles to polymer matrix open a broad range of different applications. Such composites were found to be more efficient and safe, for instance, in biomedical needs. The Ag/poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (Ag/PVP) composite investigated in the present work is a new bactericide mean applied in complicated cases of infected burns and purulent wounds. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive (EDS) microanalysis were used to bring chemical and structural information in a study of the properties and stability of thin-film nanocomposite whih consisted of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in water-soluble organic matrix poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone). The nanostructural investigation of Ag/PVP composite by HRTEM and EDS exposed to SO 2 and H 2S from the atmosphere and some traces of S-containing substances explains the limited stability of this system by a structural modification associated with a phase change and formation of Ag 2S and Ag 2SO 3. However, formation of the hardly water-soluble Ag 2S and Ag 2SO 3 salts may play an important role in the suppression of bacterial growth. On the one hand, silver could block S-H groups in vital proteins and conduced to their destruction, in that way revealing the antibacterial power. On the other hand, antiseptic properties of Ag consist in binding the products of the protein decay.

  4. Blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Ag and Au nanoparticles for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Duo; Ge, Xiaosong; Lin, Xueliang; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the utility of blood surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on Au or Ag nanoparticles (NPs), respectively, for detection of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). A rapid home-made Raman system was employed for SERS measurement, and high quality SERS spectra can be recorded from blood plasma samples belonging to 60 healthy volunteers and 100 NPC patients, using both metallic NPs. The spectral differences under Ag-SERS measurement between the normal and cancer groups are more significant than Au-SERS. Principal component analysis combined with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used for differentiating the two blood groups with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 95%, respectively, using Ag-SERS method, which has almost a 20% improvement in diagnostic specificity in comparison to Au-SERS. This exploratory study demonstrates that blood SERS based on Ag NPs is capable of achieving a better diagnostic performance for NPC detection, and has promising potential for improving NPC screening.

  5. Acid-base titrations of functional groups on the surface of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus: comparing a chemical equilibrium model with ATR-IR spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Hannah T M; Bremer, Phil J; Daughney, Christopher J; McQuillan, A James

    2007-02-27

    Acid-base functional groups at the surface of Anoxybacillus flavithermus (AF) were assigned from the modeling of batch titration data of bacterial suspensions and compared with those determined from in situ infrared spectroscopic titration analysis. The computer program FITMOD was used to generate a two-site Donnan model (site 1: pKa = 3.26, wet concn = 2.46 x 10(-4) mol g(-1); site 2: pKa = 6.12, wet concn = 6.55 x 10(-5) mol g(-1)), which was able to describe data for whole exponential phase cells from both batch acid-base titrations at 0.01 M ionic strength and electrophoretic mobility measurements over a range of different pH values and ionic strengths. In agreement with information on the composition of bacterial cell walls and a considerable body of modeling literature, site 1 of the model was assigned to carboxyl groups, and site 2 was assigned to amino groups. pH difference IR spectra acquired by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxyl groups. The spectra appear to show a carboxyl pKa in the 3.3-4.0 range. Further peaks were assigned to phosphodiester groups, which deprotonated at slightly lower pH. The presence of amino groups could not be confirmed or discounted by IR spectroscopy, but a positively charged group corresponding to site 2 was implicated by electrophoretic mobility data. Carboxyl group speciation over a pH range of 2.3-10.3 at two different ionic strengths was further compared to modeling predictions. While model predictions were strongly influenced by the ionic strength change, pH difference IR data showed no significant change. This meant that modeling predictions agreed reasonably well with the IR data for 0.5 M ionic strength but not for 0.01 M ionic strength.

  6. Uptake pathway for Ag bioaccumulation in three benthic invertebrates exposed to contaminated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoo, H.; Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Lee, I.T.; Schlekat, C.E.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    We exposed 3 benthic invertebrates, the clam Macoma balthica, the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata and the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, to Ag-contaminated sediments to evaluate the relative importance of various uptake routes (sediments, porewater or overlying water, and supplementary food) for Ag bioaccumulation. Silver bioaccumulation was evaluated at 4 levels of sediment Ag (0.1, 0,3, 1,2 and 3.3 ??mol Ag g-1) and 2 levels of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), <0.5 or ???40 ??mol g-1, and compared among food treatments with or without Ag contamination, or with different food rations. L. plumulosus were incubated for 35 d in the Ag-contaminated sediments after 3 mo of Ag-sediment equilibration, and M. balthica and N. arenaceodentata for 19 d after 5 mo equilibration. Ag bioaccumulation in the 3 organisms was significantly correlated with 1N HCl-extractable Ag concentrations (Ag-SEM: simultaneously extracted Ag with AVS) in sediments. The Ag concentrations in porewater and overlying water were greatest in the sediments with least AVS, consistent with previous studies. Nevertheless, the amphipod and clam exposed to oxic sediments (<0.5 ??mol AVS g-1) accumulated amounts of Ag similar to those accumulated by organisms exposed to anoxic sediments (???40 ??mol AVS g-1), when Ag-SEM levels were comparable. The dissolved Ag source was important for bioaccumulation in the polychaete N. arenaceodentata. Amphipods fed Ag-contaminated food contained ???1.8-fold more tissue Ag concentrations than those fed uncontaminated food. As suggested in kinetic (DYMBAM) modeling studies, ingestion of contaminated sediments and food were the principle routes of Ag bioaccumulation by the benthic invertebrates during chronic exposure, but the relative importance of each uptake route differed among species.

  7. Comparing Coronary Artery Calcium among U.S. South Asians with Four Racial/Ethnic Groups: The MASALA and MESA studies

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Ewing, Susan K.; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Srivastava, Shweta; Dave, Swapna S; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) have high rates of cardiovascular disease which cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Few studies have examined coronary artery calcium (CAC) in South Asians. Methods We created a community-based cohort of South Asians in the United States and compared the prevalence and distribution of CAC to four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We compared 803 asymptomatic South Asians free of cardiovascular disease to the four MESA racial/ethnic groups (2,622 Whites, 1,893 African Americans, 1,496 Latinos and 803 Chinese Americans). Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any CAC was similar between White and South Asian men, but was lower in South Asian women compared to White women. After adjusting for all covariates associated with CAC, South Asian men were similar to White men and had higher CAC scores compared to African Americans, Latinos and Chinese Americans. In fully adjusted models, CAC scores were similar for South Asian women compared to all women enrolled in MESA. However, South Asian women ≥70 years had a higher prevalence of any CAC than most other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions South Asian men have similarly high CAC burden as White men, but higher CAC than other racial/ethnic groups. South Asian women appear to have similar CAC burden compared to other women, but have somewhat higher CAC burden in older age. The high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in South Asians may partly explain higher rates of cardiovascular disease in South Asians. PMID:24632509

  8. Exposure medium: key in identifying free Ag+ as the exclusive species of silver nanoparticles with acute toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-10

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L(-1) NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag(+) of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L(-1)) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L(-1)), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag(+), and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag(+) is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  9. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  10. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-01-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L−1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37–0.44 μg L−1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L−1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials. PMID:25858866

  11. Comparing the performance of the SF-6D and the EQ-5D in different patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N

    2014-01-01

    dos instrumentos não são directamente comparáveis.

  12. Geometry optimization and structural distribution of silver clusters from Ag 170 to Ag 310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xueguang; Yang, Xiaoli; Cai, Wensheng

    2008-07-01

    Silver clusters in the size range of 170-310 were optimized with a modified dynamic lattice search (DLS) method. Considering the computational complexity, only 21 clusters of several tens and magic numbers of atoms were investigated. The interaction of silver atoms is modeled by the Gupta potential. Results show that, between the 21 clusters, nine fcc and twelve m-Dh structures are obtained. Compared with the structures adopted by Ag 13 to Ag 160, the main motif is still m-Dh in the range of Ag 170-Ag 310, but the ratio of fcc structures obviously increases. It can, therefore, be deduced that the fcc motif is more stable for larger size silver clusters.

  13. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomi, Pandi; Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  14. A comparative study of the clinical efficacy and safety of agomelatine with escitalopram in major depressive disorder patients: A randomized, parallel-group, phase IV study

    PubMed Central

    Urade, Chetan S.; Mahakalkar, Sunil M.; Tiple, Prashant G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of agomelatine with escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), improve sleep in MDD patients and study the adverse effects of agomelatine. Materials and Methods: Randomized, parallel-group, open-label study. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to last post-baseline value in Hamilton depression rating scale and Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire scale. Both parametric and nonparametric tests were applied for analysis. Results: Within-group and between-groups comparison of the mean HAMD17 scores showed statistically significant changes (P < 0.0001). Escitalopram showed early onset of response and remission compared to agomelatine at 10th week (P < 0.0001) and 14th week (P < 0.0001), respectively. In agomelatine, within-group and between-groups change of the mean LSEQ score was statistically significant at subsequent follow-up visits (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Escitalopram is superior to agomelatine in efficacy, considering the early response, early remission, and better relief from symptoms of MDD in adults. Agomelatine may be preferred in MDD patients having insomnia as a predominant symptom. Liver function monitoring should be done in patients on long-term agomelatine therapy. PMID:26813706

  15. Demographic, Clinical and Hematological Profile of Children with Bronchiolitis: A Comparative Study between Respiratory Synctial Virus [RSV] and [Non RSV] Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brow, Edin; Mannu, Alexander; Vasudevan, Jaishree; Umadevi, Lala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute bronchiolitis is one of major disease affecting the lower airways in infants and children with Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) being most common causative organism accounting for 50%-80% of bronchiolitis cases. Aim To analyse the demographic characteristics, clinical features and haematological profile of children with Bronchiolitis. To compare the findings of demographic characteristics, clinical features and haematological profile between RSV and Non –RSV bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study, conducted in a teritiary care center for 1 year period from Jan 2015 to Dec 2015. The demographic characteristics, clinical features and haematological profile of children aged between 1 month to 3 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were noted in predesigned proforma, nasopharyngeal swab was sent for RSV analysis and then the findings of the parameters were compared between the two groups of RSV bronchiolitis and Non RSV bronchiolitis. Results Among 80 cases with 40 in each group, children below the age of 1year were affected more in RSV group, with male preponderance. Among the clinical features except that 89.7% of RSV cases had wheeze that was statistically significant with no difference in other features. Investigations showed no much difference in both the groups. Percentage of Non RSV subjects who received nebulisation with bronchodilators, steroid and antibiotic therapy were higher than RSV subjects. The hospital stay was significantly higher in RSV cases and none of the study participants met with mortality. Conclusion Children with RSV bronchiolitis had prolonged hospital stay compared to Non RSV group. Need for nebulisation with bronchodilators, steroids and antibiotic therapy was more in Non RSV group. PMID:27656520

  16. Fabrication of bioactive, antibacterial TiO2 nanotube surfaces, coated with magnetron sputtered Ag nanostructures for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Bae; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether a silver coating on an anodic oxidized titania (TiO2) nanotube surface would be useful for preventing infections in dental implants. We used a magnetron sputtering process to deposit Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 surface. We studied different sputtering input power densities and maintained other parameters constant. We used scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and contact angle measurements to characterize the coated surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus was used to evaluate antibacterial activity. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks that corresponded to metallic Ag, Ti, O, and biocompatible anatase phase TiO2 on the examined surfaces. The contact angles of the Ag nanoparticle-loaded surfaces were significantly lower at 2.5 W/cm2 input power under pulsed direct current mode compared to commercial, untreated Ti surfaces. In vitro antibacterial analysis indicated that a significantly reduced number of S. aureus were detected on an Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube surface compared to control untreated surfaces. No cytotoxicity was noted, except in the group treated with 5 W/cm2 input power density, which was the highest input of power density we tested for the magnetron sputtering process. Overall, we concluded that it was feasible to create antibacterial Ag nanoparticle-loaded titanium nanotube surfaces with magnetron sputtering. PMID:25942879

  17. Comparing the Information and Support Needs of Different Population Groups in Preparation for 2015 Government Approval for HIV Self-testing in France

    PubMed Central

    Greacen, Tim; Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Lydié, Nathalie; Ghosn, Jade; Champenois, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Context HIV self-tests are currently being introduced in France with the aim of promoting screening both for the general population and for high-risk populations. Objective The current study aimed to identify and compare the information and support needs of the different target population groups. Methods The Delphi process was used to synthesize expert opinions for each population group. Experts were chosen for their experience and expertise in the area of HIV and HIV screening for each population. Each group developed recommendations for a specific population: six high HIV prevalence populations (men who have sex with men; transgender people; substance users; migrants from sub-Saharan Africa; French West Indies; French Guiana) and two low prevalence populations (the general population; people under 25). Each group included expertise from four areas: research, screening and care, policy-making, and community groups. Results A final total of 263 recommendations were grouped into eight main themes: Communicating at both national and community levels about self-test arrival (24% of all recommendations); Providing information adapted to the different community groups’ needs (23%); Providing counselling on self-test use and access to care (15%); Making self-tests available to all in terms of accessibility and cost (13%); Preparing community healthcare and screening systems for the arrival of the self-test (11%); Approving only high quality self-tests (6%); Defending self-test users’ legal rights (5%); Evaluating self-test use (3%). Although a large number of recommendations were common to several groups of experts, the study highlighted a certain number of recommendations specific to each different population group, particularly with regard to information content and access both to information and to the self-tests themselves. Conclusion Results from the current study should make a significant contribution to policy decisions concerning catering for the specific

  18. Sunlight-driven Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x) photocatalysts: enhanced catalytic performances via continuous bandgap-tuning and morphology selection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingshan; Chen, Chuncheng; Chen, Penglei; Lei, Bin; Ma, Wanhong; Liu, Minghua

    2013-08-14

    The solid solution (SS) method is an effective way to design impactful photocatalysts, owing to its merit of continuous bandgap-tuning. A calcination, usually breaking the morphology of a material, has to be used to synthesize such catalysts, although the morphology is a critical issue affecting its catalytic behavior. It thus is strongly desired to construct SS-based catalysts with a shaped morphology. Here, we report that AgCl(1-x)Br(x) SS-based photocatalysts, Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x), with a shaped morphology, can be produced via an ion-exchange between nanostructured Ag-AgCl and KBr. It is found that when sphere-like Ag-AgCl is employed as a precursor, the Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x), maintains its morphology when x is in the range of 0-1. The bandgap, and the catalytic activities of these Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x) for the degradation of methyl orange, display a monotonic narrowing and a continuous enhancement, respectively, with the increase of x. In contrast, when cube-like Ag-AgCl is used as a precursor, the Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x) preserves its morphological features when x ≤ 0.5, while a morphology distortion is observed when x ≥ 0.75. Fascinatingly, although the bandgap of thus-constructed Ag-AgCl(1-x)Br(x) also exhibits a monotonic narrowing with the increase of x, they (x ≠ 0, 1) display enhanced catalytic activity compared with the two terminal materials, Ag-AgCl and Ag-AgBr, wherein Ag-AgCl0.5Br0.5, with a cube-like morphology, shows the highest catalytic performance. The synergistic effect of morphology selection and bandgap narrowing plays an important role for these intriguing new findings. Our work provides a unique forum for an optimized selection of SS-based photocatalysts in terms of morphology selection and bandgap-tuning.

  19. Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Depression Prevention Compared to Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control: Acute Effects of an Effectiveness Trial with Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Brière, Frédéric N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test whether a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) group and bibliotherapy prevention reduce major depressive disorder onset, depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes relative to brochure controls in adolescents with self-reported depressive symptoms when school personnel recruit participants and deliver the intervention. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-session CB group, minimal contact CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control. Participants were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results CB group participants showed a significantly lower risk for major depressive disorder onset (0.8%) compared to both CB bibliotherapy (6.3%) and brochure control (6.5%; HR = 8.1 and 8.3; respectively). Planned contrasts indicated that CB group resulted in lower depressive symptom severity than brochure control at posttest (p = .03, d = .29) but not 6-month follow-up; differences between CB group and bibliotherapy were nonsignificant at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Condition effects were nonsignificant for social adjustment and substance use. Conclusions The finding that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset relative to both brochure control and bibliotherapy is very encouraging, though effects on continuous outcome measures were small or nonsignificant and approximately half the magnitude of those found in efficacy research, potentially because the present sample reported lower initial depression. PMID:24099432

  20. Comparative Prospective Study of Load Distribution Projection Among Patients with Vertebral Fractures Treated with Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and a Control Group of Healthy Volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, Alexios Filippiadis, Dimitrios K. Vergadis, Chrysovalantis Tsitskari, Maria Nasis, Nikolaos Malagari, Aikaterini Kelekis, Nikolaos

    2013-04-12

    PurposeThrough a prospective comparison of patients with vertebral fractures and normal population, we illustrate effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) upon projection of load distribution changes.MethodsVertebroplasty group (36 symptomatic patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures) was evaluated on an electronic baropodometer registering projection of weight bearing areas on feet. Load distribution between right and left foot (including rear-front of the same foot) during standing and walking was recorded and compared before (group V1) and the day after (group V2) PV. Control group (30 healthy asymptomatic volunteers-no surgery record) were evaluated on the same baropodometer.ResultsMean value of load distribution difference between rear-front of the same foot was 9.45 ± 6.79 % (54.72–45.28 %) upon standing and 14.76 ± 7.09 % (57.38–42.62 %) upon walking in the control group. Respective load distribution values before PV were 16.52 ± 11.23 and 30.91 ± 19.26 % and after PV were 10.08 ± 6.26 and 14.25 ± 7.68 % upon standing and walking respectively. Mean value of load distribution variation between the two feet was 6.36 and 14.6 % before and 4.62 and 10.4 % after PV upon standing and walking respectively. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V1–V2, group V1-control group) is statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V2-control group) is not statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation among the two feet is statistically significant during walking but not statistically significant during standing.ConclusionsThere is a statistically significant difference when comparing load distribution variation prior vertebroplasty and that of normal population. After vertebroplasty, this difference normalizes in a statistically significant way. PV is efficient on equilibrium-load distribution improvement as well.

  1. Real-world comparative study of behavioral group therapy program vs education program implemented for smoking cessation in community-dwelling elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Deesomchok, Athavudh

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is known to be an important contributor to a wide variety of chronic diseases, especially in older adults. Information on health policy and practice, as well as evaluation of smoking cessation programs targeting older people, is almost nonexistent. Purpose To compare the real-world implementation of behavioral group therapy in relation to education alone for elderly smokers. Materials and methods Elderly smokers ready to quit smoking were identified from a cohort who completed a questionnaire at a smoking exhibition. They were allocated into two groups, behavioral therapy (3 days 9 hours) and education (2 hours), depending on their preferences. Demographic data, the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score, and exhaled carbon monoxide level were recorded at baseline. Smoking status of all subjects was followed at months 3, 6, and 12. Statistical differences in continuous abstinence rate (CAR) between the two groups were analyzed using chi-square tests. Results Two hundred and twenty-four out of 372 smoking exhibition attendants met the enrollment criteria; 120 and 104 elected to be in behavioral group therapy and education-alone therapy, respectively. Demographic characteristics and smoking history were similar between both groups, including age, age of onset of smoking, years of smoking, smoking pack-years, education level, and nicotine dependence as measured by the FTND scale. The CAR of the behavioral therapy group at the end of the study (month 12) was significantly higher than the education group (40.1% vs 33.3%, P=0.034). Similar results were also found throughout all follow-up visits at month 3 (57.3% vs 27.0%, P<0.001) and month 6 (51.7% vs 25%, P<0.001). Conclusion Behavioral group therapy targeting elderly smokers could achieve higher short-and long-term CARs than education alone in real-world practice. PMID:25926726

  2. A comparative study of 10% KOH solution and 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum in the pediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Chathra, Namitha; Sukumar, D.; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Kishore, B. Nanda; Martis, Jacintha; Kamath, Ganesh; Srinath, M. K.; Monteiro, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a self-limiting condition, active therapy could prevent further spread and improve cosmesis. Most of the available treatment modalities traumatize the lesions and have to be undertaken in the hospital, therefore evoking panic in children. In the quest for an alternative therapy, this study comparing 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and 5% imiquimod cream was taken up. Aims and Objectives: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of 10% KOH and 5% imiquimod in the treatment of MC. Materials and Methods: This comparative study was conducted over a period of 18 months from October 2011 to March 2013, 40 patients between the age group of 1-18 years with clinically diagnosed MC were divided into two groups (lottery method), 20 patients were treated with 5% imiquimod cream (Group A) and the other 20 were treated with 10% KOH solution (Group B). Patients were followed up on the 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, out of 20 patients who received 10% KOH, 17 patients showed complete disappearance, whereas out of 20 patients who received 5% imiquimod, only 10 patients showed total clearance of the lesions. Adverse events were more frequent with 10% KOH, pigmentary disturbances being the most common. Conclusion: With only minor adverse effects, 10% KOH is an inexpensive and efficient modality for the treatment of MC in the pediatric age group. Although 5% imiquimod was effective in clearing the lesions with minimal adverse effects, the longer duration required for its efficacy may deter its wider use. PMID:25821725

  3. Comparing Groups Using Continuous Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Even the application of such mainstays of the institutional researcher's statistical tool kit as the t test and ANOVA is not always as straightforward as it seems. The researcher must first check to see that the underlying methodological and statistical assumptions are being met. (Author)

  4. Adsorbate-Induced Segregation in a PdAg Membrane Model System: Pd3Ag(1 1 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Svenum, I. H.; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Venvik, H. J.

    2012-10-15

    Thin PdAg alloy membranes with 20–25% Ag are being developed for hydrogen separation technology. Despite many investigations on such membranes as well as representative experimental and theoretical model systems, unresolved issues remain concerning the effect of the alloy surface structure and composition on adsorption and vice versa. Therefore, the interaction between hydrogen, carbon monoxide or oxygen with the surface of a PdAg model alloy was studied using periodic self-consistent density functional theory (DFT-GGA) calculations. In particular, the adsorption structure, coverage dependence and possible adsorption-induced segregation phenomena were addressed using Pd3Ag(1 1 1) model surfaces with varying degrees of surface segregation. In agreement with previous experimental and theoretical investigations, we predict Ag surface termination to be energetically favorable in vacuum. The segregation of Ag is then reversed upon adsorption of H, CO or O. For these adsorbates, the binding is strongest on Pd three-fold hollow sites, and hence complete Pd termination is favored at high coverage of H or CO, while 25% Ag may remain under oxygen because of the lower O-saturation coverage. CO adsorption provides a somewhat stronger driving force for Pd segregation when compared to H, and this may have implications with respect to permeation properties of PdAg alloy surfaces. Our predictions for high coverage are particularly relevant in underlining the importance of segregation phenomena to the hydrogen transport properties of thin PdAg alloy membranes.

  5. A Comparative Investigation: Group 9 Cp*M(III)-Catalyzed Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition as an Atom-Economic Approach to Quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lerchen, Andreas; Glorius, Frank

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the catalytic activity of different group 9 [Cp*M(III)] complexes in the formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition of arenes with rarely explored free imines and dioxazolones for the construction of multisubstituted quinazolines is reported herein. This investigation revealed that the cobalt catalyst is uniquely suited to this transformation due to its strong Lewis acidity and high sensitivity to steric hindrance. PMID:27110724

  6. Understanding the High Prevalence of Diabetes in U.S. South Asians Compared With Four Racial/Ethnic Groups: The MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Herrington, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ewing, Susan K.; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Dave, Swapna S.; Qureshi, Fareeha; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We compared South Asians with four other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. to determine whether sociodemographic, lifestyle, or metabolic factors could explain the higher diabetes prevalence and whether insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction occurred at younger ages and/or lower adiposity levels compared with other groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts, the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); all participants had no known cardiovascular disease and were between 44 and 84 years of age. We compared 799 South Asians with 2,611 whites, 1,879 African Americans, 1,493 Latinos, and 801 Chinese Americans. Type 2 diabetes was classified by fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or use of a diabetes medication. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and β-cell function was measured by the HOMA-β model. RESULTS South Asians had significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes (23%) than the MESA ethnic groups (6% in whites, 18% in African Americans, 17% in Latinos, and 13% in Chinese Americans). This difference increased further after adjustment for potential confounders. HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher and HOMA-β levels were lower among South Asians compared with all other racial/ethnic groups after adjustment for age and adiposity. CONCLUSIONS The higher prevalence of diabetes in South Asians is not explained by traditionally measured risk factors. South Asians may have lower β-cell function and an inability to compensate adequately for higher glucose levels from insulin resistance. PMID:24705613

  7. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, functional dyspepsia (FD) can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA) and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS). The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group) in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT). Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78) for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR) for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills containing IFCA was superior

  8. “Nomophobia”: Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    King, Anna Lucia Spear; Valença, Alexandre Martins; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Sancassiani, Federica; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder refers to the frequent and recurring acute attacks of anxiety. Objective: This study describes the routine use of mobiles phones (MPs) and investigates the appearance of possible emotional alterations or symptoms related to their use in patients with panic disorder (PD). Background: We compared patients with PD and agoraphobia being treated at the Panic and Respiration Laboratory of The Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a control group of healthy volunteers. Methods: An MP-use questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 50 patients and 70 controls. Results: People with PD showed significant increases in anxiety, tachycardia, respiratory alterations, trembling, perspiration, panic, fear and depression related to the lack of an MP compared to the control group. Conclusions: Both groups exhibited dependence on and were comforted by having an MP; however, people with PD and agoraphobia showed significantly more emotional alterations as well as intense physical and psychological symptoms when they were apart from or unable to use an MP compared to healthy volunteers. PMID:24669231

  9. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; You, Ji-Ran; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Che, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period. Based on the results of an acute toxicity and a 14-day repeated toxicity study, 975.9, 1030.5 and 1000 mg kg(-1) were selected as the highest dose of the SiO2 , Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, for the 13-week repeated oral toxicity study. The SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not induce dose-related changes in a number of parameters associated with the systemic toxicity up to 975.9 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively, whereas the Ag nanoparticles resulted in increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver and kidney, raising the possibility of liver and kidney toxicity induced by the Ag nanoparticles. Compared with the SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing no systemic distribution in all tissues tested, the Ag concentration in sampled blood and organs in the Ag nanoparticle-treated group significantly increased with a positive and/or dose-related trend, meaning that the systemic toxicity of the Ag nanoparticles, including liver and kidney toxicity, might be explained by extensive systemic distribution of Ag originating from the Ag nanoparticles. Our current results suggest that further study is required to identify that Ag detected outside the gastrointestinal tract were indeed a nanoparticle form or ionized form.

  10. Adsorption of sulfur on Ag(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Shen, Mingmin; Liu, Da-Jiang; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2010-12-17

    We have used scanning tunneling microscopy and density Functional theory to investigate the structures formed by sulfur on Ag(100). As indicated by previous low-energy electron diffraction studies, the main phases have unit cells of p(2 x 2) and ({radical}17 x {radical}17)R14{sup o}. We show that the latter is a reconstruction. The favored structural model is one in which 5 Ag atoms are missing from the (100) surface plane per unit cell. The ejected Ag atoms combine with sulfur to form islands of the reconstructed phase on the terraces. The ({radical}17 x {radical}17)R14{sup o} phase coexists with the p(2 x 2), at sulfur coverages slightly above 0.25 monolayers. In addition, chain-like structures are observed in STM, both at room temperature (where they are dynamic) and below (where they are not). These results are compared with relevant literature for copper surfaces.

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaojuan Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan; Zhu, Yunyan; He, Changfa; Liu, Minghua Lin, Chunxiang; Liu, Yifan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. • Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a deposition–precipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 °C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.

  12. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-14

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  13. Immunogenicity and therapeutic effects of Ag85A/B chimeric DNA vaccine in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xueqiong; Zhang, Junxian; Xiao, Li; Yang, Yourong; Bai, Xuejuan; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhongming; Bi, Lan; Li, Ning; Wu, Xiaoli

    2012-12-01

    The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is very severe in China. New therapeutic agents or regimens to treat TB are urgently needed. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were given immunotherapy intramuscularly with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA or saline, plasmid vector pVAX1, or Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine. The mice treated with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA showed significantly higher numbers of T cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), more IFN-γ in splenocyte culture supernatant, more Th1 and Tc1 cells, and higher ratios of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in whole blood, indicating a predominant Th1 immune response to treatment. Infected mice treated with doses of 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA had an extended time until death of 50% of the animals that was markedly longer than the saline and vector control groups, and the death rate at 1 month after the last dose was lower than that in the other groups. Compared with the saline group, 100 μg Ag85A/B chimeric DNA and 100 μg Ag85A DNA reduced the pulmonary bacterial loads by 0.79 and 0.45 logs, and the liver bacterial loads by 0.52 and 0.50 logs, respectively. Pathological changes in the lungs were less, and the lesions were more limited. These results show that Ag85A/B chimeric DNA was effective for the treatment of TB, significantly increasing the cellular immune response and inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis.

  14. Intraspecific variation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates recovered from potato fields in Central Iran and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Balali, G R; Neate, S M; Kasalkheh, A M; Stodart, B J; Melanson, D L; Scott, E S

    2007-02-01

    Pectic zymogram, RFLP and PCR analyses were used to characterize Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates collected from diseased potatoes in South Australia. The pectic zymogram data were compared with those obtained for isolates collected from central Iran. Analyses of bands corresponding to pectin esterase and polygalacturonase revealed three zymogram subgroups (ZG) in AG 3. In addition to the previously reported ZG7 (here renamed ZG7-1), two new zymogram subgroups, ZG7-2 and ZG7-3, were identified. Of the 446 isolates tested, 50% of the South Australian and 46% of the Iranian isolates were ZG7-1. The majority of the isolates originating from stem and root cankers were ZG7-1, whereas most of the isolates designated ZG7-2 and ZG7-3 originated from tuber-borne sclerotia. Pathogenicity tests revealed that ZG7-1 generally produced fewer sclerotia and more severe cankers of underground parts of the potato plants than the other two ZGs. Two random DNA clones, one originating from an AG 3 isolate and the other from an AG 4 isolate, were used as probes for RFLP analyses of Australian isolates. The AG 3 probe, previously identified to be specific to this group, detected a high level of genetic diversity, with 11 genotypes identified amongst 50 isolates analysed. The low-copy AG 4 probe resolved three genotypes amongst 24 isolates. For 23 isolates analysed with both markers, the combined data distinguished a total of six genotypes and similarity analysis resolved the isolates into two main groups with 50% homology. PCR, using primers for the plant intron splice junction region (R1), also revealed variation. No obvious relationship among pectic zymogram groups, RFLP and PCR genotypes was observed.

  15. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  16. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  17. Microstructure and thermal conduction properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.M.; Tuan, W.H.

    1996-02-01

    Microstructure and thermal conduction properties involving thermal diffusivity and conductivity of composite, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag, were investigated. The Ag particles observed in the composites were spread sporadically throughout the composite with inclusion size increasing with Ag content, rather than forming a network of thin film foil. Thermal conductivity of the composite increased with Ag content and followed composite theory prediction with a negligible influence of interfacial contact resistance. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity became less pronounced with increasing Ag content reflecting the nature of electron contribution in Ag rather than the typical phonon contribution in polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The lower composite conductivity at higher Ag contents as compared to theoretical predictions is due primarily to the residual pore phase, associated with the cavity formation for the composite containing 10 vol.% Ag.

  18. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R.; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. Materials and Methodology: For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. Results: The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P < 0.001). And there was no statistically significant difference when assessment using a periodontal probe was compared to direct measurement (P < 0.676). There is no correlation for the Biotype among the different age groups. Conclusion: Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement. PMID:26929533

  19. Evaluating a Web-Based Health Risk Assessment With Tailored Feedback: What Does an Expert Focus Group Yield Compared to a Web-Based End-User Survey?

    PubMed Central

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique WM

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Methods Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. Results We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior

  20. Freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ precursors to novel AgBr/AgCl-Ag hybrid nanocrystals for visible-light-driven photodegradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Wenjie; Ge, Lianfang; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Lu, Hongxia; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Daoyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals with various molar Br-to-Ag ratios (RBr/Ag = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1) and different photoreduction times (0-20 min) were synthesized via stepwise liquid-solid reactions using the freeze-dried PVP-Ag+ hybrid as the Ag source, followed by a photoreduction reaction. The AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals obtained take on a spherical morphology with a particle-size range of 58 ± 15 nm. The photocatalytic performance of AgBr/AgCl-Ag nanocrystals was evaluated by photodegrading organic dyes, 4-chlorophenol and isopropanol under artificial visible light (λ ⩾ 420 nm, 100 mW cm-2). For the decomposition of rhodamine B, the AgBr/AgCl-Ag7.5(1:2) nanocrystals has a photodegradation rate of ∼0.87 min-1, ∼159 times higher than that (∼0.0054 min-1) of TiO2 (P25), whereas the AgCl-Ag and AgBr-Ag nanocrystals have photodegradation rates of 0.35 min-1 and 0.45 min-1, respectively. The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the ternary system consisting of AgBr, AgCl and Ag species plays a key role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance.

  1. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group study to compare subcutaneous interferon alpha-2a plus podophyllin with placebo plus podophyllin in the treatment of primary condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D K; Maw, R D; Dinsmore, W W; Morrison, G D; Pattman, R S; Watson, P G; Nathan, P M; Moss, T; Nayagam, A; Wade, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The primary objective was to determine if six weeks treatment with subcutaneous interferon alpha-2a (IFN) and podophyllin 25% W/V administered twice per week, preceded by IFN alpha-2a three times weekly for one week showed a greater complete response rate in patients with primary condylomata acuminata when assessed at week 10 than treatment with podophyllin and placebo injections in the same schedule. The secondary objective was to compare recurrence rates in complete responders at six months in the two treatment groups. DESIGN--Randomised, double-blind parallel group study. SETTING--Multicentre study in six genitourinary clinics within the U.K. PATIENTS--One hundred and twenty-four patients with primary anogenital warts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Complete response rate at week 10, and recurrence rate at week 26 in complete responders. RESULTS--At week 10 analysis of the efficacy population showed complete response in 36% (15/42 patients) of IFN-treated group and 26% (11/43 patients) in the placebo group (no significant difference). Analysis of the safety population at week 26 showed persistence of the complete response in 57% (8/14 patients) of the IFN-treated group and 80% (12/15 patients) of the placebo group (no significant difference). Adverse effects were more common in IFN-treated patients, involved particularly application site reaction and malaise but were generally mild. CONCLUSIONS--At the dose and with the regime described treatment with IFN alpha-2a in combination with podophyllin is no more effective in the treatment of primary anogenital warts than podophyllin alone and is associated with more adverse events. PMID:7705855

  2. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brima, Eid I; Haris, Parvez I; Jenkins, Richard O; Polya, Dave A; Gault, Andrew G; Harrington, Chris F

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 microg/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 microg/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 microg/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 microg/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 microg/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 microg/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 microg/kg), Asians (117.4 microg/kg) and Whites (141.2 microg/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

  3. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Brima, Eid I.; Haris, Parvez I. . E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk; Jenkins, Richard O.; Polya, Dave A.; Gault, Andrew G.; Harrington, Chris F.

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about arsenic (As) metabolism in healthy populations that are not exposed to high concentrations of As in their food or water. Here we present a study with healthy volunteers from three different ethnic groups, residing in Leicester, UK, which reveals statistically significant differences in the levels of total As in urine and fingernail samples. Urine (n = 63), hair (n = 36) and fingernail (n = 36) samples from Asians, Somali Black-Africans and Whites were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The results clearly show that the total concentrations of As in urine and fingernail samples of a Somali Black-African population (urine 7.2 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 723.1 {mu}g/kg) are significantly (P < 0.05) different from the Asian (urine 24.5 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 153.9 {mu}g/kg) and White groups (urine 20.9 {mu}g/g creatinine; fingernails 177.0 {mu}g/kg). The chemical speciation of As in the urine of the three groups was also measured using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. This showed that the proportion of the total urinary As present as dimethylarsenate (DMA) was higher for the Somali Black-African group (50%) compared to the Asians (16%) and Whites (22%). However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of As in the hair samples from these three groups; Somali Black-Africans (116.0 {mu}g/kg), Asians (117.4 {mu}g/kg) and Whites (141.2 {mu}g/kg). Significantly different levels of total As in fingernail and urine and a higher percentage of urinary DMA in the Somali Black-Africans are suggestive of a different pattern of As metabolism in this ethnic group.

  4. The Evolution of HIV-1 group M Genetic Variability in Southern Cameroon is characterized by Several Emerging Recombinant Forms of CRF02_AG and viruses with drug resistance mutations

    PubMed Central

    Agyingi, Lucy; Mayr, Luzia M; Kinge, Thompson; Orock, George Enow; Ngai, Johnson; Asaah, Bladine; Mpoame, Mbida; Hewlett, Indira; Nyambi, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Cameroon is marked by a broad genetic diversity dominated by Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs). Studies performed more than a decade ago in urban settings of Southern Cameroon revealed a dominance of the CRF02_AG and clade A variants in >90% of the infected subjects; however, little is known about the evolving viral variants circulating in this region. To document circulating HIV viral diversity, four regions of the viral genome (gag, PR, reverse transcriptase, env) in 116 HIV-1 positive individuals in Limbe, Southern Cameroon, were PCR-amplified. Sequences obtained at the RT and protease regions were analyzed for mutations that conferred drug resistance using the Stanford Drug Resistance Database. The present study reveals a broad genetic diversity characterized by several unique recombinant forms (URF) accounting for 36% of infections, 48.6% of patients infected with CRF02_AG, and the emergence of CRF22_01A1 in 7.2% of patients. Three out of 15 (20%) treated patients and 13 out of 93 (13.9%) drug naïve patients harbor drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors, while 3.2% of drug naïve patients harbor drug resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors. The high proportion (13.9%) of drug resistance mutations among the drug naïve patients reveals the ongoing transmission of these viruses in this region of Cameroon and highlights the need for drug resistance testing before starting treatment for patients infected with HIV-1. PMID:24248638

  5. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Positive Psychotherapy and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for the Patients Suffering From Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Asgharipoor, Negar; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar; Arshadi, Hamidreza; Sahebi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of two different approaches towards the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD): Positive-oriented psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavior therapy. Methods: Eighteen out-patients suffering from major depression were randomly divided into two groups to be treated according to either of these two approaches. Both groups undertook the treatments for 12 weeks. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory, Subjective Wellbeing Scale, Oxford test of Happiness, and the scale of Subjective Units of Distress before and after the treatments. Results: The results show significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of happiness and mental distress, suggesting that effectiveness of positive psychotherapy is more than cognitive-behavioral therapy in increasing happiness. These two approaches were significantly different in neither decreasing the acuteness of depression symptoms nor increasing subjective wellbeing. Conclusion: As a whole, the results of this comparative study indicate that positive psychotherapy is more effective in increasing happiness among MDD patients. PMID:24644480

  6. Differences in the Visual Perception of Symmetric Patterns in Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) and Two Human Cultural Groups: A Comparative Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Mühlenbeck, Cordelia; Liebal, Katja; Pritsch, Carla; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric structures are of importance in relation to aesthetic preference. To investigate whether the preference for symmetric patterns is unique to humans, independent of their cultural background, we compared two human populations with distinct cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German town dwellers) with one species of non-human great apes (Orangutans) in their viewing behavior regarding symmetric and asymmetric patterns in two levels of complexity. In addition, the human participants were asked to give their aesthetic evaluation of a subset of the presented patterns. The results showed that humans of both cultural groups fixated on symmetric patterns for a longer period of time, regardless of the pattern’s complexity. On the contrary, Orangutans did not clearly differentiate between symmetric and asymmetric patterns, but were much faster in processing the presented stimuli and scanned the complete screen, while both human groups rested on the symmetric pattern after a short scanning time. The aesthetic evaluation test revealed that the fixation preference for symmetric patterns did not match with the aesthetic evaluation in the Hai//om group, whereas in the German group aesthetic evaluation was in accordance with the fixation preference in 60 percent of the cases. It can be concluded that humans prefer well-ordered structures in visual processing tasks, most likely because of a positive processing bias for symmetry, which Orangutans did not show in this task, and that, in humans, an aesthetic preference does not necessarily accompany the fixation preference. PMID:27065184

  7. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  8. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  9. Compared to whom? Subjective social status, self-rated health, and referent group sensitivity in a diverse U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S. V.; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Weber, Deanne; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Emerging research has revealed that subjective social status (SSS), or how people perceive their position in the social hierarchy, is significantly associated with multiple health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how this association is affected by the person or group to whom respondents are comparing themselves. While previous studies have used distal referent groups when assessing SSS, scholars have suggested that individuals may prefer to make comparisons to those who share similar characteristics to themselves. Overall, there has been little empirical analysis assessing the health impact of comparing oneself to one referent group over another. Using a diverse, national U.S. sample (n=3,644), this study explores whether the relationship between SSS and self-rated health is sensitive to the referent used for social comparison. Data are from respondents who completed the Styles mail surveys and who have assessed their SSS against four referents: others in American society, others of the same race or ethnicity, neighbors, and parents at the same age. Self-rated health was the dependent variable, while we controlled for household income, education, home ownership, race/ethnicity, and other covariates. In logistic regression models, SSS using each of the four referents was significantly associated with self-rated health, but the model using the referent of others in American society had the strongest association with self-rated health and was the most parsimonious. Findings validate previous studies which typically have used a more distal referent such as others in American society in exploring the SSS-health relationship. However, future work should explore whether this referent is salient to diverse population groups when making social comparisons. Researchers may also want to consider using SSS as an additional status measure since it may capture more subtle differences in the status hierarchy than traditional economic measures. PMID:20381225

  10. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n = 210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27–45 kg/m2, and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information in how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. PMID:24486636

  11. Transport of engineered silver (Ag) nanoparticles through partially fractured sandstones.

    PubMed

    Neukum, Christoph; Braun, Anika; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-08-01

    Transport behavior and fate of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the subsurface is of major interest concerning soil and groundwater protection in order to avoid groundwater contamination of vital resources. Sandstone aquifers are important groundwater resources which are frequently used for public water supply in many regions of the world. The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of AgNP transport behavior in partially fractured sandstones. We executed AgNP transport studies on partially fissured sandstone drilling cores in laboratory experiments. The AgNP concentration and AgNP size in the effluent were analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation mainly. We employed inverse mathematical models on the measured AgNP breakthrough curves to identify and quantify relevant transport processes. Physicochemical filtration, time-dependent blocking due to filling of favorable attachment sites and colloid-facilitated transport were identified as the major processes for AgNP mobility. Physicochemical filtration was found to depend on solute chemistry, mineralogy, pore size distribution and probably on physical and chemical heterogeneity. Compared to AgNP transport in undisturbed sandstone matrix reported in the literature, their mobility in partially fissured sandstone is enhanced probably due to larger void spaces and higher hydraulic conductivity.

  12. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  13. AG Pegasi - now a classical symbiotic star in outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T. V.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Zamanov, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Optical spectroscopy study of the recent AG Peg outburst observed during the second half of 2015 is presented. Considerable variations of the intensity and the shape of the spectral features as well as the changes of the hot component parameters, caused by the outburst, are discussed and certain similarities between the outburst of AG Peg and the outburst of a classical symbiotic stars are shown. It seems that after the end of the symbiotic nova phase, AG Peg became a member of the classical symbiotic stars group.

  14. Genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 from potato and tobacco in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Paulo C; Shew, H David; Vilgalys, Rytas J; Cubeta, Marc A

    2002-01-01

    Anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) of Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph = Thanatephorus cucumeris) is frequently associated with diseases of potato (AG-3 PT) and tobacco (AG-3 TB). Although isolates of R. solani AG-3 from these two Solanaceous hosts are somatically related based on anastomosis reaction and taxonomically related based on fatty acid, isozyme and DNA characters, considerable differences are evident in their biology, ecology, and epidemiology. However, genetic diversity among field populations of R. solani AG-3 PT and TB has not been documented. In this study, the genetic diversity of field populations of R. solani AG-3 PT and AG-3 TB in North Carolina was examined using somatic compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) criteria. A sample of 32 isolates from potato and 36 isolates from tobacco were paired in all possible combinations on PDA plus activated charcoal and examined for their resulting somatic interactions. Twenty-eight and eight distinct somatic compatibility groups (SCG) were identified in the AG-3 PT and AG-3 TB samples, respectively. AFLP analyses indicated that each of the 32 AG-3 PT isolates had a distinct AFLP phenotype, whereas 28 AFLP phenotypes were found among the 36 isolates of AG-3 TB. None of the AG-3 PT isolates were somatically compatible or shared a common AFLP phenotype with any AG-3 TB isolate. Clones (i.e., cases where two or more isolates were somatically compatible and shared the same AFLP phenotype) were identified only in the AG-3 TB population. Four clones from tobacco represented 22% of the total population. All eight SCG from tobacco were associated with more than one AFLP phenotype. Compatible somatic interactions between AG-3 PT isolates occurred only between certain isolates from the same field (two isolates in each of four different fields), and when this occurred AFLP phenotypes were similar but not identical.

  15. Annealing behaviour of c-SiO 2 implanted layer distributed with high density Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengxin; Wang, Honghong

    1997-01-01

    High volume density Ag nanoparticles embedded in c-SiO 2 matrix have been prepared by Ag ion implantation at an energy of 200 keV and a current density of about 20 μA/cm 2 to a nominal dose of 6.7 × 10 16ions/cm 2 at RT. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image indicates that Ag nanoparticles show two groups of sizes: the larger diameter is about 25 nm and the smaller is less than 10 nm. RBS spectra show that the distribution of implanted Ag atoms is bimodal which is associated with the two groups of nanoparticles above. Thermal stability of the implanted layer which consists of Ag nanoparticles, dissolved Ag atoms and c-SiO 2 matrix has been investigated by RBS, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. RBS spectra prove that little migration of Ag atoms is found and Ag nanoparticles are considerably stable at 300°C annealing. Though the obvious change in the distribution of Ag is observed at 400°C annealing in RBS spectra, TEM image identifies that both the larger and the smaller Ag nanoparticles still exist at relatively stable state. Following 750°C annealing, Ag atoms drastically move, and furthermore, the bimodal character of the distribution disappears. On the other hand, the amorphized SiO 2 implanted layer recrystal after 300°C, 400°C annealing.

  16. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  17. AGS preinjector improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, H.N.; Brodowski, J.; Gough, R.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Witkover, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a polarized H/sup -/ source was installed to permit the acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS, using a low current, 750 keV RFQ Linear Accelerator as the preinjector. This RFQ was designed by LANL and has proved to be quite satisfactory and reliable. In order to improve the reliability and simplify maintenance of the overall AGS operations, it has been decided to replace one of the two 750 keV Cockcroft-Waltons (C-W) with an RFQ. The design of a new high current RFQ has been carried out by LBL and is also being constructed there. This paper describes the preinjector improvement project, centered around that RFQ, which is underway at BNL.

  18. Asymmetrical Precipitation of Ag3Sn Intermetallic Compounds Induced by Thermomigration of Ag in Pb-Free Microbumps During Solid-State Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Ping; Wu, Chun-Sen; Ouyang, Fan-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional integrated circuit technology has become a major trend in electronics packaging in the microelectronics industry. To effectively remove heat from stacked integrated circuitry, a temperature gradient must be established across the chips. Furthermore, because of the trend toward higher device current density, Joule heating is more serious and temperature gradients across soldered joints are expected to increase. In this study we used heat-sink and heat-source devices to establish a temperature gradient across SnAg microbumps to investigate the thermomigration behavior of Ag in SnAg solder. Compared with isothermal conditions, small Ag3Sn particles near the hot end were dissolved and redistributed toward the cold end under a temperature gradient. The results indicated that temperature gradient-induced movement of Ag atoms occurred from the hot side toward the cold side, and asymmetrical precipitation of Ag3Sn resulted. The mechanism of growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) Ag3Sn, caused by thermomigration of Ag, is discussed. The rate of growth Ag3Sn IMC at the cold side was found to increase linearly with solid-aging time under a temperature gradient. To understand the force driving Ag diffusion under the temperature gradient, the molar heat of transport ( Q*) of Ag in Sn was calculated as +13.34 kJ/mole.

  19. Facile formation of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) hybrid nanorods with enhanced visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Caiyun; Zheng, Changcheng; Etogo, Atangana; Xie, Yunlong; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX hybrid nanorods were prepared by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction. • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods and different X{sup −} ions were reacted in water at room temperature. • The hybrids possess significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. • Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgBr hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity among three samples. • The active species tests were also investigated to confirm photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrated a general strategy for the preparation of a series of uniform Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) hybrid nanorods by a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction occurring at room temperature between pregrown Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods and different X{sup −} ions in water. Compared with Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanorods, further investigation has revealed that the as-prepared hybrid nanorods possess significantly enhanced photocurrent response and photocatalytic activity in degrading methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. In particular, the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/AgBr hybrid nanorods exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity among the three kinds of samples. The active species tests indicate that superoxide anion radicals and photogenerated holes are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  20. [Comparative study of the toxic, anaphylactoid, and sensitizing properties of 5-sulfo-8-mercaptoquinolinates of metals of the 8th and 3d groups of the periodic table].

    PubMed

    Tomilets, V A; Zakharova, I A; Dontsov, V I; Ado, V A

    1980-04-01

    Pronounced allergizing action of the compounds of group VIII metals of the periodic system, observed in occupational pathology and commencement of their wide clinical application as cancerostatic agents require a comprehensive study of the properties of these substances. Anaphylactoid, toxic and genuine sensitizing action of 5-sulfo-8-mercapto-quinolinates of group YIII metals and those of group III metals having similar properties was studied and compared with reference to 8 compounds. It was shown that histamine liberation from mast cells induced by these substances as well as inhibition of the respiration of mast cells depend on the central atom and electronic structure of the ligand. The mechanism of histamine liberation observed was similar to that of specific antigen and was related to the preservation of the respiratory processes, the system of microtubules and cell cyclic nucleotides. The compounds tested were also capable of sensitizing the animal in intracutaneous injection of the substance without exogenous carrier. Sensitization developed according to the reaction of both the immediate and delayed types.

  1. Hypoalbuminemia in drug-free patients with major depressive disorder compared with a dietary matched control group: a clinical meaning beyond malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Winston W; Chang, Hui-Chih; Wu, Po-Lun; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2005-03-01

    Serum albumin (sALB) is routinely determined in blood tests and is an excellent predictor of risk for many medical illnesses. Hypoalbuminemia has been sporadically reported in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We compared sALB levels between 19 drug-free patients of major depressive disorder with a control group of matching diets. We conducted this study by controlling the nutrition factor by assessing patient's diets, as well as other possible confounding factors such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), liver function, and exercise, while focusing on hypoalbuminemia in patients with major depressive disorder. There is no difference in age, gender distribution, and dietary frequency on protein and albumin intake between the patient and control group. The sALB levels of the group with major depressive disorder were significantly reduced (p=0.049). The severity of depression is negatively correlated to the sALB level (r=-0.46, p=0.04). Hypoalbuminemia has clinical meanings on severity of depression and is independent of malnutrition. However, our results can only be seen as very preliminary and should be confirmed by larger studies.

  2. Controllable galvanic synthesis of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes for efficient electrocatalytic methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Yu, Sijia; Chen, Junze; Liao, Yusen; Xue, Can

    2015-06-01

    Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes were successfully synthesized through galvanic replacement by using Ag nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The ridge thickness of the Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes could be readily tuned by adjusting the amount of the Pd source during the reaction. These obtained triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the methanol oxidation reaction as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow-framed structures. This work would be highly impactful in the rational design of future bimetallic alloy nanostructures with high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.

  3. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Ronchi, Luiz Sérgio; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Castiglioni, Lílian; Netinho, João Gomes; Cavasini, Carlos Eugênio; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region—rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD. PMID:26599761

  4. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Ronchi, Luiz Sérgio; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Castiglioni, Lílian; Netinho, João Gomes; Cavasini, Carlos Eugênio; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region--rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD.

  5. Room temperature synthesis and photocatalytic property of AgO/Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterojunction nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Muhammad; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue; Wan, Buyong; Xu, Jing

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The AgO nanoparticles are attached on the surface of the Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires to form a heterojunction structure. The AgO nanoparticles start embedding into the nanowires with increasing reaction temperature or time. Highlights: ► AgO/Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterojunction NWs were synthesized at room temperature for the first time. ► AgO particles embed into the Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} NWs with increase in reaction time and temperature. ► The heterojunction NWs display much better photocatalytic activity than the none-heterojunction NWs. ► The catalytic mechanism was proposed. -- Abstract: AgO/Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterojunction nanowires were synthesized at temperatures of 25 °C, 50 °C, 80 °C, and 110 °C, under magnetic stirring in solution reaction. The catalytic activity of AgO/Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodmine B dye under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the AgO nanoparticles are attached on the surface of the Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires to form a heterojunction structure. The length of the nanowires is up to 10 μm and the size of the AgO nanoparticles is 10–20 nm. The length of nanowires increases with increasing reaction time and temperature while the AgO particles are gradually embedded into the nanowires. The photocatalytic activity is greatly improved for the AgO/Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterojunction nanowires compared with that of the pure Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires, indicating a remarkable role of AgO particles on the Ag{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires in the photodegradation.

  6. [Diagnostic value of the quantitative HBsAg determination in hepatitis B infections].

    PubMed

    van Helden, J; Weiskirchen, R

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of systematic hepatitis B vaccination has lead to a strong decrease of new infections, but there are still a high numbers of chronically infected persons suffering on long-term complications. Using quantitative assays for the determination of HbsAg (qHBsAg) has improved our understanding of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The concentrations of HBsAg are strongly varying through the different stages of infection. The quantitative determination of HBsAg does not only yield in additional information to the infection activity, but also provides data for an improved follow up independent from the virus load. As to the prediction of disease progression, low-viremic carriers with high HbsAg levels have been shown to be at higher risk of HBeAg negative hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although, quantitative HBsAg determination has been widely used in CHB patients receiving pegylated interferon therapy, the HbsAg decline is slow compared to HBV-DNA levels during nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) therapy. However a rapid HbsAg decline during NUC therapy may identify patients who will finally clear HbsAg. A 6- to 12-monthly assessment of HbsAg level could be considered during NUC therapy. Taking these lines of evidence together, qHBsAg can complement HBV-DNA levels to optimize the management of CHB patients.

  7. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  8. Randomized trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared with a pain education control for low-literacy rural people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Beverly E; Day, Melissa A; Burns, John; Kuhajda, Melissa C; Gaskins, Susan W; Sweeney, Kelly; McConley, Regina; Ward, L Charles; Cabbil, Chalanda

    2011-12-01

    Chronic pain is a common and costly experience. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are efficacious for an array of chronic pain conditions. However, the literature is based primarily on urban (white) samples. It is unknown whether CBT works in low-socioeconomic status (SES) minority and nonminority groups. To address this question, we conducted a randomized controlled trial within a low-SES, rural chronic pain population. Specifically, we examined the feasibility, tolerability, acceptability, and efficacy of group CBT compared with a group education intervention (EDU). We hypothesized that although both interventions would elicit short- and long-term improvement across pain-related outcomes, the cognitively-focused CBT protocol would uniquely influence pain catastrophizing. Mixed design analyses of variance were conducted on the sample of eligible participants who did not commence treatment (N=26), the intention-to-treat sample (ITT; N=83), and the completer sample (N=61). Factors associated with treatment completion were examined. Results indicated significantly more drop-outs occurred in CBT. ITT analyses showed that participants in both conditions reported significant improvement across pain-related outcomes, and a nonsignificant trend was found for depressed mood to improve more in CBT than EDU. Results of the completer analyses produced a similar pattern of findings; however, CBT produced greater gains on cognitive and affect variables than EDU. Treatment gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up (N=54). Clinical significance of the findings and the number of treatment responders is reported. Overall, these findings indicate that CBT and EDU are viable treatment options in low-SES minority and nonminority groups. Further research should target disseminating and sustaining psychosocial treatment options within underserved populations.

  9. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  10. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V. Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. PMID:27060167

  11. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. PMID:27060167

  12. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js.

  13. Cysteine-Ag Cluster Hydrogel Confirmed by Experimental and Numerical Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina

    2015-10-01

    The native cysteine (Cys)-Ag3 cluster hydrogel is approved for the first time by both experimental and theoretical studies. From the detailed molecular structure and energy information, three factors are found to ensure the self-assembly of Cys and Ag3 , and result in the hydrogel. First, the Ag-S bonds make Cys and Ag3 form Cys-Ag3 -Cys monomer. Second, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups of adjacent monomer push them self-assembled. Third, more monomer precisely self-assemble to produce the -[Cys-Ag3 -Cys]n multimer, e.g., a single molecular chain with the left-handed helix conformation, via a benign thermodynamic process. These multimers entangle together to form micro-network to trap water and produce hydorgel in situ. The hydrogen bonds of hydrogel are sensitive to thermal and proton stimuli, and the hydrogel presents lysosome targeting properties via fluorescent imaging with biocompatibility.

  14. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanabal, R.; Velmathi, S.; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag3PO4. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag3PO4. The functional group of the Ag3PO4 has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag3PO4 is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag3PO4 starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag3PO4 catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  15. Cysteine-Ag Cluster Hydrogel Confirmed by Experimental and Numerical Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina

    2015-10-01

    The native cysteine (Cys)-Ag3 cluster hydrogel is approved for the first time by both experimental and theoretical studies. From the detailed molecular structure and energy information, three factors are found to ensure the self-assembly of Cys and Ag3 , and result in the hydrogel. First, the Ag-S bonds make Cys and Ag3 form Cys-Ag3 -Cys monomer. Second, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups of adjacent monomer push them self-assembled. Third, more monomer precisely self-assemble to produce the -[Cys-Ag3 -Cys]n multimer, e.g., a single molecular chain with the left-handed helix conformation, via a benign thermodynamic process. These multimers entangle together to form micro-network to trap water and produce hydorgel in situ. The hydrogen bonds of hydrogel are sensitive to thermal and proton stimuli, and the hydrogel presents lysosome targeting properties via fluorescent imaging with biocompatibility. PMID:26248576

  16. Prediction of early HBeAg seroconversion by decreased titers of HBeAg in the serum combined with increased grades of lobular inflammation in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kwan; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Motoyoshi, Yasuhide; Ozawa, Eisuke; Nagaoka, Shinya; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Minoru; Ito, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Ishibashi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is an important hallmark in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B. This study was designed to predict early HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year, by not only biochemical and virological markers, but also pathological parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Material/Methods In a retrospective cohort study, 234 patients with HBeAg were reviewed for demographic, biochemical, virological and pathological data at the time of liver biopsy. Then, the patients who accomplished HBeAg seroconversion within 1 year thereafter were compared with those who did not, for sorting out factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion. Results Early HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 58 (24.8%) patients. In univariate analysis, factors predictive of early HBeAg seroconversion were: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.002), IP-10 (p=0.029), HBsAg (p=0.003), HBeAg (p<0.001), HBV DNA (p=0.001), HBcrAg (p=0.001), core-promoter mutations (p=0.040), fibrosis (p=0.033) and lobular inflammation (p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, only serum HBeAg levels <100 Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) U/ml and grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 were independent factors for early HBeAg seroconversion (odds ratio 8.430 [95% confidence interval 4.173–17.032], p<0.001; and 4.330 [2.009–9.331], p<0.001; respectively). Conclusions HBeAg levels < 100 PEIU/ml combined with grades of lobular inflammation ≥2 are useful for predicting early HBeAg seroconversion. In patients without liver biopsies, high ALT levels (≥200 IU/L) can substitute for lobular inflammation (grades ≥2). PMID:23197230

  17. Herringbone and triangular patterns of dislocations in Ag, Au, and AgAu alloy films on Ru(0001).

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de la Figuera, Juan; Bartelt, Norman Charles; Carter, C. Barrington; Hwang, R. Q.; Thurmer, Konrad; Ling, W. L.; Hamilton, John C.; McCarty, Kevin F.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the dislocation structures that occur in films of Ag, Au, and Ag{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5} alloy on a Ru(0001) substrate. Monolayer (ML) films form herringbone phases while films two or more layers thick contain triangular patterns of dislocations. We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) to determine how the film composition affects the structure and periodicity of these ordered structures. One layer of Ag forms two different herringbone phases depending on the exact Ag coverage and temperature. Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) establishes that a reversible, first-order phase transition occurs between these two phases at a certain temperature. We critically compare our 1 ML Ag structures to conflicting results from an X-ray scattering study [H. Zajonz et al., Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 155417]. Unlike Ag, the herringbone phases of Au and AgAu alloy are independent of the exact film coverage. For two layer films in all three systems, none of the dislocations in the triangular networks thread into the second film layer. In all three systems, the in-plane atomic spacing of the second film layer is nearly the same as in the bulk. Film composition does, however, affect the details of the two layer structures. Ag and Au films form interconnected networks of dislocations, which we refer to as 'trigons.' In 2 ML AgAu alloy, the dislocations form a different triangular network that shares features of both trigon and moire structures. Yet another well-ordered structure, with square symmetry, forms at the boundaries of translational trigon domains in 2 ML Ag films but not in Au films.

  18. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2010-11-01

    The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma source was quantified by two different methods. The commonly applied approach of monitoring the frequency change of a silver-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) deposition rate monitor as the silver is oxidized was found to underestimate the atomic oxygen flux by an order of magnitude compared to a more direct deposition approach. In the mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition method, silver films were deposited in the presence of the plasma such that the films were partially oxidized to Ag2O; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized for quantification of the oxidized fraction. The inaccuracy of the QCM oxidation method was tentatively attributed to efficient catalytic recombination of O atoms on the silver surface.

  19. [Clinical evaluation of a novel HBsAg quantitative assay].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Naganuma, Hatsue; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-07-01

    The clinical implication of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentrations in HBV-infected individuals remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel fully automated Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay (Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay) by comparative measurements of the reference serum samples versus two independent commercial assays (Lumipulse f or Architect HBsAg QT). Furthermore, clinical usefulness was assessed for monitoring of the serum HBsAg levels during antiviral therapy. A dilution test using 5 reference-serum samples showed linear correlation curve in range from 0.03 to 2,360 IU/ml. The HBsAg was measured in total of 400 serum samples and 99.8% had consistent results between Sysmex and Lumipulse f. Additionally, a positive linear correlation was observed between Sysmex and Architect. To compare the Architect and Sysmex, both methods were applied to quantify the HBsAg in serum samples with different HBV genotypes/subgenotypes, as well as in serum contained HBV vaccine escape mutants (126S, 145R). Correlation between the methods was observed in results for escape mutants and common genotypes (A, B, C) in Japan. Observed during lamivudine therapy, an increase in HBsAg and HBV DNA concentrations preceded the aminotransferase (ALT) elevation associated with drug-resistant HBV variant emergence (breakthrough hepatitis). In conclusion, reliability of the Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay was confirmed for all HBV genetic variants common in Japan. Monitoring of serum HBsAg concentrations in addition to HBV DNA quantification, is helpful in evaluation of the response to lamivudine treatment and diagnosis of the breakthrough hepatitis.

  20. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). Methods and analysis A total of 120 adolescents aged 15–19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a

  1. Food group diversity indicators derived from qualitative list-based questionnaire misreported some foods compared to same indicators derived from quantitative 24-hour recall in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Arimond, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To be useful proxies of micronutrient intake at the population level in resource-limited societies, dietary diversity indicators should be simple and easy to collect in large surveys and their accuracy needs to be assessed. The present study aimed at comparing food group diversity indicators (FGI) derived from simple qualitative list-based questionnaires (qFGI) to the same indicators derived from quantitative 24-h recalls (QFGI). Both methods were administered separately on each of 3 recall days to women in 2 districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data were available for a total of 526 women x recalls. This study was performed within the framework of the Women's Dietary Diversity Project, which sought to analyze the relationships between various QFGI and the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of women's diets across 11 micronutrients. The comparison between paired qFGI and QFGI scores was made both in terms of accuracy of the reporting by the list-based questionnaire, taking the QFGI as the gold standard, and in terms of performance of indicators in predicting an MPA > 60%. Examination of paired QFGI-qFGI differences revealed that the more disaggregated the FGI, the higher were the mean differences in scores. Food groups most frequently misreported often corresponded to foods put in small quantities in sauces. Overreporting by list-based questionnaires was observed for indicators applying a 15-g minimum quantity of consumption for a group to count in the score and this may result in weaker performance in predicting the MPA. These results highlight trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity when operationalizing FGI through qualitative questionnaires.

  2. Comparative clinical profile of mirtazapine and duloxetine in practical clinical settings in Japan: a 4-week open-label, parallel-group study of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Kei; Kishi, Taro; Moriwaki, Masatsugu; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Hirano, Shigeki; Yamanouchi, Yoshio; Funahashi, Toshihiko; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-01-01

    No studies have compared mirtazapine with duloxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fifty-six patients were nonrandomly assigned to a 4-week treatment with either 15 to 45 mg/day of mirtazapine (n = 22) or 20 to 60 mg/day of duloxetine (n = 34). The primary efficacy measurements were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression 6-point Rating Scale (MADRS) scores. The second efficacy measurements were the response and remission rates of treatment. Tolerability assessments were also performed. Fifty-six patients (43 male; age, 43.6 years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in the discontinuation rate between the mirtazapine and duloxetine treatment groups (P = 0.867). Both mirtazapine and duloxetine significantly improved the HRSD and MADRS scores from baseline (P < 0.0001–0.0004). While mirtazapine was superior to duloxetine in the reduction of HRSD scores (P = 0.0421), there was no significant change in MADRS scores in terms of between-group differences (P = 0.171). While more somnolence was observed with mirtazapine (P = 0.0399), more nausea was associated with duloxetine (P = 0.0089). No serious adverse events were observed for either antidepressant. Mirtazapine and duloxetine were safe and well-tolerated treatments for Japanese patients with MDD. Double-blind controlled studies are needed to further explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and duloxetine in Japanese patients with MDD. PMID:23766648

  3. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  4. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  5. Findings of graft biopsy specimens within 90 days after ABO blood group incompatible living donor kidney transplantation compared with ABO-identical and non-identical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ushigome, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Masahiko; Koshino, Katsuhiro; Nobori, Syuji; Okajima, Hideaki; Masuzawa, Naoko; Urasaki, Koji; Yoshimura, Norio

    2010-07-01

    As immunosuppressive therapy has advanced, we have markedly improved the outcome of ABO blood group incompatible living donor kidney transplantation. Consequently, graft survival at early phase after ABO-incompatible transplantation has been favorable than ABO-compatible transplantation in Japan. But in these days, it has been assumed that transplant glomerulopathy within one yr after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation might be significantly precipitated. That may be because of chronic, active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). We performed kidney graft biopsies at the early phase within 90 d after living donor kidney transplantation that involved the episode and protocol biopsies and studied findings of graft biopsy specimens when compared with ABO incompatible and compatible involving non-identical and identical transplantations. In ABO-incompatible transplant cases, the ratio occurring glomerulitis, especially severe injury of g 2-3, was significantly higher than that of identical and non-identical transplant cases (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in t score, i score, ptc score and v score between three transplant groups. The cases occurring AMR were concordant with the cases recognized with severe glomerulitis. AMR was difficult to be diagnosed by C4d analysis in ABO-incompatible transplant cases. Glomerular injury score, g score, may be considered as more significant and the injury should be cured thoroughly.

  6. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone added to alogliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Katou, M; Igeta, M; Ohira, T; Sano, H

    2015-12-01

    A phase IV, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control, despite treatment with alogliptin in addition to diet and/or exercise therapy. Subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations of 6.9-10.5% were randomized to receive 16 weeks' double-blind treatment with pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg once daily or placebo added to alogliptin 25 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline at the end of treatment period (week 16). Both pioglitazone 15 and 30 mg combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than alogliptin monotherapy [-0.80 and -0.90% vs 0.00% (the least squares mean using analysis of covariance model); p < 0.0001, respectively]. The overall incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar among the treatment groups. Pioglitazone/alogliptin combination therapy was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese subjects with T2DM and is considered to be useful in clinical settings.

  7. Immobilization of Highly Dispersed Ag Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron-Assisted Reduction for Antibacterial Performance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoliang; Li, Sha; Bao, Jiehua; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Binbin; Li, Ruifeng; Liu, Xuguang; Pan, Yun-Xiang

    2016-07-13

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) supported on certain materials have been widely used as disinfectants. Yet, to date, the antibacterial activity of the supported Ag NPs is still far below optimum. This is mainly associated with the easy aggregation of Ag NPs on the supporting materials. Herein, an electron-assisted reduction (EAR) method, which is operated at temperatures as low as room temperature and without using any reduction reagent, was employed for immobilizing highly dispersed Ag NPs on aminated-CNTs (Ag/A-CNTs). The average Ag NPs size on the EAR-prepared Ag/A-CNTs is only 3.8 nm, which is much smaller than that on the Ag/A-CNTs fabricated from the traditional thermal calcination (25.5 nm). Compared with Ag/A-CNTs fabricated from traditional thermal calcination, EAR-prepared Ag/A-CNTs shows a much better antibacterial activity to E. coli/S. aureus and antifouling performance to P. subcordiformis/T. lepidoptera. This is mainly originated from the significantly enhanced Ag(+) ion releasing rate and highly dispersed Ag NPs with small size on the EAR-prepared Ag/A-CNTs. The findings from the present work are helpful for fabricating supported Ag NPs with small size and high dispersion for efficient antibacterial process. PMID:27327238

  8. Divergence between sympatric rice- and soybean-infecting populations of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group-1 IA.

    PubMed

    Bernardes de Assis, Joana; Peyer, Patrik; Rush, Milton C; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A; Ceresini, Paulo C

    2008-12-01

    Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes soybean foliar blighting (aerial blight) and rice sheath blight diseases. Although taxonomically related within the AG-1 complex, sister populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting Poaceae (rice) and Fabaceae (soybean) are genetically distinct based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA. However, there is currently no information available regarding the extent of genetic differentiation and host specialization between rice- and soybean-infecting populations of R. solani AG-1 IA. We used 10 microsatellite loci to compare sympatric R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting rice and soybeans in Louisiana and one allopatric rice-infecting population from Texas. None of the 154 multilocus genotypes found among the 223 isolates were shared among the three populations. Partitioning of genetic diversity showed significant differentiation among sympatric populations from different host species (Phi(ST) = 0.39 to 0.41). Historical migration patterns between sympatric rice- and soybean-infecting populations from Louisiana were asymmetrical. Rice- and soybean-derived isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA were able to infect both rice and soybean, but were significantly more aggressive on their host of origin, consistent with host specialization. The soybean-infecting population from Louisiana was more clonal than the sympatric rice-infecting population. Most of the loci in the soybean-infecting populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), but the sympatric rice-infecting population from Louisiana was mainly in HWE. All populations presented evidence for a mixed reproductive system.

  9. Activity and stability studies of titanates and titanate-carbon nanotubes supported Ag anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar; Khairy, M.; Eid, Salah

    2016-02-01

    Titanate-SWCNT; synthesized via exploiting the interaction between TiO2 anatase with oxygen functionalized SWCNT, supported Ag nanoparticles and Ag/titanate are characterized using XRD, TEM-EDX-SAED, N2 adsorption, Photoluminescence, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. These samples are tested for methanol electrooxidation via using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance measurements. It is shown that Ag/titanate nanotubes exhibited superior electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation (4.2 mA cm-2) than titanate-SWCNT, Ag/titanate-SWCNT and titanate. This study reveals the existence of a strong metal-support interaction in Ag/titanate as explored via formation of Ti-O-Ag bond at 896 cm-1 and increasing surface area and pore volume (103 m2 g-1, 0.21 cm3 g-1) compared to Ag/titanate-SWCNT (71 m2 g-1, 0.175 cm3 g-1) that suffers perturbation and defects following incorporation of SWCNT and Ag. Embedding Ag preferably in SWCNT rather than titanate in Ag/titanate-SWCNT disturbs the electron transfer compared to Ag/titanate. Charge transfer resistance depicted from Nyquist impedance plots is found in the order of titanate > Ag/titanate-SWCNT > titanate-SWCNT > Ag/titanate. Accordingly, Ag/titanate indicates a slower current degradation over time compared to rest of catalysts. Conductivity measurements indicate that it follows the order Ag/titanate > Ag/titanate-SWCNT > titanate > titanate-SWCNT declaring that SWCNT affects seriously the conductivity of Ag(titanate) due to perturbations caused in titanate and sinking of electrons committed by Ago through SWCNT.

  10. Enhanced Noble Gas Adsorption in Ag@MOF-74Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-01-14

    Various amounts of Ag nanoparticles were successfully deposited in porous MOF-74Ni (or Ni/DOBDC) with an auto-reduction method. An optimized silver-loaded MOF-74Ni was shown to have an improved Xe adsorption capacity (15% more) at STP compared to the MOF without silver nanoparticles. The silver-loaded sample also has a higher Xe/Kr selectivity. These results are explained by the stronger interactions between polarizable Xe molecules and the well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles.

  11. Short-term effect of a new mouthrinse formulation on oral malodour after single use in vivo: a comparative, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, D; Gysen, K; Himmelmann, A; Krause, C; Wilhelm, K-P

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to compare a new chlorhexidine (CHX)-free mouthrinse containing amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (ASF) against a benchmark containing CHX with respect to their effect on oral malodour after single use. A total of 42 male and female subjects with an intraoral cause of bad breath, each with an organoleptic rating (OR) of at least 2 and a total volatile sulfur compound (VSC) concentration higher than 130 ppb, participated in the study. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment groups (i.e. CHX-free ASF mouthrinse, CHX benchmark mouthrinse or water) according to a randomization list. Participants received written instructions on precautions to be taken for optimal breath analysis. Eight trained and qualified odour judges assessed the subjects' malodour by OR at baseline and 30 min and 4 h after single use of the mouthrinses. Additionally, VSC levels were measured at baseline and 4 h after using the mouthrinse. Treatment with water alone led already to some reduction in OR with mean differences to baseline of -1.13 at 30 min and -0.64, 4 h after treatment. Both CHX-free ASF product (-1.51) and CHX (-1.48) provided a significantly stronger OR reduction than water at 30 min (p < 0.05). Only CHX-free ASF treatment showed a sustained benefit in terms of significantly better OR reduction after 4 h (-1.17, p < 0.05), whereas CHX (-0.81) was not significantly different from water (-0.64, p = 0.517). Both ASF (-90.9%) and CHX (-81.6%) reduced VSC levels significantly stronger than water (-53.5%; p < 0.001). OR and VSC readings in the group using the CHX mouthrinse did not differ significantly from those in the group using the CHX-free ASF formulation. The newly developed CHX-free ASF mouthrinse significantly reduced oral malodour after single use, both in terms of OR and VSC levels. Efficacy was comparable to that of the CHX benchmark product.

  12. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  13. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ∼410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods. PMID:27497571

  14. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T.; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ˜410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  15. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ∼410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  16. Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2013-02-15

    We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

  17. Preparation of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites and investigation on visible-light photocatalytic degradation activity in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, C. H.; Wang, J.; Li, S. G.; Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were prepared by three different methods (Ultraviolet Irradiation Deposition (UID), Vitamin C Reduction (VCR) and Sodium Borohydride Reduction (SBR)) for the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in magnetic field. And then the prepared Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The visible-light photocatalytic activities of these three kinds of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites were examined and compared through the degradation of several organic dyes under visible-light irradiation in magnetic field. In addition, some influence factors such as visible-light irradiation time, organic dye concentration, revolution speed, magnetic field intensity and organic dye kind on the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composite were reviewed. The research results showed that the presence of magnetic field significantly enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag deposited TiO2 (Ag/TiO2) composites and then contributed to the degradation of organic dyes.

  18. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  19. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  20. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  1. Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms: rational synthesis with high-efficiency for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Hua; Xue, Can

    2014-09-01

    We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03600j

  2. Spin glass in semiconducting KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, H.; Lei, H.; Klobes, B.; Warren, J. B.; Hermann, R. P.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-26

    We report discovery of KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals with semiconducting spin glass ground state. Composition and structure analysis suggest nearly stoichiometric I4/mmm space group but allow for the existence of vacancies, absent in long range semiconducting antiferromagnet KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2. The subtle change in stoichometry in Fe/Ag sublattice changes magnetic ground state but not conductivity, giving further insight into the semiconducting gap mechanism.

  3. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  4. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  5. Monitoring Si growth on Ag(111) with scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that silicene structure involves silver atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Prévot, G.; Bernard, R.; Cruguel, H.; Borensztein, Y.

    2014-11-24

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), the elaboration of the so-called silicene layer on Ag(111) is monitored in real time during Si evaporation at different temperatures. It is shown that the growth of silicene is accompanied by the release of about 65% of the surface Ag atoms from the Si covered areas. We observe that Si islands develop on the Ag terraces and Si strips at the Ag step edges, progressively forming ordered (4×4), (√(13)×√(13)) R13.9°, and dotted phases. Meanwhile, displaced Ag atoms group to develop additional bare Ag terraces growing round the Si islands from the pristine Ag step edges. This indicates a strong interaction between Si and Ag atoms, with an important modification of the Ag substrate beneath the surface layer. This observation is in contradiction with the picture of a silicene layer weakly interacting with the unreconstructed Ag substrate, and strongly indicates that the structure of silicene on Ag(111) corresponds either to a Si-Ag surface alloy or to a Si plane covered with Ag atoms.

  6. Exploring the Support Needs of Family Caregivers of Patients with Brain Cancer Using the CSNAT: A Comparative Study with Other Cancer Groups.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Samar M; Deas, Kathleen; Howting, Denise; Lee, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A substantial burden is placed on family caregivers of patients diagnosed with brain cancers. Despite this, the support needs of the caregivers are often under-recognised and not addressed adequately in current routine and patient centred clinical care. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) is a validated instrument designed to systematically identify and address caregiver needs [corrected]. It has been trialled in an Australian palliative care community setting using a stepped wedge cluster design involving 322 family carers of terminally ill patients. The current article reports on a subset from this trial, 29 caregivers of patients with primary brain cancer, and compares their profile and outcomes to those of other cancer groups. Caregiver strain was assessed using the Family Appraisal of Caregiving Questionnaire, caregiver physical and mental wellbeing using SF12 and caregiver workload using a questionnaire on support with activities of daily living (ADL). In comparison to caregivers of patients with all other cancers, the primary brain cancer group had significantly higher levels of caregiver strain, lower levels of mental wellbeing and a higher level of ADL workload. Their physical wellness also deteriorated significantly over time. An action plan approach led to practical solutions for addressing highlighted concerns. Four themes evolved from the family caregivers' feedback interviews: The extremely challenging caregiver experience with brain cancer; the systematic and practical approach of the CSNAT during rapid changes; connection with health professionals, feeling acknowledged and empowered; and timely advice and assurance of support during the caregiving journey. This preliminary study has demonstrated that the CSNAT provides a practical and useful tool for assessing the support needs of family caregivers of patients with brain cancer and has provided the basis for a larger scale, longitudinal study that allows a more detailed characterisation

  7. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Costa, Francisco B.; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations—one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)–were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  8. Exploring the Support Needs of Family Caregivers of Patients with Brain Cancer Using the CSNAT: A Comparative Study with Other Cancer Groups

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Samar M.; Deas, Kathleen; Howting, Denise; Lee, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A substantial burden is placed on family caregivers of patients diagnosed with brain cancers. Despite this, the support needs of the caregivers are often under-recognised and not addressed adequately in current routine and patient centred clinical care. The Care Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) is a validated instrument designed to systematically identify and address caregiver needs. It has been trialled in an Australian palliative care community setting using a stepped wedge cluster design involving 322 family carers of terminally ill patients. The current article reports on a subset from this trial, 29 caregivers of patients with primary brain cancer, and compares their profile and outcomes to those of other cancer groups. Caregiver strain was assessed using the Family Appraisal of Caregiving Questionnaire, caregiver physical and mental wellbeing using SF12 and caregiver workload using a questionnaire on support with activities of daily living (ADL). In comparison to caregivers of patients with all other cancers, the primary brain cancer group had significantly higher levels of caregiver strain, lower levels of mental wellbeing and a higher level of ADL workload. Their physical wellness also deteriorated significantly over time. An action plan approach led to practical solutions for addressing highlighted concerns. Four themes evolved from the family caregivers’ feedback interviews: The extremely challenging caregiver experience with brain cancer; the systematic and practical approach of the CSNAT during rapid changes; connection with health professionals, feeling acknowledged and empowered; and timely advice and assurance of support during the caregiving journey. This preliminary study has demonstrated that the CSNAT provides a practical and useful tool for assessing the support needs of family caregivers of patients with brain cancer and has provided the basis for a larger scale, longitudinal study that allows a more detailed characterisation of the

  9. Exploring the Support Needs of Family Caregivers of Patients with Brain Cancer Using the CSNAT: A Comparative Study with Other Cancer Groups.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Samar M; Deas, Kathleen; Howting, Denise; Lee, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A substantial burden is placed on family caregivers of patients diagnosed with brain cancers. Despite this, the support needs of the caregivers are often under-recognised and not addressed adequately in current routine and patient centred clinical care. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) is a validated instrument designed to systematically identify and address caregiver needs [corrected]. It has been trialled in an Australian palliative care community setting using a stepped wedge cluster design involving 322 family carers of terminally ill patients. The current article reports on a subset from this trial, 29 caregivers of patients with primary brain cancer, and compares their profile and outcomes to those of other cancer groups. Caregiver strain was assessed using the Family Appraisal of Caregiving Questionnaire, caregiver physical and mental wellbeing using SF12 and caregiver workload using a questionnaire on support with activities of daily living (ADL). In comparison to caregivers of patients with all other cancers, the primary brain cancer group had significantly higher levels of caregiver strain, lower levels of mental wellbeing and a higher level of ADL workload. Their physical wellness also deteriorated significantly over time. An action plan approach led to practical solutions for addressing highlighted concerns. Four themes evolved from the family caregivers' feedback interviews: The extremely challenging caregiver experience with brain cancer; the systematic and practical approach of the CSNAT during rapid changes; connection with health professionals, feeling acknowledged and empowered; and timely advice and assurance of support during the caregiving journey. This preliminary study has demonstrated that the CSNAT provides a practical and useful tool for assessing the support needs of family caregivers of patients with brain cancer and has provided the basis for a larger scale, longitudinal study that allows a more detailed characterisation

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America. PMID:26414283

  11. The role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in cognition and anxiety: comparative studies in GRM2(-/-), GRM3(-/-) and GRM2/3(-/-) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Lyon, Louisa; Taylor, Amy; Lane, Tracy; Burnet, Philip W J; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M

    2015-02-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3) have been implicated in both cognitive and emotional processes, although their precise role remains to be established. Studies with knockout (KO) mice provide an important approach for investigating the role of specific receptor genes in behaviour. In the present series of experiments we extended our prior characterisation of GRM2/3(-/-) double KO mice and, in complementary experiments, investigated the behavioural phenotype of single GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice. We found no consistent effect on anxiety in either the double or single KO mice. The lack of an anxiety phenotype in any of the lines contrasts with the clear anxiolytic effects of mGlu2/3 ligands. Motor co-ordination was impaired in GRM2/3(-/-) mice, but spared in single GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice. Spatial working memory (rewarded alternation) testing on the elevated T-maze revealed a deficit in GRM2(-/-) mice throughout testing, whereas GRM3(-/-) mice exhibited a biphasic effect (initially impaired, but performing better than controls by the end of training). A biphasic effect on activity levels was seen for the GRM2(-/-) mice. Overall, the phenotype in both GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice was less pronounced - if present at all - compared to GRM2/3(-/-) mice, across the range of task domains. This is consistent with possible redundancy of function and/or compensation in the single KO lines. Results are discussed with reference to a possible role for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors at the interface between arousal and behavioural performance, according to an inverted U-shaped function. PMID:25158312

  12. The role of Mott-Schottky heterojunctions in Ag-Ag8SnS6 as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qingquan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan; Liang, Na; Xu, Miao; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-03-01

    Well-defined uniform pyramidal Ag-Ag8SnS6 heterodimers are prepared via a one-pot method. A plausible formation mechanism for the unique structures based on a seed-growth process and an etching effect due to oleylamine is proposed. The formed metal-semiconductor Mott-Schottky heterojunction promotes electron transfer from semiconducting Ag8 SnS6 to metallic Ag, which catalyzes the reduction of I3 (-) to I(-). When used as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, the heterodimers show comparable performance to platinum.

  13. Formation Mechanism and Characterization of Ag-Metal Chelate Polymer Prepared by a Wet Chemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chueh-Jung; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    In this study, a metal chelate polymer (MCP) contained Ag(0) was prepared from commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) by a wet chemical method using concentrate formic acid (HCOOH) as solvent. The characterization of these MCP materials, and the formation mechanism that involved in the MCP system, were studied by the analyses of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The Ag(I) cations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) were found coordinated with polymer functional groups to form polymer-Ag(I) complexes. The XRD analysis revealed that these complexed Ag(I) ions were in-situ reduced to generate Ag(0) metal by HCOOH solvent in MCP system. The results of FTIR and NMR analyses demonstrated that there are hydrolyzed hydroxyl groups present in the MCP chains. The XPS analysis showed that the oxygen ligands that interacted with the Ag(0) were mostly contributed from the OH groups. The interaction between the reduced Ag(0) metal and the polymer chains was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation on the MCP materials.

  14. A further insight into the mechanism of Ag + biosorption by Lactobacillus sp. strain A09

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhongyu; Zhou, Chaohui; Wu, Jianming; Zhou, Jianzhang; Wang, Lin

    2005-04-01

    The mechanism of Ag + biosorption by resting cell of Lactobacillus sp. strain A09 has been further investigated at the molecular level using spectroscopic techniques. The values of estimated equilibrium constants, rate constants, half-life periods and apparent enthalpies of the binding reaction were calculated via the determination of Ag + adsorbed by the biomass using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The reductive ratio of the Ag + to Ag 0 by the A09 biomass was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis for sulfur and nitrogen atomic contents in dry powder of the biomass with EA-1110 elemental analysis (EA) showed that amino acid residues retaining the reductive property of Ag + to Ag 0 are very small quantity, whereas glucose content in the hydrolysates of the biomass analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) indicated that the amount of reducing sugars in the biomass is much larger than 2.71%. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry on blank and silver-loaded biomass demonstrated that the chemical functional group such as the free aldehyde group of the hemiacetalic hydroxyl group from reducing sugars, i.e. the hydrolysates of the polysaccharides from the cell wall plays a leading role in serving as the electron donor for reducing the Ag + to Ag 0. This result was further supported by characterizations on the interaction of the Ag + with glucose using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Methods to recruit hard-to-reach groups: comparing two chain referral sampling methods of recruiting injecting drug users across nine studies in Russia and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lucy; Wall, Martin; Rhodes, Tim; Judd, Ali; Hickman, Matthew; Johnston, Lisa G; Renton, Adrian; Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests rapid diffusion of injecting drug use and associated outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. There remains a need for research among non-treatment and community-recruited samples of IDUs to better estimate the dynamics of HIV transmission and to improve treatment and health services access. We compare two sampling methodologies "respondent-driven sampling" (RDS) and chain referral sampling using "indigenous field workers" (IFS) to investigate the relative effectiveness of RDS to reach more marginal and hard-to-reach groups and perhaps to include those with the riskiest behaviour around HIV transmission. We evaluate the relative efficiency of RDS to recruit a lower cost sample in comparison to IFS. We also provide a theoretical comparison of the two approaches. We draw upon nine community-recruited surveys of IDUs undertaken in the Russian Federation and Estonia between 2001 and 2005 that used either IFS or RDS. Sampling effects on the demographic composition and injecting risk behaviours of the samples generated are compared using multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that RDS does not appear to recruit more marginalised sections of the IDU community nor those engaging in riskier injecting behaviours in comparison with IFS. RDS appears to have practical advantages over IFS in the implementation of fieldwork in terms of greater recruitment efficiency and safety of field workers, but at a greater cost. Further research is needed to assess how the practicalities of implementing RDS in the field compromises the requirements mandated by the theoretical guidelines of RDS for adjusting the sample estimates to obtain estimates of the wider IDU population.

  16. Lenalidomide and high-dose dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone as initial therapy for multiple myeloma: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group trial (S0232)

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, John; Hussein, Mohamad A.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Moore, Dennis F.; Whittenberger, Brock F.; Abidi, Muneer H.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Barlogie, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group conducted a randomized trial comparing lenalidomide (LEN) plus dexamethasone (DEX; n = 97) to placebo (PLC) plus DEX (n = 95) in newly diagnosed myeloma. Three 35-day induction cycles applied DEX 40 mg/day on days 1 to 4, 9 to 12, and 17 to 20 together with LEN 25 mg/day for 28 days or PLC. Monthly maintenance used DEX 40 mg/day on days 1 to 4 and 15 to 18 along with LEN 25 mg/day for 21 days or PLC. Crossover from PLC-DEX to LEN-DEX was encouraged on progression. One-year progression-free survival, overall response rate, and very good partial response rate were superior with LEN-DEX (78% vs 52%, P = .002; 78% vs 48%, P < .001; 63% vs 16%, P < .001), whereas 1-year overall survival was similar (94% vs 88%; P = .25). Toxicities were more pronounced with LEN-DEX (neutropenia grade 3 or 4: 21% vs 5%, P < .001; thromboembolic events despite aspirin prophylaxis: 23.5% [initial LEN-DEX or crossover] vs 5%; P < .001). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00064038. PMID:20876454

  17. Risk of hypoglycaemia in users of sulphonylureas compared with metformin in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolite group: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van Dalem, Judith; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Krings, André; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Driessen, Johanna H M; Burden, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between use of sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolic group compared with use of metformin. Design Population based cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England. Setting Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database, 2004-12. Participants 120 803 new users of a non-insulin antidiabetic agent with at least one prescription and aged 18 years or more. The first prescription defined start of follow-up. Patients were followed until the end of data collection, a record for hypoglycaemia, or a blood glucose level of less than 3.0 mmol/L. Main outcome measures Associations between sulphonylurea dose, renal impairment, type of sulphonylurea used, and risk of hypoglycaemia, were determined using Cox proportional hazard models. Adjustments were made for age, sex, lifestyle, comorbidity, and drug use. Results The risk of hypoglycaemia in current users of sulphonylureas only was significantly increased compared with current users of metformin only (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% confidence interval 2.23 to 2.82). The higher risk in current users of sulphonylureas only was further increased in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (4.96, 3.76 to 6.55). The risk of hypoglycaemia was also significantly higher in patients with a high sulphonylurea dose (3.12, 2.68 to 3.62) and in current users of glibenclamide (7.48, 4.89 to 11.44). Gliclazide, the sulphonylurea of first choice, showed a similar risk of hypoglycaemia compared with other sulphonylureas. Conclusions Sulphonylurea treatment in patients with a renal function of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 should be considered with caution. Moreover, an increased risk of hypoglycaemic events was observed among all users of sulphonylureas. This contrasts with several guidelines that recommend gliclazide as first choice sulphonylurea, and

  18. Enhanced formation of silver nanoparticles in Ag+-NOM-iron(II, III) systems and antibacterial activity studies.

    PubMed

    Adegboyega, Nathaniel F; Sharma, Virender K; Siskova, Karolina M; Vecerova, Renata; Kolar, Milan; Zbořil, Radek; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-03-18

    This work reports the role of iron redox pair (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+)) in the formation of naturally occurring silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the aquatic environment. The results showed that Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) ions in the mixtures of Ag(+) and natural organic matter enhanced the formation of AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs depended on pH and types of organic matter. Increase in pH enhanced the formation of AgNPs, and humic acids as ligands showed higher formation of AgNPs compared to fulvic acids. The observed results were described by considering the potentials of redox pairs of silver and iron species and the possible species involved in reducing silver ions to AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements of AgNPs revealed mostly bimodal size distribution with decrease in size of AgNPs due to iron species in the reaction mixture. Minimum inhibitory concentration of AgNPs needed to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species suggested the role of surfaces of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Stability study of AgNPs, formed in Ag(+)-humic acid/fulvic acids-Fe(3+) mixtures over a period of several months showed high stability of the particles with significant increase in surface plasmon resonance peak. The environmental implications of the results in terms of fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of organic-coated AgNPs are briefly presented. PMID:24524189

  19. Templated Atom-Precise Galvanic Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of a [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) Nanocluster.

    PubMed

    Bootharaju, Megalamane S; Joshi, Chakra P; Parida, Manas R; Mohammed, Omar F; Bakr, Osman M

    2016-01-18

    Synthesis of atom-precise alloy nanoclusters with uniform composition is challenging when the alloying atoms are similar in size (for example, Ag and Au). A galvanic exchange strategy has been devised to produce a compositionally uniform [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) cluster (SR: thiolate) using a pure [Ag25(SR)18](-) cluster as a template. Conversely, the direct synthesis of Ag24Au cluster leads to a mixture of [Ag(25-x)Au(x)(SR)18](-), x=1-8. Mass spectrometry and crystallography of [Ag24Au(SR)18](-) reveal the presence of the Au heteroatom at the Ag25 center, forming Ag24Au. The successful exchange of the central Ag of Ag25 with Au causes perturbations in the Ag25 crystal structure, which are reflected in the absorption, luminescence, and ambient stability of the particle. These properties are compared with those of Ag25 and Ag24Pd clusters with same ligand and structural framework, providing new insights into the modulation of cluster properties with dopants at the single-atom level.

  20. Pegylated interferon in HBeAg-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis B patients: post-treatment 1-year results of three Turkish centres.

    PubMed

    Yamazhan, Tansu; Kurtaran, Behice; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Yüksel, Esma; Özkaya, Deniz; Taşbakan, Meltem Işıkgöz; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Durusoy, Raika; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the 1-year post-treatment follow-up results of 112 patients who received pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 52 weeks. HBeAg negativity/seroconversion and/or negative HBV-DNA at the end of the treatment were considered as response. Patients who had response at the end of treatment but had HBV-DNA breakthrough during 1-year follow-up were considered as relapse. The study group comprised 112 cases (34 HBeAg-positive, 78 HBeAg-negative). In HBeAg-positive and -negative cases, end-of-treatment response rates were 2·9% and 60·2%, whereas 1-year sustained virological response rates were 0 and 33·3%, respectively. When we compared relapse cases versus cases with response at the end of 1-year follow-up, being female and having low viral load were the two parameters associated with higher response rates (Chi-square, P  =  0·028; Mann-Whitney U test, P  =  0·023). Overall non-response rates to PEG-IFN were high (57·1%). Results in HBeAg-positive cases were disappointing.

  1. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  2. Toxicological Effects of Caco-2 Cells Following Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ag Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ni; Song, Zheng-Mei; Tang, Huan; Xi, Wen-Song; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2016-01-01

    Extensive utilization increases the exposure of humans to Ag nanoparticles (NPs) via the oral pathway. To comprehensively address the action of Ag NPs to the gastrointestinal systems in real situations, i.e., the long-term low-dose exposure, we evaluated and compared the toxicity of three Ag NPs (20–30 nm with different surface coatings) to the human intestine cell Caco-2 after 1-day and 21-day exposures, using various biological assays. In both the short- and long-term exposures, the variety of surface coating predominated the toxicity of Ag NPs in a descending order of citrate-coated Ag NP (Ag-CIT), bare Ag NP (Ag-B), and poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-coated Ag NP (Ag-PVP). The short-term exposure induced cell growth inhibition and death. The cell viability loss appeared after cells were exposed to 0.7 μg/mL Ag-CIT, 0.9 μg/mL Ag-B or >1.0 μg/mL Ag-PVP for 24 h. The short-term and higher-dose exposure also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial damage, cell membrane leakage, apoptosis, and inflammation (IL-8 level). The long-term exposure only inhibited the cell proliferation. After 21-day exposure to 0.4 μg/mL Ag-CIT, the cell viability dropped to less than 50%, while cells exposed to 0.5 μg/mL Ag-PVP remained normal as the control. Generally, 0.3 μg/mL is the non-toxic dose for the long-term exposure of Caco-2 cells to Ag NPs in this study. However, cells presented inflammation after exposure to Ag NPs with the non-toxic dose in the long-term exposure. PMID:27338357

  3. Defects responsible for abnormal n-type conductivity in Ag-excess doped PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Byungki Lee, Jae Ki; Lee, Ji Eun; Joo, Sung-Jae; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Hee-Woong; Park, Su-Dong; Oh, Min-Wook

    2015-07-07

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the role of Ag defects in PbTe thermoelectric materials. Ag-defects can be either donor, acceptor, or isovalent neutral defect. When Ag is heavily doped in PbTe, the neutral (Ag-Ag) dimer defect at Pb-site is formed and the environment changes to the Pb-rich/Te-poor condition. Under Pb-rich condition, the ionized Ag-interstitial defect (Ag{sub I}{sup +}) becomes the major donor. The formation energy of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is smaller than other native and Ag-related defects. Also it is found that Ag{sub I}{sup +} is an effective dopant. There is no additional impurity state near the band gap and the conduction band minimum. The charge state of Ag{sub I}{sup +} defect is maintained even when the Fermi level is located above the conduction band minimum. The diffusion constant of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is calculated based on the temperature dependent Fermi level, formation energy, and migration energy. When T > 550 K, the diffusion length of Ag within a few minutes is comparable to the grain size of the polycrystalline PbTe, implying that Ag is dissolved into PbTe and this donor defect is distributed over the whole lattice in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe. The predicted solubility of Ag{sub I}{sup +} well explains the increased electron carrier concentration and electrical conductivity reported in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe at T = 450–750 K [Pei et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 291 (2011)]. In addition, we suggest that this abnormal doping behavior is also found for Au-doped PbTe.

  4. The Ag85B protein of the BCG vaccine facilitates macrophage uptake but is dispensable for protection against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Kelly A; Counoupas, Claudio; Leotta, Lisa; Eto, Carolina; Bitter, Wilbert; Winter, Nathalie; Triccas, James A

    2016-05-17

    Defining the function and protective capacity of mycobacterial antigens is crucial for progression of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates to clinical trials. The Ag85B protein is expressed by all pathogenic mycobacteria and is a component of multiple TB vaccines under evaluation in humans. In this report we examined the role of the BCG Ag85B protein in host cell interaction and vaccine-induced protection against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Ag85B was required for macrophage infection in vitro, as BCG deficient in Ag85B expression (BCG:(Δ85B)) was less able to infect RAW 264.7 macrophages compared to parental BCG, while an Ag85B-overexpressing BCG strain (BCG:(oex85B)) demonstrated improved uptake. A similar pattern was observed in vivo after intradermal delivery to mice, with significantly less BCG:(Δ85B) present in CD64(hi)CD11b(hi) macrophages compared to BCG or BCG:(oex85B). After vaccination of mice with BCG:(Δ85B) or parental BCG and subsequent aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge, similar numbers of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in the lungs of infected mice for both groups, suggesting the reduced macrophage uptake observed by BCG:(Δ85B) did not alter host immunity. Further, vaccination with both BCG:(Δ85B) and parental BCG resulted in a comparable reduction in pulmonary M. tuberculosis load. These data reveal an unappreciated role for Ag85B in the interaction of mycobacteria with host cells and indicates that single protective antigens are dispensable for protective immunity induced by BCG. PMID:27060378

  5. The Ag85B protein of the BCG vaccine facilitates macrophage uptake but is dispensable for protection against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Kelly A; Counoupas, Claudio; Leotta, Lisa; Eto, Carolina; Bitter, Wilbert; Winter, Nathalie; Triccas, James A

    2016-05-17

    Defining the function and protective capacity of mycobacterial antigens is crucial for progression of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates to clinical trials. The Ag85B protein is expressed by all pathogenic mycobacteria and is a component of multiple TB vaccines under evaluation in humans. In this report we examined the role of the BCG Ag85B protein in host cell interaction and vaccine-induced protection against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Ag85B was required for macrophage infection in vitro, as BCG deficient in Ag85B expression (BCG:(Δ85B)) was less able to infect RAW 264.7 macrophages compared to parental BCG, while an Ag85B-overexpressing BCG strain (BCG:(oex85B)) demonstrated improved uptake. A similar pattern was observed in vivo after intradermal delivery to mice, with significantly less BCG:(Δ85B) present in CD64(hi)CD11b(hi) macrophages compared to BCG or BCG:(oex85B). After vaccination of mice with BCG:(Δ85B) or parental BCG and subsequent aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge, similar numbers of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in the lungs of infected mice for both groups, suggesting the reduced macrophage uptake observed by BCG:(Δ85B) did not alter host immunity. Further, vaccination with both BCG:(Δ85B) and parental BCG resulted in a comparable reduction in pulmonary M. tuberculosis load. These data reveal an unappreciated role for Ag85B in the interaction of mycobacteria with host cells and indicates that single protective antigens are dispensable for protective immunity induced by BCG.

  6. Investigation of the chaperone function of the small heat shock protein — AgsA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A small heat shock protein AgsA was originally isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We previously demonstrated that AgsA was an effective chaperone that could reduce the amount of heat-aggregated proteins in an Escherichia coli rpoH mutant. AgsA appeared to promote survival at lethal temperatures by cooperating with other chaperones in vivo. To investigate the aggregation prevention mechanisms of AgsA, we constructed N- or C-terminal truncated mutants and compared their properties with wild type AgsA. Results AgsA showed significant overall homology to wheat sHsp16.9 allowing its three-dimensional structure to be predicted. Truncations of AgsA until the N-terminal 23rd and C-terminal 11th amino acid (AA) from both termini preserved its in vivo chaperone activity. Temperature-controlled gel filtration chromatography showed that purified AgsA could maintain large oligomeric complexes up to 50°C. Destabilization of oligomeric complexes was observed for N-terminal 11- and 17-AA truncated AgsA; C-terminal 11-AA truncated AgsA could not form large oligomeric complexes. AgsA prevented the aggregation of denatured lysozyme, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and citrate synthase (CS) but did not prevent the aggregation of insulin at 25°C. N-terminal 17-AA truncated AgsA showed no chaperone activity towards MDH. C-terminal 11-AA truncated AgsA showed weak or no chaperone activity towards lysozyme, MDH and CS although it prevented the aggregation of insulin at 25°C. When the same amount of AgsA and C-terminal 11-AA truncated AgsA were mixed (half of respective amount required for efficient chaperone activities), good chaperone activity for all substrates and temperatures was observed. Detectable intermolecular exchanges between AgsA oligomers at 25°C were not observed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis; however, significant exchanges between AgsA oligomers and C-terminal truncated AgsA were observed at 25°C. Conclusions Our data

  7. Characterization, kinetics and thermodynamics of Ag(I) sorption using novel sorbent: Dry wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kruti R; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, dried wheatgrass (DWG), an available and renewable biomass, was investigated as a novel Ag(I) sorbent. Sorption data was modeled to 11 different kinetic and diffusion models at different DWG concentration. Pseudo-second-order model fits the data most appropriately among these. Diffusion was not the sole mechanism controlling Ag(I) sorption by DWG. The enthalpy and entropy for Ag(I) sorption by DWG are 10.511 kJ mol(-1) and 0.065 kJ mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Gibbs free energy decreases with rise in temperature. Ag(I) sorption by DWG is spontaneous, endothermic with increased randomness at the interface. Characterization of DWG suggested the presence of diverse functional groups. Ag(I) sorption by DWG involved mechanisms such as physisorption and chemisorptions. DWG can be efficiently used to remediate and recover Ag(I) from solution in an eco-friendly manner. PMID:27260662

  8. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  9. Comparative mitochondrial genomics in zygomycetes: bacteria-like RNase P RNAs, mobile elements and a close source of the group I intron invasion in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Seif, Elias; Leigh, Jessica; Liu, Yu; Roewer, Ingeborg; Forget, Lise; Lang, B. Franz

    2005-01-01

    To generate data for comparative analyses of zygomycete mitochondrial gene expression, we sequenced mtDNAs of three distantly related zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mortierella verticillata and Smittium culisetae. They all contain the standard fungal mitochondrial gene set, plus rnpB, the gene encoding the RNA subunit of the mitochondrial RNase P (mtP-RNA) and rps3, encoding ribosomal protein S3 (the latter lacking in R.oryzae). The mtP-RNAs of R.oryzae and of additional zygomycete relatives have the most eubacteria-like RNA structures among fungi. Precise mapping of the 5′ and 3′ termini of the R.oryzae and M.verticillata mtP-RNAs confirms their expression and processing at the exact sites predicted by secondary structure modeling. The 3′ RNA processing of zygomycete mitochondrial mRNAs, SSU-rRNA and mtP-RNA occurs at the C-rich sequence motifs similar to those identified in fission yeast and basidiomycete mtDNAs. The C-rich motifs are included in the mature transcripts, and are likely generated by exonucleolytic trimming of RNA 3′ termini. Zygomycete mtDNAs feature a variety of insertion elements: (i) mtDNAs of R.oryzae and M.verticillata were subject to invasions by double hairpin elements; (ii) genes of all three species contain numerous mobile group I introns, including one that is closest to an intron that invaded angiosperm mtDNAs; and (iii) at least one additional case of a mobile element, characterized by a homing endonuclease insertion between partially duplicated genes [Paquin,B., Laforest,M.J., Forget,L., Roewer,I., Wang,Z., Longcore,J. and Lang,B.F. (1997) Curr. Genet., 31, 380–395]. The combined mtDNA-encoded proteins contain insufficient phylogenetic signal to demonstrate monophyly of zygomycetes. PMID:15689432

  10. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  11. Quantifying the origin of released Ag+ ions from nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Meyer, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-11-13

    Nanosilver is most attractive for its bactericidal properties in modern textiles, food packaging, and biomedical applications. Concerns, however, about released Ag(+) ions during dispersion of nanosilver in liquids have limited its broad use. Here, nanosilver supported on nanostructured silica is made with closely controlled Ag size both by dry (flame aerosol) and by wet chemistry (impregnation) processes without any surface functionalization that could interfere with its ion release. It is characterized by electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and its Ag(+) ion release in deionized water is monitored electrochemically. The dispersion method of nanosilver in solutions affects its dissolution rate but not the final Ag(+) ion concentration. By systematically comparing nanosilver size distributions to their equilibrium Ag(+) ion concentrations, it is revealed that the latter correspond precisely to dissolution of one to two surface silver oxide monolayers, depending on particle diameter. When, however, the nanosilver is selectively conditioned by either washing or H(2) reduction, the oxide layers are removed, drastically minimizing Ag(+) ion leaching and its antibacterial activity against E. coli . That way the bactericidal activity of nanosilver is confined to contact with its surface rather than to rampant ions. This leads to silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties that are essential for medical tools and hospital applications.

  12. Antibacterial activity of graphene supported FeAg bimetallic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Li, Li; Bao, Jie; Jia, Xin; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2016-07-01

    We report the simple one pot synthesis of iron-silver (FeAg) bimetallic nanoparticles with different compositions on graphene support. The nanoparticles are well dispersed on the graphene sheet as revealed by the TEM, XRD, and Raman spectra. The antibacterial activity of graphene-FeAg nanocomposite (NC) towards Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by colony counting method. Graphene-FeAg NC demonstrates excellent antibacterial activity as compared to FeAg bimetallic without graphene. To understand the antibacterial mechanism of the NC, oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the glutathione (GSH) oxidation were investigated in the system. It has been observed that ROS production and GSH oxidation are concentration dependent while the increase in silver content up to 50% generally enhances the ROS production while ROS decreases on further increase in silver content. Graphene loaded FeAg NC demonstrates higher GSH oxidation capacity than bare FeAg bimetallic nanocomposite. The mechanism study suggests that the antibacterial activity is probably due to membrane and oxidative stress produced by the nanocomposites. The possible antibacterial pathway mainly includes the non-ROS oxidative stress (GSH oxidation) while ROS play minor role. PMID:27038914

  13. Simultaneous tunable structure and composition of PtAg alloyed nanocrystals as superior catalysts.

    PubMed

    Fang, Caihong; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Guili; Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-08-11

    PtAg alloyed nanostructural catalysts were firstly prepared by co-reduction of AgNO3 and H2PtCl6 precursors in growth solution using a seed-mediated method. By simply changing the molar ratio of the metal precursors, the morphologies of the porous alloyed nanocrystals can be tuned from multipetals to multioctahedra. Simultaneously, the alloy composition can be varied from Pt76Ag24 to Pt66Ag34. The catalytic properties of the prepared PtAg alloyed nanocrystals with a tunable structure and composition were tentatively examined by choosing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH4. The reaction rate normalized to the concentration of catalysts was calculated to be 318.9 s(-1) mol(-1) L and 277.4 s(-1) mol(-1) L for Pt70Ag30 and Pt66Ag34 porous catalysts, which is much higher than the pure Pt catalysts. Moreover, PtAg nanostructures can also serve as efficient electrocatalysts toward the methanol oxidation reaction, especially for Pt70Ag30 and Pt66Ag34 porous nanocrystals. The electrocatalytic activity and the durability were both highly enhanced compared to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. In addition, we also investigated the enhancement mechanism.

  14. Morphological and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited Zn–Ag nanoparticle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Punith Kumar, M.K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2013-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm were chemically synthesized and used to fabricate Zn–Ag composite coatings. The Zn–Ag composite coatings were generated by electrodeposition method using a simple sulfate plating bath dispersed with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and texture co-efficient calculations revealed that Ag nanoparticles appreciably influenced the morphology, micro-structure and texture of the deposit. It was also noticed that agglomerates of Ag nanoparticles, in the case of high bath load conditions, produced defects and dislocations on the deposit surface. Ag nanoparticles altered the corrosion resistance property of Zn–Ag composite coatings as observed from Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance analysis and an immersion test. Reduction in corrosion rate with increased charge transfer resistance was observed for Zn–Ag composite coatings when compared to a pure Zn coating. However, the particle concentration in the plating bath and their agglomeration state directly influenced the surface morphology and the subsequent corrosion behavior of the deposits. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 23 nm • Fabrication of Zn/nano Ag composite coating on mild steel • Composite coatings showed better corrosion resistance. • Optimization of particle concentration is necessary.

  15. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  16. Drug Dependence--A Comparative Study to Discover Significant Factors Relating to Interpersonal and Intrafamilial Relationships Prevalent in a Group of Trainees at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Patricia M.

    This thesis is an analysis of data concerning drug usage among three groups of young soldiers and isolates significant factors relating to characteristic interpersonal and intrafamilial relationships prevalent in these groups. Those soldiers dependent on drugs all came from families that they considered disharmonious. The following variables…

  17. Pirquitasite, Ag2ZnSnS4

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Benjamin N.; Downs, Robert T.; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Andrade, Marcelo B; Origlieri, Marcus J.

    2013-01-01

    Pirquitasite, ideally Ag2ZnSnS4 (disilver zinc tin tetra­sulfide), exhibits tetra­gonal symmetry and is a member of the stannite group that has the general formula A2BCX 4, with A = Ag, Cu; B = Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Hg; C = Sn, Ge, Sb, As; and X = S, Se. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data are used to determine the structure of pirquitasite from a twinned crystal from the type locality, the Pirquitas deposit, Jujuy Province, Argentina, with anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms, and a measured composition of (Ag1.87Cu0.13)(Zn0.61Fe0.36Cd0.03)SnS4. One Ag atom is located on Wyckoff site Wyckoff 2a (symmetry -4..), the other Ag atom is statistically disordered with minor amounts of Cu and is located on 2c (-4..), the (Zn, Fe, Cd) site on 2d (-4..), Sn on 2b (-4..), and S on general site 8g. This is the first determination of the crystal structure of pirquitasite, and our data indicate that the space group of pirquitasite is I-4, rather than I-42m as previously suggested. The structure was refined under consideration of twinning by inversion [twin ratio of the components 0.91 (6):0.09 (6)]. PMID:23424398

  18. Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance in spin-valves with AgSn alloy spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J. C.; Nakatani, T. M.; Smith, Neil; Choi, Y.-S.; York, B. R.; Brinkman, E.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-07-28

    We investigate the use of AgSn alloys as the spacer layer in current-perpendicular-to-the-plane magnetoresistance devices. Alloying with Sn increases resistivity but results in a reasonably long (>10 nm) spin-diffusion length, so large magnetoresistance can be achieved with thin AgSn spacers. Compared to Ag thin films, AgSn forms smaller grain sizes, reduced roughness, and exhibits less interdiffusion upon annealing, resulting in decreased interlayer magnetic coupling in exchange biased spin-valves. AgSn also shows improved corrosion resistance compared to Ag, which is advantageous for nanofabrication, including magnetic recording head sensors. Combining a AgSn spacer with Co-based Heusler alloy ferromagnet in an exchange biased, polycrystalline trilayer thinner than 12 nm results in magnetoresistance values up to 15% at room temperature.

  19. Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance in spin-valves with AgSn alloy spacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. C.; Nakatani, T. M.; Smith, Neil; Choi, Y.-S.; York, B. R.; Brinkman, E.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the use of AgSn alloys as the spacer layer in current-perpendicular-to-the-plane magnetoresistance devices. Alloying with Sn increases resistivity but results in a reasonably long (>10 nm) spin-diffusion length, so large magnetoresistance can be achieved with thin AgSn spacers. Compared to Ag thin films, AgSn forms smaller grain sizes, reduced roughness, and exhibits less interdiffusion upon annealing, resulting in decreased interlayer magnetic coupling in exchange biased spin-valves. AgSn also shows improved corrosion resistance compared to Ag, which is advantageous for nanofabrication, including magnetic recording head sensors. Combining a AgSn spacer with Co-based Heusler alloy ferromagnet in an exchange biased, polycrystalline trilayer thinner than 12 nm results in magnetoresistance values up to 15% at room temperature.

  20. Ag/AgCl electrodes in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Cengiz; Kepceoğlu, Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of two different types of EEG electrodes (the first B10-S-150 Ag/AgCl sintered ring electrode with 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket and 150 cm heavy-duty lead wire and the second, B12-LS-100 Ag/AgCl sintered FE-electrode with 100 cm light-duty lead wire and 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket with 5 kΩ resistor near sensor) used in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner. We compared these electrodes by their specific absorption rate (SAR) simulation values and the temperature change calculated by PRF method. The experimental setup of the study is described as follows: a phantom is prepared and the electrodes are placed on it. Then, a simulation for SAR values is realized. The temperature change is calculated by MR thermometer. As a result of this study, Ag/AgCl pin electrode is better to be use in EEG/fMRI; because the measured temperature change is expected to be low.

  1. Fabrication of Ag nanowire and Al-doped ZnO hybrid transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sslimsearom; Park, Yong Seo; Choi, Hyung Wook; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Among the materials used as transparent electrodes, silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attracted attention because of their high transmittance and excellent conductivity. However, AgNWs have shortcomings, including their poor adhesion, oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, and unstable characteristics at high temperature. To overcome these shortcomings, multi-layer thin films with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)/AgNW/AZO structure were fabricated using facing targets sputtering. The samples heated to 350 °C exhibited stable electrical characteristics. In addition, the adhesion to the substrate was improved compared with AgNWs layer. The AZO/AgNW/AZO thin films with multilayer structure overcame the shortcomings of AgNWs, and we propose their use as transparent electrodes with excellent properties for optoelectronic applications.

  2. Dendritic macromolecules supported Ag nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Javad; Zarnegar, Zohre; Sadeghi, Masoud; Enayati-Najafabadi, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    Polymer supported Ag nanoparticles, generated in situ by silver nitrate (AgNO3) reduction under reaction conditions, catalyzed the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol with high efficiency in water at room temperature in the presence of an excess amount of NaBH4. Amphiphilic linear-dendritic copolymers containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(ε-caprolactone) arms were able to load the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 8-10 nm were found to show a comparable catalytic activity towards formation of the aromatic amine as single product with short reaction time.

  3. Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Han; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Meicheng; Huang, Jinjer; Li, Yingfeng; Trevor, Mwenya

    2014-01-01

    Large-area Ag nanowires are ordered by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on a wettable solid surface. Compared with other nanowires orientation methods, radial shaped oriented Ag nanowires in a large ring region are obtained in an extremely short time. Furthermore, the radial shaped oriented Ag nanowires are transferred and aligned into one direction. Based on the hydrodynamics, the coactions among the microfluid, gravity effect and the adhesion of substrate on the orientation of the Ag nanowires are clearly revealed. This spreading method opens an efficient way for extreme economic, efficient and “green” way for commercial producing ordered nanowire arrays. PMID:25339118

  4. Direct sunlight responsive Ag-ZnO heterostructure photocatalyst: Enhanced degradation of rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongju; Wang, Lijing; Sun, Dewu; Han, Donglai; Qi, Bing; Li, Xiuyan; Chang, Limin; Yang, Jinghai

    2015-03-01

    The catalytic activity of Ag-ZnO heterostructure on the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B was investigated. It demonstrated that Ag-ZnO heterostructure exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles under direct sunlight. The possible factors to the photocatalytic acitivity of the sample were explored, including Ag content, dispersity and calcination temperature. It was shown that the sample dispersed by PVP, with 5% mol ratio Ag content, calcined at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic acitivity and this catalyst was reusable.

  5. Comparatively studying the ultrasound present in a mild two-stage approach on the content of functional groups in modified MWCNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Run; Liang, Shaolei; Li, Guangfen; Zhang, Yanxia; Shi, Le

    2016-04-01

    A two-stage approach assisted with ultrasound for oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with ultra-high content of functional groups was utilized. The effect of ultrasound on the content of functional groups of the modified MWCNTs from different stages was analyzed by FE-SEM, HR-TEM, FTIR, Raman, TGA, XPS and triple double-backward titration method. The results confirm that more oxygen-containing functional groups were grafted on MWCNT with little damage to the structure integrity of nanotubes. The particle size distribution and the dispersion photography of MWCNTs in water and in ethanol further show a better dispersion of modified MWCNTs in polar solvent.

  6. Synthesis of Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms and their use as DNA hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ma, Zhanfang

    2011-06-01

    A simple synthetic route to prepare Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms consists of the facile addition of Na(2) S to a solution of triangular Ag nanoprisms. The resulting Ag(2) S-Ag nanoparticles are more stable in solution than the original Ag nanoprisms, and two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the original Ag nanoprisms still remain. In addition, the SPR bands of the Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms are tunable over a wide range. The Ag(2) S-Ag nanoprisms can be directly bioconjugated via well-established stable Ag(2) S surface chemistry with readily available sulfur coupling agents. The nanoprisms are used in the hybridization of functionalized oligonucleotides, and show promise as probes for future biosensing applications. PMID:21538868

  7. Trapping phosphate anions inside the [Ag{sub 4}I]{sup 3+} framework: Structure, bonding, and properties of Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4})

    SciTech Connect

    Oleneva, Olga S.; Kirsanova, Maria A.; Shestimerova, Tatiana A.; Abramchuk, Nikolay S.; Davliatshin, Dmitry I.; Bykov, Mikhail A.; Dikarev, Evgeny V.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.

    2008-01-15

    Orange-red Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/m (No. 11), with the unit cell dimensions a=9.0874(6) A, b=6.8809(5) A, c=11.1260(7) A, {beta}=109.450(1){sup o}, and Z=4. The crystal structure is fully ordered; it comprises the silver-iodine three-dimensional positively charged framework hosting the tetrahedral PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} guest anions. The framework features high coordination numbers for iodine and manifold Ag-Ag bonds ranging from 3.01 to 3.46 A. The Ag-Ag interaction is bonding, it involves silver 4d and 5s orbitals lying, together with the orbitals of iodine, just below the Fermi level. Though the orbitals of silver and iodine define the conducting properties of the title compound, the interaction between the framework and the guest anions is also important and is responsive to the number of the silver atoms surrounding the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} tetrahedra. Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) melts incongruently at 591 K and produces a mixture of the silver phosphate and an amorphous phase upon cooling. Pure Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}) is a poor conductor with a room temperature conductivity of 3x10{sup -6} S m{sup -1}. The discrepancies between the properties observed here and those reported previously in the literature are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Regular [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra fill large voids in the Ag-I framework to form a host-guest compound, Ag{sub 4}I(PO{sub 4}). It has a perfectly ordered crystal structure, atypical for this kind of compounds, rendering the study of the manifold Ag-Ag bonds and the host-guest interaction. However, this ordering leads to low ionic conductivity.

  8. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group. Study in rats.

    PubMed

    Kantorski, Karla Zanini; de Souza, Daniela Martins; Yujra, Verônica Quispe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG), 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG), and water (Control Group, CG). After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10(3)) were: 8.17 (AG), 9.78 (IG), and 5.63 (CG). There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58) was similar to that in the AG (2.06) and in the CG (1.14), and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14), IG (2.00) and CG (0.43). The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.

  9. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

  10. Study of the oxygen transport through Ag (110), Ag (poly), and Ag 2.0 Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Wu, D.; Davidson, M. R.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of oxygen through high-purity membranes of Ag (110), Ag (poly), Ag (nano), and Ag 2.0 Zr has been studied by an ultrahigh vacuum permeation method over the temperature range of 400-800 C. The data show that there are substantial deviations from ordinary diffusion-controlled transport. A surface limitation has been confirmed by glow-discharge studies where the upstream O2 supply has been partially converted to atoms, which, for the same temperature and pressure, gave rise to over an order of magnitude increase in transport flux. Further, the addition of 2.0 wt percent Zr to the Ag has provided increased dissociative adsorption rates, which, in turn, increased the transport flux by a factor of 2. It was also observed that below a temperature of 630 C, the diffusivity exhibits an increase in activation energy of over 4 kcal/mol, which has been attributed to trapping of the atomic oxygen and/or kinetic barriers at the surface and subsurface of the vacuum interface. Above 630 C, the activation barrier decreases to the accepted value of about 11 kcal/mol for Ag (poly), consistent with zero concentration at the vacuum interface.

  11. Bio-inspired sustainable and green synthesis of plasmonic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of organic compound from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we report the utilization of the biogenic potential of Benincasa hispida (ash gourd) peel extract for the synthesis of Ag embedded AgCl nanoparticles nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) without the use of any external organic solvents. The appearance of dark brown color from the pale yellow color confirmed the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles which was further validated by absorbance peak using UV-visible spectroscopy. The phytochemicals (flavones) present in the B. hispida peel extract acts as a reducing/stabilizing agents. The morphology and size of the synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron microscope (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). FT-IR spectra of the B. hispida peel extract and after the development of nanoparticles are determined to identify the functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic property in the degradation of toxic dye like malachite green oxalate under sunlight irradiation. For the first time, malachite green oxalate dye was degraded by Ag/AgCl nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation. PMID:27246560

  12. Bio-inspired sustainable and green synthesis of plasmonic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of organic compound from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we report the utilization of the biogenic potential of Benincasa hispida (ash gourd) peel extract for the synthesis of Ag embedded AgCl nanoparticles nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) without the use of any external organic solvents. The appearance of dark brown color from the pale yellow color confirmed the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles which was further validated by absorbance peak using UV-visible spectroscopy. The phytochemicals (flavones) present in the B. hispida peel extract acts as a reducing/stabilizing agents. The morphology and size of the synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron microscope (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). FT-IR spectra of the B. hispida peel extract and after the development of nanoparticles are determined to identify the functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic property in the degradation of toxic dye like malachite green oxalate under sunlight irradiation. For the first time, malachite green oxalate dye was degraded by Ag/AgCl nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation.

  13. The effects of booster vaccination on hepatitis B vaccine in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Lv, Huakun; Cheng, Suyun; Ling, Luoya; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Yongdi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in anti-HBs IgG levels after booster vaccinations in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers. After primary vaccination, the immunization effects of different dosages of booster vaccinations of hepatitis B vaccine (CHO) were compared. A group of 472 newborns were vaccinated with three-dose hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 1 mo and 6 mo of age. Blood serum was collected within 6-12 mo after the third dose, and HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc levels were determined. Of this group, 101 infants who were both anti-HBs and HBsAg negative were revaccinated with 20 μg hepatitis B vaccine (CHO), and their antibody titers were monitored. Among these 101 infants, the anti- HBs positive rates (defined as anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml) differed after the first and the third dose (79% and 90%, respectively (p<0.05), while differences in the corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were not statistically significant (629 ± 3 mIU/ml and 572 ± 3 mIU/ml respectively, p<0.05). The anti-HBs GMTs after booster vaccination were 10-fold larger than those before booster vaccination. We conclude that a single booster dose is generally adequate for infants of HBsAg-positive mothers, whereas a further booster dose should be given for non-responders.

  14. Controlled formation of ag nanoparticles by means of long-chain sodium polyacrylates in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Huber, Klaus; Witte, Thomas; Hollmann, Jutta; Keuker-Baumann, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A new tool is presented to control formation of Ag nanoparticles. Small amounts of silver ions were added to dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA). Four NaPA samples covering a molar mass regime of 97 kD < or = Mw < or = 650 kD have been used. With amounts of added Ag(+) as low as 1-2% of the COO(-) groups of the polyanionic chains, significant changes could already be induced in the NaPA coils with 650 kD. If the NaPA concentration was kept below 0.1 g/L, the coils with 650 kD exhibited a significant coil shrinking in stable solutions. At larger NaPA concentrations, addition of Ag+ initiates an aggregation of the polyacrylate coils toward compact structures. Coil shrinking and aggregation was revealed by means of time-resolved static light scattering. If exposed to UV-radiation, small Ag particles formed within the shrunken anionic polyacrylate coils. The Ag nanoparticles were identified by means of an enhanced light scattering and a characteristic plasmon absorption band around 410 nm. No such Ag particle formation could be observed even at 5 times larger concentrations of Ag(+) and NaPA if the two smallest polyacrylate samples have been used under otherwise equal conditions. This molar mass sensitive response of NaPA to Ag(+)-addition suggests an interesting phenomenon: if the coil size of the NaPa chains, which act as Ag(+) collectors, is large enough, local Ag(+) concentration in these coil-shaped Ag(+) containers exceeds a critical value, and irradiation with UV generates Ag nanoparticles. PMID:17263389

  15. The prevalence of symptoms associated with sick buildings and polluted industrial environments as compared to unexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Rand, G.; Michel, I. ); Amcoff, S. )

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of certain symptoms (eye, skin and upper airway irritation, headache, nausea and fatigue) associated with the sick building syndrome was studied among personnel exposed to sick buildings, among industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants and among nonexposed reference groups without expressed dissatisfaction. The exposures were quantified by hygienic measurements. Both sick building personnel and industrial and hospital workers exposed to irritants in their work places exhibited a significantly enhanced symptom prevalence in comparison with the reference groups. The enhanced prevalence of many symptoms was more pronounced among personnel in the sick buildings than among the exposed workers, but the exposure levels in comparison with the occupational exposure limit values, were lower in the sick buildings than in the industrial environment. the proportion of females was higher in the sick buildings than in the reference groups, and all sick buildings were found in the public sector. The sick building groups did not differ from the reference groups with regard to other factors such as mean age, smoking habits, atopy frequency, work stress, or work satisfaction. The results indicate that modern indoor environments could be as potent as current industrial environments in inducing irritative symptoms. The enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the sick buildings could not be explained by an accumulation of sensitive individuals in certain buildings.

  16. Comparison of Serum HBsAg Quantitation by Four Immunoassays, and Relationships of HBsAg Level with HBV Replication and HBV Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tuaillon, Edouard; Mondain, Anne-Marie; Nagot, Nicolas; Ottomani, Laure; Kania, Dramane; Nogue, Erika; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Van de Perre, Philippe; Ducos, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background The decline in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) may be an early predictor of the viral efficacy of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. The HBsAg levels obtained by different immunoassays now need comparing and the relationships between levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA alongside HBsAg and genotype must be evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings HBsAg levels were compared among 80 patients using the Abbott Architect assay, a commercial immunoassay approved for HBsAg detection and quantitation, and three other assays derived from immunoassays approved for HBsAg detection (manufactured by Diasorin, Bio-Rad and Roche). Good correlation was found between the Abbot vs. Diasorin, Bio-Rad and Roche assays with narrow 95% limits of agreement and small mean differences: −0.06 to 0.11, −0.09 log10 IU/mL; −0.57 to 0.64, −0.04 log10 IU/mL; −0.09 to 0.45, −0.27 log10 IU/mL, respectively. These agreements were not affected by genotypes A or D. HBsAg was weakly correlated with HBV DNA, whatever the HBsAg assay used: Abbott, ρ = 0.36 p = 0.001, Diasorin ρ = 0.34, p = 0.002; Bio-Rad ρ = 0.37, p<0.001; or Roche ρ = 0.41, p<0.001. This relationship between levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA seemed to depend on genotypes. Whereas HBsAg (Abbott assay) tended to correlate with HBV DNA for genotype A (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.02), no such correlation was significant for genotypes D (ρ = 0.29, p = 0.15). Conclusion/Significance The quantitation of HBsAg in routine clinical samples is comparable between the reference assay and the adapted assays with acceptable accuracy limits, low levels of variability and minimum discrepancy. While HBsAg quantitation is not affected by HBV genotype, the observed association between levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA seems genotype dependent. PMID:22403628

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 in water using Ag-Ag2O-Zno nanostuctures anchored on graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umukoro, Eseoghene H.; Peleyeju, Moses G.; Ngila, Jane C.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution due to industrial effluents from industries which utilize dyes in the manufacturing of their products has serious implications on aquatic lives and the general environment. Thus, there is need for the removal of dyes from wastewater before being discharged into the environment. In this study, a nanocomposite consisting of silver, silver oxide (Ag2O), zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized, characterized and photocatalytically applied in the degradation (and possibly mineralization) of organic pollutants in water treatment process. The Ag-Ag2O-ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C. It was functionalized using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and further anchored on carboxylated graphene oxide via the formation of an amide bond to give the Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The applicability of Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite as a photocatalyst was investigated in the photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 74 dye under visible light irradiation in synthetic wastewater containing the dye. The results indicated that Ag-Ag2O-ZnO/GO nanocomposite has a higher photocatalytic activity (90% removal) compared to Ag-Ag2O-ZnO (85% removal) and ZnO (75% removal) respectively and thus lends itself to application in water treatment, where the removal of organics is very important.

  18. Comparative Study on Single-Molecule Junctions of Alkane- and Benzene-Based Molecules with Carboxylic Acid/Aldehyde as the Anchoring Groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Peng, Lin-Lu; Hong, Ze-Wen; Mao, Jin-Chuan; Zheng, Ju-Fang; Shao, Yong; Niu, Zhen-Jiang; Zhou, Xiao-Shun

    2016-12-01

    We have measured the alkane and benzene-based molecules with aldehyde and carboxylic acid as anchoring groups by using the electrochemical jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (ECSTM-BJ) approach. The results show that molecule with benzene backbone has better peak shape and intensity than those with alkane backbone. Typically, high junction formation probability for same anchoring group (aldehyde and carboxylic acid) with benzene backbone is found, which contributes to the stronger attractive interaction between Cu and molecules with benzene backbone. The present work shows the import role of backbone in junction, which can guide the design molecule to form effective junction for studying molecular electronics. PMID:27566686

  19. Comparative Study on Single-Molecule Junctions of Alkane- and Benzene-Based Molecules with Carboxylic Acid/Aldehyde as the Anchoring Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Peng, Lin-Lu; Hong, Ze-Wen; Mao, Jin-Chuan; Zheng, Ju-Fang; Shao, Yong; Niu, Zhen-Jiang; Zhou, Xiao-Shun

    2016-08-01

    We have measured the alkane and benzene-based molecules with aldehyde and carboxylic acid as anchoring groups by using the electrochemical jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (ECSTM-BJ) approach. The results show that molecule with benzene backbone has better peak shape and intensity than those with alkane backbone. Typically, high junction formation probability for same anchoring group (aldehyde and carboxylic acid) with benzene backbone is found, which contributes to the stronger attractive interaction between Cu and molecules with benzene backbone. The present work shows the import role of backbone in junction, which can guide the design molecule to form effective junction for studying molecular electronics.

  20. THE RHIC/AGS ONLINE MODEL ENVIRONMENT: DESIGN AND OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; BROWN,K.; PILAT,F.; TAFTI,A.A.; TEPIKIAN,S.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    1999-03-29

    An integrated online modeling environment is currently under development for use by AGS and RHIC physicists and commissioners. This environment combines the modeling efforts of both groups in a CDEV [1] client-server design, providing access to expected machine optics and physics parameters based on live and design machine settings. An abstract modeling interface has been designed as a set of adapters [2] around core computational modeling engines such as MAD and UAL/Teapot++ [3]. This approach allows us to leverage existing survey, lattice, and magnet infrastructure, as well as easily incorporate new model engine developments. This paper describes the architecture of the RHIC/AGS modeling environment, including the application interface through CDEV and general tools for graphical interaction with the model using Tcl/Tk. Separate papers at this conference address the specifics of implementation and modeling experience for AGS and RHIC.

  1. Reversal of B-cell hyperactivation and functional impairment is associated with HBsAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangsheng; Shang, Qinghua; Chen, Xinyue; Nie, Weimin; Zou, Zhengsheng; Huang, Ang; Meng, Ming; Jin, Lei; Xu, Ruonan; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Fu, Junliang; Wang, Lifeng; Tang, Zirong; Xie, Yunbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    B cells play an important role in the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and protection against reinfection. However, the functional characteristics of these cells that are associated with the outcome of chronic HBV infection remain unknown. We comprehensively investigated the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral B-cell subsets from CHB patients in different phases: immune tolerance (IT), immune activation (IA), immune clearance (IC), responders with HBsAg seroconversion (resolved patients, RP), and healthy controls (HC). IA patients displayed lower percentages of peripheral blood memory B cells compared with the other groups. Overall polyclonal activation of B cells, indicated by higher levels of activation markers and secretion of IgG and IgM, was observed in IA patients. This B-cell hyperactivation could be induced by increased IFN-α and soluble CD40 ligands in IA patients. Notably, the expression of the co-stimulator molecule CD80 and serum HBsAb and the frequency of HBsAg-specific B cells were significantly decreased in IT, IA, and IC patients compared with HC subjects. More importantly, the B-cell hyperactivation, co-stimulatory molecule downregulation and HBsAg-specific B-cell impairment were reversed in RP patients. The reversal of B-cell hyperactivation and functional impairment is associated with HBsAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:25849120

  2. The Effectiveness of Writing Conferences and Peer Response Groups Strategies on the EFL Secondary Students' Writing Performance and Their Self Efficacy (A Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Mohamed Abdel Hadi; Al Ashri, Ismail Ibrahim El shirbini Abdel fattah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying the necessary writing performance skills for the first year secondary stage students. These skills are necessary for writing the compositions. In this study, the writing conferences and peer response groups strategies were used to develop the students' writing skills, improve their achievement and performance…

  3. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  4. The dynamics of radical right-wing populist party preferences and perceived group threat: A comparative panel analysis of three competing hypotheses in the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Berning, Carl C; Schlueter, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Existing cross-sectional research considers citizens' preferences for radical right-wing populist (RRP) parties to be centrally driven by their perception that immigrants threaten the well-being of the national ingroup. However, longitudinal evidence for this relationship is largely missing. To remedy this gap in the literature, we developed three competing hypotheses to investigate: (a) whether perceived group threat is temporally prior to RRP party preferences, (b) whether RRP party preferences are temporally prior to perceived group threat, or (c) whether the relation between perceived group threat and RRP party preferences is bidirectional. Based on multiwave panel data from the Netherlands for the years 2008-2013 and from Germany spanning the period 1994-2002, we examined the merits of these hypotheses using autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models. The results show that perceptions of threatened group interests precipitate rather than follow citizens' preferences for RRP parties. These findings help to clarify our knowledge of the dynamic structure underlying RRP party preferences.

  5. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  6. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  7. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  8. AgMIP Training in Multiple Crop Models and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boote, Kenneth J.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Hargreaves, John; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Thornburn, Peter; Mutter, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has the goal of using multiple crop models to evaluate climate impacts on agricultural production and food security in developed and developing countries. There are several major limitations that must be overcome to achieve this goal, including the need to train AgMIP regional research team (RRT) crop modelers to use models other than the ones they are currently familiar with, plus the need to harmonize and interconvert the disparate input file formats used for the various models. Two activities were followed to address these shortcomings among AgMIP RRTs to enable them to use multiple models to evaluate climate impacts on crop production and food security. We designed and conducted courses in which participants trained on two different sets of crop models, with emphasis on the model of least experience. In a second activity, the AgMIP IT group created templates for inputting data on soils, management, weather, and crops into AgMIP harmonized databases, and developed translation tools for converting the harmonized data into files that are ready for multiple crop model simulations. The strategies for creating and conducting the multi-model course and developing entry and translation tools are reviewed in this chapter.

  9. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, Andrew T.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Kirsty; Miller, John H.; Leslie, Stephen J.; Megson, Ian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA) in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study. Methods Patients (men, 50–70 years old; n = 12) were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6) or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6) during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography. Outcome Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups). Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735) and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland) R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735 PMID:26784323

  10. In Situ Photocatalytic Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles (nAg) by Crumpled Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes for Filtration and Disinfection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Di; Cho, Minjung; Lee, Seung Soo; Zhang, Fuzhong; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) materials have demonstrated considerable potential in next-generation water treatment membrane-based technologies, which include antimicrobial applications. GO antimicrobial properties can be further enhanced by preloading or chemically generating surface-associated nanoscale silver particles (nAg). However, for these systems, enhanced antimicrobial functionality decreases over time as a function of Ag mass loss via dissolution (as Ag(+)). In this work, we demonstrate facile photocatalytic in situ synthesis of nAg particles by crumpled GO-TiO2 (GOTI) nanocomposites as an approach to (re)generate, and thus maintain, enhanced antimicrobial activity over extended operation times. The described photocatalytic formation process is highly efficient and relatively fast, producing nAg particles over a size range of 40 to 120 nm and with active (111) planes. Additionally, we show in situ surface-based photocatalyzed synthesis of nAg particles at the surface of GOTI nanocomposite membrane assemblies, allowing for simultaneous filtration and disinfection. With ca. 3 log inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the described membrane assemblies with in situ formed nAg demonstrate enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the GOTI membrane surface or the support membrane alone. Under typical conditions, the working and operational time (Ag dissolution time) is calculated to be over 2 orders of magnitude higher than the loading (synthesis) time (e.g., 123 h versus 0.5 h, respectively). Taken together, results highlight the described material-based process as a potentially novel antifouling membrane technology.

  11. Ice nucleation efficiency of AgI: review and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, Claudia; Nagare, Baban; Welti, André; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    AgI is one of the best-investigated ice-nucleating substances. It has relevance for the atmosphere since it is used for glaciogenic cloud seeding. Theoretical and experimental studies over the last 60 years provide a complex picture of silver iodide as an ice-nucleating agent with conflicting and inconsistent results. This review compares experimental ice nucleation studies in order to analyze the factors that influence the ice nucleation ability of AgI. The following picture emerges from this analysis: the ice nucleation ability of AgI seems to be enhanced when the AgI particle is on the surface of a droplet, which is indeed the position that a particle takes when it can freely move in a droplet. The ice nucleation by particles with surfaces exposed to air depends on water adsorption. AgI surfaces seem to be most efficient at nucleating ice when they are exposed to relative humidity at or even above water saturation. For AgI particles that are completely immersed in water, the freezing temperature increases with increasing AgI surface area. Higher threshold freezing temperatures seem to correlate with improved lattice matches as can be seen for AgI-AgCl solid solutions and 3AgI·NH4I·6H2O, which have slightly better lattice matches with ice than AgI and also higher threshold freezing temperatures. However, the effect of a good lattice match is annihilated when the surfaces have charges. Also, the ice nucleation ability seems to decrease during dissolution of AgI particles. This introduces an additional history and time dependence for ice nucleation in cloud chambers with short residence times.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering at Ag nanowires in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel A.; McPherson, Tyler; Pan, Shanlin; Chen, Mingyang; Dixon, David A.; Hu, Dehong

    2012-12-13

    We present surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and Raman imaging of small organic molecules at well-defined nanostructures formed by single silver nanowires (NWs). We show that SERS can be obtained at single, crossed, and bundled Ag NWs for mercaptopyridine, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Crossed wires and parallel Ag NWs have SERS enhancement factors much higher than single Ag NWs. New additional junctions formed by a silver nanoparticle and a single Ag NW, and bundled NWs provide SERS intensity higher than a single Ag NW. The SERS signal of single Ag NWs can be further enhanced by decorating the Ag NW surface with gold nanoparticles using electroless deposition. Single Ag NW Raman imaging with a 10 ms time resolution when compared with photoluminescence (PL) imaging results reveal a different dynamic response of SERS and PL under steady state laser excitation. Dynamic photoluminescence blinking activities are suppressed in the presence of the surface coating of Raman active molecules (e.g., mercaptopyridine) and the SERS signal is quite stable in a wide field excitation configuration. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) method was used to calculate the local field intensity that can be applied to help understand the enhanced PL and SERS at the junction of Ag NWs

  13. Effect of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles on SERS spectral variance of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Shaode; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-02-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively utilized in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for bacterial identification. However, Ag NPs are toxic to bacteria. Whether such toxicity can affect SERS features of bacteria and interfere with bacterial identification is still unknown and needed to explore. Here, by carrying out a comparative study on non-toxic Au NPs with that on toxic Ag NPs, we investigated the influence of nanoparticle concentration and incubation time on bacterial SERS spectral variance, both of which were demonstrated to be closely related to the toxicity of Ag NPs. Sensitive spectral alterations were observed on Ag NPs with increase of NPs concentration or incubation time, accompanied with an obvious decrease in number of viable bacteria. In contrast, SERS spectra and viable bacterial number on Au NPs were rather constant under the same conditions. A further analysis on spectral changes demonstrated that it was cell response (i.e. metabolic activity or death) to the toxicity of Ag NPs causing spectral variance. However, biochemical responses to the toxicity of Ag were very different in different bacteria, indicating the complex toxic mechanism of Ag NPs. Ag NPs are toxic to a great variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa etc., therefore, this work will be helpful in guiding the future application of SERS technique in various complex biological systems.

  14. Effect of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles on SERS spectral variance of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Chen, Shaode; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-02-25

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively utilized in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for bacterial identification. However, Ag NPs are toxic to bacteria. Whether such toxicity can affect SERS features of bacteria and interfere with bacterial identification is still unknown and needed to explore. Here, by carrying out a comparative study on non-toxic Au NPs with that on toxic Ag NPs, we investigated the influence of nanoparticle concentration and incubation time on bacterial SERS spectral variance, both of which were demonstrated to be closely related to the toxicity of Ag NPs. Sensitive spectral alterations were observed on Ag NPs with increase of NPs concentration or incubation time, accompanied with an obvious decrease in number of viable bacteria. In contrast, SERS spectra and viable bacterial number on Au NPs were rather constant under the same conditions. A further analysis on spectral changes demonstrated that it was cell response (i.e. metabolic activity or death) to the toxicity of Ag NPs causing spectral variance. However, biochemical responses to the toxicity of Ag were very different in different bacteria, indicating the complex toxic mechanism of Ag NPs. Ag NPs are toxic to a great variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa etc., therefore, this work will be helpful in guiding the future application of SERS technique in various complex biological systems. PMID:25291503

  15. Preparation and Sintering Properties of Ag27Cu2Sn Nanopaste as Die Attach Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Zhen; Kong, Lingchao

    2016-10-01

    Ag27Cu2Sn nanopaste has been prepared by mixing Ag, Cu, and Sn nanoparticles with an organic solvent system. Sintering and mechanical properties of this nanopaste were characterized and investigated. Effects of sintering temperature and time on the sintered microstructure of the nanopaste and shear strength of Cu/Ag27Cu2Sn/Cu structure were analyzed. The results showed that the organic shells coated on the outside of metal nanoparticles could effectively prevent metal nanoparticles from being oxidized below 480°C. When the paste was sintered at 480°C without pressure, few voids or large particles formed within the sintered layer and distributions of Ag, Cu, and Sn were quite uniform. This sintering temperature was much lower than the eutectic temperature (779°C) of Ag-Cu bulk material. Moreover, mutual solid solubilities of Ag and Cu were increased remarkably, which may be caused by high surface activity of Ag and Cu nanoparticles and the important role of the Sn addition. Shear strength of samples with Cu/Ag27Cu2Sn/Cu structure could reach 21 MPa, which could compare with that of Ag nanopaste or conductive adhesives.

  16. Silica Cladding of Ag Nanoparticles for High Stability and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Tang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Binzhen; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-09-01

    For high-precision biochemical sensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been demonstrated to be a highly sensitive spectroscopic analytical method and Ag is considered to be the best material for SERS performance. Due to the high surface activity of Ag nanoparticles, the high stability of Ag nanostructures, especially in moist environments, is one of the key issues that need to be solved. A method for silica (SiO2) cladding of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated here for high sensitivity and long-term stability when putted in aqueous solution. The chemically inert, transparent, hydrophilic, and bio-compatible SiO2 surface acts as the protection layer for the Ag nanoparticles, which can also enhance the Raman intensity to a certain extent. In our study, the Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrate can detect crystal violet solutions with molar concentrations down to 10-12 M. After 24 h of immersion, the reduction in Raman scattering intensity is about 85 % for sole Ag NP films, compared to 12 % for the Ag coated with a 10-nm SiO2 layer. This thickness was found to be optimum for Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrates with long-term stability and high SERS activity.

  17. Silica Cladding of Ag Nanoparticles for High Stability and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Tang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Binzhen; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    For high-precision biochemical sensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been demonstrated to be a highly sensitive spectroscopic analytical method and Ag is considered to be the best material for SERS performance. Due to the high surface activity of Ag nanoparticles, the high stability of Ag nanostructures, especially in moist environments, is one of the key issues that need to be solved. A method for silica (SiO2) cladding of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated here for high sensitivity and long-term stability when putted in aqueous solution. The chemically inert, transparent, hydrophilic, and bio-compatible SiO2 surface acts as the protection layer for the Ag nanoparticles, which can also enhance the Raman intensity to a certain extent. In our study, the Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrate can detect crystal violet solutions with molar concentrations down to 10(-12) M. After 24 h of immersion, the reduction in Raman scattering intensity is about 85 % for sole Ag NP films, compared to 12 % for the Ag coated with a 10-nm SiO2 layer. This thickness was found to be optimum for Ag@SiO2 core-shell substrates with long-term stability and high SERS activity. PMID:27637895

  18. Enhanced Raman scattering and nonlinear conductivity in Ag-doped hollow ZnO microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Levie, Harold W.; McCall, Scott K.; Teslich, Nick E.; Wall, Mark A.; Orme, Christine A.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2012-10-01

    Hollow spherical ZnO particles doped with Ag were synthesized with a two-step oxidation and sublimation furnace annealing process. Ag nanoparticle precipitates, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, were present in the polycrystalline ZnO matrix at Ag concentrations below 0.02 mol%, significantly below the 0.8 mol% solubility limit for Ag in ZnO. Enhanced Raman scattering of ZnO phonon modes is observed, increasing with Ag nanoparticle concentration. A further enhancement in Raman scattering due to resonance effects was observed for LO phonons excited by 2.33-eV photons as compared with Raman scattering under 1.96-eV excitation. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed both a near-band-edge emission due to free exciton transitions and a mid-gap transition due to the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. ZnO:Ag particles were measured electrically in a packed column and in monolithic form, and in both cases displayed nonlinear current-voltage characteristics similar to those previously observed in sintered ZnO:Ag monoliths where Ag-enhanced disorder at grain boundaries is thought to control current transport. We demonstrate therefore that Ag simultaneously modifies the electrical and optical properties of ZnO particles through the introduction of vacancies and other defects.

  19. Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x round wires with Ag/Al oxide dispersion strengthened sheaths: microstructure-properties relationships, enhanced mechanical behavior and reduced Cu depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajbafvala, Amir; Nachtrab, William; Wong, Terence; Schwartz, Justin

    2014-09-01

    Ag/Al alloys with various Al content (0.50 wt%, 0.75 wt%, 1.00 wt%, and 1.25 wt%) are made by powder metallurgy and used as the outer sheath material for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x (Bi2212)/Ag/AgAl multifilamentary round wires (RW). Bi2212/Ag/AgAl RW microstructural, mechanical and electrical properties are studied in various conditions, including as-drawn, after internal oxidation, and after partial melt processing (PMP). The results are compared with the behavior of a Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg wire of the same geometry. The grains in as-drawn Ag/Al alloys are found to be ˜25% smaller than those in the corresponding Ag/0.20 wt%Mg, but after PMP, the Ag/Al and Ag/0.20 wt%Mg grain sizes are comparable. Tensile tests show that Bi2212/Ag/AgAl green wires have yield strength (YS) of ˜115 MPa, nearly 65% higher than that of Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg. After PMP, the Bi2212/Ag/AgAl YS is about 35% greater than that of Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg. Furthermore, Bi2212/Ag/AgAl wires exhibit higher ultimate tensile strength and modulus and twice the elongation-to-failure. Atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrate the formation of nanosize MgO and Al2O3 precipitates via internal oxidation. Large spherical MgO precipitates are observed on the Ag grain boundaries of Ag/0.20 wt%Mg alloy, whereas the Al2O3 precipitates are distributed homogenously in the dispersion-strengthened (DS) Ag/Al alloy. Furthermore, it is found that less Cu diffused from the Bi2212 filaments in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.75Al wire during PMP than from the filaments in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag0.20Mg wire. These results show that DS Ag/Al alloy is a strong candidate for improved Bi2212 wire.

  20. Evaluation of bimetallic catalyst PtAg/C as a glucose-tolerant oxygen reduction cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Cuevas-Muñiz, F. M.; Álvarez-Contreras, L.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.

    2012-01-01

    PtAg/C nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and evaluated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence and presence of glucose. PtAg/C catalyst formed onion-like layered structures, which are uniformly distributed on the support. PtAg/C showed activity comparable to that of Pt/C ETEK for ORR. Further, the catalyst exhibited high selectivity for ORR in the presence of glucose. PtAg/C was evaluated as cathode in a microfluidic fuel cell operated with high concentration of glucose (100 mM) as fuel. The results demonstrated that the use of PtAg/C as cathode electrode achieved higher selectivity and better performance compared with Pt/C catalyst.

  1. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Lara M; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P R B; de Mendonça, Carla L; Mamizuka, Elsa M

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  2. Photocatalytic antibacterial effect of TiO(2) film formed on Ti and TiAg exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Choy, Kwang-Chul; Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2007-02-01

    When irradiated under near-ultraviolet (UV) light, TiO(2) exhibits strong bactericidal activity. The TiO(2) photocatalyst would be effective on orthodontic appliances after its antibacterial effect on the carcinogenic microorganism Lactobacillus acidophilus is evaluated. To compare the antibacterial effect of two crystalline forms of TiO(2), rutile and anatase, thermal oxidation and anodic oxidation were employed to form each structure, respectively. The antibacterial effect of TiO(2) film on TiAg was also compared with that on Ti. Bacterial solutions were pipetted onto the TiO(2)-coated specimen and illuminated with UVA (2 x 15 W, black light, 356 nm) up to 100 min and the reaction solutions were incubated to count the colony-forming units. The antibacterial activity of the coated specimens was similar to that of the uncoated group. The antibacterial activity of the coated specimens of TiAg was not different from that of Ti. TiO(2) coatings formed on both Ti and TiAg specimens did not exhibit cytotoxicity on the L-929 cells of mice. PMID:16850466

  3. Balancing the Osteogenic and Antibacterial Properties of Titanium by Codoping of Mg and Ag: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study.